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1

Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the

Hewett

1984-01-01

2

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

E-print Network

Chernobyl This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl Patrick Hostert1 were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While

Radeloff, Volker C.

3

English Teaching Profile: Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of English in the Soviet Union is discussed, with attention directed to: the characteristics and training of English teachers, the type and availability of instructional and related materials, educational administration in relation to English teaching, the development and planning of English instruction, English outside the educational…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

4

Suicide and Suicidology in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed studies of attempted suicide in Soviet psychiatric journals and interviewed Soviet psychiatrists now living abroad to obtain information on suicide in the Soviet Union. Results showed evidence that the rate of Soviet suicide may be rising in certain parts of the country and that suicide is a subject of increasing concern in the Soviet

Miller, Martin A.; Miller, Ylana N.

1988-01-01

5

Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book deals with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It describes and analyzes its political, economic social, and national security systems and institutions, and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shape...

R. E. Zickel

1989-01-01

6

The Soviet Union and strategic arms  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses about the military strategy of the Soviet Union. It attempts to explain how nuclear issues look to the Soviets. Based on a broad mastery of Soviet sources it discusses about the basic issues of what their doctrine and purposes really are.

Laird, R.F.; Herspring, D.R.; Brzezinski, Z.

1984-01-01

7

The End of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

Hergesheimer, John

1992-01-01

8

Atlas of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

Young, Harry F.

9

Children's Literature in the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

Miller, D. D.; And Others

1976-01-01

10

Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

Horak, W.C.

1997-07-01

11

Scientific research in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

Mtingwa, S.K.

1990-03-19

12

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power

Ponomarev-Stepnoi

1989-01-01

13

Soviet-South Korea economic cooperation following rapprochement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of diplomatic ties between the Soviet Union and the Republic of Korea appears to be not only a cornerstone\\u000a for peace-keeping in the Korean peninsula but also a catalyst toward improving economic cooperation between the two countries.\\u000a \\u000a Unlike other advanced countries, Korea has been actively investing in the Soviet Union since Soviet-Korean rapprochement.\\u000a But events have overtaken the

Young-shik Bae

1991-01-01

14

Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

Mohler, S R

1980-05-01

15

Adopted children from the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

16

US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

NONE

1995-09-01

17

Current Trends in Technology Education and Vocational Training in the Former Republics of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The schools of the new republics in the former Soviet Union have begun to address the issue of reforms of technical and vocational education in order to train a technologically literate society that can meet the demands of the next century. Previously, Soviet schools failed to offer industrial arts and home economics on a universal scale. This…

Bannatyne, Mark W. McK.

18

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

Spearman, M. L.

1984-01-01

19

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

Leonard, R. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

20

The Collapse of the Soviet Union: TwentyYears On  

E-print Network

On Anastassia Zabrodskaja "What is my country for me?" Identity construction by the Russian-speakers in Estonia of the Soviet Union: Would you do it again? Dionysis Zoumpalidis Russian Language ­ Greek identity: The Case elections in Kyrgyzstan Dmitry V. Efremenko Eco-nationalism and the crisis of the Soviet empire (1986

O'Mahony, Donal E.

21

International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon production, testing, and deterrence and now includes the environment, human and economic health, and the proliferation of weapons-of-mass destruction. For these reasons the fall of the Soviet Union provides a new imperative and opportunity for systematic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary international efforts to begin to solve these important environmental problems. The environmental degradation from nuclear contamination affecting states of the former Soviet Union is a large topic, and a full description is outside the scope of this paper. A comprehensive overview of environmental concerns and radioactive waste production, inventories, and impacted sites is provided by others. Portions of the summaries provided here are drawn from these works.

Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

2003-07-27

22

Are arms transfers from the former Soviet Union a security threat? The case of combat aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post?Cold War threat of exports of advanced conventional weaponry from the former Soviet Union has been more of a paper tiger than a reality for US defense planners. In fact, transfers have been extremely limited in number and consequence. I argue that the period from 1990 to 1997 was characterized by political, economic, and technological restraints on exports from

Thomas W. Zarzecki

1999-01-01

23

Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses anthropometric and archival data to reassess the standard of living in the Soviet Union. In the prewar period, the population was small in stature and sensitive to the political and economic upheavals experienced in the country. Significant improvements in child height, adult stature, and infant mortality were recorded from approximately 1945 to 1970. While this period of

Elizabeth Brainerd

2010-01-01

24

Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

French, Hilary F.

25

Economics of Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ninth edition of Economics of Monetary Union provides a concise analysis of the theories and policies relating to monetary union. The author analyses both the costs and benefits associated with having one currency, as well as the practical workings and current issues with the Euro. In Part One the author examines the implications of adopting a common currency; assessing

Paul De Grauwe

26

Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this lecture I will not be concerned with either the timetable or the mechanics of the transition from national currencies to full monetary union. Rather, I propose to deal with three topics - the economic rationale for monetary union, the type of EMU which the Maastricht Treaty is likely to produce and whether Ireland should participate if the UK

D-R Thom

1997-01-01

27

Economics of Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics of Monetary Union enables students to gain a firm understanding of the theories and policies relating to monetary unions. The author analyses the costs and benefits associated with having one currency, as well as the practical workings and current issues involved with the Euro. Recent global events are addressed in this new edition and coverage of the credit crisis

28

Russia's Economic Recovery Potential: Optimizing the Residual Productivity of the Soviet Capital Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia is in the midst of a severe economic depression. Its recovery potential depends on the properties of the new economic system, foreign assistance, and the residual production potential of the capital stock inherited from the Soviet Union. This paper demonstrates that the production potential of the Soviet capital stock was high, although its comparable worth on the international market

Steven Rosefielde

29

Russia's Economic Recovery Potential: Optimizing the Residual Productivity of the Soviet Capital Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia is in the midst of a severe economic depression. Its recovery potential depends on the properties of the new economic system, foreign assistance, and the residual production potential of the capital stock inherited from the Soviet Union. This paper demonstrates that the production potential of the Soviet capital stock was high, although its comparable worth on the international market

Steven Rosefielde

1994-01-01

30

The Second Economy of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second economies of the Soviet Union and other East European countries derive from structural inadequacies in the socialist planning system and from the cultural and historical evolution of each East European society. This article combines the structural and cultural approaches to the second economy and focuses on four of its most prevalent forms: peasant household production, the shadow economy

Steven L. Sampson

1987-01-01

31

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT PARAPSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an in-depth discussion of research of anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) in the former Soviet Union. The authors spent approximately two months in Russia during 1992 and 1993, interacting with researchers in Moscow and Novosibirsk. The authors primarily discuss experiments in anomalous perturbation (often referred to as psychokinesis-PK and bio- which have been the main focus of AMP

Edwin C. May; Larissa Vilenskaya

32

Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

Not Available

1990-01-01

33

Recent developments with the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system is presented. The system utilizes constellations of satellites and position-fixing is achieved by low-orbiting satellites in near-polar orbit. The military satellites have orbital spacing intervals of 3 deg with satellite identification numbers 1-9 and civilian satellites have a 45 deg with identification numbers from 11-14. The satellite position data transmitted

P. Daly; G. E. Perry

1986-01-01

34

The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

1986-01-01

35

Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry? How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled? What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms? What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels? What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding? What industries are being de-nationalized? What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research? To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R&D affect non-defense S&T funding? How will reductions in military R&D affect the long-term outlook for research? How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R&D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R&D community. How might improved international contacts affect S&T? What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible?

Not Available

1992-12-31

36

Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding What industries are being de-nationalized What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R D affect non-defense S T funding How will reductions in military R D affect the long-term outlook for research How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R D community. How might improved international contacts affect S T What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible

Not Available

1992-01-01

37

Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. (Lomonosov State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. (All-Union Petroleum Geological Research Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

1991-02-01

38

Economic and Monetary Union Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial crisis has exposed serious flaws in the economic governance of the Eurozone. The crisis has accelerated pre-existing divergence in the performance of member states in terms of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) governance structures have proved ineffective in averting a sovereign debt crisis and in facilitating its management. European Union (EU) decision

Irene Kyriakopoulos

2011-01-01

39

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Education Services in Economies of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economic crisis has created new challenges for education systems all over the world. The Former Soviet Union countries were confronted with an urgent issue, not necessarily specifically related to the crisis: to formulate and introduce new educational curricula, standards, and delivery models in order to adjust to the challenges imposed by the transition to the post-industrial stage of

Irina Sinitsina

2012-01-01

40

Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

Shipilov, Andrew

41

Design Evolution and Performance of the Soviet Union's Large Polar Icebreakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1985 the Soviet Union operated approximately 70 icebreakers of many types and 14 specialized icebreaking cargo ships of the SA-15 class. However, within this fleet only 16 vessels can be considered true polar icebreakers - large, powerful ships capable of independent operations in multi-year ice. These polar icebreakers, all built since 1959, are the mainstay of the Soviet Union's

L. Brigham; Kara Strait; Kara Seas

1986-01-01

42

Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.  

PubMed

At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1 child can make substitutions between having more children and raising the quality of children already born. The question is what does the model predict will happen to fertility with economic development. The positive income effect will be limited as increased income is channelled into child quality and other superior goods rather than child quantity. The Urlanis-Strumilin model of labor supply assumes that the household allocates its time among market employment, household production. The model shows that the effect of children on female labor supply is not ambiguous. The presence of young children raises the value of home services and lowers long run market wages, thereby reducing female market labor supply. According to the model, the socialist state can manipulate labor supplies through several channels. It can reduce the value of home services by providing market substitutes. Soviet writers recognize the linkages between labor supply and fertility without formalizing the simultaneous relationship. The comparative statics of the Soviet model are essentially the same as those of the neoclassical model: an increase in "costs" of children will have, at best, a small positive impact on fertility. PMID:12265719

Gregory, P

1983-06-01

43

Harbingers of sputnik: The amateur radio preparations in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

After recapitulating and re?evaluating the principal early signals that the Soviet Union was planning to launch an artificial earth satellite (Sputnik 1) in 1957, which have long been familiar to space historians, this article presents some additional pre?sputnik material from Radio, the Soviet government's monthly magazine for radio amateurs, and from other sources, which has not previously been identified by

Rip Bulkeley

1999-01-01

44

Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the costs and benefits of monetary union in Europe. It is argued that neither the costs nor the benefits are in principle likely to be as great as critics and proponents respectively have suggested. Fis al issues are, it is argued, likely to be far more significant. Fiscal federalism is by no means a necessary corollary of

C Bean

1992-01-01

45

Soviet Union, Russia, Budget System, Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies systematic determinants of some key budgetary aggregates in transition and OECD economies. Because of the lack of theory on public expenditure, the study is empirical. We use three approaches: regression analysis, non-parametric efficiency analysis, and construction of a budget set and a preference set. The revealed empirical regularities help to explain a number of short-term difficulties of

Alain de Crombrugghe; Barbara Fakin

1995-01-01

46

Varieties of Educational Transformation: The Post-Socialist States of Central\\/Southeastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former socialist countries of Central\\/Southeastern Europe and the Soviet Union share many commonalities, while forming\\u000a an increasingly diverse region of the world in terms of sociopolitical development. Among the most striking commonalities\\u000a are the shared socialist past, as well as the sheer scale and significance of the political, economic, and social transformation\\u000a since the collapse of socialism in 1989.

Iveta Silova

47

Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

Williams, J.D.

1995-07-01

48

Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

1993-09-01

49

Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

Kreindler, Isabelle

1997-01-01

50

Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

Dunaway, R.L.

1995-11-01

51

Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

Veale, Sarah

1987-01-01

52

The ghosts of the past, the dreamlands of the future … or why fantasies are bound to fail in socialism and the market: The case of public health policy development in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition ‘from planned to market economy’ in the former Soviet Union and in several countries in post-communist Europe is one of the most sweeping social transformations of the second half of the 20th century. It is widely accepted that this transformation was driven by a shared belief in the market's superior ability to deliver economic growth, to create wealth

Marianna Fotaki

2009-01-01

53

Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six republics were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union by the Red Army after the revolution. The Russians were considered colonial rulers by the inhabitants of these Muslim states, whereas the Azeris, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, etc., were often regarded as backward by the Russians and given little autonomy. The Soviets, while proclaiming their efforts to improve public health and protect nature, relentlessly degraded both.

Riva, J.P. Jr. (Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C. (United States))

1993-01-04

54

Soviet America: Popular Responses to the United States in Post-World War II Soviet Union  

E-print Network

and allowed for incorporation of unofficial information about America, including the use of American consumer and cultural products. Moreover, I will show that core Soviet attitudes about America remained roughly the same at least into the mid...

Avramov, Konstantin

2012-08-31

55

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day  

PubMed Central

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

56

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day.  

PubMed

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

57

The Soviet Union and Korea: Perceptions, scholarship, propaganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the four countries divided after World War II (three since 1975), only Germany and Korea became divided as a result of military occupation by the Red Army, with the occupied part eventually being saddled with a Leninist regime and a centrally planned economy. But while East Germany is still forced to tolerate a sizable Soviet military presence, North Korea

Peter Berton

1986-01-01

58

Childless and One-Child Families in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet authorities have recently initiated a demographic policy aimed particularly at reducing the levels of childless and one-child families. An examination of available data indicates that the USSR has a level of childlessness equivalent to that of the United States, but a frequency of one-child families that is considerably greater. Popular explanations for very low fertility, such as inadequate housing

JERRY G. PANKHURST

1982-01-01

59

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union (April 19, 2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of ...

A. F. Woolf

2005-01-01

60

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union (June 17, 2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of ...

A. F. Woolf

2004-01-01

61

Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

Adushkin, V.C.

1995-11-11

62

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

63

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

64

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

65

From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

Ferguson, Denise P.

1998-01-01

66

Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: ASIA. Glaicers of the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glaciers in the Former Soviet Union cover a total area of 78,938 km2; 72 percent (56,894 km2) are in the Russian Arctic (Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya, and Wrangel Island) and 28 percent (22,044 km2) in various mountain ranges (mainly ...

2005-01-01

67

A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used by the Soviet Union for many different types of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear effects tests. Taking our information principally from numerous books and papers in Russian published from 1988 to 2003, we describe the test site history and facilities, the early underwater tests, the many atmospheric tests from 1957 to 1962, and

VITALY I. KHALTURIN; TATYANA G. RAUTIAN; PAUL G. RICHARDS; WILLIAM S. LEITH

2005-01-01

68

Factors Associated with Early Employment among Refugees from the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship among demographics, vocational service, and job placement among refugees from the former Soviet Union. Tracked vocational service and employment history for 12 months for 379 employable, adult refugees under age 55, and whose first visit to Jewish Vocational Service Chicago occurred between October 1 and December 31,…

Race, Kathryn E. H.; Masini, Blase E.

1996-01-01

69

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

70

The Link between Libraries and Publishing in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the various ways in which publishers and libraries work together in the Soviet Union to ensure the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP). The general library and publishing situation in the USSR, the distribution of materials to libraries, library acquisitions, cataloging and standardization, and specialized publishing are…

Kartasov, N. S.

1982-01-01

71

The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

2012-01-01

72

Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2011-01-01

73

POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

74

Disiccation of the Aral Sea: A Water Management Disaster in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea in the Soviet Union, formerly the world's fourth largest lake in area, is disappearing. Between 1960 and 1987, its level dropped nearly 13 meters, and its area decreased by 40 percent. Recession has resulted from reduced inflow caused primarily by withdrawals of water for irrigation. Severe environmental problems have resulted. The sea could dry to a residual

Philip P. Micklin

1988-01-01

75

The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

2000-01-01

76

Vocational Training of Specialists within the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 129.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union has no efficient system of vocational training that provides adequate levels of knowledge for specialists working with new techniques and new technologies. General secondary school graduates with no preliminary vocational education become engineers. Secondary vocational graduates lack the opportunity to continue their education in…

Paljanov, Michael P.

77

A survey of pterosaurs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous of the former soviet union and Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remains of pterosaurs, the dominant aerial vertebrate throughout much of the Mesozoic were, until relatively recently, almost exclusively known from marine and marginal marine sediments of western Europe and North America. Prior to the 1960s Mesozoic deposits in the former Soviet Union and Mongolia had produced very few pterosaurs, but, in the last thirty years, many remains, including some from

Natalia N. Bakhurina; David M. Unwin

1995-01-01

78

Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Study objective: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989–2000. Design: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality were evaluated through life expectancy at birth and age standardised mortality rates. Relative differences were assessed by mortality rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals, calculated using Poisson regression. Setting: Estonia before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Participants: Individual cause specific death data for 1987–1990 (69 549 deaths) and for 1999–2000 (33 809 deaths) came from the national mortality database. Population denominators came from the population censuses of 1989 and 2000. Main results: In the period 1989–2000, ethnic differences in life expectancy increased from 0.4 years to 6.1 years among men and from 0.6 years to 3.5 years among women. In 2000, Russians had a higher mortality than Estonians in all age groups and for almost all selected causes of death. The largest differences were found for some alcohol related causes of death especially in 2000. Conclusions: Political and economic upheaval, increasing poverty, and alcohol consumption can be considered the main underlying causes of the widening ethnic mortality gap. PMID:15194720

Leinsalu, M.; Vagero, D.; Kunst, A.

2004-01-01

79

Health Care Reform in the Former Soviet Union: Beyond the Transition  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional household survey using multistage stratified random sampling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected using standardized questionnaires with subjects aged 18+ on demographic, socioeconomic, and health care access characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. Principal Findings Almost half of respondents who had a health problem in the previous month which they viewed as needing care had not sought care. Respondents significantly less likely to seek care included those living in Armenia, Georgia, or Ukraine, in rural areas, aged 35–49, with a poor household economic situation, and high alcohol consumption. Cost was most often cited as the reason for not seeking health care. Most respondents who did obtain care made out-of-pocket payments, with median amounts varying from $13 in Belarus to $100 in Azerbaijan. Conclusions Access to health care and within-country inequalities appear to have improved over the past decade. However, considerable problems remain, including out-of-pocket payments and unaffordability despite efforts to improve financial protection. PMID:22092004

Balabanova, Dina; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

2012-01-01

80

Income security in transition for the aged and children in the Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

A dynamic process of social security reform took place during the economic transition in the Soviet Union from 1985 through 1991, and in the Russian Federation in 1992. Despite administrative and financial difficulties, the Gorbachev reform objectives have been incorporated (with modest revisions) into the Russian Federation pension legislation and family allowance programs. Following the adoption of a radical economic reform policy in January 1992, policymakers in the Russian Federation have been hard pressed to meet rising social needs under severe fiscal constraints. As the number of the vulnerable population has increased, and as the emerging poor have had to face more severe hardships, the social security system has overcome unprecedented political and economic disruptions to become fully operational. Local governments and civic groups are organizing assistance to help meet needs where the State-operated programs have been inadequate. These efforts, however, have been made haphazardly. PMID:8211565

Liu, L

1993-01-01

81

Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

82

Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)  

SciTech Connect

The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

Stafeev, V. I., E-mail: orion@orion-ir.ru [RD and P Center Orion State Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

83

"Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

Rapoport, Anatoli

2006-01-01

84

Trends in Jewish Identity in Israeli Society: Effects of Former Soviet Union Immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in the Jewish identity of Israeli society are reviewed with special reference to the mass immigration from the former\\u000a Soviet Union (FSU) that took place during the last decade of the 20th century. The analysis uses data from two comprehensive\\u000a studies carried out in 1991 and 2000 by the Guttman Institute, and addresses three main issues: (1) changes over

Shlomit Levy

2009-01-01

85

Prospects for technical communications in the emerging countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The reorganization of communication flow within and to the former USSR, from the imposed bottleneck through Moscow during the communist era, to the relatively free flow of international scientific information, deserves consideration and analysis. Of the many newly formed independent states resulting from the break up of the Soviet Union, this paper focuses particularly on those in Central Asia. For the most part this is suggestive research that outlines a broad framework for future technical communications in Central Asia.

Noel, R.E.

1992-06-16

86

External Aspects of Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and Monetary Union is a further step in the ongoing process of European economic integration. In this respect, it is also part of the wider integration in the global economy. EMU will enable the European Union to meet the challanges of globalisation.

1997-01-01

87

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

Telen, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

88

Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

Telen, Marilyn J

2014-01-01

89

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

90

The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

91

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-06-01

92

Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race  

SciTech Connect

Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

Griffin, R.D.

1992-06-05

93

The Economic Case for Monetary Union in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential requirements for seigniorage provide a weak case for retaining monetary independence. As regards adjustment to asymmetric shocks, nominal exchange rate flexibility is at best a limited blessing and at worst a limited curse. Absence of significant fiscal redistribution mechanisms among EU members is not an obstacle to monetary union. Neither is limited international labour mobility. Convergence of real economic

Willem H. Buiter

1997-01-01

94

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

White, P.C.

1995-12-31

95

Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1990-05-01

96

Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

2013-01-01

97

Privatization and European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To qualify for full membership in the Economic and Monetary Union, member states had to meet strict budget deficit and government debt convergence criteria. This study analyzes whether deficits and indebtedness in the 1990s in Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece were associated with a shift from privatization as a tool of economic restructuring, to privatization as a tool of European

Venilde Jeronimo; Jose A. Pagan; Gokce Soydemir

2000-01-01

98

ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION: EVOLUTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

No matter the number of actual and future members, the final objective of the economic and monetary union is represented through a superior level of integration, but also by the superior economic performances. The integration cannot be automatic and cannot take place without a strategy that should take into account the precarious asymmetries and balances. The openness towards a worldwide

Nanu Roxana; Gruescu Ramona

2009-01-01

99

Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

Smallidge, E.R.

1997-08-01

100

The bear awakens: Resurgence of oil and gas in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since dissolution of the Soviet Union (USSR) in late 1991, the oil and gas industries in the 15 component nations have been in a state of turmoil stemming mainly from past communist management practices and the transition to Western-style market economies and multiparty governments. As a result, oil and gas output have fallen dramatically. This study incorporates separate oil and gas production forecasts, predicted independently by onshore and offshore sectors, for each of the producing republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) over the period 1996-2005. Supply--assessed by full-cycle resource analysis--and demand, estimated from available historic and projected consumption figures, are balanced to yield a coherent picture. Production of both oil and gas for the FSU is forecast to recover strongly. Oil and condensate output--led by Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan--are forecast to rebound to 9,545 MBOPD by 2005, which will reinstate the FSU as one of the world`s premier crude exporting blocs. Natural gas output--propelled by gains in Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan--will likewise resurge, reaching a world-leading 96,051 MMCFD level, of which a large amount will be exported.

Foreman, N.E.

1996-12-31

101

Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

Miro, R.

1993-04-02

102

Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

2008-01-01

103

Cold War Bridge-Building: U.S. Exchange Exhibits and Their Reception in the Soviet Union, 19591967  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the presentation of the American National Exhibition in Moscow in 1959, nine exhibits organized by the United States Information Agency traveled in the Soviet Union from 1961 to 1967. This article discusses the aims, preparation, content, and reception of these exhibits, which attracted more than five million visitors and provoked diverse reactions. The exhibitions and their guides served as

Tomas Tolvaisas

2010-01-01

104

Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with

Miro

1993-01-01

105

Languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). Although the focus is on materials for the…

Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

106

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

107

Why Would a Company Want to Enter a Joint Venture in the Former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructuring activities in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe present enticing opportunities for firms to consider foreign investment in these emerging areas. Geographically, the population of the entire region is relatively conveniently concentrated, rendering delivery and servicing of goods and services relatively simple. Further, the population is greatly underserved, particularly in terms of consumer goods and services. The problems,

Douglas L. Bartley; Michael S. Minor

1994-01-01

108

How moving to world prices affects the terms of trade in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents the first documented estimates of how moving to international trade prices effects the terms of trade in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union. First, he decomposes the total impact of a change in the inter-republic and extra-republic terms of trade. The broad pattern, he estimates, is that exporters of raw material and energy (notably Kazakhstan, Russia,

David G. Tarr

1993-01-01

109

Health and Depression in Women from the Former Soviet Union Living in the United States and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postimmigration adjustment is affected by demographic and health characteristics, as well as national resources. Since 1989, more than a million people emigrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to the United States and Israel. These countries differ substantially in health systems and immigrant benefits. The purpose of this study is to compare depressed mood between midlife women from the FSU

Arlene Michaels Miller; Revital Gross

2004-01-01

110

Evaluation of Taxes and Revenues from the Energy Sector in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Former Soviet Union Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the level and structure of fiscal revenues from the Baltics, Russia, and other former Soviet Union countries' (BRO) energy sector and suggests reforms in energy tax policy. Revenues from the oil and gas sectors are about half the level that might be expected from international comparisons. Low oil revenues result from infrastructure constraints on oil exports, weak

Dale F. Gray

1998-01-01

111

Diversion of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Expertise from the Former Soviet Union: Understanding an Evolving Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the early 1990s, the United States has been concerned about the diversion of expertise and sensitive information from the nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons complexes of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It has established a number of impo...

J. V. Parachini, D. E. Mosher, J. Baker, K. Crane, M. Chase

2005-01-01

112

A Comparative Analysis of Delinquency Among Youth From the Former Soviet Union and From Ethiopia in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Israel is a nation characterized by great ethnic complexity. It consists of the dominant group of native Israelis and various other immigrant ethnic groups from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the immigrants from Ethiopia. These 2 immigrant ethnic groups differ from each other both with regard to their adaptation to and the impact of Israeli society on them. The

Mally Shechory; Sarah Ben-David

2010-01-01

113

The Road to Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a survey about various issues surrounding economic and monetary union (EMU). After evaluating costs and benefits of EMU, the authors analyze the transition of EMU in general and the rationale behind the convergence criteria for the public finances in particular. In discussing the institutional framework of EMU, they explore the excessive deficit rule constraining decentralized fiscal policy.

A. L. Bovenberg; A. H. M. de Jong

1997-01-01

114

Aspects of European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

European economic and monetary union (EMU), due to start in 1999, is expected primarily to improve the effectiveness of the internal market because it should eliminate most of the uncertainties surrounding exchange rates and their costs. EMU will strengthen competition and put the risks of foreign trade and international investment on a more calculable basis. There are also grounds to

Helmut Kramer

1998-01-01

115

Aspects of European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the launching of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 1999, the prerequisites should be in place to make European economies more competitive in the long run. Skeptical economists have forwarded numerous reasons why EMU will not work, usually based on the \\

Helmut Kramer

1998-01-01

116

Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-10-01

117

Longitudinal Changes in Acculturation for Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time. PMID:22180661

Miller, Arlene Michaels; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura A.; Sorokin, Olga

2011-01-01

118

Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union`s Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages  

SciTech Connect

Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union`s largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan`s independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an {open_quotes}atomic lake{close_quotes} and a 1 km{sup 2} area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs as well as the activation products {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h{sup -1}.

Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

1996-07-01

119

Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the soviet union.  

PubMed

The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control. PMID:24506333

Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

2014-03-01

120

Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

2013-09-01

121

Export of the Czechoslovak Uranium Ore to the Soviet Union in 1946-1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is devoted to the genesis of the Czechoslovak uranium ore industry and its boom in the 1950s. Attention is given to history of the Jáchymov mines and activities of the permanent Czechoslovak-Soviet commission consisting of four members and being charged to safeguard the Soviet influence. It gives an account of participation of the Czechoslovak and Soviet sides in

Drahomír Jan?ík

2007-01-01

122

Redefinition du statut des langues en Union Sovietique (Redefinition of the Status of Languages in the Soviet Union).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language-related constitutional changes made in 10 of the former Soviet republics and in the central Soviet government since 1988 are analyzed from 3 perspectives: unilingualism vs. bilingualism; the relationship between economy and language; and immigration and territoriality as concerns language. Special attention is given to language of…

Maurais, Jacques

1992-01-01

123

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sink of CO2 and the C budget of forest biomes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct methods: (1) ecosystem\\/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem\\/ecoregional method was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil\\/vegetation C data bases. The forest statistical approach was based on

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

124

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

125

Pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by a variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.

1993-01-01

126

United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

127

Climate warming and the carbon cycle in the permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. Climate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. Increased temperatures may accelerate the rate of organic matter decomposition. At the same time, the productivity of vegetation may increase in response to warming. To assess the future carbon cycle within the permafrost zone under a climate-warming scenario, it is necessary to quantify present carbon pools and fluxes. The present carbon cycle was assessed on the basis of an ecosystem/ecoregion approach. Under the present climate, the phytomass carbon pool was estimated at 17.0 Giga tons. The mortmass (coarse woody debris) carbon pool was estimated at 16.1 Giga tons. The soil carbon pool, including peatlands, was 139.4 Giga tons. The present rate of carbon turnover was 1.6 Giga tons/yr. (Copyright (c) 1993 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.)

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

128

Air Pollution Background Monitoring over the Former Soviet Union: Fifteen Years of Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regular air pollution observations in background areas over the former Soviet Union (FSU) were started in the 1980s. The air background monitoring network consisted of 16 stations working under the Integrated Monitoring (IM) Program. Several air pollutants were monitored at the stations, among them sulfur and nitrogen dioxides, aerosols of sulfate, dust, trace metals, selected pesticides, 3,4-benzopyrene, and ozone. Measurements of sulfur and nitrogen compounds were also continuously taken within the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) at 13 stations located along the western border of the FSU.The data obtained by the IM and EMEP networks for 1980-95 are the focus of this paper. Western and central regions of the FSU were the most polluted areas. Concentrations for the most part of observed pollutants in Siberia are two-three times less than in the European part of the FSU. At most of the stations, a decrease of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, trace metals, and pesticides concentrations in the air has been observed during the 1980s-90s.

Paramonov, Sergey G.

1998-10-01

129

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR JOINING AN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to delineate the theoretical foundation of the standard economic tests for joining an economic and monetary union. The major findings of this paper are that (1) a monetary union can harmonize prices, reduce transaction costs, and eliminate exchange rate risk; (2) each country of the monetary union would lose its ability to influence monetary

Muhannad A. El-Mefleh

130

Soviet Bloc Soviet Bloc  

E-print Network

and Albania, the indigenous Communist parties led by Josip Broz Tito and Enver Hoxha had obtained sufficient oversee the purging of the local police forces, the execution of "collaborators," the control) under the Community Party of the Soviet Union's leadership. By spring 1948, "People's Democracies" were

Landweber, Laura

131

Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Bearden, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lindler, L. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2007-01-01

132

Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced. PMID:17966401

Garcia, Emilio; Worsham, Patricia; Bearden, Scott; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lang, Dorothy; Larimer, Frank; Lindler, Luther; Chain, Patrick

2007-01-01

133

Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

PubMed

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

134

Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

2007-01-05

135

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abbott, D.T. [Kaiser Engineering, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

136

Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU. PMID:23849241

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

2013-08-01

137

Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)] [and others] [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); and others

1995-03-01

138

Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring  

SciTech Connect

A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

Not Available

1993-11-29

139

Economic and Monetary Union: Issues Relating to Education for Citizenship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some key issues in debates about the introduction of economic and monetary union within the European Union, including some educational considerations. Describes a method used to teach undergraduates in the United Kingdom about the European Union. Discusses these issues in relation to citizenship education. (SLD)

Davies, Ian

1998-01-01

140

The Road To Maastricht: Negotiating Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and monetary union in the European Union represents a massive change for Europe and for the world. The Road to Maastricht identifies why the agreement was possible and how the agreement was made. The book examines the motives that inspired European political leaders, the strategies that they pursued, and the institutions that were used to achieve monetary union. Drawing

Kenneth Dyson; Kevin Featherstone

141

Economic Restructuring and Company Unionism the Japanese Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses problems of union involvement in the management of industrial restructuring using the example of Japanese enterprise unions. 'Economic restructuring' implies processes of technical and organizational change at firm level as well as shifts in the sectoral structure of the economy. The aim of the paper is to analyse how far Japanese unions participated in these two types

Christoph Deutschmann

1987-01-01

142

Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.  

PubMed

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. PMID:23398609

Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

2013-07-01

143

Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

Siddiqi, Asif A.

2000-01-01

144

[Psychological consequences of deportation into the Soviet Union on the base of self-reports by Sybiracs].  

PubMed

The main goal of this research was to find answers to the following questions: 1. What were the sources of the personal distress that the deportees to the Soviet Union experienced during the 5 years living in exile? 2. What psychological consequences of deportation did Sybiracs report? 3. Was a gender variable associated with intensity of post-traumatic symptoms? A total of 100 people born in 1928-34, who had been deported into the Soviet Union during the World War II were assessed with a semi-structured interview, PTSD Inventory and GDS (by Yesavage). The study pointed out that 65% participants felt symptoms following the exposure to traumatic stressors. They were: anxiety, increased arousal, low self-esteem, depression and others. The Siberian experience limited a possibility to get a higher level of education and more attractive job. It also modified the manner in which the marital and parental roles were fulfilled. The rate of anxiety and depressive symptoms was significantly higher in women in comparison with men. PMID:15771157

Jackowska, Ewa

2005-01-01

145

Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

2010-01-01

146

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

SciTech Connect

In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

NONE

1994-12-31

147

The economic and monetary union countries vs. the global crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial and economic crisis revealed institutional weaknesses and structural problems of particular Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries. The crisis and slowdown that followed had an impact on their relative competitiveness. Financial and economic turbulences of recent years shed new light on the scale and scope of interdependences in the world economy. They uncovered economic and institutional flaws

Tadeusz Kowalski

2012-01-01

148

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

149

An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

Gilder, Eric

150

ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

151

Training of Youth for Working Life in the Soviet Union. Reports Studies C.96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet general secondary school provides youth with a wide range of knowledge and educates them in the spirit of communist consciousness and high moral standards. Research to improve labor training is guided by six principal premises of methodology: (1) Marxist-Leninist theory on the all-round and harmonious development of personality, (2)…

Semykin, N. P.

152

CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

153

The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines which of…

Boyle, George V.

154

European economic and monetary union: Background and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union, which currently consists of 15 states, occupies an important place among the advanced economies. The final stage of the European economic and monetary union (EMU) is scheduled to begin in January 1999 with the adoption of a common currency called the \\

Chantal Dupasquier; Jocelyn Jacob

1997-01-01

155

[Genetic and taxonomic diversity of the house mouse Mus musculus from the asian part of the former Soviet Union].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of the house mouse Mus musculus from 12 local populations (n = 65) of the central and eastern parts of the former Soviet Union was examined using RAPD-PCR. About 400 loci were identified, encompassing approximately 500 kb of the mouse genome. Genetic diversity was assessed using NTSYS, POPGENE, TFPGA, and TREECON software programs. In general, the house mouse sample from the regions examined was characterized by moderate genetic variation: polymorphism P = 95.6%, P99 = 60.7%, P95 = 24.2%; heterozygosity H = 0.089; the mean observed number of alleles n(a) = 1.97; effective number of alleles n = 1.13; intrapopulation differentiation deltaS = 0.387; gene diversity h = 0.09. Individual local populations displayed different levels of genetic isolation: the genetic subdivision index G(st) varied from 0.086 to 0.324 at gene flow Nm varying from 5.3 to 1.05, while the interpopulation genetic distance D(N) ranged from 0.059 to 0.186. Most of the genetic diversity of the total sample resided within the local populations: H(S) = 0.6, total gene diversity H(T) = 0.09. The exact test for differentiation, however, did not confirm the affiliation of all the mice examined to one population: chi2 = 1446, d.f. = 724, P = 0.000. Molecular markers specific to four subspecies (musculus, castaneus, gansuensis, and wagneri) were identified. Moreover, in some cases the populations and individual animals exhibited traits of different subspecies, suggesting their introgressive hybridization. It was demonstrated that the house mouse fauna on the territories investigated was characterized by the prevalence of musculus-specific markers, while gansuensis-specific markers ranked second. The castaneus-specific markers were highly frequent in the Far East, but almost absent in Central Asia, where wagneri-specific markers were detected. It was suggested that house mice from Turkmenistan could belong to one of the southern subspecies, which had not deeply penetrated into the Asian fauna of the former Soviet Union. In phenogenetic (UPGMA) and phylogenetic (NJ) reconstructions this form with the high bootstrap support was placed at the tree base, while the isolation of other clusters was not statistically significant. It is thus likely that the house mice from Turkmenistan are closest to the ancestral form of the genus Mus on the territory of the former Soviet Union. PMID:15575505

Spiridonova, L N; Chelomina, G N; Moriwaki, K; Yonegawa, H; Bogdanov, A S

2004-10-01

156

The road to European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate on the concrete shape of the second stage of European economic and monetary union ist in full swing. What are the\\u000a benefits that may be expected from EMU? What risks have to be avoided?

Helmut Schlesinger

1991-01-01

157

Evaluation of Child Achievement in Four Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union: A Look at Literacy, Numeracy, and Creativity in Alternative and Traditional Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to better understand the role of child-centered learning strategies in creating democratic, collaborative behaviors for states of the former Soviet Union, this study evaluated the impact of Step by Step, an early childhood development program in Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, and Ukraine. The study compared educational performance and…

Brady, Joanne P.; Dickinson, David K.; Hirschler, Julie A.; Cross, Theodore

158

Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

2012-01-01

159

Chlorophyll isolation, structure and function: major landmarks of the early history of research in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

This paper covers major events of the early history of chlorophyll research in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union from 1771 until 1952, when the modern period of studies on photosynthesis began in full swing. Short biographical sketches of key scientists, reviews of their major research contributions and some selected photographs are included. PMID:16228595

Krasnovsky Jr, Alexander A

2003-01-01

160

Beyond a Cross-Cultural Definition of Child Maltreatment: Comparing Immigrants from the Caucasus and European Countries of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared knowledge and attitudes regarding inappropriate parenting among immigrant parents from European and Caucasus countries of the former Soviet Union residing in Israel. Found that immigrants from the Caucasus related inappropriate parental behaviors to what is normative, whereas European immigrants were concerned with potential harm to the…

Shor, Ron

1999-01-01

161

Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

Rushby, N. J.

162

Immigration as a trigger to knife off from delinquency? Desistance and persistence among male adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on desistance from delinquency increasingly considers knifing off — an explicit change of one’s social environment and opportunity structure — but has largely ignored immigration as a cause of knifing off. Interviews with 26 migrants from the Former Soviet Union who were involved in delinquency prior to emigration to Germany show that differences between desisters and persisters with

Steffen Zdun

2011-01-01

163

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

164

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the costs and benefits of monetary union in Europe. It is argued that neither the costs nor the benefits are in principle likely to be as great as critics and proponents respectively have suggested. Fiscal issues are, it is argued, likely to be far more significant. Fiscal federalism is by no means a necessary corollary of monetary

Charles R Bean

1992-01-01

165

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account and analysis of the plan for European monetary union contained in the Maastricht Treaty. The provisions of the treaty itself are examined, showing how they evolved, what must be done to implement them, and some of the problems they will pose. Kenen goes far beyond the treaty, however, to survey and adapt recent research

Peter B. Kenen

1995-01-01

166

Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

1964-01-01

167

The economics and politics of monetary unions: a reassessment of the Latin Monetary Union, 1865 71  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1865, France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland signed a monetary convention(later known as the Latin Union), which provided for the intercirculationof specie between member states. Conventional analyses of the treaty (suchas that by Willis) have portrayed this arrangement as a by-product of Frenchpower politics. This article seeks to reinterpret the economic nature of theLatin Union, focusing on the interrelations between

MARC FLANDREAU

2000-01-01

168

The Consequences of German Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes some of the consequences of economic and monetary union of the two Germanies. Particular emphasis is given to the real implications for the supply side of the German Democratic Republic and for resource flows between two economic regions.

Michael C Burda

1990-01-01

169

The first stage of European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

After two false starts, the first stage of European Economic and Monetary Union began on 1st July 1990. The following two\\u000a articles discuss the consequences that the inauguration of EMU will have for economic policy co-ordination in the European\\u000a Community.

Heinrich Matthes

1990-01-01

170

Soviet health care and perestroika.  

PubMed Central

Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

1990-01-01

171

Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

2007-01-01

172

Kvetching and carousing under Communism: old Odessa as the Soviet Union’s Jewish city of sin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odessa has often been branded a “Jewish city.” Much like their counterparts in New York and Warsaw, Odessa’s Jews have historically played a fundamental role in the city’s demographic makeup, economic life and culture. But Odessa is unique among Jewish cities because it has been mythologised as a city of sin, a frontier seaport boomtown whose commercial prosperity and balmy

Jarrod Tanny

2009-01-01

173

Soviet Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

Talbot, Elizabeth

174

Estimating the causal effect of alcohol consumption on well-being for a cross-section of 9 former Soviet Union countries.  

PubMed

While the adverse health and economic consequences attributable to alcohol consumption are widely acknowledged, its impact on psychological wellbeing is less well understood. This is to a large extent due to the challenge of establishing causal effects of alcohol consumption when using standard single-equation econometric analyses. Using a unique dataset collected in 2010/11 of 18,000 individuals and also community characteristics from nine countries of the former Soviet Union, a region with a major burden of alcohol related ill health, we address this problem by employing an instrumental variable approach to identify any causal effects of alcohol consumption on mental well-being. The availability of 24-h alcohol sales outlets in the neighbourhood of the individuals is used as an instrument, based on theoretical reasoning and statistical testing of its validity. We find that increased alcohol consumption decreases well-being and that ignoring endogeneity leads to underestimation of this effect. This finding adds a further and previously under-appreciated dimension to the expected benefits that could be achieved with more effective alcohol policy in this region. PMID:23726209

Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; McKee, Martin

2013-07-01

175

Gender-related Needs, Challenges, and Dangers in the Immigration Experience in Israel of Emerging Adults from the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews were conducted to examine gender-related patterns of adaptation and maladaptation, and the relationship between adaptation and relationships (parents, friends, and romantic partners) for 34 emerging adult immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel. Qualitative analysis highlighted gender-related needs, difficulties, and challenges following the immigration experience. Women’s adaptation was connected to mutually supportive and empathic relationships with parents,

Sophie Walsh; Shmuel Shulman

2006-01-01

176

Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU) were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001). Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P ? .05) higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence. PMID:21197443

Rajanna, Chythanya; Revazishvili, Tamara; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Chubinidze, Svetlana; Bakanidze, Lela; Tsanava, Shota; Imnadze, Paata; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gibbons, Henry S.; Morris, J. Glenn; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

2010-01-01

177

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

1993-05-01

178

Potential effect of No-till management on carbon in the agricultural soils of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. Since the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. No-till management represents a promising option to increase the amount of carbon sequestered in the agricultural soil of the FSU. No-till management reduces erosion and sequesters additional carbon in the soil by lowering the soil temperature and raising soil moisture. To determine the carbon sequestered under no-till management, a data base containing precultivation estimates of soil carbon for the seven major classes of soil found in the agricultural areas of the FSU was used to establish an equilibrium carbon content for each soil. Other published data provided a method to quantify the change in soil carbon brought about by converting to no-till management. Soils suitable for no-till management were analyzed and estimates of changes in carbon storage were made. No-till management is not suitable in areas where crop production is limited by cold, wet soils. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

179

Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-09-01

180

Economic and Monetary Union: Of Currencies and Clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, the process of economic and monetary union (EMU) in Europe has brought the politics of exchange rates to the forefront of the policy agenda in international relations. This article will examine the significance of exchange rate policy making in Europe by considering the creation and operation of EMU as an example of club formation. There

ALISON M. S. WATSON

2004-01-01

181

Unemployment and fiscal policy in an economic and monetary union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the need and room for demand management policies as a way to control unemployment in an Economic and Monetary Union. The set up is a general equilibrium model with imperfectly competitive product and labour markets. Balanced budget demand management policies are shown to affect employment, but they involve a beggar-thyneighbour element since gains in employment are matched by

Torben M. Andersen; Jan Rose Sørensen

1995-01-01

182

A Theoretical Approach of Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature strongly suggests that the creation of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) was largely influenced by the power of ideas, an accommodation to international markets challenges. The outcome was EMU’s political-economy inspired by the monetarist school, a considerable disempowerment of national governments. Put in the perspective of European integration theories, EMU seemed to reject liberal intergovernmentalism claims that member

Paulo Vila Maior

2007-01-01

183

Economic and monetary union accession and capital flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the prospects for capital inflows to the Czech Republic before Economic and Monetary Union accession. It reviews the potential costs and benefits of capital flows and the history of capital flows to the Czech Republic, before turning to future capital inflows. It notes that different theoretical models provide different predictions about future capital inflows. To get further

Ji?í Jonáš

2003-01-01

184

Economic and Monetary Union – Current Fiscal Disturbances and the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the moment of its setting up the Economic and Monetary Union did not meet the criteria of the optimum currency area. Neither\\u000a does it today. The crisis of public finance in the eurozone results from the abandonment public finance reforms, lack of consistency\\u000a in enforcing the decision of the Stability and Growth Pact and, additionally, economic recession and financial

S?awomir I. Bukowski

2011-01-01

185

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union--part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

186

Toward the First Decade of Economic and Monetary Union – Summary of the 36th Economics Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 36th Economics Conference hosted by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) on April 28 and 29, 2008, was dedicated to looking back on the first ten years of the euro and ahead to future challenges for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). With contributions invited from both economic policymakers and academics, the conference was designed to foster an objective and informed debate

Ernest Gnan; Martin Summer

2008-01-01

187

Labor relations in Soviet factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although collective bargaining in its usual sense obviously does not exist in the Soviet Union, this article offers evidence that some Russian labor unions nevertheless provide a limited form of protection to their members. The author analyzes three Soviet collective agreements and a host of official documents in the light of interviews she conducted with union and management officials on

Emily Clark Brown

1958-01-01

188

Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

1995-06-01

189

Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU. PMID:23861843

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

190

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

191

The Economic and Monetary Union and its impacts on Europe’s economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the experience of the first decade of Economic and Monetary Union and the euro in historical perspective. With the establishment of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the EU has made an important step towards completing the internal market. The essay analyses the impacts that the Economic and Monetary Union has had in Europe, focusing on the income

Cristian Pana

2008-01-01

192

Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond  

PubMed Central

In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

2008-01-01

193

Biosputniks: The use by the Soviet Union and Russia of dogs, monkeys and other animals in the exploration of space, 1949-93  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soviet Union used animals in the exploration of space from 1949 onwards. Russia has continued the use of animals in the exploration of space with the launch on 30 December 1992 of Bion-10 (Cosmos 2229). Animals in the space program is an important theme in the Soviet exploration of space. The use of animals in the exploration of space has four main phases: (1) Suborbital missions 1949-1959; (2) Preparation for man's first flight into space 1960-1; (3) Preparation for man's flight to the Moon 1968-1970; (4) The international biomedical program 1962- . Each is dealt with in turn. The use of animals or biological specimens on board manned orbital space stations is not discussed.

Harvey, B.

1993-10-01

194

Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa  

PubMed Central

The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauss, B

2013-01-01

195

Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.  

PubMed

The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

2013-01-01

196

Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

197

Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational guidance.…

O'Dell, Felicity

198

Health and nutrition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the decade of transition: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The collapse of the Soviet Union was the most important historical event at the close of the 20th century. The jarring nature of this transition has resulted in large fluctuations in household resources and increased uncertainty in all facets of life for the individuals concerned. Much academic research and popular writing has explored the socioeconomic and political ramifications of bringing these countries into mainstream capitalism. This paper provides a review of the literature examining health outcomes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the transition period. The research, which has studied the human face of transition, spans multiple disciplines and it is thus currently difficult for interested researchers to obtain an overview of the basic facts, as well as, the more detailed nuances, concerning developments. This paper highlights what we currently know about health outcomes in transition countries and what we do not know, and suggests future areas of research which may help fill important gaps in our knowledge. PMID:15890565

Stillman, Steven

2006-01-01

199

Intermittent hypoxia research in the former soviet union and the commonwealth of independent States: history and review of the concept and selected applications.  

PubMed

This review aims to summarize the basic research in the field of intermittent hypoxia in the Soviet Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) that scientists in other Western countries may not be familiar with, since Soviet scientists were essentially cut off from the global scientific community for about 60 years. In the 1930s the concept of repeated hypoxic training was developed and the following induction methods were utilized: repeated stays at high-mountain camps for several weeks, regular high altitude flights by plane, training in altitude chambers, and training by inhalation of low-oxygen-gas mixtures. To the present day, intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) has been used extensively for altitude preacclimatization; for the treatment of a variety of clinical disorders, including chronic lung diseases, bronchial asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, emotional disorders, and radiation toxicity, in prophylaxis of certain occupational diseases; and in sports. The basic mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of IHT are mainly in three areas: regulation of respiration, free-radical production, and mitochondrial respiration. It was found that IHT induces increased ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia, as well as other hypoxia-related physiological changes, such as increased hematopoiesis, alveolar ventilation and lung diffusion capacity, and alterations in the autonomic nervous system. Due to IHT, antioxidant defense mechanisms are stimulated, cellular membranes become more stable, Ca(2+) elimination from the cytoplasm is increased, and O(2) transport in tissues is improved. IHT induces changes within mitochondria, involving NAD-dependent metabolism, that increase the efficiency of oxygen utilization in ATP production. These effects are mediated partly by NO-dependent reactions. The marked individual variability both in animals and humans in the response to, and tolerance of, hypoxia is described. Studies from the Soviet Union and the CIS significantly contributed to the understanding of intermittent hypoxia and its possible beneficial effects and should stimulate further research in this direction in other countries. PMID:12162864

Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V

2002-01-01

200

Soviet ventures require careful structuring  

SciTech Connect

When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

Burt, J.A. (Arnold and Porter, Washington, DC (US))

1991-06-03

201

Economic and Monetary Union in the Accession Countries - Political and Economic Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU-25 will start operating on May 1, 2004. This paper reviews the position of the new Member States (NMS) in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) with respect to future adoption of euro. It argues that further integration in this area is much more about the deepening of the political integrity of the EU than about lowering transaction costs.

Maria Dunin-Wasowicz

2004-01-01

202

Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth in Economic and Monetary Union: The case of SACU and CMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing international interest in economic integration and monetary union has spawned new regional initiatives in every continent, including Africa. As a result global financial markets are becoming increasingly integrated. A major question that arises from this is whether domestic financial institutions will become irrelevant. This paper attempts to examine this question using the experience of the Southern African Customs

Meshach Aziakpono

2003-01-01

203

Soviet Techniques and Devices for Automating Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various Soviet conceptions of technology and their influence on the automation of instruction in the Soviet Union are examined, and the history of the development of Soviet programed instruction is sketched. Key principles and techniques from Soviet psychology, pedagogy, computer technology, and cybernetics are explained in terms of their…

Zender, Bryce Franklin, Jr.

204

Soviet Labor Law and Principles of Civil Law. A Textbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The subject and system of soviet labor law; Fundamental principles of law in socialist public organization of labor; The sources of soviet labor law; Legal relationships of labor; The rights of soviet trade unions; Collective agreement; Labor ag...

K. S. Batygin

1972-01-01

205

Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD. PMID:22413759

2012-01-01

206

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of economic integration has made considerable progress during the 1990s in the European Union (EU). Firstly, with the establishment of a single market in 1993 and now, within a relatively short period of time, the most significant yet, the movement towards a single currency for participating Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) members on 1 January 1999. This will

CHARLES HARVIE

1997-01-01

207

IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY  

PubMed Central

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

Wayne, George J.

1960-01-01

208

THE LISBON AGENDA AS A NEW KHRUSHCHEV CALL On the Relevance of the Soviet Experience of Modernization for the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that the global scene is becoming more and more competitive and the position of the European Union is increasingly challenged by old and new world powers is a widely recognized fact. The awareness of this constantly growing pressure on the EU, its economic and social systems, in particular from the process of globalization stimulates numerous debates on the

TOMASZ ZARYCKI

209

Soviet atmospheric acoustics research  

SciTech Connect

The development of low observable air vehicles by the United States coupled with the historic propensity of the Soviet Union toward the defense of its borders raises the possibility of Soviet development of acoustic systems for detection and tracking of air vehicles as part of such defense. This report reviews and assesses Soviet research in atmospheric acoustics. Topics considered relevant were aircraft noise, background acoustic noise, propagation, meteorological remote sensing, microphone technology, processing of acoustic signals, and acoustic-gravity waves and ionospheric detection. This study should provide an indication of the maturity of the Soviet technology base required for the development of potential acoustic detection and tracking systems. Overall, the Soviet technology base in areas required for acoustic aircraft detection and tracking is at least comparable to that in the United States, and, in some areas, more advanced.

McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. (eds.); Bass, H.E.; Lacoss, R.T.; Landers, T.E.; Powell, A.; Raspet, R.; Revell, J.D.

1990-08-01

210

The role of labor unions in fostering economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay on how labor unions work, the author proposes a framework for the law on collective bargaining in developing countries. The structure of developing economies cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as in industrial economies. Typically less (often much less) than a quarter of the workers in a developing country are covered by collective bargaining agreements-and

John Pencavel

1995-01-01

211

The Role of Labor Unions in Fostering Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1995In this essay on how labor unions work, the author proposes a framework for the law on collective bargaining in developing countries. The structure of developing economies cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as in industrial economies. Typically less (often much less) than a quarter of the workers in a developing country are covered by collective bargaining

John Pencavel

1999-01-01

212

Labour, neo-liberalism and the conflict over economic and monetary union: a comparative analysis of British and German trade unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade unions have generally been neglected in the discussion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the related neo-liberal restructuring of European social relations of production. This article helps to fill this gap through a comparison of British and German unions' position on EMU and European co-operation. It is demonstrated that there is a split between British transnational production sector

Andreas Bieler

2003-01-01

213

Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.  

PubMed

Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

Jalovaara, Marika

2012-03-01

214

The Impact of the European Economic and Monetary Union on Inflation in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of the European Economic and Monetary Union is a decisive step of the European Union toward further integration. The introduction of the common currency is bound to enhance the competition effects engendered by the Single Market. The introduction of the common currency is an enormous investment in the improvement of Europe's competitive position. As such, it also entails

Wolfgang Pollan

1998-01-01

215

What Will Participation in the European Economic and Monetary Union Mean for Austria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To complete the integration process the EC intends to establish the Economic and Monetary Union. At present, only few EC member countries are able to meet the convergence criteria required for participating in a monetary union with a single currency, as laid down in the Maastricht Treaty. Advantages of a single currency range from lower transaction costs to a reduction

Fritz Breuss

1992-01-01

216

From the European Monetary System to Economic and Monetary Union — How and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts from the premise that the Delors Report is the main point of reference to create economic and monetary union in the EC countries. After a brief review of the Report, the study focuses on the transition phase leading to union and in particular to the gradual transfer of monetary authority to the EC level. It is argued

Niels Thygesen

1990-01-01

217

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-print Network

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01

218

Europe's Economic and Monetary Union: The Effects of Integration on Income Distribution & Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the fanfare and anticipation created around the establishment of Europe's Economic and Monetary Union and its new currency came a new chapter in history for each of the 12 participating E.U. countries and over 300 million inhabitants agreeing to join an economic system towards further integration that, once combined, would roughly rival the share of global economic output

Chris S. Neamonitis

219

Economic and monetary union: balancing credibility and legitimacy in an asymmetric policy-mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a double asymmetry in the structure of economic and monetary union (EMU). First, monetary policy is uniform while national economic policies are merely co-ordinated. The credibility of monetary policy is underwritten by an independent European Central Bank, but this is not sufficient as the objective of price stability depends on other aspects of economic policy. Thus greater coordination

Dermot Hodson; Imelda Maher

2002-01-01

220

Croatian Accession to the European Union: Economic and Legal Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reform of the Croatian legal system and the adjustment of its legislation to EU law is one of the main conditions for the Republic of Croatia to be able to join the Union. This paper analyses the existing requirements for gender equality inside the EU, the current situation in the applicant countries and the existing problems and challenges for states

Snjezana Vasiljevic

221

Taking a second look at Germany's motivation to establish economic and monetary union: A critique of ‘economic interests’ claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most widespread explanations of Germany's willingness to create European monetary union is that business or economic interest groups supported and lobbied for it, believing it would be good for them. This article refutes the argument that economic interests were actively involved in the process or that they had a causal impact on the German government's acceptance of

Dorothee Heisenberg

2005-01-01

222

A review of Soviet plasma engine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

Barnett, John W.

1990-01-01

223

The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

224

Money Demand in the West African Economic and Monetary Union--The Problems of Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional monetary integration, financial liberalisation and the adoption of indirect policy instruments continue to change the conditions for monetary policy in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). While the identification of a stable money demand relationship has become a crucial element for monetary policy, differences in economic behaviour between Cote d'Ivoire and the remaining countries may induce instability

Philipp C Rother

1999-01-01

225

The lagging regions of the EC in the face of economic and monetary union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nationwide economic policies required to satisfy the Treaty of Maastricht will have a deep regional impact. This paper reflects on the trade?offs, possibilities and transformations which the process leading towards economic and monetary union imposes on the development policies of peripheral regions. The space left for regional policy is reduced. Regional governments of peripheral regions should decode the pseudo?modernizing language

José L. Curbelo; Francisco Alburquerque

1993-01-01

226

Fiscal policy and economic growth: European Union experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, economists have been concerned over factors that improve economic growth, initially introducing physical capital and later human capital. We will consider a new factor, social capital. Also, we will introduce in this paper the effect of the fiscal policy on economic growth. In addition, we will analyse the effects that the use of fiscal policy has on economic growth.

Soledad Castano Martinez; Yolanda Fernandez Jurado; Carlos Martinez De Ibarreta Zorita; Antonio Rua Vieites

2006-01-01

227

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

228

Does one size fit all? Modelling macroeconomic linkages in the West African Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a structural macroeconometric model for member states of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA).\\u000a Fitting this model to annual and quarterly time-series data allows us to identify the channels through which macroeconomic\\u000a innovations in one country impact on other countries in the union. We also discover the extent of heterogeneity across the\\u000a member states in terms

David Fielding; Kevin Lee; Kalvinder Shields

2012-01-01

229

The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965  

E-print Network

"The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside ...

Smith, Jenny Leigh

2006-01-01

230

The global financial crisis and its implications on the convergence of Romania with the economic and monetary union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international financial crisis has affected the new member States of the European Union as well, for which the convergence criteria represent the economic test of evaluation of a degree of economic preparation, in order to participate in the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union. This paper analyses the main evolutions recorded by Romania under the conditions of

Veronel AVRAM; Marioara AVRAM

2010-01-01

231

Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

232

Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed\\u000a by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim\\u000a of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool

Fernando Antoñanzas; R. Rodríguez-Ibeas; M. F. Hutter; R. Lorente; C. Juárez; M. Pinillos

233

Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.  

PubMed

This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population. PMID:22549155

Vespa, Jonathan

2012-08-01

234

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

235

Institutional change in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) since 1994: A fresh start after the devaluation shock?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Parallel to the Franc CFA devaluation in January 1994, the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU\\/UEMOA) was formed. It succeeded the monetary union within the Franc zone (NAMU\\/UMOA) and the economic community WAEC\\/CEAO. The WAEMU avoided some of the institutional errors and deficiencies of its predecessors, attempting to save the monetary union after the shock of devaluation. For

Sven Grimm

1999-01-01

236

HOW WILL ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION INFLUENCE ESTONIAN ECONOMIC POLICY? ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS AND FUTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. General impact of the European Union's eastwards enlargement The impact of the eastwards enlargement of the EU on West-European countries consists primarily of the opening of markets. This will result in an economic boost and the redistribution of income in existing member countries. The opening of markets will bring about an increase in the effectiveness of direct investments in

Ivar Raig

237

Migration and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context: the case of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of literature looks at the consequences of family migration from a gender perspective. The studies show that women’s economic well-being and employment suffer from family migration, which is usually stimulated by the career of the male earner in the family. This study extends current research on the subject by examining the effect of family migration on union

Magdalena M. Muszynska; Hill Kulu

2006-01-01

238

Greece and the Negotiation of Economic and Monetary Union: Preferences, Strategies, and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how Greek actors participated in the negotiations on Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) that led to the Maastricht Treaty in 1991. It asks: who set policy and strategy, why, how, and with what effect. The preferences, strategies, and institutional context of the actors are understood by reference to the conceptual framework of rational choice institutionalism. It highlights

Kevin Featherstone; Dimitris Papadimitriou

2000-01-01

239

Liberalization, regional economic development and the geography of demand for air transport in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the liberalization of the airline industry in the European Union (EU) from the perspective that transport can be properly analysed only in the context of its wider political and socio-economic milieu. The central interest lies with the internal geography of demand for scheduled air transport within the EU. It is argued that significant tensions exist

Brian Graham

1998-01-01

240

Monetary and Fiscal Policy-Makers in the European Economic and Monetary Union: Allies or Adversaries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal monetary and fiscal policies within the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) are determined by simulating a global model under alternative assumptions about the objective function of the European Central Bank (ECB) and about cooperation vs. non-cooperation between monetary and fiscal policy-makers and among the latter. The results show the high effectiveness of fixed rules in the presence of

Reinhard Reinhard; Gottfried Haber; Warwick J. McKibbin

2002-01-01

241

The Franco?German relationship and economic and monetary union: Using Europe to ‘Bind Leviathan’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the interaction between the institutional, strategic and cognitive dimensions of the Franco?German relationship on Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). It begins by spelling out its institutional setting and its context of structural power. These sections highlight the main informal rules that have shaped the relationship and help explain the choice of negotiating strategies to reconcile their objectives

Kenneth Dyson

1999-01-01

242

THE IMPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION IN SUSTAINING EUROPEAN MONEY MARKET INTEGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first ten years of the Economic and Monetary Union have generated a remarkable increase in financial integration, even if the extent of convergence varies across different sectors within the overall European financial system. The scope of this article is to illustrate the general issues relevant for understanding European financial integration by focusing on the money market. The link between

AVADANEI ANDREEA

243

Supply and demand shocks in accession countries to the Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the enlarged Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) depends on the relative incidence of demand and supply shocks in both the participating and the accession countries. This paper addresses the issue using bivariate vector autoregression models for current and would-be EMU member countries. While the degree of symmetry in business cycle shocks among EMU accession countries is significant,

Julius Horvath; Attila Rátfai

2004-01-01

244

Microfinance efficiency in the West African Economic and Monetary Union: have reforms promoted sustainability or outreach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to assess the microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) efficiency in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) after the reforms that were undertaken in the industry. Given the complementary role between MFIs and banks (where MFIs reach the population that the banks cannot), we ask whether these reforms have promoted sustainability or outreach. For this purpose, we use

Sandrine KABLAN

2012-01-01

245

Economic and Monetary Union: insights into the theoretical conundrum of European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing research, this paper focus on European monetary integration depicting to what extent existing theories and theoretical approaches fit with the ontology and subsequent developments of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). A special emphasis goes to the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) as a crucial ingredient of European monetary integration, particularly for the political turmoil it

Paulo Vila Maior

2010-01-01

246

Economic, political, and institutional prerequisites for monetary union among the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the arguments for and against monetary union among the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council - the United Arab Emirates, the State of Bahrain, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, the State of Qatar and the State of Kuwait. Both technical economic arguments and political economy considerations are discussed. I conclude that there

Willem H. Buiter

2007-01-01

247

Social Mechanisms in the Establishment of the European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the reasons, the transformative processes and the social mechanisms involved in the establishment of the European economic and monetary union (EMU). Contrary to commonly accepted theories and approaches used to explain institutional change, it argues that the establishment of the EMU has not simply been the product of historical paths, the rational choices of actors, or social

Alfio Cerami

2009-01-01

248

Economic and Monetary Union: Critical Notes on the Maastricht Treaty Revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maastricht European Council clarified above all two features of the so-called stage II. (1) the duration of the stage for those participants who meet the requirements of convergence to qualify for full economic and monetary union (EMU); and (2) the need to focus on these issues, including the likely implications for the stability of the EMS and for the

Niels Thygesen

1992-01-01

249

How Does Monetary Policy Affect the Poor? Evidence from the West African Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) has a history of monetary stability and low inflation. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in relative prices within some UEMOA countries, in particular in the price of food relative to other elements of the retail price index (IHPC). Using monthly time-series data for cities within the region, we analyze the impact of

David Fielding

2003-01-01

250

How Does Monetary Policy Affect the Poor? Evidence from the West African Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) has a history of monetary stability and low inflation. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in relative prices within some UEMOA countries, in particular in the price of food relative to other elements of the retail price index (IHPC). Using monthly time-series data for cities within the region, we analyse the impact of

David Fielding

2004-01-01

251

Exchange Rate Fluctuations, Trade and Asymmetric Shocks in the Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of shocks affecting participants in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in Europe asymmetrically is an important concern of both economists and policy makers. The present paper focuses on the likelihood of asymmetric shocks in Europe originating from the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on trade. It identifies two necessary conditions for such asymmetric shocks to occur: exchange

Kh. Sekkat; J. Malek Mansour

2005-01-01

252

The Currency Reform as the Last Stage of Economic and Monetary Union: Some Policy Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the policy problems of a project aimed at substituting several national currencies with one single currency. While these problems are of general interest, the analysis is motivated by the plan for Economic and Monetary Union among the members of the European Community. The issues discussed include the choice of conversion rates and the effects of exchange-rate devaluations

Alberto Giovannini

1991-01-01

253

Foreing Trade Functions in the Countries of the Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we focus on the major determinants of exports and imports in the member states of EU-15, giving a special emphasis on those belonging to the Economic and Monetary Union. For this reason we drive a general picture on the evolution of exports and imports. We analyse also the evolution of export and import prices, as well as

Isidro Frías; A. David Carballas

2004-01-01

254

The British Labour Movement and Economic and Monetary Union in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT and controversial policy issues currently facing the British Labour movement is undoubtedly the question of whether or not a Labour government should take the historic step of abandoning sterling—not something it has favoured in the past—and sign up for the European single currency and full European economic and monetary union (EMU).

Gerard Strange

1997-01-01

255

Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and mountainous zones. Supportive material will include maps of watershed boundaries and location of observational sites. Text descriptions of the data, measuring techniques and hydrometeorological conditions related to each of the water-balance station will accompany the datasets. The database is supposed to be expanded with time in number of the stations (by 20) and available data series for each of them. It will be uploaded to the internet with open access to everyone interested in. Such a database allows one to test hydrological models and separate modules for their adequacy and workability in different conditions and can serve as a base for models comparison and evaluation. Special profit of the database will gain models that don't rely on calibration but on the adequate process representation and use of the observable parameters. One of such models, process-based Hydrograph model, will be tested against the data from every watershed from the developed database. The aim of the Hydrograph model application to the as many as possible number of research data-rich watersheds in different climatic zones is both amending the algorithms and creation and adjustment of the model parameters that allow using the model across the geographic spectrum.

Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

2013-04-01

256

Soviet Space in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses those U.S. counties that the State Department has forbidden former Soviet government personnel to enter. Includes a U.S. map indicating closed counties. Explains that the policy came in response to restrictions on foreigners' movements in the former Soviet Union. Suggests that teachers have students explore why particular U.S. regions…

Vogeler, Ingolf

1991-01-01

257

Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

Mickiewicz, Ellen

1983-01-01

258

Key to Juniperus of Central Asia (from Turkmenistan/Iran through the former Soviet rev. 2/2011 Union, Pakistan and the Western Himalayas, including Nepal)  

E-print Network

Key to Juniperus of Central Asia (from Turkmenistan/Iran through the former Soviet rev. 2 at the base), in whorls of 3, cones borne axillary (section Juniperus) seed cones 6-15 mm, blue to bluish).........................................J. communis 1b. Leaves decurrent (not subulate, not jointed at the base), both scale-like and whip (decurrent

Adams, Robert P.

259

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector. PMID:21752236

2011-01-01

260

The viability of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a unified currency: evidence from the African economies' reactions to  

E-print Network

The viability of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a unified currency: evidence from the feasibility of an economic and monetary union in Africa with a common currency. In this context, the present, plans to create an economic and monetary union with a unified currency for the African Countries by 2023

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Migration and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies show that family migration is usually to the benefit of the man’s professional career and that it has a negative impact on the woman’s economic well-being and employment. This study extends previous research by examining the effect of family migration on union dissolution. We use the event-history data of two retrospective surveys from Russia and apply hazard regression.

Magdalena M. Muszynska; Hill Kulu

2007-01-01

262

Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey’s possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey’s possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey

Levent Ayd?n; Mustafa Acar

2010-01-01

263

Economic, Political, and Institutional Prerequisites for Monetary Union Among the Members of the Gulf Cooperation Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the arguments for and against monetary union among the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council—the United\\u000a Arab Emirates, the State of Bahrain, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, the State of Qatar and the State\\u000a of Kuwait. Both technical economic arguments and political economy considerations are discussed. I conclude that there is\\u000a an

Willem H. Buiter

2008-01-01

264

Soviet Military Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After the fall of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1991, thousands of items of Cold War paraphernalia found ready markets across the world, including the United States. High school and college students were now able to purchase the heavy wool jackets of Soviet and East German troops, and military buffs were able to acquire a number of patches, medals, and other items. The medals were often highly prized, and whether people understood the iconography and symbolism or not, they sought them out just the same. Fortunately for those interested in the wide world of Soviet military awards, there is this fine site which offers photographs and information about the various medals and their respective honors. With over 50 medals on the site, visitors can learn about the Order of October Revolution, the Pilot-Cosmonaut of USSR, and the rather curious Medal for Development of Virgin Lands, which commemorates the "young soviets" who relocated to Siberia, the Volga region, and northern Caucasus. For those whose interest is piqued by this material, there is also a newsletter that visitors can look through online.

265

T2 Transfer of high technology from the united states to the soviet bloc: A public policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Soviet-bloc states are engaged in an extensive effort in the legal as well as illegal acquisition of United States high technology. This study examines the importance to the U. S. of such losses; the manner in which the Soviets acquire our high technology; benefits of such acquisitions to the Soviet Union; steps

William H. Smits Jr

1984-01-01

266

A Constitutional Treaty for an Enlarged Europe: Institutional and Economic Implications for Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the negotiations on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe have been concluded and the Constitutional Treaty1 has been signed by the Heads of State or Government of the Member States of the European Union (EU), the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) organized an international workshop held on November 5, 2004, in Vienna. The workshop gave an overview of the institutional

Paul Schmidt

2004-01-01

267

Continuity of Contracts After the Introduction of the Euro: The United States Response to European Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 1, 1999, a group of countries within the European Union will proceed with the third and final stage of Economic and Monetary Union—the introduction of the euro as a single currency. This event could affect continuity of contracts that contain a payment obligation denominated in a national currency to be replaced by the euro. This Article details and

James H. Freis Jr.

1998-01-01

268

The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City  

PubMed Central

Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and may help prevent increases in HIV/HCV prevalence from occurring within these communities. PMID:22239997

2012-01-01

269

Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

Charon-Cardona, Euridice

2013-01-01

270

Soviet Campaigns against Capitalist Ideological Subversives during the Cold War: The Latvian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the Soviet Union's use of propaganda warfare during the Cold War, focusing on the specific case of Soviet Latvia. Archival materials from recently opened archives in the former USSR show that the Soviet Union pursued a methodical ideological campaign against certain groups of U.S. citizens, including the post-World War II political refugees from Latvia. The main institution

Ieva Zake

2010-01-01

271

Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup  

SciTech Connect

NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

Not Available

1991-09-06

272

The West African Economic and Monetary Union and the African Growth and Opportunity Act: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) like the other Sub-Saharan African countries face the challenge of generating sustained economic growth. Among factors that contribute to this problem are the low degree of openness to trade and the lack of foreign capital. To encourage trade and investment in Sub-Saharan Africa, the United States passed the African

Hounsou Remy; Michael J. Applegate

2008-01-01

273

Till geography do us part ? prolegomena to an economic and monetary union between the Dominican Republic and Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a preliminary assessment of the potential benefits and costs of an economic and monetary union (EMU) between the Dominican Republic and Haiti -- two countries sharing the same island but whose history is one of conflict and divergent economic prospects in recent decades. After a brief review of the historical context, it examines the nature of these

Emmanuel Pinto Moreira

2010-01-01

274

Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

1992-07-01

275

Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

1980-01-01

276

The Process of Economic Reform and Its Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

>i>Perestroika>\\/i> in the Soviet Union is a grandiose and unique historical initiative. Its specific future contours and consequences are not yet amenable to strict scientific forecasts. At the same time, it becomes increasingly obvious that the sources of >i>perestroika>\\/i> are rooted in fundamental contradictions of the Soviet economic system and consequently its principal material content is the effective implementation of

G. Zoteev; E. Hewett

1990-01-01

277

H. J. RES. 92: A Joint Resolution to provide for the contribution by the United States, the Soviet Union, and other states of nuclear material recovered from warheads under arms control treaties. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, January 24, 1989  

SciTech Connect

H.J.RES.92: A Joint Resolution to provide for the contribution by the United States, the Soviet Union, and other states of nuclear material recovered from warheads under arms control treaties for use of peaceful nuclear programs under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, particularly to benefit developing states which are parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

Not Available

1989-01-01

278

Building Property Rights: Capitalists and the Demand for Law in Post-Soviet Russia  

E-print Network

soviet russia. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39(7):in Russia: Problems and prospects. OECD Economics Work- ingRussia’s tax crisis: Explaining falling revenues in a transitional econ- omy. Economics &

Gans-Morse, Jordan Luc

2011-01-01

279

Exploratory Empirical Analysis on Financial and Pro ductivity Sources of Microfinance Institutions in the West African Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) financial system consists of a relatively new regional stock market, a banking sec tor and a mesh of microfinance institutions, known as Decentralized Financial Structures (DFS). Despite t heir relative performance, decentralized financial structures have encountered various development requirements, particularly their inclusion in the fina ncial system and sustainability in a

Cloutier M-P

280

Providing information on economic and monetary union : A case study of the East Midlands European Information Relay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British government has promised a referendum on whether the United Kingdom should participate in the European single currency. There are questions about whether the UK population knows enough about economic and monetary union to make an informed decision and from what sources they received that knowledge. The European Commission has instigated an information programme for EMU. The EC sees

Sarah Jane Cousins; Adrienne Muir

2002-01-01

281

Moving away from unanimity: Ratification of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG) removes the unanimity requirement for entry into force. This innovation is possible because, technically, the TSCG I not an EU Treaty. It is not constructed as a reform of the EU Treaties following Article 48 which prescribes unanimity. So far, EU treaty revision is firmly locked

Carlos Closa Montero

2011-01-01

282

The creation of the European economic and monetary union (EMU): intergovernmental negotiations and two-level games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European economic and monetary union (EMU) is widely viewed as one of the most important developments in recent European integration. But it is less clear why EMU was started at all, and, more specifically,what the role of individual European Community (EC) member states has been in this process. Most importantly, some puzzling questions arise when trying to establish why

Madeleine O. Hosli

2000-01-01

283

The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

284

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

285

Soviet Children's Books: Expanding Children's Views of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a study that supports the premise that children should read literature written for children in other countries to increase their knowledge and understanding of other cultures. Includes a bibliography of Russian children's literature. (AEA)

Long, Roberta

1984-01-01

286

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared. PMID:24626208

de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

2014-01-01

287

Soviet Rural-Urban Integration through Mass Media Use: A Dependency Model Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of policy statements made in the past 10 years in Soviet academic journals and Communist Party newspapers indicates that integrating rural and urban populations has become a concern of academics, government officials, and policymakers in the Soviet Union. One means by which the rural segment of Soviet society could be pushed or helped…

Fair, Jo Ellen

288

The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

Melville, Keith; Landau, David

289

Soviet satellite communications science and technology  

SciTech Connect

This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

1991-08-01

290

A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

291

Drug resistance among tuberculosis cases in the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2012.  

PubMed

The European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system collects detailed information on resistance to TB drugs. Using this information, we provide an overview of the current TB drug resistance situation and trends in the EU/EEA by performing a descriptive analysis, including analysis of treatment outcomes, of the TB cases reported between January 2007 and December 2012. The percentages of TB cases with different drug resistance patterns have been stable with about 90% of the new laboratory-confirmed cases pan-susceptible, 6% monodrug-resistant, 2% polydrug-resistant, 2% multidrug drug-resistant (MDR) TB - excluding extensively drugresistant (XDR) TB -, and 0.2% XDR-TB. In previously treated laboratory-confirmed TB cases, the percentage with MDR-TB excluding XDR-TB declined until 2010 to 16% and remained stable thereafter. During the study period, the percentages of cases with monodrug- and polydrug-resistant TB remained constant at about 8% and 2% whereas the percentage of XDR-TB cases increased slightly to 2.6%. Treatment outcome results for all cases have been stable with overall 77.9% of the pan-susceptible cases, 69.6% of the monoresistant cases, 68.2% of the polyresistant cases, 32.2% of the MDR-TB cases (excluding XDR-TB), and 19.1% of the XDR-TB cases treated successfully. The treatment success rate target for new pulmonary culture-positive MDR-TB cases of 70% has not been reached. In addition, drug resistance surveillance can be improved by more complete reporting of drug susceptibility results and treatment outcome. PMID:24650865

van der Werf, M J; Ködmön, C; Hollo, V; Sandgren, A; Zucs, P

2014-01-01

292

Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia  

E-print Network

4 Technological Advancement and Long-Term Economic Growth in Asia Jeffrey D. Sachs and John W. Mc technological advance, the Soviet Union, as well as to Latin America, a region that has also generally paid insufficient heed to the importance of technological advance. Section 4.3 dis- cusses the distinct processes

293

Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available

1991-09-30

294

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.  

PubMed

Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

2013-12-31

295

Social Studies: Life in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This world studies elective quinmester course for grades seven through nine focuses on the national life style of Russia, emphasizing its varied cultural background, and, through an analysis of cultural characteristics, examining the influence a totalitarian government has on the nation's institutions. The student will: 1) evaluate the environment…

Ham, Pamela S.

296

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

297

Economic Strategies, Welfare Regimes and Gender Inequality in Employment in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female participation in paid employment has in creased significantly in recent decades throughout Europe, but despite the existence of equal opportuni ties policies the position of women in the labour market remains a subordinate one. There are how ever, significant differences between European Union countries in terms of the extent of inequality.Using data from Eurostat, and a methodology simi lar

Diane Perrons

1995-01-01

298

FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

1986-01-01

299

Technological and Economic Tendencies in the Structure of Industry in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USSR has entered a new and most important stage in its development, the period of all-out upbuilding of communist society. The 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union defines as its major objectives of this period: the creation of a basis for communism in material technology, the further reinforcement of the economic and defense capacities of

Samuel Kheynman

1959-01-01

300

Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

2002-01-01

301

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

Garshnek, V

1988-05-01

302

The Soviet Censorship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

303

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

304

Soviet attitudes toward regional security  

SciTech Connect

This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

Campbell, K.M.

1987-01-01

305

Education experienced by foreign-born faculty whose native countries have undergone major socio-economical changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three professors of education reflected on education in their countries of origin, and compare their education with learning, teaching and the education in the United States. The three countries represented are China prior to the political and economical reforms starting from 1979, Iran prior to the Islamic Republic of 1979, and the Russian Federation of the Former Soviet Union prior

Mitra Fallahi; Tamara Korenman; Liang Zhao

2010-01-01

306

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. I. Long-range Weather Forecasts for 1941-42 and Climatological Studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief account is given of Baur's long-range weather forecast prepared in the autumn of 1941 for the 1941-42 winter in Eastern Europe. Baur's forecast called for a normal' or mild winter but the winter turned out to be one of the most severe winters on record. The cold, the icy winds and blizzards gravely hit the German armies and coincided with the first major Soviet counteroffensive of the war. A Soviet weather forecast for January 1942, also called for a mild month.A review of the climatological studies prepared for the war indicates that the occurrence of mud periods of considerable intensity in autumn was not considered. The autumn 1941 mud period immobilized most of the German armies for a month and caused the attempted final German assault on Moscow to take place in an early and severe winter.Hitter would not tolerate the mention of winter and still less the mention of the retreat of Napoleon's Grande Armée from Russia.The support given by Soviet meteorologists and hydrologists to the Red Army is sketched. For the 1941-42 winter the more-important short- to medium-range forecasts included a forecast for 7 November (anniversary of the October Revolution) at Moscow and a forecast for the start of Zhukov's counteroffensive in the Battle of Moscow in December 1941.

Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

1987-06-01

307

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of the Volga River in the Stalingrad area that made it possible to drive tanks from the cast bank to the west bank of the river (width: about 1 km).In January 1943 a German Panzer army had to be withdrawn from the Caucasus. To accelerate the retreat, light elements of that army crossed some 42 km of the ice cover of the Gulf of Taganrog (Sea of Azov). The crossing was authorized after a meteorologist proved his estimate of the ice-cover thickness by landing in a light plane on the ice.In January 1945 weather forecasts played an important role in the major Soviet (2 200 000 troops and 5 000 warplanes) Oder-Vistula offensive. Marshal Koney writes with appreciation of the correct weather forecasts.In the Appendix, considerations that led German meteorologists to formulate a forecast for a minimum of five days of fog or low clouds from the Ardennes to southern England are reviewed. This forecast was used by the German High Command for the start of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

1988-07-01

308

Soviet foreign policy towards Angola: An analysis of trends under Brezhnev and Gorbachev (1974-1990)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experts on Soviet-African relations during the 1960s and until the mid-1970s often espoused a popular notion that runs as follows: Africa occupied a secondary place in Moscow's foreign policy and as a result, the Soviets adopted a low profile policy on African issues. The Soviet Union's involvement in Angola did not only weakened this notion but, at the 25th Congress

Alfred Olatunji Ojeranti

1991-01-01

309

DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership,

Cathy C. Kaufman

1994-01-01

310

Fostering the Next Generation of Socialists: Patronirovanie in the Fledgling Soviet State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay traces foster care policies in the SovietUnion, concentrating on the first half of Soviet rule when, due to chaos in the wake of wars, revolutions, and famine, Bolshevikle aders retreated from their original commitment to rearing orphans in public institutions. Although the Bolsheviks considered Russian peasants unsuited for raising socialist citizens, they wound up farming out parentless children

Laurie Bernstein

2001-01-01

311

Social Workers in Unions: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of 84 MSW union members from three unions in large urban area finds unionism and professionalism compatible. Differences among unions were demographic rather than attitudinal. Sample, mostly white, female under age 30, favors union arbitration, disapproves strikes. Prefers union with narrow economic focus, excluding professional or…

Alexander, Leslie B.; And Others

1980-01-01

312

ECPR Graduate Conference August 25th The economic migration of Romanians in the European Union.  

E-print Network

2nd ECPR Graduate Conference August 25th -27th , 2008 1 The economic migration of Romanians, nu stabilitatea exclusiv."1 [Migration is a normal phenomenon. Movement is natural for part of any human community, they are nor exclusively stable.] "75% din cetenii români care au plecat la munc în

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Uneven Integration: Economic and Monetary Union in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAlthough central and eastern European states widely adopted central bank independence in the 1990s, many later baulked at meeting the Maastricht criteria and adopting the euro. We employ two key variables – regime and institutional discontinuity at the domestic level and the credibility of international institutions' policies – to explain these different responses to the requirements of economic and monetary

RACHEL A. EPSTEIN; JULIET JOHNSON

2010-01-01

314

The economic and monetary union vs. shifts in competitiveness of member states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with changes in the competitiveness of 12 countries forming the euro area in 1999-2000. These changes are analyzed using various macroeconomic indicators (real exchange rate, trade ratios, labor market and economic output performance). Due to the different levels of development of the countries forming the zone, changes in competitiveness do not extend uniformly. The paper ends with

Tadeusz Kowalski; Maciej Pietrzykowski

2010-01-01

315

An analysis of the perceived effects of economic and monetary union on hotels in the north of Portugal : Implications for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the perceived implications of economic and monetary union (EMU) as a driver for changes in the hotel business environment and, consequently, on Portuguese competitiveness, in terms of the conceptual framework and methodology adopted and showing the way how it may contribute to help managers and decision makers to effectively

Carla Pinto Cardoso; Roger Vaughan; Jonathan Edwards

2010-01-01

316

Has ECB communication been helpful in predicting interest rate decisions? An evaluation of the early years of the Economic and Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the usefulness of communication by the European Central Bank for predicting its policy decisions during the early years of the European Economic and Monetary Union. Using ordered probit models based on the Taylor rule, we find that statements on the main refinancing rate and future inflation are significantly related to interest rate decisions. At the same time, an

David-Jan Jansen; Jakob De Haan

2009-01-01

317

Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

Yessis, Michael, Ed.

1974-01-01

318

The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

Lynch, Allen

1991-01-01

319

Adjustment of Soviet Elderly in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent human migrations have been characterized by increasing numbers of elderly people in the migrating population, and the emigration from the former Soviet Union to the United States and other countries is no exception. This article reviews the demographic structure of this elderly emigrant population, describes some unique features of the population in comparison with other United States immigrant populations,

Igor V. Persidsky; James J. Kelly

1993-01-01

320

Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Friedman, H. [E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (United States); Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

1996-11-01

321

North American Monetary Union: A United States Perspective  

E-print Network

Economics and Politics of a North American Monetary Union (Monetary Union,” North American Journal of Economics andMonetary Union: Analytical Principles and Operational Guidelines,” North American Journal of Economics and

COHEN, BENJAMIN J

2004-01-01

322

Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research  

SciTech Connect

Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

1991-01-01

323

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

PubMed Central

Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships. PMID:25231098

Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

2014-01-01

324

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Doug Downing, Kelly Vargas, Lawrence Penkar, James Investigation into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Technology and Society ­ APSC 261 is handled must be considered in detail. Nearly 48% of the total waste from the SUB is compostable

325

Beyond Economic Integration: Explaining National Political Party Positions Toward the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which national political parties are defining their policy positions regarding the European Union. Specifically the paper addresses a policy area that has yet to receive systematic quantitative research, the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). While several studies address other areas of European integration, this work focuses

Kris Pence

326

The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security  

SciTech Connect

The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

1986-01-01

327

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

328

Soviet ionospheric modification research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial

L. M. Duncan; H. C. Carlson; F. T. Djuth; J. A. Fejer; N. C. Gerson; T. Hagfors; D. B. Newman Jr.; R. L. Showen

1988-01-01

329

Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict  

SciTech Connect

International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

Burn, S.M.

1988-01-01

330

The Soviet maps of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

Robertson, D. F.

1990-02-01

331

Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.  

PubMed

Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants. PMID:11374307

Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

2001-03-01

332

Fiscal Unions  

E-print Network

We study cross-country insurance in a currency union with nominal price and wage rigidities. We provide two results that build the case for the creation of a fiscal union within a currency union. First, we show that, if ...

Farhi, Emmanuel

2012-07-31

333

Soviet surface mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Years of emphasis on the development of underground equipment have left the surface coal mining sector lacking in modern, domestically built, high-capacity machines. According to the Soviet coal industry, the following equipment is needed to meet the ambitious production increases planned for the future: (1) 20 cubic meter (26 cubic yard) shovels; (2) 12.5 and 20-cubic-meter (16 and 26-cubic-yard) hydraulic

Sealy

1981-01-01

334

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ÃÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

335

Soviet theater nuclear capabilities: the European nuclear balance in transition  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum examined the changing strategic and theater nuclear environment; Soviet theater nuclear force improvements and doctrine; the implications of Soviet theater nuclear buildup for deterrence and the defense of Europe; and NATO's response. The author concludes that the changing balance of theater capabilities has resulted in a devaluation of deterrence, a decline in Western self-confidence, and an increase in NATO's vulnerabilities. The author also contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a significant reduction intermediate-range nuclear forces that now pose a serious threat to the West, the NATO deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles will not only help to restore balance to the NATO/Warsaw Pact nuclear equation, but will also enhance deterrence, reduce NATO's vulnerabilities, and thus, will contribute to crisis stability in Europe.

Kennedy, R.

1983-08-31

336

Soviets may halt production drop with outside funds, technologies  

SciTech Connect

In a long history of Soviet oil production, a normal development progression has occurred in which several prolific oil provinces have been discovered in sequence, become dominant producers, and then declined. The present drop in Soviet oil output is partly the result of the natural decline of many of its large older fields, but also it is due to reduced capital investments in the domestic oil industry and to the reliance on outdated and inefficient exploration and development technology. This paper reports that financial and technical problems can be remedied by joint ventures with foreign oil companies. Despite these limitations, the Soviet Union has led the world in oil production ever since 1974, often by a considerable margin.

Riva, J.P. Jr. (Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (US))

1991-12-30

337

Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities  

SciTech Connect

Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

NONE

1993-12-31

338

Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States  

E-print Network

Imperial Legacy? An examination into the nature of Russia's economic,military anddiplomatic policies Able to Discard its Imperial Legacy? Abstract This thesis analyses Russia's military, economicRussia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States Was Russia Able to Discard its

Blandford, Ann

339

Soviet oil and security interests in the Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The various political, economic, and military problems that could arise if the USSR, Norway, or other western nations begin exploring and producing oil in the Barents Sea are examined. The development of the Soviet oil industry, the foreign trade factor, energy consumption in the USSR, Soviet investment policy, and alternative areas of future oil production are reviewed. The technology and hardware that the Soviets have been using to explore the Barents Sea, dating back to 1971, are examined. The military implications (Soviet Northern Fleet) of this development are considered at some length. The authors present and examine two options (the ruble track and the hard-currency strategy) for developing oil production in this region.

Bergesen, H.O.; Moe, A.; Ostreng, W.

1987-01-01

340

New light on the Sino-Soviet alliance: Chinese and American perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the partial opening of the documentary record in the United States and a willingness on the part of Chinese officials\\u000a and researchers to give a more considered assessment of their country’s relationship with the Soviet Union in the 1950s, the\\u000a value of the Sino-Soviet alliance to Beijing can now be better determined.\\u000a \\u000a Recent Chinese analysis demonstrates that the Beijing

Rosemary Foot

1991-01-01

341

The influence of social capital on health in eight former Soviet countries: why does it differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research has identified the role of social capital in explaining variations in health in the countries of the former Soviet Union. This study explores whether the benefits of social capital vary among these countries and why.MethodsThe impact of micro social capital (trust, membership and social isolation) on individual health was estimated in each of eight former Soviet republics using

Béatrice dHombres; Lorenzo Rocco; Marc Suhrcke; Christian Haerpfer; Martin McKee

2009-01-01

342

European Union: Constraints vs. Opportunities  

E-print Network

During the early 1980s, Europe suffered from slow economic growth. As a result of this stagnant growth pattern, the European Union created new economic policies and reforms, which eliminated tariffs and barriers among ...

Kahiha, Nguvitjita

2007-12-17

343

Soviet surface mining  

SciTech Connect

Years of emphasis on the development of underground equipment have left the surface coal mining sector lacking in modern, domestically built, high-capacity machines. According to the Soviet coal industry, the following equipment is needed to meet the ambitious production increases planned for the future: (1) 20 cubic meter (26 cubic yard) shovels; (2) 12.5 and 20-cubic-meter (16 and 26-cubic-yard) hydraulic excavators; (3) bucket wheel excavator systems with capacities of 5250 and 12,500 cubic meters (6800 and 16,300 cubic yards) per hour; (4) drill rigs for hole diameters from 320 millimeters (13 inches) to 1 meter (39 inches); (5) 110 and 180-ton-capacity trucks; (6) conveyor systems with capacities of 10,500 cubic meters (13,700 cubic yards) per hour; (7) thyristor converters for main drives, electronic control systems, and electrical equipment for large draglines and bucket wheel excavators; (8) high-strength large-diameter steel rope; (9) hydraulic drives and systems; (10) non-flammable hydraulic fluids; and (11) air-conditioning systems for operator cabs. There is no doubt that the Soviets have the inventiveness, ingenuity, and resources to design and supply this equipment themselves. What they may be lacking is time. If the set targets are indeed to be met, then the industry will have to buy from abroad.

Sealy, T.

1981-05-01

344

The Soviet Encyclopedia on Islam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 25 articles translated here from the third edition of the BOLSHAYA SOVETSKAYA ENTSIKLOPEDIYA (1970-78) were written by leading Soviet Islamicists and represent Soviet positions on various Islamic topics. As such, they often serve as sources for both p...

1980-01-01

345

Soviet military strategy in space  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

Johnson, N.L.

1987-01-01

346

Soviet image pattern recognition research  

SciTech Connect

This report is an assessment of the published Soviet image pattern recognition (IPR) research and was written by a panel of six US academic experts in that research field. Image pattern recognition is a set of technological research topics involving automatic or interactive computer processing of pictorial information, utilizing optical, electronic, and computer technologies. This report focuses on IPR system configuration (optical, hybrid, digital), and current research. The topical chapter headings are Image Processing Hardware and Software Preprocessing, Statistical Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision, and Optical Techniques and Systems. Soviet research in all areas of IPR is strong in theory, but limited by poor availability of equipment for generating and handling digital images, and digital computer hardware and software. Nevertheless, some Soviet IPR achievements compare favorably with those of the West. There is strong Soviet research in statistical pattern recognition, where fundamental relationships related to the factors determining error rates in classification of images are being developed. There has been good Soviet work in enhancement and restoration of images (visible and radar) of the surface of Venus. There is a strong Soviet development program in optics and optical processing related to IPR. Nevertheless, the state of Soviet research in computer vision is ten to fifteen years behind the West, because of the lack of adequate hardware and software. The Soviet scientists in the area appear competent and knowledgeable of Western work, so that any improvement in their research output would be derived from access to more capable equipment. 402 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. (eds.) (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Klinger, A. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Aggarwal, J.K. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); George, N.J. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Optics); Haralick, R.M. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Electric

1989-12-01

347

Product market competition and unionized wage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering a move from monopoly to duopoly, Bastos et al. (“Open shop unions and product market competition”, 2010, Canadian Journal of Economics) provides open-shop union, where the union density is less than one, as a theoretical reason for the evidence of a positive relationship between product market competition and unionized wage. We show that their theoretical result is very much

Arijit Mukherjee

348

The apocalypse of Western technology: Transforming American ingenuity into a resource of the Soviet state  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the threat facing the United States and other Westsern societies from the intelligence services of the Soviet Union and their surrogates among the Eastern European services. We will discuss some of their methodology for acquiring the high technology often lacking in the Soviet Union. We will also outline a basic Operations Security (OPSEC) program, that provides measures for increasing employee awareness of the threat and the consequences which can result from the loss or compromise of classified or sensitive information to those services.

Revo, L.E.; Figelski, G.

1988-01-01

349

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

350

Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin: Soviet-Russian Foreign Relations with the United States from 1990 Through the Fall of 2008: A Strategic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold War Soviet foreign policy was driven by a strategic competition. A competition-detente cycle based on the superpower rivalry between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including the Warsaw Pact dependencies, and the United States of America and its respective alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) existed for over forty-five years. Following the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and

Terry W. Simmons

2008-01-01

351

U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

Chibucos, Pamela E.

352

Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic

Osipian, Ararat L.

2009-01-01

353

GENDER AND NGOS IN POST-SOVIET ARMENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social experience in post-Soviet Armenia is characterized by a state of flux, a constant process of tearing down and building up that is rife with internal contradictions. The uncertainty and constant transformations in the social, political, and economic domains cause individuals to find new means of coping with all the myriad changes and these adaptations are informed by an amalgamation

Armine Ishkanian

354

What does the experience of German monetary union tell us about the theory of monetary union?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the modern theory of monetary unions to identify in what circumstances such unions are supposed to impose low costs on, and give substantial benefits to, their members and then considers the case of the effect on Eastern Germany of German monetary and economic union. This union satisfied most of the conditions for low cost and high benefit,

Charlotte Lythe

1995-01-01

355

Soviet nuclear powered satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Soviet space nuclear reactors, particularly for the Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATS) is traced. The reactors have a fission core to which thermoelectric elements are exposed. The earliest, 1964 version had only cooling fins and produced 500 kWe for up to 15,000 hr. The Topaz version on the RORSATS employs thermoionic conversion, i.e., hot- and cold-shoes, and yields 5-10 kWe. The Topaz reactor also features a positive temperature coefficient of reactivity, meaning that the hotter it becomes, the more it reacts, etc.; this implies that the reaction could become uncontrollable. RORSATS in orbit in the 1980s have a design life of 130-140 days, double that of previous versions. End of life leads to a satellite break-up and consequent boosting of the reactor to a higher orbit. Several problems have occurred in all flight phases. It is noted that usage of the satellite radar may have made the presence of submarines down to several hundred feet depth evident by the differences in surface waves.

Reese, R. T.; Vick, C. P.

1983-10-01

356

Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

Ellis, Richard D.

1999-01-01

357

Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

Manheim, Frank T.

1966-01-01

358

African Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As visitors enter this site, they will be presented with a collage of African nations coming together to form the entire continent, accompanied by the words âÂÂAfrica must unite.â It is a visually stimulating image, and one that sets the tone quite nicely for the content within. The site is the homepage of the African Union (AU), which was created in 1999 as part of a declaration from the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). While their mission is complex to say the least, their primary goal is to promote the âÂÂâ¦accelerated socio-economic integration of the continent, which will lead to greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples.â The site presents a cornucopia of material on their work, contained within sections titled âÂÂMember StatesâÂÂ, âÂÂConferences & EventsâÂÂ, and âÂÂDocumentsâÂÂ. One of the best places to start is the âÂÂNews and Eventsâ area, which contains a sampling of information on their recent work on gender equity, sustainable development, higher education systems, and so on. As might be expected, visitors can also browse through many of these materials in Arabic, French, and Portuguese.

359

Problems in International Communication: China and the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China and Russia generally adhere to the Leninist concept of the press as being integral to society and therefore subject to regulation. They both also contend with the Communist paradox: the press exists to criticize the system of which it is a part. They reconcile this paradox by directing criticism toward the erring individual rather than…

Pehowski, Marian

360

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union and in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a brief description of nuclear power reactor designs, which gives a base planning of its development and provides the scientific and research basis of its further realization. The paper states the successive stages of these plans, their modifications and fulfilment. The article dwells upon the peculiarities of the technical solutions for three main types of reactors and

V. A. Sidorenko

1997-01-01

361

Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

1992-01-01

362

390 American Scientist, Volume 96 The former Soviet Union's launch  

E-print Network

on October 4, 1957, hundreds of Earth-observing satellites have fol- lowed. Half a century of imagery has phenomena and mea- surements of electromagnetic energy that is either emitted or reflected from the Earth's surface or its atmosphere. These measurements are made for a large number of locations on the Earth

Wallin, David O.

363

Entrepreneurship in the Soviet Union and post-Socialist Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article advances the understanding of the present and future of Russian entrepreneurship. Based on secondary information published in the West and in contemporary Russia, empirical research and personal interviews, general characteristics of Russian entrepreneurship within different controversial periods that occurred during different periods of this country's history are presented. Also discussed are the influences of ethnic and religious minorities

Alexander I. Ageev; Mikhail V. Gratchev; Robert D. Hisrich

1995-01-01

364

Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (0.04 < x < 0.24) detector crystals grown in the Ukraine and Russia have been evaluated and compared to US-grown materials. Various analytical techniques were used to study the materials for trace impurities, precipitates, crystallinity, and electrical transport properties. Relatively high concentrations of carbon and trace impurities such as Se, Nd and Si have been detected in the crystals. In most cases, the crystals showed lower resistivity than US-grown CZT. However, recent crystals grown in Russia exhibited better detector performance than those grown in prior years, and good response to an {sup 241}Am radioactive source was found. Electron lifetimes below 1 {micro}s were measured in crystals having significant numbers of micro-defects, compared to lifetimes of 5--15 {micro}s found in spectrometer grade materials produced in the US. Furthermore, the zinc composition along the growth axis showed better homogeneity in comparison with the US material.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; A. J. Antolak; D. H. Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S. Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E. Schlesinger

1998-01-26

365

Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical high-pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd1-xZnxTe (0.04

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B James; A. J Antolak; D. H Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E Schlesinger

1999-01-01

366

Teaching about Russia and the Soviet Union in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests themes in Russian history that can be integrated into existing history, social studies, civics, or religion classes. Expounds on the following themes: agriculture and collectivization, police force and legality, Jews and dissidence, plurality and ideology, and the arms race. Provides bibliographic sources. (RW)

Adams, Bruce F.

1989-01-01

367

Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

368

Screening Propaganda: The Reception of Soviet and American Film Screenings in Rural Iceland, 1950-1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cold War, films and film screenings played a major role in the politics of the Soviet Union and the United States. The two superpowers attempted to exploit the cinema as a medium for creating a positive image of their respective ideologies, political systems and cultures, particularly abroad. This article explains how films from the superpowers were distributed in

Sigurjón Baldur Hafsteinsson; Tinna Grétarsdóttir

2011-01-01

369

Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. [Glossary included  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to

Rosengaus

1987-01-01

370

The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

371

The Superpower Quest for Empire: The Cold War and Soviet Support for ‘Wars of National Liberation’  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Cold War with its focus on confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States fades further into the historical background, the legacies of that struggle continue to flourish in large portions of the developing world. The murderous warfare that devastated Afghanistan and Somalia after 1990, the lethality of local and regional conflicts in Africa and Asia, and

Roger E. Kanet

2006-01-01

372

The reconfiguration of post-Soviet food industries: Evidence from Ukraine and Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990s witnessed widespread changes in the nature of food supply chain actors, government policies, and markets in the successor states of the Soviet Union. These changes have resulted in a more differentiated set of actors, but there is relatively little empirical knowledge on the reconfiguration of food processors and their relationships with agricultural processors. This article attempts to deal

Matthew Gorton; John White; Svetlana Chernyshova; Alexander Skripnik; Tatiana Vinichenko; Mikhail Dumitrasco; Galina Soltan

2003-01-01

373

International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

Tsvetkova, Natalia

2008-01-01

374

The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

Karp, Alexander

2007-01-01

375

A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2009-01-01

376

Union Agitators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

Honawar, Vaishali

2006-01-01

377

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~  

E-print Network

-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 497B November 01, 2013 282 1667 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Email: Phone: Conducted for: November 2013 #12;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC

378

Climatology and variability of historical Soviet snow depth data: some new perspectives in snow – Indian monsoon teleconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the monthly climatology and variability of the historical soviet snow depth data. This data set was developed\\u000a under the bilateral data exchange agreement between United States of America and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.\\u000a The original data is for 284 stations for periods varying from 1881 upto 1985. The seasonal cycle of the mean snow

R. H. Kripalani; A. Kulkarni

1999-01-01

379

Environmental management during economic transition: Ukraine--A case study  

SciTech Connect

After dissolution of Soviet Union, each new States had to confront the legacy of an unsustainable, and ultimately failed, economic and political system. Enormous environmental problems resulted from centrally planned economics, which promoted rapid growth through exploitation of the former Soviet Union`s (FSU) vast natural resources. Unconstrained by scarcity-based pricing, extractive and heavy industry ministries created huge, inefficient, and heavily polluting enterprises. The region also experienced extensive forest-cutting, steady deterioration of soils, and contaminated runoff and infiltration from over-excessive application of agrichemicals. The fate of the environment will depend largely on successful transition to a market-based economy. Funds for environmental protection will remain scarce, and poor technology combined with a degraded and overworked infrastructure will slow cleanup of contaminated regions. With failed economies, policy-makers and legislators will be forced to overlook sustainable development as they exploit natural resources in an effort to produce food and obtain hard currency. Ukraine, the second-most populous republic of the FSU, experienced possibly the world`s greatest single environment disaster--the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe. Today, heavy industry, with its resource-intensive and highly polluting technologies, contributes 61% of Ukraine`s GNP, in comparison with 34% in the European Union. Energy production is grossly inefficient. Environmental agencies in Ukraine are new, with limited legal or economic tools, financial resources, or technical skills. Yet the country has commenced environmental management initiatives that, when combined with economic reforms, will start to improve environmental conditions. This paper presents an overview of Ukraine`s environmental and economic conditions, steps already undertaken to manage the environment, and additional measures needed to improve the situation.

Kempen van, T.H.; Demydenko, A.O. [USAID-funded Environmental Policy & Technology Project, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1995-12-01

380

This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy  

SciTech Connect

The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

Trifan, D.D.

1989-01-01

381

Soviet Strategic Doctrine and the Soviet-American Global Contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet Military Doctrine, despite the exigencies of the thermonuclear age, continues to follow Clausewitz in viewing war as a continuation of politics by other means. Accordingly, war is regarded both as feasible and winnable, provided the USSR continues to maintain the initiative, to pursue the offensive, and to utilize surprise and deception. These factors mean that an initial blow against

Uri Raanan

1981-01-01

382

Fact Sheets on the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

1997-01-01

383

Attainments and problems of Soviet archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet archaeology developed in the context of the Russian revolution as what remained of the archaeology of Tsarist Russia came into contact with Marxism. In its early stages, Soviet archaeology sought to reconstruct social relations and other superstructural phenomena directly from archaeological remains. Beginning in the late 1930s there was increasing interest in ethnogenesis. In recent years, Soviet archaeology has

V. A. Bulkin; Leo S. Klejn; G. S. Lebedev

1982-01-01

384

Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet

Catudal

1989-01-01

385

A Model of Union Participation: The Impact of Perceived Union Support, Union Instrumentality, and Union Loyalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories,

Lois E. Tetrick; Lynn M. Shore; Lucy Newton McClurg; Robert J. Vandenberg

2007-01-01

386

Impressions of Soviet Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a 2-week tour of Russia, this report describes some principal policies and practices of Soviet teacher education. After a brief introduction, the report presents new trends in education and the organization of teacher education as exemplified by the Hertzen Institute in Leningrad. In a description of teacher preparation programs,…

Sharpes, Donald K.

387

The phenomenon of Soviet science.  

PubMed

The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

Kojevnikov, Alexei

2008-01-01

388

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

389

State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport.  

PubMed

The former Soviet Union began participating in international sport after World War II and soon achieved a dominant position in the Olympic Games and other competitions. The success of Soviet athletic programs led to charges of unfair practices but, because of secrecy surrounding Soviet research in exercise biochemistry, it has been difficult to substantiate these charges. This article presents previously restricted information regarding the development and use of creatine supplements and blood doping in the USSR. Early work by Olexander Palladin established the role of creatine in muscle function. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists showed that oral creatine supplements improved athletic performance in short, intense activities such as sprints. Subsequent studies in the West substantiated these investigations and have led to the widespread acceptance and use of creatine supplements to enhance muscle function and athletic performance. In addition, however, the Soviet government supported the development of blood doping, which is banned by the International Olympic Committee. Blood doping was pervasive in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s, and was used by many Soviet athletes in the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games. Open publication and discussion may help to prevent the abuses that can come from secret scientific research. PMID:12878813

Kalinski, Michael I

2003-01-01

390

Mental health attitudes and practices of Soviet immigrants.  

PubMed

A survey of mental health knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking practices was conducted with 415 Soviet immigrants to Israel. The purpose of the study was two-fold: to provide data for mental health services and outreach programs designed for this immigrant group and to obtain a "proxy window" into these attitudes and behaviors in the Soviet Union itself. The results show that almost 20% of the immigrants reported consultation to formal agents in Israel and about half of these reported similar consultation in the USSR. An almost equal proportion consulted the family. Univariate and multivariate analysis show that demoralization, marital status, and religiosity were significantly associated with help-seeking. The second part of the survey explored Soviet immigrant attitudes to mental illness and the mentally ill by means of case vignettes and social situations, respectively. The respondents were able to detect abnormal behavior, but did not label it as psychopathology. Their overall tolerance of such behavior was low. These attitudes did not change over time nor seem to be influenced by reported abuses of psychiatry in the USSR. PMID:2265995

Levav, I; Kohn, R; Flaherty, J A; Lerner, Y; Aisenberg, E

1990-01-01

391

[Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].  

PubMed

The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners. PMID:10216383

Supady, J

1998-01-01

392

Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. Slavic women\\u000a have been trafficked to the sex markets of Western Europe, Asia, and North America. The surge in human trafficking is the\\u000a result of numerous factors, including the dramatic fall of the economic system and complete deterioration of the social safety\\u000a net.

Yuliya V. Tverdova

393

Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.  

PubMed

The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication. PMID:22753071

Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

2012-12-01

394

Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

1998-01-01

395

Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

Catudal, H.M.

1989-01-01

396

Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive than in Belarus and Ukraine. The same picture as for general water consumption is typical for industrial water use, domestic water consumption and especially for irrigated agriculture. On the contrary, calculating per head correlation of water consumption with climatic conditions is not seen because of the considerable influence of socio-economic factors. We also tried to find out correlation of the cost-effectiveness of water use (gross domestic product per used water unit) with the annual air temperature. The result illustrates that it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions while investigating the cost-effectiveness of water use in different countries and regions. Today the water management in all former Republics is directed towards gradual stabilization, but if adequate measures are not assumed the situation with water resources will deteriorate.

Bibikova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

397

Tearing off the Mask: Reappraising the Public and Private Lives of Soviet Women in the 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

David C. Brandon is a recent graduate with a Bachelor’s in English and a minor in History. The focuses of his academic endeavors are gender, sexuality, and literature in Imperial Russia and the early Soviet Union. In 2009, he was the recipient of the Sharon Alt Piepenbrink Award for “Her Head Was Working, Her Soul Seemed to Rise: The Intersection

David Brandon

2010-01-01

398

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m\\/sub b\\/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The

L. R. Sykes; G. C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

399

Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most

Lynn R. Sykes; Graham C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

400

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

401

The P-40 in Soviet Aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, based on archival documents, covers the history of American Curtiss P-40 fighters in the Soviet aviation. USSR received 2134 aircraft of this type in 1941–1944. They were widely used in all branches of Soviet aviation—Air Forces, Air Defense (PVO), and naval aviation. They were considered as average fighters—better than old Soviet types and British Hurricanes but worse than

Valeriy Romanenko

2009-01-01

402

The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union countries  

E-print Network

in Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia in order to delimitate occurred institutional change following the USSRInitial research elements 3.1 16The health care system of Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia 3.1.1 16Before 1991. The countries of the study are Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia. My assumption is that these states have experienced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified,

D A Barr

1996-01-01

404

This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

405

World economic outlook: a survey by the staff of the International Monetary Fund. [Monograph  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the analysis of economic developments, policies, and prospects first presented in the May 1980 Outlook. the estimates and projections for various groups of industrial and developing countries are built up on a country-by-country basis, drawing on the International Monetary Fund's statistical resources and consultations. The global perspective now covers the People's Republic of China, nonmember European countries, and the Soviet Union. The report begins with a general survey, followed by chapters on industrial countries, oil-exporting developing countries, and non-oil developing countries. Key policy issues are identified as stagflation in industrial countries and global adjustment and financing. 14 figures, 50 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

406

Roots of Russia's Economic Dilemmas: Liberal Economics and Illiberal Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE OF THE STRIKING ASPECTS of Russia's economic course in the 1990s is the dearth of capital investment, both foreign and domestic. Investment is an essential require- ment if Russia is to experience a sustained economic recovery from the shocks of Soviet disintegration and the often incoherent economic policies pursued in the early post-Soviet years. By any standard—for example the

ALLEN C. LYNCH

2002-01-01

407

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Solid Waste Accounting In the New Student Union Building At the  

E-print Network

Into Solid Waste Accounting In the New Student Union Building At the University of British Columbia Lucy Bai IN MCMASTER UNIVERSITY 4 2.3 RESIDENTIAL WASTE STUDY IN ONTARIO 6 3.0 RECOMMENDED METHOD 8 4.0 TRIPLE BOTTOM of waste checks in McMaster University P.5 Table 4: Final results of waste checks in McMaster University

408

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Building is currently managed by UBC Waste Management, which transports compostable food waste to an in-vessel. However, composting food waste on the new SUB has social advantages that the in-vessel facility does not Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua, Jordan Smith, Kelsey Zhu University

409

The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan  

SciTech Connect

A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I. [AN SSSR, Mosco

1990-01-01

410

The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

Connolly, James P. (editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (editor)

1990-01-01

411

The Political Economy of International Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model an international union as a group of countries deciding together the provision of certain public goods and policies because of spillovers. The countries are heterogeneous either in preferences and\\/or in economic fundamentals. The trade off between the benefits of coordination and the loss of independent policymaking endogenously determines the size, the composition and the scope of unions. Our

Alberto F Alesina; Ignazio Angeloni; Federico Etro

2001-01-01

412

Fiscal Cooperation in a Monetary Union  

E-print Network

Fiscal Cooperation in a Monetary Union by Luisa Lambertini Boston College and UCLA March 2004 ­ Incomplete Abstract We analyze the interaction of monetary and fiscal policies in a monetary union where Angeles, CA 90095-1477, USA. E-mail: luisa@econ.ucla.edu 1 #12;1 Introduction The Economic and Monetary

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

413

Ten years of monetary union in retrospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 January 1999 saw the start of the third and final phase of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Ten years on, membership has expanded from the initial 11 members to reach 16 countries by January 2009. This article reviews the first decade of monetary union from a number of angles. Monetary policy under EMU managed to secure historically low

L. Aucremanne; J. Boeckx; D. Dury; S. Ide

2008-01-01

414

The Soviet ASTRON mission: legacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2013 marks the 30th anniversary since the launch of Soviet Spacecraft Astron that had been operated for 6 years as the largest ultraviolet telescope during its lifetime. The Astron orbital station was designed for the astrophysical observations. It was launched into orbit by Proton launch system on March 23, 1983. Astron had a 80 cm ultraviolet telescope with mass of 400 kg and a complex of X-ray spectrographs with mass of 300 kg on board as a payload. It's high apogee orbit (with apogee 200000 km and perigee 2000 km) permitted the influences of the Earth's umbra and radiation belts to be excluded from the measurements. The main astrophysical results are summarized in this paper.

Boyarchuk, Alexander; Savanov, Igor; Kanev, Evgeny; Shustov, Boris; Sachkov, Mikhail

2014-11-01

415

Bleeding babies in Badakhshan. Symbolism, materialism, and the political economy of traditional medicine in post-Soviet Tajikistan.  

PubMed

The bleeding of infants via the skin (pile) and the roof of the mouth (qüm) is practiced in Badakhshan, the easternmost province of Tajikistan. Like folk practices elsewhere, pilé and qüm exist at the interstices of modern society and reflect a complex religious, historical, and social response to poverty, marginality, and the global processes associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, I attempt to move beyond an ethnomedical analysis by examining these bloodletting practices in the context of their contemporary meaning, as a moral response to suffering and to the social changes that have taken place in the post-Soviet period. PMID:16612994

Keshavjee, Salmaan

2006-03-01

416

The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

2011-01-01

417

Soviet leadership on nuclear war. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the last decade, the Soviet politico-military leadership has provided startling evidence of a new Soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Leading Soviet military thinkers have themselves traced the origin of this phenomenon to evolving technological developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. In his 1982 book--Always in Readiness to Defend the Fatherland, Ogarkov used provocative language to describe recent developments in military affairs: A profound and revolutionary in the full sense of the word, perevorot (revolution, turnabout, upheaval) in military affairs is occurring in our time.... He connected this revolution with rapid quantitative developments in nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles, and with the significantly qualitative upgrading of conventional means of destruction. In his 1985 post-transfer book--History Teaches Vigilance, hereafter cited as History--he stressed that his profound and revolutionary, in the full sense of the word, perevorot is continuing in our time.... This document presents opinions on Soviet leadership in nuclear war.

FitzGerald, M.C.

1987-04-01

418

Money troubles: Europe's rough road to monetary union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turmoil that engulfed the European monetary system in 1992 and 1993 extinguished the sense of inevitability that the project for economic and monetary union had acquired. The exchange rate crisis led many to conclude that monetary union had been derailed once and for all. This article argues, in contrast, that the monetary crisis did not prove that monetary union

Wayne Sandholtz

1996-01-01

419

Clothing the Soviet Mechanical-Flâneuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jon Cockburn looks at fashion trends on both sides of the Atlantic to examine images of and ideals for the modern woman. At the center of his analysis is a history of the Soviet “mechanical-flâneuse,” a distinctive twentieth-century variation upon the nineteenth-century European metropolitan “flâneuse” (or intelligent idler), that emerged through Soviet interpretations of the American efficiency movement. Cockburn traces

J. Cockburn

2005-01-01

420

Regional seismic recordings of the Soviet nuclear explosion of the Joint Verification Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During August and September, 1988, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted a Joint Verification Experiment in which each country was permitted to observe a nuclear explosion at the other country's test site using hydrodynamic means. We have seismically recorded the Soviet explosion at four stations at regional distances (? ? 750km), and here report those observations. The peak-to-peak particle motion in the P-wave varied from 7.54×10-1 cm/sec at ? ? 160 km to 1.02 × 10-2 cm/sec at ? ? 740 km. The average mb(Lg) was 5.97 corresponding to a yield of 118 KT, based on the NTS mb(Lg) - yield relation of Patton [1988], The average Pn corner frequency of the Soviet explosion was 4 Hz with evidence of a second corner at about 0.7 Hz. Both of these corners could be affected by spall. Near-regional seismograms of the Soviet JVE explosion show a large arrival within the Lg phase on the transverse component at all four sites. This may correspond to tectonic release accompanying the explosion, or to the effects of anisotropy on seismic wave propagation.

Priestley, Keith F.; Walter, William R.; Martynov, Valadic; Rozhkov, Mikhail V.

421

State of the Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

Blair, Julie

2004-01-01

422

On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

Balockaite, Rasa

2014-01-01

423

Soviet-American Dance Medicine. Proceedings of the Glasnost Dance Medicine Conference and Workshops (Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information shared in this document represents a dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union on the discipline of dance medicine, which involves the care of injured dancers as well as prevention of injuries. An introduction including a preface, opening remarks, and an overview of dance medicine comprises section 1. The second…

Micheli, Lyle, Ed.; And Others

424

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-07-24

425

European Union 1. What are the most important treaties establishing the legal authority of the EU?  

E-print Network

is the difference between a Political Union, and an Economic Union? 8. What is he Eastern Partnership Program 9 and a "monetary" union? Germany, Poland, Belgium and France 1. Who is the Chancellor of Germany? a. What politicalEuropean Union 1. What are the most important treaties establishing the legal authority of the EU

Bermúdez, José Luis

426

Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

1986-01-01

427

Soviet Cybernetics Review. Volume 3, Number 10, 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The October 1969 issue introduces preview synopses of new Soviet books of special interest to Western readers, and adds coverage of the new CPSU Central Committee newspaper. An overview of Soviet information retrieval work in science and technology is giv...

W. B. Holland

1969-01-01

428

Contemporary Biographies from the Large Soviet Encyclopedia. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains biographical articles on living Soviet personalities included in the Large Soviet Encyclopedia. The information has been reproduced in file-card format for convenience in filing. (Author)

A. M. Prokhorov

1972-01-01

429

Students' Union / Introduction Representation and advice / Students' Union Students' Union  

E-print Network

offers: � clubs and societies � social activities � live music and comedy � advice and support of Students (NUS), to which UBU is affiliated. Keep up to date with the Students' Union news, events

Bristol, University of

430

Continuity versus changes in Soviet policy in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  In general, looking at the whole Far East panorama, one is left with an impression that Soviet policy in Asia is still largely\\u000a dominated by the rigidities imposed by both Soviet accumulated gains and Soviet vulnerabilities, but that some limited movement\\u000a has begun. The Soviet political position throughout the Far East is still generally weak, in sharp contrast to the

Harry Gelman

1985-01-01

431

The Disintegration of the USSR and Paths of Formation of the New System of Russia's Economic Relations in the Post-Union Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

For three years Russia has been addressing the extremely important problem of forming a new system of economic relations with subjects of the former USSR. It is difficult to evaluate unequivocally what has been accomplished in this regard. If we take the period of late 1991 and early 1992 with its erstwhile sudden paralysis of interrepublic relations as the point

V. Chekurov

1995-01-01

432

Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

Merrill, Martha C.

1990-01-01

433

Unconventional Warfare: American and Soviet Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional warfare is a weapons system of hot and cold wars which is utilized for achievement of political and military goals. It is a type of warfare used equally by conventional military forces, paramilitary organizations, and civilian populations. The Sino-Soviet bloc's governments consider it an indispensable weapon of their political and military aggression and for promoting the goals of world

Slavko N. Bjelajac

1962-01-01

434

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

435

Shamanism, Christianity, and Marxism: Comparisons and Contrasts Between the Impact of Soviet Teachers on Eskimos, Chukchis, and Koryaks in Northeastern Siberia, and the Impact of an Early Anglican Missionary on Baffin Island Inuit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts activities and experiences of the first Soviet teachers among Eskimos and Koryaks and the first Anglican missionaries among Inuit of Baffin Island. Concludes Soviets integrated natives into political, educational, economic structures of the USSR while missionaries concentrated on natives' spiritual life, not involvement in…

Bartels, Dennis

1985-01-01

436

Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.  

PubMed

This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

González Rey, Fernando L

2014-02-01

437

[Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].  

PubMed

The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

2013-01-01

438

press.princeton.edu Economics & Finance  

E-print Network

Economic History & History of Economics 32 Public Policy 36 Economic Sociology & Related Interest 37 with Soviet intelligence officials and agents over many years. A remarkably deft work of storytelling is destined to become a classic of economic and political history. Benn Steil is senior fellow and director

Landweber, Laura

439

A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.  

PubMed

The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

Manuilova, I A

1991-09-01

440

Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc  

SciTech Connect

The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

Davey, W.G.

1982-03-01

441

Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns.

Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

1995-05-01

442

European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

443

Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

Welker, Jean Edward

1995-01-01

444

Energy, economics and security in Central Asia: Russia and its rivals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Central Asian states emerged out of the Soviet Union`s Central Asian republics in 1991. Although U.S. policy makers presumed that Iran would inevitably sweep them into its sphere of influence, this has not happened. Nor is it likely to occur. Instead there has developed a multistate competition for influence and even control of these new states. This competition involves

Stephen Blank

1995-01-01

445

Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

Friedberg, Maurice

446

Political Unionism and the Corporatist Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of corporatism enjoys wide acceptance as an alternative to pluralist analyses of political processes in the West and as a way of imputing conservative functions to the more developed union movements that involve themselves in public policy and economic management. In both instances, the corporatist thesis rests on ahistorical functionalist assumptions and even fails to make out its

Winton Higgins

1985-01-01

447

Unions and Job Queuing in Mexico's Maquiladoras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S.-Mexico border region has experienced substantial economic growth over the last two decades; nonetheless, employment and wage growth has been uneven across the border cities with a high maquiladora presence. We hypothesize that these growth differences can be traced to relative labor union power. Using microdata from the 1998 National Urban Employment Survey, we find evidence of job queuing

Rafael Otero; Jose Pagan

2002-01-01

448

Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

Chaiko, Lev I.

1990-01-01

449

Building under cold climates and on permafrost. Collection of papers from a US-Soviet Joint Seminar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building of homes and other structures in cold weather poses special design and logistical problems for architects, urban planners, and construction engineers. As the United States expands development in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of North America, access to the research and achievements of other nations experienced in cold weather construction becomes increasingly important. The Soviet Union, with so much of its vast territory lying in the far north, performs about 85 percent of the world's research in this field. For this reason, experts at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have actively cooperated with Soviet experts under the framework of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Housing and Other Construction. The articles in this collection have been classified into the following five sections: Aspects of Architectural Planning, Construction and Environmental Considerations; Principles of Foundation Design and Behavior; Foundation Stabilization; Concrete Construction; and Excavation Techniques.

1980-12-01

450

[Unionization on Campus].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue considers in separate articles: (1) unionization in 1981 among college faculty in the United States; (2) unionization at the California State University and College System (CSU) (by Lisa Flanzraich); (3) multi-year agreements; (4) contract size; (5) and, in "Yeshivawatch," developments pertaining to the National Labor…

Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

1982-01-01

451

Teacher Unions 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

Koppich, Julia E.

2012-01-01

452

Unions, Contractors and CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

Jarosz, Francesca

2006-01-01

453

Students' Union Richmond Building  

E-print Network

Weekend opening Cafe Vending machine All study spaces have wi-fi, computers, and photocopiersVictoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Coa Royal Fort Gardens Victoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Wills Memorial Building Coa

Mottram, Nigel

454

Students' Union Richmond Building  

E-print Network

/Printer Scanner Wi-fi Wheelchair access 24/7 Late opening Weekend opening Cafe Vending machine 12 miles southVictoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Coa Royal Fort Gardens Victoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Wills Memorial Building Coa

Subramanian, Sriram

455

The ECU as the "Mark" of Unity: Europe between Monetary Integration and Monetary Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews progress toward economic integration and monetary union within the European Economic Community. Maintains that Germany has the greatest influence on the system because of its strong currency and monetary policies. Concludes that a "two-speed" course toward economic union may be the only practical path. (CFR)

Riemer, Jeremiah

1993-01-01

456

Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.  

PubMed

During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

Román, G C

1994-10-01

457

UNION BOARD History of the Union Board  

E-print Network

entertainment, concerts, the Miss Tech Pageant, Spring Fling, its annual Talent Show, comedians, dances, Publicity, Miss Tech, Midnight Magic, Fall Fling, Spring Fling, & Talent Show. The Union Board also has SGA Folds. Talent Show UB's annual Talent Show showcases Tech's campus talent who compete for a $500 first

Selmic, Sandra

458

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-print Network

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

459

RUSSIAN AND SOVIET CRYPTOLOGY III – SOVIET COMINT AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1918–1921  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of radio communications, both in controlling military forces and for purposes of intelligence collection, was recognized from the beginning by the new Soviet leaders in Russia. By January 1919, a radio intelligence service had been established in the Red Army, although shortages of equipment and comint personnel limited its operations during the civil war. Both sides in the

Thomas R. Hammant

2001-01-01

460

The Soviet Physical Fitness Tests: An Essential Aspect of the Soviet Organizational Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the Soviet award system, in particular the Prepared for Word and Defense (PWD) program. The PWD program is composed of five stages and embraces people from ages 10 to 60. Each stage has a section of requirements and a section of norms, which take into consideration age variations. The norms section, which is the most important…

Howell, Reet

461

Responses of African economies to the international economic shocks: an empirical study.  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, we investigate the viability of an economic and monetary union creation for the African countries, the African Union, projects to create an economic and monetary union for the African countries and a new the viability for an economic and monetary union creation for the African countries and a new unified currency

462

Union Rent Seeking, Intangible Capital, and Market Value of the Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the effect of unions on intangible capital investment and profitability within the context of a market value rather than a more traditional accounting based approach. Theory is provided suggesting unions are able to affect profitability by sharing in the economic returns to firm-specific intangible capital. In support of this hypothesis, we find unionization reduces the returns to

Robert A. Connolly; Barry T. Hirsch; Mark Hirschey

1986-01-01

463

CENTER FOR FISCAL POLICY On the Benefits of a Monetary Union: Does it Pay to Be  

E-print Network

prophetic. The debate on the creation and en- largement of the Economic and Monetary Union of the EuropeanCENTER FOR FISCAL POLICY CFI On the Benefits of a Monetary Union: Does it Pay to Be Bigger THE BENEFITS OF A MONETARY UNION: DOES IT PAY TO BE BIGGER? Chiara Forlati This Draft: July 2012 Abstract

Dalang, Robert C.

464

Investigating soviet espionage and subversion: the case of Donald Maclean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay sets out the dimensions of investigating Soviet espionage and subversion, highlighting how Maclean's image as a Soviet agent has developed over the past 50 years. It will then consider to what extent new documents at the Public Record Office alter his image. Maclean's crime was treachery but what exactly is the intellectual challenge in investigating espionage? Just what

Sheila Kerr

2002-01-01

465

Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet\\/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full

Wesley T. Huntress Jr.

2002-01-01

466

Kazan and Manchu: Cultural Roots of Soviet Foreign Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceeding from the assumption that there is a living past influencing decision-makers' images of their country and the world, this article discusses probable conscious and subconscious perceptions of the nature of Russia's foreign relations among the present Soviet leadership. The article argues that Soviet leaders have been used to looking upon the foreign relations of their state as one of

Kristian Gerner

1980-01-01

467

Artificial satellite break-ups. I - Soviet ocean surveillance satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the breakup patterns of eight Soviet Kosmos series ocean surveillance satellites is presented. It is noted that half of the 4700 objects presently detected in earth orbit are shards from destroyed objects. The locations and heading of each Soviet satellite breakup were tracked by the Naval Space Survelliance System. All events in the eastern hemisphere occurred in

N. L. Johnson

1983-01-01

468

Unionization: boon or bane?  

PubMed

Again, you only get a union if you deserve one, and you get the union you deserve. Collective bargaining in a professional milieu indicates an unhealthy environment, is incredibly cumbersome, and--perhaps most concerning--is phenomenally expensive, as measured in terms of fiscal resources, human resources, and energies. Moreover, time lost in collective bargaining reduces institutional flexibility and responsiveness. But more important, the collective bargaining process imposes an additional administrative layer and extra legal and contract implementation fees and adds mistrust into a professional setting that requires total trust along with professional competence. Thus, resources are diverted that could be better devoted to excellent patient care and professional salaries. The process of maintaining a union-free environment is well worth the effort. In the end, administration, nursing personnel, and, most important, patient care are positively impacted by an open, flexible environment. In short, within a healthy union-free environment, everyone wins! PMID:2066821

Fenner, K M

1991-06-01

469

Responses of African economies to the international economic shocks: an  

E-print Network

of an economic and monetary union creation for the African countries and a unified currency using the comparative, the African Union, projects to create an economic and monetary union for the African countries and a unified of several regional economic communities and monetary zones. The continental politic organization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

American Geophysical Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), which was established in 1919 by the National Research Council and for more than 50 years operated as an unincorporated affiliate of the National Academy of Sciences, is now a nonprofit corporation chartered under the laws of the District of Columbia. The Union is dedicated to the furtherance of the geophysical sciences through the individual efforts of its members and in cooperation with other national and international scientific organizations.

2010-03-03

471

The economics of academic health sciences libraries: cost recovery in the era of big science.  

PubMed

With launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s, science and technology became a high priority in the United States. During the two decades since, health sciences libraries have experienced changes in almost all aspects of their operations. Additionally, recent developments in medical care and in medical education have had major influences on the mission of health science libraries. In the unending struggle to keep up with new technologies and services, libraries have had to support increasing demands while they receive a decreasing share of the health care dollar. This paper explores the economic challenges faced by academic health sciences libraries and suggests measures for augmenting traditional sources of funding. The development of marketing efforts, institutional memberships, and fee-based services by the Louis Calder Memorial Library, University of Miami School of Medicine, is presented as a case study. PMID:3224223

Williams, T L; Lemkau, H L; Burrows, S

1988-10-01

472

Independent unions and the merger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the independent unions in the U.S., or the unions unaffiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). Types of independent unions; Effect of AFL-CIO merger on railroad unions; Role of the United Mine Workers and John L. Lewis in the expansion of the labor movement. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)

Philip Taft

1956-01-01

473

Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

Gvaramadze, Irakli

2010-01-01

474

Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

475

75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction...Federal credit unions and mergers and conversions of insured credit unions. The proposed...Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions) in the...

2010-04-05

476

Phage therapy--history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches.  

PubMed

Felix d'Herelle proposed the use of bacteriophages for the therapy of human and animal bacterial infections at the beginning of the 20th century. This approach, however, was not widely accepted in the West. After the emergence of antibiotics in 1940s, phage research was diverted to a more fundamental level. At the same time, phage therapy was widely practiced in the Soviet Union due to collaboration of Felix d'Herelle with his Georgian colleagues. The majority of the articles dedicated to this subject are from the 1930s and 1940s. The old Soviet literature indicates that phage therapy was used extensively to treat a wide range of bacterial infections in the areas of dermatology (Beridze, 1938), ophthalmology (Rodigina, 1938), urology (Tsulukidze, 1938), stomatology (Ruchko and Tretyak, 1936), pediatrics (Alexandrova et al., 1935; Lurie, 1938), otolaryngology (Ermolieva, 1939), and surgery (Tsulukidze, 1940, 1941). These articles were published in Russian and thus were not readily available to Western scientists. The Western skepticism toward phage therapy itself was again followed by renewed interest and reappraisal, mainly due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Often the experiments described in the old Soviet articles were not designed properly: the use of placebos and the coding of preparations were absent from most of the studies, number of patients in the experimental and control groups was unequal or missing, sometimes no control groups were used at all, or patients treated previously unsuccessfully with antibiotics were employed as an experimental group and as control. The results obtained and the efficiency of phage prophylaxis were estimated by comparing with results obtained in previous years. In most publications, phage titers and descriptions of methods used for evaluation of the results are not specified. Nevertheless, past experience indicates some effectiveness of phage therapy and prophylaxis. Therefore, these clinical results should not be neglected when designing any future studies. PMID:22748807

Chanishvili, Nina

2012-01-01

477

Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

1999-08-31

478

A strategic approach to advanced technology trade with the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. trade in dual use (military and civilian application) technology attempts to balance competing objectives: to protect the West's qualitative lead in advanced weaponry, and to improve U.S. technological competitiveness. An approach based on strategic planning concepts used in the business community provides a useful mechanism for analyzing this problem.The current technology transfer environment and the interests of the major

Bob Elder

1992-01-01

479

a threat transformed The collapse of the Soviet Union was a dramatic geopolitical shift  

E-print Network

for Today John Deutch John Deutch is Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served as Deputy Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Nuclear Weapons Council, and Director of Central Intelligence during the Clinton administration and as Undersecretary of Energy during the Carter administration

Deutch, John

480

Minorities, Mullahs and Modernity: Reshaping Community in the Former Soviet Union  

E-print Network

and the Islamic revolution in Iran, Western fear of IslamIran would have some difficulty exporting its Islamic fundamentalist revolutionIran: the modernizing but authoritarian regime of the Shah, or the Islamic Revolution

Saroyan, Mark; Walker, Edward W.

1997-01-01

481

METHOD TO QUANTIFY THE CARBON CYCLE OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION (EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 which is predicted to cause the earth's temperatures to rise and accelerate rates of plant respiration and the decay of organic matter, disrupting the equilibrium of the terrestrial carbon ...

482

First Results of GLIMS Database Population for Former Soviet Union Glacier Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is an international project with the goal of surveying a majority of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers. GLIMS uses data collected primarily by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra satellite and the LandSat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) provide the satellite data and support the GLIMS coordination and data management effort. With NASA funding, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has developed the GLIMS Glacier Database. In the presentation we demonstrate first results of GLIMS glacier data base population for glacier regions of FSU. With support under a NASA REASoN CAN more than 2000 glacier outlines for Caucasus, Pamir and Tien-Shan have been derived from ASTER images and provided in a standard form for ingest into the GLIMS database. Statistical analysis has been done to estimate number of glaciers and their areas in comparison with data of World glacier inventory. The ability to view and download these data through an OGC-compliant web-based interface will be demonstrated. -

Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.; Armstrong, R.; Raup, B.; Khalsa, S. S.; Barry, R.

2005-12-01

483

Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

1985-01-01

484

US - Former Soviet Union environmental restoration and waste management activities, March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy Agreement was signed between DOE and the Ministry of Atomic Energy for the Russian Federation and provides a mechanism for cooperation in research, development, and safe utilization of nuclear energy. Under the umbrella of this agreement, DOE and the former Ministry of Atomic Power and Industry signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management in September 1990. This document discusses the environmental situation, science and technology process, technical projects (separations, contaminant transport, waste treatment, environmental restoration), scientist exchanges, enhanced data transfer, the US-Russia industry partnership (conference, centers), and future actions.

Not Available

1994-03-01

485

Selenium status of pregnant women and newborns in the former soviet union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of the selenium status during pregnancy is of great importance because of the significance of selenium for\\u000a fetus growth and antioxidant protection of neonates. This problem is especially urgent for Russia and its neighbors because\\u000a very little data are available and because data on soil selenium predict low intake levels of selenium. A large epidemiological\\u000a investigation made in

Nadegda A. Golubkina; Georg Alfthan

2002-01-01

486

Politics on Ice: The United States, the Soviet Union, and a Hockey Game in Lake Placid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the intersection of sport and politics by examining how and to what extent the 1980 US Men's Hockey Team's gold medal victory in Lake Placid was catapulted from the hockey arena to the political arena.

Donald E. Abelson

2010-01-01

487

Politics on Ice: The United States, the Soviet Union, and a Hockey Game in Lake Placid  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This paper explores the intersection of sport and politics by examining how and to what extent the 1980 US Men's Hockey Team's gold medal victory in Lake Placid was catapulted from the hockey arena to the political arena.Résumé:Le présent article jette un regard à l'intersection du sport et de la politique et examine comment la médaille d'or méritée en 1980

Donald E. Abelson

2010-01-01

488

Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

Research on cholinesterases and effects of their inhibition in the USSR and Russia since 1930-1940s till present is exposed in historical aspects. The first physiological and toxicological effects of cholinesterase inhibition were reported by Alexander Ginetsinsky during World War II, when academic institutions were evacuated from Leningrad to Kazan. The main scientific schools that initiated research on chemistry, enzymology and physiology of cholinesterases and their inhibitors were leaded by Alexandr and Boris Arbuzovs, Victor Rozengart, Viktor Yakovlev, Michael Michelson, Martin Kabachnik, Mikhail Voronkov, Ivan Knunyants, Alexandr Bretskin and others. They investigated the main physiological effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, and analyzed the catalytic mechanisms of cholinesterases and related enzymes. Their contributions are landmarks in the history of cholinesterase research. At the present time revival of research on cholinesterases in different universities and institutes is vivid, in particular at the Moscow State University, research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center. PMID:23485591

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