Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. Foreign Fishery Developments Soviet Union and Japan

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Soviet Union and Japan Agree on 1978 Quotas The Soviet Union and Japan); the Soviet Union's quota in the Japanese zone at 650,000 t. These final quotas, which were disappointingly,000 t for the Soviet Union during July-December. The Soviet Union modified its posi- tion during the first week

  2. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  3. Corporate Governance in the Former Soviet Union: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Estrin; Mike Wright

    1999-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify whether the slow progress in transition experienced by the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) arises from weaknesses in implementing effective corporate governance or from weaknesses in the broader economic environment. An overview of progress in transition in the FSU is presented followed by analysis of developments in enterprise ownership and governance. Problems in

  4. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  5. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  6. The environmental impact of Chernobyl in the soviet union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhores A. Medvedev

    1987-01-01

    The author describes events subsequent to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and something of their environmental impact as it affects the Soviet Union. He is somewhat adversely critical of the lack of information currently being released by the Soviet authorities.

  7. The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union countries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union in the Global Age", Summer School, September 2008 Abstract 1991 is a strategic year for former Soviet Union Union is the predominant factor in the external induced change. Another one is that the World Health

  8. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  9. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    This report from the Rand Corporation examines issues with respect to the former Soviet Union. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration, (available in .pdf format only) is "an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." It contains 10 papers, divided by region, as well as 4 papers on prospects for future cooperation and integration.

  10. Human Rights Problems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubert, Judah L.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet human rights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)

  11. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon production, testing, and deterrence and now includes the environment, human and economic health, and the proliferation of weapons-of-mass destruction. For these reasons the fall of the Soviet Union provides a new imperative and opportunity for systematic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary international efforts to begin to solve these important environmental problems. The environmental degradation from nuclear contamination affecting states of the former Soviet Union is a large topic, and a full description is outside the scope of this paper. A comprehensive overview of environmental concerns and radioactive waste production, inventories, and impacted sites is provided by others. Portions of the summaries provided here are drawn from these works.

  12. Gifted and Talented Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on the Young Pioneer Palace system in Moscow, this brief article reviews the Soviet Union's educational approach to gifted and talented children. Noted is the elaborate network of after-school programs with such activities at the Young Pioneer Palace as technical circles, naturalists' circles, song and dance ensembles, and a sports…

  13. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19 future…

  14. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  15. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  16. The Last Workshop on Theoretical Physics in the Soviet Union

    E-print Network

    Beatriz Gato-Rivera

    2011-04-29

    Twenty years ago, in October 1990, I found myself attending a workshop on Theoretical Physics in Chernomorka (Ukraine) intended only for Soviet physicists. That trip to the USSR/CCCP as well as the preceding months at CERN were highly surrealistic with plenty of adventures, crucial events and anecdotes, the most amazing one involving Niels Bohr. A few months later the Soviet Union collapsed. In this article I make a personal account on the happenings of 1990, with emphasis on my incursions into the European communist world during, and also before, that year.

  17. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  18. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  19. Maternal and Child Health Supercourse for the Former Soviet Union Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saida Karimova; Ron LaPorte; Eugene Shubnikov; Faina Linkov

    2007-01-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) is a growing concern among the countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) where economic issues\\u000a and changing infrastructures are seriously deteriorating the public health system. Moreover, in the past decade, lack of primary\\u000a prevention programs coupled with a shortage of well-trained public health professionals are having an increasingly negative\\u000a impact on MCH outcomes. In

  20. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, H. D. I.; Abraham, N. B.; Fraser, A. M.; Moon, F. C.; Novikov, E. A.

    1992-08-01

    The report analyzes the capability in nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union. This is a broad area of research with implications in fields as diverse as cardiology, laser physics, oceanography, image processing, plasma dynamics, fluid physics, and population biology. Our focus was restricted to only a few topics in which the authors were able to bring together US experts in those fields. The areas of biological or medical applications, plasma physics, laboratory fluid dynamics, mathematical developments in integrable systems, and strength in mathematics are not treated in the report.

  1. Updating Teaching Lessons on the Soviet Union: Entering the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Explains how social studies teachers can help students understand perestroika, glasnost, and other current events in the Soviet Union. Describes strategies that teach how to analyze periodical and newspaper articles dealing with the Soviet Union. Lists resource materials for updating information on the USSR. Outlines a sample lesson on the 1989…

  2. Design Evolution and Performance of the Soviet Union's Large Polar Icebreakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Brigham; Kara Strait; Kara Seas

    1986-01-01

    During 1985 the Soviet Union operated approximately 70 icebreakers of many types and 14 specialized icebreaking cargo ships of the SA-15 class. However, within this fleet only 16 vessels can be considered true polar icebreakers - large, powerful ships capable of independent operations in multi-year ice. These polar icebreakers, all built since 1959, are the mainstay of the Soviet Union's

  3. Two Dimensions to Economic Incorporation: Soviet Immigrants in the Israeli Labour Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Gorodzeisky; Moshe Semyonov

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the economic integration of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union into the Israeli labour market in terms of occupational and earnings mobility (i.e. decreasing occupational and earnings disparities) in comparison with several Israeli Jewish sub-populations. Using data from annual Income Surveys conducted by the Israel Bureau of Statistics between the years 1995 and 2006, we find little

  4. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix.

  5. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  6. [Communicable diseases in the countries of the former Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Ekeid, S E

    1999-04-20

    The reasons for the breakdown of control of communicable diseases in the countries of the former Soviet Union are discussed. The national and international response to the threat to public health is outlined. The factors behind the breakdown are complex and related both to inherent features of the old system and a failure on the part of the public health authorities to respond quickly in a situation of financial and societal unrest. In collaboration with the international community, the Russian authorities have managed to prevent some 560,000 new cases of diphtheria and 15,000 probable deaths from 1994 to 1998 by concerted action through the Interagency Immunization Coordination Committee. PMID:10354761

  7. Determinants of residence and migration in the Soviet Union after World War 2: the immigrant population in Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hill Kulu

    2004-01-01

    Soviet migration literature stresses the importance both of the interests of people and of state policy in shaping the migration process in the Soviet Union. However, most empirical studies are descriptive and rely on bivariate analysis; multivariate analysis is scarcely used. Conventional Western research, in turn, mostly stresses the importance of structural factors in explaining migration in the Soviet Union.

  8. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  9. The ghosts of the past, the dreamlands of the future … or why fantasies are bound to fail in socialism and the market: The case of public health policy development in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianna Fotaki

    2009-01-01

    The transition ‘from planned to market economy’ in the former Soviet Union and in several countries in post-communist Europe is one of the most sweeping social transformations of the second half of the 20th century. It is widely accepted that this transformation was driven by a shared belief in the market's superior ability to deliver economic growth, to create wealth

  10. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

  11. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  12. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  13. Analog computing in the Soviet Union: an interview with Boris Kogan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Abramovitch

    2005-01-01

    This paper includes an interview with Yakovlevich Kogan, a professor at the Computer Science Dept. of the University of California, Los Angeles. Prof. Kogan has had a fascinating career in the most formative years of the control field. His pioneering work on simulating complex systems, including the development of the Soviet Union's first analog computers and hybrid computers, was critical

  14. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

    1993-01-01

    The carbon budget of the forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and their sequestration potential were assessed by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of different age forest stands and actual forest coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences. The area of forest biomes in the FSU

  15. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  16. Disiccation of the Aral Sea: A Water Management Disaster in the Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip P. Micklin

    1988-01-01

    The Aral Sea in the Soviet Union, formerly the world's fourth largest lake in area, is disappearing. Between 1960 and 1987, its level dropped nearly 13 meters, and its area decreased by 40 percent. Recession has resulted from reduced inflow caused primarily by withdrawals of water for irrigation. Severe environmental problems have resulted. The sea could dry to a residual

  17. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  18. Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

  19. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  20. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  1. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  2. The Investigation and Cultivation of Vaccinium Species in the Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Paal

    1993-01-01

    This paper catalogues work in the Soviet Union on selection and breeding of various Vaccinium species and on the attempts underway to develop commercial industries for the highbush blueberry, bog whortlebeny, European and American cranberries, lingonberry, and other wild Vaccinium species.

  3. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    This supplement updates the 1985 "Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers," a guide to literature for middle and high school teachers. Each entry includes author, title, pages, a physical description, identifying numbers, imprint, price, and a brief evaluative summary. Section 1, "Reference Books," contains six items of a…

  4. Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Khain; Yu. K. Burlin

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted

  5. A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VITALY I. KHALTURIN; TATYANA G. RAUTIAN; PAUL G. RICHARDS; WILLIAM S. LEITH

    2005-01-01

    The Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used by the Soviet Union for many different types of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear effects tests. Taking our information principally from numerous books and papers in Russian published from 1988 to 2003, we describe the test site history and facilities, the early underwater tests, the many atmospheric tests from 1957 to 1962, and

  6. POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

  7. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  8. Understanding Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union through History and Literature, 50 Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Donald, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book provides 50 learning activities with background materials for teaching about tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet Union. Use of literature, history, geography, primary sources, various learning strategies are all included. The lessons provide study of 19th and 20th century events to Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika.…

  9. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  10. Nuclear accidents in the former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The accidents occurred over the geographic area around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Urals between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over half a million people. The first accident occurred in 1949-1951, the second on 29 September 1957, and the third in 1967, and involved the air transfer

  11. Recent trends of the population in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1990-10-01

    The author, who attended a UN seminar held in the USSR, reports on the recent trends of population dynamics in the host country, the 3rd most populous nation in the world. In 1989, the USSR's population was 286.72 million, up from 262.44 million in 1979. 51.4% of the population lives in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, an intriguing fact considering that there are a total of 15 republics in the USSR. Moreover, 3 republics (Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia) account for 73.2% of the country's total population. The author questions reports that the Ukraine is seeking independence, noting the similarity in ethnicity and language between the Ukrainians and Russians. However, the author acknowledges cultural differences between Russia and the Baltic republics (latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia). Differences also exist between republics concerning fertility rates. While Russia, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states have a total fertility of 2.1 (net replacement fertility), minority republics in the southern region have dramatically higher fertility rates: 5.5 for Tajik, 4.7 for Uzbek and Turkemia, and 4.1 in Kyrgyz. Another significant fact of the USSR's population dynamics is its stagnant, or even retarded, life expectancy. Between 1960-70, life expectancy was 64.4 for men and 73.4 for women. Between 1979-80, these figures dropped to 62.2 and 72.5, respectively. They somewhat recovered during 1985-86, increasing to 64.2 for men and 73.3 for women. Throughout the USSR, but especially in Russia, there is a wide disparity in the life expectancy between men and women (as high as 11.5 years in Russia from (1979-80). In his visit, the author found that Soviet demographers and statisticians spoke candidly and openly, reflecting the changes brought about by perestroika and glasnost. PMID:12316754

  12. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  13. Health Service Utilization in the Former Soviet Union: Evidence from Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin; Pomerleau, Joceline; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the countries that emerged from the Soviet Union have experienced major changes in the inherited Soviet model of health care, which was centrally planned and provided universal, free access to basic care. The underlying principle of universality remains, but coexists with new funding and delivery systems and growing out-of-pocket payments. Objective To examine patterns and determinants of health care utilization, the extent of payment for health care, and the settings in which care is obtained in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Methods Data were derived from cross-sectional surveys, representative of adults aged 18 and over in each country, conducted in 2001. Multistage random sample of 18,428 individuals, stratified by region and area, was obtained. Instrument contained extensive data on demographic, economic, and social characteristics, administered face-to-face. The analysis explored the health seeking behavior of users and nonusers (those reporting an episode of illness but not consulting). Results In the preceding year, over half of all respondents visited a medical professional, ranging from 65.7 percent in Belarus to 24.4 percent in Georgia, mostly at local primary care facilities. Of those reporting an illness, 20.7 percent of all did not consult although they felt they should have done so, varying from 9.4 percent in Belarus to 42.4 percent in Armenia and 49 percent in Georgia. The main reason for not seeking care was lack of money to pay for treatment (45.2 percent), self-treatment with home-produced remedies (32.9 percent), and purchase of nonprescribed medicine (21.8 percent). There are marked differences between countries; unaffordability was a particularly common factor in Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova (78 percent, 70 percent, 54 percent), and much lower in Belarus and Russia. In Georgia and Armenia, 65 percent and 56 percent of those who had consulted paid out-of-pocket, in the form of money, gifts, or both; these figures were 8 percent and 19 percent in Belarus and Russia respectively and 31.2 percent overall. The probability of not consulting a health professional when seriously ill was significantly higher among those over age 65, and with lower education. Use of health care was markedly lower among those with fewer household assets or a shortage of money, and those dissatisfied with their material resources, factors that explained some of the effects of age. A lack of social support (formal and informal) decreases further the probability of not consulting, adding to the consequences of poor financial status. The probability of seeking care for common conditions varies widely among countries (persistent fever: 56 percent in Belarus; 16 percent in Armenia) and home remedies, alcohol, and direct purchase of pharmaceuticals are commonly used. Informal coping strategies, such as use of connections (36.7 percent) or offering money to health professionals (28.5 percent) are seen as acceptable. Conclusions This article provides the first comparative assessment of inequalities in access to health care in multiple countries of the former Soviet Union, using rigorous methodology. The emerging model across the region is extremely diverse. Some countries (Belarus, Russia) have managed to maintain access for most people, while in others the situation is near collapse (Armenia, Georgia). Access is most problematic in health systems characterized by high levels of payment for care and a breakdown of gate-keeping, although these are seen in countries facing major problems such as economic collapse and, in some, a legacy of civil war. There are substantial inequalities within each country and even where access remains adequate there are concerns about its sustainability. PMID:15544638

  14. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I., E-mail: orion@orion-ir.ru [RD and P Center Orion State Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  15. Four Goals of School Reform in the Soviet Union, 1984-1989: A Bumpy Journey for "Perestroika".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joan B.

    Examined is the progress of four major goals of school reform in the Soviet Union as an integral part of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's call for a monumental restructuring (perestroika) of society. With the adoption of Fundamental Directions of General Education and Vocational School Reform (1984), four important goals were set in motion;…

  16. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  17. The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the Former Soviet Union, Cuba and China

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, this website offers digitized images of both famous and obscure political propaganda posters. The ninety-nine posters are presented on three pages, one each for the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Even users with high-bandwidth connections should be patient when accessing these pages, since thumbnails for all thirty-some images load at once. A general introduction heads each page, and artist, title and date are listed for the posters. Each thumbnail links to a larger image of the poster, along with publication and production information and a descriptive caption. Separate pages provide information on the collections and the designers of the posters. Date coverage varies: 1919 to 1938 for the Soviet Union, 1962 to 1968 for Cuba, and c.1950 to 1992 for China. Once ubiquitous, now rarely seen, these posters have found new life on the Web.

  18. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  19. Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.D.

    1992-06-05

    Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

  20. Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

    1990-05-01

    The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

  1. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  2. Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

  3. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  4. Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

  5. Current situation and control strategies for resurgence of diphtheria in newly independent states of the former Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. B. Hardy; R. W. Sutter; S. Dittmann

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990, an epidemic of diphtheria has spread throughout the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and by 1995 a total of 47 808 cases were reported. During the early stages of the epidemic, adequate control measures were not taken and vaccine was in short supply; possible contributing factors to the spread of the epidemic are the presence

  6. Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired in the Soviet Union. Report from a Study Tour to Moscow in 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullberg, Kjell; Lindstrom, Jan-Ingvar

    The document reports on a 10-day tour to study rehabilitation facilities for the visually handicapped in the Soviet Union. Briefly described are the programs of the following institutions that were visited: Helmholtz Institute of Opthalmology, Specialized School Number 5 for Partially Sighted Children, Scientific Research Institute of Defectology,…

  7. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

  8. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  9. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

  10. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  11. Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

  12. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  13. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bhattacharyya; A. Rodgers; J. Swenson; C. Schultz; W. Walter; W. Mooney; G. Clitheroe

    2000-01-01

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing (â15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to â 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at

  14. Self-selection and earnings assimilation: Immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinon. Cohen; Yitchak. Haberfeld

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings\\u000a assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968–2000. Because\\u000a the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled\\u000a to

  15. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Gotsadze; Ivdity Chikovani; Ketevan Goguadze; Dina Balabanova; Martin McKee

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. METHODS: A review of literature was

  16. Informal payments for health care in the Former Soviet Union: some evidence from Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Ensor, T; Savelyeva, L

    1998-03-01

    An important feature of the health care system of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Central and Eastern Europe is the presence of informal or under-the-table payments. It is generally accepted that these represent a significant contribution to the income of medical staff. Discussions with medical practitioners suggest that for certain specialities in certain hospitals a doctor might obtain many times his official income. Yet little empirical work has been done in this area. Informal payments can be divided into those paid to health care providers and those that go directly to practitioners. They can be further divided into monetary and non-monetary. The complexity of these payments make obtaining estimates using quantitative survey techniques difficult. Estimates on contributions to the costs of medicines in Kazakstan suggest that they may add 30% to national health care expenditure. Payments to staff are likely to add substantially to this figure, although few reliable statistics exist. Research in this area is important since informal payment is likely to impact on equity in access to medical care and the efficiency of provision. The impact of attempts to reform systems using Western ideas could be reduced unless account is taken of the effect and size of the informal payment system. PMID:10178184

  17. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  18. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  19. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Paj?k, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ?5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  20. Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)] [and others] [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); and others

    1995-03-01

    To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU. PMID:23849241

  2. Overview of holography in Russia and other FSU (former Soviet Union) states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya

    2005-04-01

    Recently we have had our Class reunion (Physics Department of the renown St. Petersburg University, Russia). Amidst all the warm greetings, embraces, and gasps of surprise at the view of receding hair, bulging waistlines and other signs of relentlessly encroaching middle age we swapped the tales and had come to a rather unsurprising conclusion: if you are still in science, it means you are working abroad, if you are still in Russia, it means you are not in science. Indeed, in the wake of rapid changes that swept over the former Soviet Union following its disintegration in 1991 millions of people who formerly had positions in the vast scientific and technical establishment have found themselves adrift without any conceivable means of support. Many have been forced to abandon science for good and to seek opportunities in the burgeoning private sector and quite a few have achieved spectacular successes in their new business endeavors. Their names are well known and their future appears to be bright. This article though is not about them. It is about those stubborn individuals who despite overwhelming odds have kept their faith and commitment to science, who went on and persevered. It is a tribute to those who remained fully engaged in research and upheld the traditions of Russian school, who have faced and overcome all the innumerable obstacles such as delays in salary payment, aging physical plant, accident-prone electrical, water and heating systems, dearth of funding, etc. It now seems, that thanks to the selfless effort of these remarkable individuals Russian science is finally turning the corner and that things are indeed getting better. This article is homage to all the scientists in the FSU whose inquisitive minds and boundless thirst for knowledge have preserved and strengthened the glorious traditions of Russian science through all these years of troubles.

  3. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abbott, D.T. [Kaiser Engineering, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

  4. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    PubMed

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

  5. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. Declinación Rápida de las Poblaciones de Mamíferos Mayores después del Colapso de la Unión Soviética. PMID:25581070

  6. Educational Reform in the Soviet Union: Implications for Developing Countries. Staff Working Paper No. 288.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Irene; Benson, Charles

    Examination of the history and present structure of Soviet education reveals a number of potential lessons for educational planners in developing countries, according to the authors. This report traces the course of Soviet educational reforms from the 1910s to the 1970s in four areas: general (elementary and some secondary) education, vocational…

  7. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

  8. Analytic Reports Produced by the Directorate of Intelligence on the Former Soviet Union Declassified and Released for a March 2001 Conference at Princeton University

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a sizable cross-section of the "Directorate of Intelligence's analyses of the Soviet Union's political, military, scientific, and economic structures during the period of the Cold War, 1947-1991." Unfortunately, these are accessible only via an unwieldy process involving two browser windows and a sometimes recalcitrant search engine. Instructions are provided at the first site listed. In test searches we had the most success entering either the document number or the title in the keyword search box. Users may also use a form to search by title, abstract, date created or released, and document number, but we had much less success with all of these options. The documents are presented as digitized page images.

  9. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  10. [Psychological consequences of deportation into the Soviet Union on the base of self-reports by Sybiracs].

    PubMed

    Jackowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to find answers to the following questions: 1. What were the sources of the personal distress that the deportees to the Soviet Union experienced during the 5 years living in exile? 2. What psychological consequences of deportation did Sybiracs report? 3. Was a gender variable associated with intensity of post-traumatic symptoms? A total of 100 people born in 1928-34, who had been deported into the Soviet Union during the World War II were assessed with a semi-structured interview, PTSD Inventory and GDS (by Yesavage). The study pointed out that 65% participants felt symptoms following the exposure to traumatic stressors. They were: anxiety, increased arousal, low self-esteem, depression and others. The Siberian experience limited a possibility to get a higher level of education and more attractive job. It also modified the manner in which the marital and parental roles were fulfilled. The rate of anxiety and depressive symptoms was significantly higher in women in comparison with men. PMID:15771157

  11. Former Soviet Union immigrant and native-born adolescents in Israel: substance use and related problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard E; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Studies on immigration and adolescence show that youth experience a variety of emotional and cognitive adjustments as well as conflicts related to acculturation and the realities of life in their new country. Such conditions place many of them at increased risk for psychosocial problems including personal stress, interpersonal conflicts, mental illness, school failure, delinquency, substance use, and other risk-taking behavior. This prospective study compares the patterns of substance use and problem behaviors among 365 at-risk adolescents born in Israel and those who immigrated to that country from the Former Soviet Union. Findings show that Former Soviet Union youth tend to have higher levels of last 30-day alcohol and ecstasy use and binge drinking. Multiple regression shows binge drinking behavior related to trading property to obtain drugs; deterioration of school achievement; selling drugs; and time spent when being absent from school and hanging around during the day. Country of origin was not found related to this behavior. Further research is needed to study substance use and related problem behavior among immigrant youth controlling for the impact of acculturation and other factors. PMID:17430820

  12. Economic Restructuring and Company Unionism the Japanese Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Deutschmann

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses problems of union involvement in the management of industrial restructuring using the example of Japanese enterprise unions. 'Economic restructuring' implies processes of technical and organizational change at firm level as well as shifts in the sectoral structure of the economy. The aim of the paper is to analyse how far Japanese unions participated in these two types

  13. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  14. CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

  15. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  16. The Approach of Immigrant Families from the Former Soviet Union towards Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Investigated how Soviet immigrant families in Israel perceive situations of child maltreatment. Found that families indicated that parents' behavior was unacceptable in cases of neglect or abuse; even when child behavior was unacceptable that parents' behavior was not legitimate. There was a low level of willingness to involve people from outside…

  17. Danish Referendum on Economic and Monetary Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Published in October 2000, this document from the United Kingdom's House of Commons provides the details of the Danish referendum in which the country voted against joining Europe's common currency. The paper focuses on the country's 1992 arrangement not to proceed with the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) until it had been approved by a national referendum, and includes attention to the political campaigns for and against the referendum, public opinion, and the implications of this vote. Just 24 pages in length, this research paper gives an excellent, easy-to-understand overview of the reasons why Denmark's citizens decided to vote against joining the EMU. For more information on the Danish rejection of the Euro, see the September 29, 2000 Scout Report.

  18. Evaluation of Child Achievement in Four Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union: A Look at Literacy, Numeracy, and Creativity in Alternative and Traditional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Joanne P.; Dickinson, David K.; Hirschler, Julie A.; Cross, Theodore

    In order to better understand the role of child-centered learning strategies in creating democratic, collaborative behaviors for states of the former Soviet Union, this study evaluated the impact of Step by Step, an early childhood development program in Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, and Ukraine. The study compared educational performance and…

  19. REPORT ON THE INTER-REGIONAL STUDY TOUR ON MANPOWER ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING IN THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, 8 SEPTEMBER - 5 OCTOBER 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    A MONTH-LONG STUDY TOUR PROVIDED 23 OFFICIALS OF 17 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH AN OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY THE COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND UTILIZATION EMPLOYED IN THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) AND TO EXAMINE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH, WITH SUITABLE ADAPTATION, MIGHT HAVE APPLICABILITY TO SIMILAR PROBLEMS…

  20. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Gaston; T. P. Kolchugina

    1995-01-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330

  1. Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

  2. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  3. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  4. The Economics of the Trade Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison L. Booth

    1995-01-01

    This book analyses the crucial features of unionised labour markets. The models in the book refer to labour contracts between unions and management, but the method of analysis is also applicable to non-union labour markets where workers have some market power. In this book, Alison Booth, a researcher in the field, emphasises the connection between theoretical and empirical approaches to

  5. The Drought and Excessive Moisture Indices in a Historical Perspective in the Principal Grain-Producing Regions of the Former Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Meshcherskaya; V. G. Blazhevich

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with catalogs (two listing by years) of droughts and conditions of excessive moisture in May-July in the basic cereals-producing area of the former Soviet Union (FSU) for 1891-1995. To calculate catalogs, data on precipitation averaged over the area of administrative regions and temperature at meteorological stations were used.The problem of the inhomogeneity of precipitation series at stations

  6. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Wetch; Edward J. Britt; J. Kent Koester; N. Gunther; N. N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Yuri V. Nikolaev; Vladimir Nikitin

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power

  7. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  8. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1993-05-01

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

  9. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Koester, J.K.; Gunther, N. [Space Power, Inc. 621 River Oaks Parkway San Jose, California95134 (United States); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nikolaev, Y.V.; Nikitin, V. [J. V. INERTEK 123182 Moscow, Kurchatov Square (Russia)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author{close_quote}s approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses clarify the origin of the HIV-1 subtype A variant circulating in former Soviet Union's countries.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Cabello, Marina; Thomson, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype A variant dominating the HIV-1 epidemics in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries (AFSU) represents one of the major clades of the HIV-1 pandemic. This variant was reported to have begun spreading among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Ukrainian city of Odessa in late 1994. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed on the ancestral origin of the AFSU variant, locating it either in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) or in the Republic of Guinea (RG). The studies supporting these hypotheses employed phylogenetic analyses to identify HIV-1 sequences collected outside FSU countries ancestrally related to AFSU. A different approach, based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and coalescent-based population genetics, has been employed here to elucidate the ancestry of this HIV-1 variant and to improve our knowledge on its spread in FSU countries. The analyses were carried out using env (C2-V3-C3) and p24(gag) fragments of the HIV-1 genome. The inferred migration for the HIV-1 AFSU variant revealed only one significantly supported migration pathway from Africa to Eastern Europe, supporting the hypothesis of its origin in the DRC and estimating the upper limit of the migration of the ancestral virus from Africa around 1970. The support for an origin in the RG was negligible. The results supported the main role of Odessa as the epicenter of the AFSU epidemic, dating the tMRCA of the AFSU variant around 1984, ten years before its explosive expansion among IDUs. The estimated origin of the AFSU subcluster responsible for the IDU outbreak was also located in Odessa, with the estimated tMRCA around 1993. Statistically supported migration routes from Odessa to other cities of Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Belarus were also inferred by the Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. These results shed new light on the origin and spread of the HIV-1 AFSU variant. PMID:25952568

  11. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Wuhib, Tadesse; Chorba, Terence L; Davidiants, Vladimir; Mac Kenzie, William R; McNabb, Scott JN

    2002-01-01

    Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS) of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS) is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis) and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis). The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility. PMID:11914147

  12. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  13. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-07-14

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

  14. Problems Facing Educational Planners in the Soviet Union Today. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamin, V. A.

    This paper discusses two current problems of concern to educational planners in the U.S.S.R. and describes the approaches being taken to address them. One major objective of Soviet educational planners is to greatly expand the percentage of students receiving a complete secondary education. This will require considerable expansion and…

  15. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the Soviet Union and Finland: Some Aspects of International Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keijo Korhonen

    1973-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the Finnish-Soviet FCA-Treaty was celebrated with solemn ceremonies in April, 1973. Referring to the fact that this treaty has been misunderstood frequently in international discussions and, more recently, also in Finnish domestic debate, the author makes an effort to analyze the role the treaty plays in International politics. He notes that the first two articles of

  17. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. PMID:25315487

  18. Differentiating the culturally-based help-seeking patterns of immigrant parents from the former Soviet Union by comparison with parents in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron

    2007-04-01

    Whom do immigrant parents turn to when their children encounter problems? To begin to answer this question, the help-seeking patterns of 100 immigrant parents from the Former Soviet Union were compared with 100 parents in Russia, with the goal to differentiate patterns that were more likely to be culturally based from those reflective of the new social context of this immigrant population in Israel. Similarities were found in the level of willingness and rationale for reluctance to seek help from formal sources. Differences were found in the level of willingness to seek help from informal resources and in the nature of the problems justifying help-seeking. Such knowledge can inform efforts to reduce barriers that immigrant parents confront in situations in which their children could benefit from help, but they do not seek it. PMID:17535119

  19. Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, C.D.

    1993-12-31

    The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

  20. Economic Interests and the European Union: A Catalyst for European Integration or a Hindrance? 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.; Sadeh, T.

    The influence of economic interest groups on national policy-making on European Union-level policy and European integration seems to be case specific and circumstantial. Certain economic interests (for example, pension ...

  1. “Kitchen Gardens” in Tajikistan: The Economic and Cultural Importance of Small-Scale Private Property in a Post-Soviet Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Campbell Rowe

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest days of the Soviet Union, the people of Tajikistan were allowed to have small “kitchen gardens” attached\\u000a to their homes or in the vicinity of their apartments in which they could augment their diets with fresh food and also keep\\u000a a milk cow and perhaps chickens. Over time however, families began to produce far more than they

  2. Economic implications for Turkey of a Customs Union with the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn W. Harrison; Thomas F. Rutherford; David G. Tarr

    1997-01-01

    With a CGE model, we quantify the impact of the Customs Union between Turkey and the European Union (EU). Since the average tariff on non-agricultural imports will be less than 2 percent, the trade diversion costs of the Customs Union are quite small. Improved access to third country markets (through reciprocal preferential access agreements of the EU) results in the

  3. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet

  4. The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pellechi

    1993-01-01

    A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear

  5. The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965

    E-print Network

    Smith, Jenny Leigh

    2006-01-01

    "The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside ...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants. PMID:22752661

  7. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  8. Contrasts in China and Soviet reform: Sub?national and national causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyi Harry Lai

    2005-01-01

    Why did reform in China and the former Soviet Union produce drastically different outcomes? Why did some provinces in China embrace faster economic reform than others? This article argues that the state sector and reform initiatives in the sub?national units, reform strategies, entrenchment and maturation of central planning, the size of the defence industry, policy choice and the historical context

  9. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the African-Caribbean-

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the African-Caribbean- Pacific ............................................................................................................................ 33 #12;4 LIST OF ACRONYMS ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific [countries] AEC African Economic negotiating Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with countries in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP

  11. Soviet policy toward the two Koreas, 1985–1991: The new political thinking and power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ho Joo

    1995-01-01

    This research explores the evolution of the Soviet Union’s Korea policy between 1985 and 1991, focusing on the correlation\\u000a between Gorbachev’s shifting power position within the Soviet leadership and the development of the Soviet Union’s new policy\\u000a toward the two Koreas. Soviet leaders utilized policy issues (foreign and domestic) to mobilize support in their internal\\u000a power struggle. Conversely, they needed

  12. Soviet coal mining shows progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khudin; Yu. L

    1980-01-01

    With over half of the world's known coal reserves, the Soviet Union is one of the world's most important coal producers. Coal production has been on an upswing for the last 10 years; production in 1970 was 615,300,000 tons, 1975 production was 694,600,000 tons, and in 1979, 712,900,000 tons were mined. A primary consideration in the future of the Soviet

  13. Does Inclusion of Education and Marital Status Improve SCORE Performance in Central and Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union? Findings from MONICA and HAPIEE Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Paj?k, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Skodova, Zdena; Simonova, Galina; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data). The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data). Results In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ?5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ?1% in women). Conclusion Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. PMID:24714549

  14. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Social attitudes, labor law, and union organizing: Toward a new economics of union density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas I. Palley; Robert M. LaJeunesse

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon (Freeman, R.B., 1998. Spurts in union growth: defining moments and social processes. In: Bordo, M., Goldin, C., White, E. (Eds.), The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the 20th Century. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago)

  16. The Linguistic and Economic Adjustment of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in the United States, 2000: A Preliminary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry R. Chiswick; Michael Wenz

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and

  17. Soviet debates on the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Shenfield, S.

    1987-01-01

    Looking at how the Soviet Union views nuclear war and peace and how Soviet views on these critical questions differ from those in the West, this book examines how the academic debate on the nuclear threat and peace relates to Soviet perspectives on arms control. The author penetrates the surface of political unanimity to reveal major differences between traditional hard-liners and a growing group of specialists and politicians who see peace as an absolute value.

  18. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  19. USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

  20. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  1. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  2. Soviet Military Awards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After the fall of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1991, thousands of items of Cold War paraphernalia found ready markets across the world, including the United States. High school and college students were now able to purchase the heavy wool jackets of Soviet and East German troops, and military buffs were able to acquire a number of patches, medals, and other items. The medals were often highly prized, and whether people understood the iconography and symbolism or not, they sought them out just the same. Fortunately for those interested in the wide world of Soviet military awards, there is this fine site which offers photographs and information about the various medals and their respective honors. With over 50 medals on the site, visitors can learn about the Order of October Revolution, the Pilot-Cosmonaut of USSR, and the rather curious Medal for Development of Virgin Lands, which commemorates the "young soviets" who relocated to Siberia, the Volga region, and northern Caucasus. For those whose interest is piqued by this material, there is also a newsletter that visitors can look through online.

  3. Italian Communism and Soviet Terror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Drake

    2004-01-01

    The declassification of materials from the Russian archives has provided a good deal of new evidence about the relationship between the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Soviet Union both before and after World War II. Two newly published collections of documents leave no doubt that, contrary to arguments made by supporters of the PCI, the Italian party was in

  4. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  5. Soviet launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    The five classes of Soviet launch vehicles used to blast 1437 satellites into space up to January 1982 are described. The rockets are noted to have been mainly derived from military missile configurations. Specifications are provided, including stages, length, specific impulse, propellants, weight, and payload for each rocket in the A through F classification as covered by Sheldon. The launches took place at Tiouratam, Plesetsk, and Kapoustin Yar space centers. The Series D, the most powerful of the Soviet launch systems, were the only rockets not derived from military missiles.

  6. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector. PMID:21752236

  7. Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and mountainous zones. Supportive material will include maps of watershed boundaries and location of observational sites. Text descriptions of the data, measuring techniques and hydrometeorological conditions related to each of the water-balance station will accompany the datasets. The database is supposed to be expanded with time in number of the stations (by 20) and available data series for each of them. It will be uploaded to the internet with open access to everyone interested in. Such a database allows one to test hydrological models and separate modules for their adequacy and workability in different conditions and can serve as a base for models comparison and evaluation. Special profit of the database will gain models that don't rely on calibration but on the adequate process representation and use of the observable parameters. One of such models, process-based Hydrograph model, will be tested against the data from every watershed from the developed database. The aim of the Hydrograph model application to the as many as possible number of research data-rich watersheds in different climatic zones is both amending the algorithms and creation and adjustment of the model parameters that allow using the model across the geographic spectrum.

  8. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Antoñanzas; R. Rodríguez-Ibeas; M. F. Hutter; R. Lorente; C. Juárez; M. Pinillos

    Objective  We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed\\u000a by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim\\u000a of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool

  9. Key to Juniperus of Central Asia (from Turkmenistan/Iran through the former Soviet rev. 2/2011 Union, Pakistan and the Western Himalayas, including Nepal)

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Key to Juniperus of Central Asia (from Turkmenistan/Iran through the former Soviet rev. 2 at the base), in whorls of 3, cones borne axillary (section Juniperus) seed cones 6-15 mm, blue to bluish).........................................J. communis 1b. Leaves decurrent (not subulate, not jointed at the base), both scale-like and whip (decurrent

  10. Economic Convergence between Macedonia and European Monetary Union Member States. The Five Maastricht Criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bardhyl Dauti; Herzog Bodo

    2008-01-01

    The euro was introduced on January 1, 1999. As of now, 16 European Union Member States have adopted the euro in line with the requirements of the Treaty, the most recent ones being Cyprus and Malta on January 1, 2008 and Slovakia on January 1, 2009. This implies that 11 Member States are at present not full participants in Economic

  11. Liberalization, regional economic development and the geography of demand for air transport in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Graham

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the liberalization of the airline industry in the European Union (EU) from the perspective that transport can be properly analysed only in the context of its wider political and socio-economic milieu. The central interest lies with the internal geography of demand for scheduled air transport within the EU. It is argued that significant tensions exist

  12. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  13. Soviet scientists speak out

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear

  14. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet

  15. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  16. Composite narrative, authoritarian discourse, and the Soviet response to the destruction of Iran air flight 655

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim A. Kuypers; Marilyn J. Young; Michael K. Launer

    2001-01-01

    The response of the Soviet Union to the American destruction of Iran Air 655 in 1988 represents a break in the mutual cycle of superpower condemnation that occurred throughout the Cold War and most of the Reagan presidency. This essay concerns the Soviet response: first, we examine the manner in which Soviet print media disputed U.S. media comparisons with the

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  18. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. The "New Russian Literature" and Soviet Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekic, Maria

    It is widely believed that poetry in the Soviet Union has lost its place to newspapers and periodicals that have robbed literature of its readers. Prior to glasnost, non-official literature in the Soviet Union was more than a literary event; it was often the only mode of political discourse available to the literate public. This paper suggests…

  20. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  1. Soviet coal mining shows progress

    SciTech Connect

    Khudin, Yu.L.

    1980-11-01

    With over half of the world's known coal reserves, the Soviet Union is one of the world's most important coal producers. Coal production has been on an upswing for the last 10 years; production in 1970 was 615,300,000 tons, 1975 production was 694,600,000 tons, and in 1979, 712,900,000 tons were mined. A primary consideration in the future of the Soviet coal industry is better production rates for the surface mines in the eastern regions of the country where the development of gasification, liquefaction, and electricity generating complexes is planned. Surface mining output has increased by 57 percent over the last 10 years with an average increase in production for each new open pit mine amounting to 4,000,000 tons. Conditions in the underground mines of the Soviet Union vary greatly. Panel mining accounts for 77 percent of coal production longwall mining accounts for 11 percent, and inclined slicing accounts for 6 percent. The following trends for improvement in development work are foreseen: (1) increased percentage of heading machine operations; (2) increased number of workings driven by drill and blast methods using drilling and loading machines; and (3) the use of supports, belt conveyors, and monorails in conjunction with the above mentioned methods. Further advances in underground transportation involve the following areas: new designs for underground transport systems, conveyor transportation away from the face, and improvements in locomotive transportation. Labor productivity in open pit mines is now 800 to 1000 tons per man per month and, in the future, developments in mining technology will raise this figure up to 2500 or 3000 tons per man per month. Increased production for surface mines is planned, particularly with the development of the mining and power complexes now under construction in the Ekibastuz and Kansk-Achinsk regions.

  2. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  3. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  4. A Teacher's Impressions of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1987-01-01

    Reports the impressions of an 11th-grade world cultures teacher who visited European Russia and Uzbekistan in August, 1985. Ten major impressions are detailed, among them are (1) the poverty, (2) the sloppiness, (3) the pervasive presence of Lenin, and (4) the cultural importance of the Babushka, the Russian word for grandmother. (JDH)

  5. Marine environmental protection in the Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A survey covers the work of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Joint Project on the Prevention and Cleanup of Pollution of the Marine Environment from Shipping, which is directly related to the equipment, regulations, and organization necessary to prevent the operational discharge from shipping of oil, petroleum products, and chemicals into navigable waters, and the cleanup and minimizing of damage to the marine

  6. "Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

  7. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  8. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Ahrens

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building

  9. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Ahrens

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building

  10. Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States

    E-print Network

    Blandford, Ann

    Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States Was Russia Able to Discard its Imperial Legacy? An examination into the nature of Russia's economic,military anddiplomatic policies towards the former Soviet statesduring Boris Yeltsin's first term as Presidentof an independentRussia

  11. Soviet attitudes toward regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

  12. The Economic Marginalization of Post-Soviet Russia's Elderly Population and the Failure of State Ageing Policy: A Case Study of Magadan City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Round

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how senior citizens in the far north-eastern Russian city of Magadan have restructured their lives in order to ensure their survival in the face of enduring post-Soviet marginalization. While this is an extreme example of the problems Russia's senior citizens must now face, due to the city's remoteness, climate and high cost of living, the discussions have

  13. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  14. The Immediate Tasks of Soviet Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Starovskii

    1968-01-01

    The tasks of Soviet statistics were defined by the historic decisions of our party's 23rd Congress, the October 1964, March and September 1965, and May 1966 plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which faced economic, planning, and administrative organizations with new and more complicated tasks: those of improving the methods of managing the economy, and of the scientific

  15. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan as Post-Soviet Rentier States: Resource Incomes and Autocracy as a Double ‘Curse’in Post-Soviet Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Franke; Andrea Gawrich; Gurban Alakbarov

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of two post-Soviet states, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, which can be identified as post-Soviet rentier states. Both countries are characterised economically by enormous national resources of gas and oil and low economic diversification as well as politically by strong autocratic presidentialism with neopatrimonial structures. These two factors, combined with further post-Soviet legacies such as a low

  17. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H. [E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (United States); Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  19. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. I. Long-range Weather Forecasts for 1941-42 and Climatological Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

    1987-06-01

    A brief account is given of Baur's long-range weather forecast prepared in the autumn of 1941 for the 1941-42 winter in Eastern Europe. Baur's forecast called for a normal' or mild winter but the winter turned out to be one of the most severe winters on record. The cold, the icy winds and blizzards gravely hit the German armies and coincided with the first major Soviet counteroffensive of the war. A Soviet weather forecast for January 1942, also called for a mild month.A review of the climatological studies prepared for the war indicates that the occurrence of mud periods of considerable intensity in autumn was not considered. The autumn 1941 mud period immobilized most of the German armies for a month and caused the attempted final German assault on Moscow to take place in an early and severe winter.Hitter would not tolerate the mention of winter and still less the mention of the retreat of Napoleon's Grande Armée from Russia.The support given by Soviet meteorologists and hydrologists to the Red Army is sketched. For the 1941-42 winter the more-important short- to medium-range forecasts included a forecast for 7 November (anniversary of the October Revolution) at Moscow and a forecast for the start of Zhukov's counteroffensive in the Battle of Moscow in December 1941.

  20. An economic assessment of the Common Market Organization for bananas in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Guyomard; Catherine Laroche; Chantal Le Mouël

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide some estimates of how the world banana market has been affected by the Common Market Organization (CMO) for bananas established in the European Union (EU) on 1 July 1993, and modified in April 1994. We quantify the effects of the new EU regulation on world and EU prices, on the structure

  1. Council of U.S. Academy of Sciences Expresses Concern to Soviet Counterparts over Sakharov Harrassment.

    PubMed

    1973-09-21

    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) president Philip Handler has made public a cable to his opposite number in the Soviet Union expressing the "deep concern" of the NAS Council for the welfare of dissenting Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov and warning that, if further measures were taken against Sakharov, "it would be extremely difficult to imagine successful fulfillment of American pledges of binational scientific cooperation . . . ." Handler's message is the strongest public expression to date of NAS concern over treatment of Soviet scientists and other intellectuals (Science, 6 April). The cable, addressed to M. V. Keldysh, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, is given in full below. PMID:17744285

  2. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    PubMed

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some extent even now, also of Stalin), just as most current Soviet psychological experimentation in psychology proper is primarily a duplication of what Soviet psychophysiology could do as well, if not better. Moreover, there is the longstanding drastic ban on intelligence testing, psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, and other to-be-shunned "bourgeois-psychological" thought-and-practice systems, so that, in all, psychology proper is a much constricted and, per se, more ancilliary than basic discipline of Soviet empirical research-a state of affairs plainly reflected in the fact that the number of its research institutes and publications (as well as the number of psychologists proper) is but a small fraction of the number in psychophysiology. Yet, in evaluating our efforts in the area vis-à-vis those of the Soviets, we must, obviously, take full account of both disciplines, Soviet psychophysiology being in all respects a psychology in American terms (60). Indeed, it is Soviet psychophysiology, and not Soviet psychology proper, that is the homolog not only of American behavioristics but also, to a large extent, of all American experimental psychology. PMID:13592304

  4. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  5. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Eco-to-Go in the New Student Union Building

    E-print Network

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Eco Investigation into Eco-to-Go in the New Student Union Building Fahad Almisbahi - 40297095 Joel McFaul - 60785086 an investigation into incorporating UBC's Eco-to-Go Program at the New SUB. The program is currently being used

  7. Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/Ã?stekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

  8. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  9. Essays in economics

    E-print Network

    Krajnyák, Kornélia

    2002-01-01

    In Chapter 1, we estimate equilibrium dollar wages for 15 transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union. Equilibrium dollar wages are interpreted as full employment wages consistent ...

  10. Breast-Feeding Practices of Former Soviet Women in Their Homelands and After Immigration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Houghton; R. B. Knapp

    1997-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME:To identify five practices regarding breast-feeding before and after immigration of former Soviet women.A trend from breast-feeding to commercial infant formula has been described for most immigrant groups studied. However, since the breakup of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), immigrants from the newly independent republics are arriving in the United States (US) and there is very

  11. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities became U.S.-Russian work on the International Space Station (ISS). The interest of the Kremlin and White House in making space an "area of common interests" for the two countries, the interest of U.S. and Russian space communities in meaningful cooperation with each other, and the interdependence of the two countries within the ISS project, give hope that the U.S.-Russian cooperation will finally develop a long-term character.

  12. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  13. Esthetic Education in Soviet Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This issue of Soviet Education examines esthetic education in Soviet schools, including ways of raising the level of esthetic education, the factor of labor, research on the relationship between the atheistic and esthetic education, ways of amplifying interrelationship between theory and practice in teacher education and psychological principles…

  14. Soviet philosophy of biology today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Partashnikov

    1974-01-01

    Biology has been one of the more sensitive areas for Soviet efforts to establish the ‘scientific’ character of dialectical materialism. Since Lysenko there has been indubitable progress. Dialectification of science has come to the fore as a major question, and much of the activity has been in the line of discussing genetics and dialectics. On the other hand, the Soviets

  15. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  16. Olympic Culture in Soviet Uzbekistan

    E-print Network

    emotional support: identification · Education in health, hygiene, diet: self-responsibility · Physical 1952 · Trained at the College of Physical Education, Tashkent & Moscow · `Soviet Honour Master of Sport. Aims of Soviet Olympic Culture 1951-91 Building a physical sports culture Prestige 2. Civic

  17. The New Scientific-Methodological Concept of the Soviet School Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksakovsky, Vladimir

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the new Soviet geography curriculum comprised of: Introduction to Physical Geography; Geography of the Continents and Oceans; Geography of the USSR; Geography of the USSR II; and Economic and Social Geography of the World. Discusses the program's scientific content and describes the trends of geography instruction in Soviet classrooms.…

  18. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Power to the People: New Student Union Building Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Student Union Building Energy Harvesting Sean Sotola Becky Hau Catherine Anderson Naoki Tokuhashi of a project/report". #12;NEW SUB ENERGY HARVESTING STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The new Student Union Building implemented in the new SUB. The goal of this project was to design a multifunction energy harvesting system

  19. SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE'

    E-print Network

    250 grams or 3 kilograms. SOVIETS EXPAND INTO ANTARCTICA Announcement of the production. In February 1972, the Soviets announced the establishment of a permanent expedition to explore Jor object of the Soviet expedition. Soviet sources say two major hurdles must be overcome before krill could

  20. Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin: Soviet-Russian Foreign Relations with the United States from 1990 Through the Fall of 2008: A Strategic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry W. Simmons

    2008-01-01

    Cold War Soviet foreign policy was driven by a strategic competition. A competition-detente cycle based on the superpower rivalry between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including the Warsaw Pact dependencies, and the United States of America and its respective alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) existed for over forty-five years. Following the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and

  1. Public Education in Soviet Azerbaijan: Appraisal of an Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakov, R., Ed.; Atakishiev, A., Ed.

    A comprehensive review of the public education system in Soviet Azerbaijan, this book traces the system's development since its establishment in 1920; it examines the system's context, goals, and organization, and analyzes its achievements and their economic effects. Two sections (four chapters each) cover the periods before and since the…

  2. The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ellman

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the economics of the 1947 Soviet famine, using data from recently declassified archives. It is argued that the best estimate that can currently be given of the number of excess deaths in the range 1.0-1.5 million. The demographic loss was greater. During the famine, surplus stocks in the hands of the state seem to

  3. A Textbook on New Branches of Soviet Financial Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Orlov

    1958-01-01

    The grandiose problems of communist construction outlined by the 20th Congress of the Party, and the reorganization of industrial and construction, management carried out by the CPSU and the Soviet Government, posed new problems in economics. N. S. Khrushchev declared at the 20th Congress: \\

  4. Soviet nuclear powered satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, R. T.; Vick, C. P.

    1983-10-01

    The development of the Soviet space nuclear reactors, particularly for the Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATS) is traced. The reactors have a fission core to which thermoelectric elements are exposed. The earliest, 1964 version had only cooling fins and produced 500 kWe for up to 15,000 hr. The Topaz version on the RORSATS employs thermoionic conversion, i.e., hot- and cold-shoes, and yields 5-10 kWe. The Topaz reactor also features a positive temperature coefficient of reactivity, meaning that the hotter it becomes, the more it reacts, etc.; this implies that the reaction could become uncontrollable. RORSATS in orbit in the 1980s have a design life of 130-140 days, double that of previous versions. End of life leads to a satellite break-up and consequent boosting of the reactor to a higher orbit. Several problems have occurred in all flight phases. It is noted that usage of the satellite radar may have made the presence of submarines down to several hundred feet depth evident by the differences in surface waves.

  5. Acid In Situ Leach Uranium Mining : 2 - Soviet Block and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin M. Mudd

    The technique of In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. The history and problems of acid ISL sites

  6. “RADON”-the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Horak; A. Reisman

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized, regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of

  7. Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

    Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

  8. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  9. A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

  10. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  11. Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1986-09-16

    The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

  12. Notes on Soviet space astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Oberg

    1977-01-01

    Soviet space programs intended for making astronomical observations are reviewed. The Cosmos, Intercosmos, and Prognoz satellites designed for astronomical measurements are identified, and unmanned lunar and planetary missions are discussed, including the Luna, Lunokhod, Mars, and Venera programs. The Salyut 4 space station is described in detail along with the following major astronomical instruments: the Orbiting Solar Telescope 1, the

  13. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  14. Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

  15. 390 American Scientist, Volume 96 The former Soviet Union's launch

    E-print Network

    Wallin, David O.

    later, in November 1957, and by the first U.S. satellites, Ex- plorer 1 in January 1958 and Vanguard 1 in March 1958. Vanguard 1 remains the oldest satellite still orbiting the Earth and produced the first- servation was Vanguard 2, but technical problems meant that it collected little of the intended data

  16. Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

    1992-01-01

    Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

  17. Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

  18. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  19. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  20. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  1. Does one size fit all? Drug resistance and standard treatments: results of six tuberculosis programmes in former Soviet countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bonnet; V. Sizaire; Y. Kebede; A. Janin; D. Doshetov; B. Mirzoian; A. Arzumanian; T. Muminov; E. Iona; L. Rigouts; S. Rüsch-Gerdes; F. Varaine

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: After the collapse of the Soviet Union, coun- tries in the region faced a dramatic increase in tubercu- losis cases and the emergence of drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relevance of the DOTS strat- egy in settings with a high prevalence of drug resistance. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of one-year treatment outcomes of short-course chemotherapy (SCC) and re- sults

  2. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...adjustment. The benefits of this section shall only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the United States during the period beginning on August...

  3. A summary of activities of the US\\/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Doarn; Arnauld E. Nicogossian; Anatoly I. Grigoriev; Galina Tverskaya; Oleg I. Orlov; Eugene A. Ilyin; Kenneth A. Souza

    2010-01-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to

  4. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Sykes; G. C. Wiggins

    1986-01-01

    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m\\/sub b\\/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The

  5. Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn R. Sykes; Graham C. Wiggins

    1986-01-01

    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most

  6. The European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali M. El-Agraa

    1990-01-01

    The European Union has established itself as a leading text that provides readers from all disciplines with a sound understanding of the economics and policies of the EU. Its wealth of information, detail and analysis has ensured that previous editions have been read by a generation of students, researchers and policy makers. It covers all major EU policy areas as

  7. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history. PMID:24032234

  8. information & research skills programme European Union Resources

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    informED information & research skills programme European Union Resources © European Community and politics 4 The Budget - Financing the European Union 5 Economic and monetary policy 6 Single market. Culture 18 External Relations 19 Law EUROPA ­ Gateway to the European Union http

  9. FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS

    E-print Network

    List of FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS in the United States UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT WORKERS' UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES By Branch of Foreign Trade and Economic Services Bureau of Commercial;PREFACE This list includes fishermen ' s and fish shore wor ker s ' unions only . The list was originally

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into A Grocery Store in the New Student Union Building

    E-print Network

    into A Grocery Store in the New Student Union Building Adam Paul Morris, Brendan Morgan, Keith Robinson. CARLA PATERSON AND DR. NAOKO ELLIS An Investigation into A Grocery Store in the New Student Union;Faculty of Applied Science University of British Columbia ii ABSTRACT When the new Student Union Building

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~

    E-print Network

    -Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 497B November 01, 2013 282 1667 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Email: Phone: Conducted for: November 2013 #12;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~

    E-print Network

    -Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 397 August 26, 2014 891 1673 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Conducted for: AMS;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 3 CONTEXT

  13. Union Songs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Forgotten the words to "Joe Hill," "Look for the Union Label," or "Do Re Mi?" Look no further than this site, created and maintained by Mark Gregory, a Web Development Project Officer at Macquarie University (Australia), which features the lyrics and many audio clips of approximately 100 classic and more recent union songs. Numerous lyrics pages also link to related sites. In addition, the site offers some book and CD reviews, a Union Discography, a bibliography, and song and union links. Joe Hill ain't never died.

  14. Negotiations on National Security Risks: The Case of U.S.–Soviet Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kremenyuk

    The more sophisticated and destructive the weaponry that was introduced into the arsenals of United States of America (USA)\\u000a and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the ColdWar years, the closer both sides came—advertently or inadvertently—to\\u000a the brink of hot war. Too many arms meant too high the risk of a showdown, even one that was unwanted. Both

  15. Fact Sheets on the European Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

  16. Soviet automated rendezvous and docking system overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine M. Hinman; David M. Bushman

    1991-01-01

    The Soviets have been performing automated rendezvous and docking for many years. It has been a reliable mode of resupply and reboost. During the course of the Soviet space program, the autodocking system has evolved. The earlier IGLA system was replaced with the current KURS system. Both systems are radar-based. The variation in strength between antennas is used for computing

  17. The Impact of "Perestroika" on Soviet Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Proponents of Perestroika" and "glasnost" are tirelessly seeking to remold Soviet teaching and learning. Innovations and "corrections" are being fed by numerous articles in professional journals and by pedagogical leaders in academies and universities. Teaching in Soviet classrooms remains a teacher-centered, one-way process. Curriculum revision…

  18. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  19. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  20. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  1. National Taxpayers Union & National Taxpayers Union Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1969, both the National Taxpayers Union (NTU), along with its research arm, the National Taxpayers Union Foundation (NTUF), were designed to explore and research the various aspects of taxation, government spending, economics, and regulation. From their homepage, visitors can learn about their latest works and read about the organization's activities in the "About" section. For persons with policy interests, the "Research" section will be a place to spend some time in, as it contains commentaries, full research reports, and issue briefs. The site also has several special features, including their official blog and the NTU's own generated rankings of members of Congress. The site is rounded out by an area where visitors can sign up to receive news briefs and updates from the NTU.

  2. Soviet Management Education in a Time of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuplev, Anatolii. V.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses former Soviet management education, the organization of the state management education system, and the need for Western assistance in introducing free enterprise. Explains what former Soviet universities can offer the West and what challenges former Soviet professors face in the United States. Explores former Soviet management…

  3. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Designing a Root Cellar for the Alma Mater Society's New Student Union Building

    E-print Network

    for the Alma Mater Society's New Student Union Building Eric Jonathan Gregorius Gerry Karnadi Ida Khodyat Mater Society's New Student Union Building LFS 450 Group 11 Eric Jonathan Gregorius Gerry Karnadi Ida Khodyat Marlon Liu Vicky Wu #12;UBC Designing a Root Cellar April 8, 2011 2 Abstract The Alma Mater

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building

    E-print Network

    Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua, Jordan Smith, Kelsey Zhu University Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua Jordan Smith Kelsey Zhu IMPLEMENTATION 2.1 CAPACITY 2.2 COMPOSTABLE FOOD WASTE GENERATION 2.3 WASTE DIVERSION 2.4 ROOFTOP COMPOST

  6. Soviet Pedagogical Science: Visions and Contradictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    1984-01-01

    Paradigmatic assumptions and practices of Soviet pedagogical research are considered. How the social and philosophical commitments of dialectical materialism guide the conduct of research is discussed, and research approaches to pedagogical problems are examined. (RM)

  7. Soviet deep-space flight tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, L. I.; Grishmanovskii, V. A.; Molotov, E. P.

    The structure of the Soviet Ground Automatic Control Complex for deep-space flight tracking is described. Attention is given to the tracking network stations, the operational control group at the mission control center, the ballistic center, the communication facilities, and the spacecraft tracking stations. Also described are the basic performance characteristics of the spacecraft tracking station, the trajectory measurement system, and the programmed-command information system of the Soviet spaceflight tracking network.

  8. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  9. UNION BOARD History of the Union Board

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    _____________________________________________________________________________ UNION BOARD History of the Union Board The Louisiana Tech University Union Board was established in 1940 as the Student Union. Its, and to build campus spirit for a great Tech." Since then the Union Board has grown to be a respected

  10. Application of Interest Union Gallery Union Services

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    Application of Interest Union Gallery ­ Union Services The University of Texas at El Paso Application of Interest does not guarantee selection for the Union Gallery. Application must be completed in full including signature. Submit completed application to: Union Services | 307 Union Building East| El

  11. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  12. Waning soviet threat: Implications for detente

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Soviet military has experienced unprecedented turmoil since Gorbachev entered office in March 1985. Indeed, it is fair to say that the High Command is facing its most profound institutional crisis in the 72 years of its existence. The indicators of this change are well known to any attentive reader of the newspaper. They include a shift to a more defensive orientation in the USSR's military doctrine; an end to the Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan; Gorbachev's announced unilateral cut of a half-million Soviet troops; associated moves to scale back weapons production and shift a sizeable portion of the defense industry to the civilian sector; and a general effort across a broad front to forge a more agreeable East-West relationship.

  13. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  14. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  15. Union Mergers: 1985-94 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    With the 40th anniversary of the merger of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), unions continue to merge to face the challenges and economic uncertainties of the future. Mergers enable unions to enhance bargaining and organizing power, eliminate duplication, and increase financial resources.…

  16. Soviet-American relations in light of the Chernobyl nuclear accident 

    E-print Network

    Beck, Erick Keith

    1993-01-01

    'ves Second Session. 1 May and 7 May 1986, 9. ~ Park, 33. 22 perform bone marrow transplants on some of the worst cases, but Russian doctors played the most important role in the emergency relief effort and in the general treatment of victims... further said that the United States had a moral obligation to release what information it had; failure to do so simply caused needless worry. Nevertheless, the United States kept almost as tight a grip on information as did the Soviet Union...

  17. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  18. Xinjiang and Central Asia: Ethno-religious, political, and economic interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueyao Zhao

    1993-01-01

    The neighboring regions of Xinjiang and Central Asia, linked historically on the famous Silk Road, later developed separately as a result of the incorporation of the former into China and the latter into the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Thus, interaction between Xinjiang and Central Asia has been constrained by the nature of the Sino-Russian or Sino-Soviet relationship. However, the

  19. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  20. Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

  1. "Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

  2. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  3. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  4. Unionization and Incentives: Evidence from the Field Thomas Winberry

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Unionization and Incentives: Evidence from the Field Thomas Winberry Department of Economics of unionization on two farms in Ethiopia with different incentive schemes. Under relative incentives, where worker effort imposes a negative externality on co-workers, the average union member's productivity is 10

  5. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  6. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  7. Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics Concerning Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the primary legislation implemented to initiate perestroika reforms in the Soviet Union's educational system. Includes legislation covering the entire spectrum of public education, from preschool through elementary and secondary levels, to vocational-technical education and higher education. Addresses the rights and responsibilities of…

  8. To Transform the Revolution into an Evolution: Underlying Assumptions of German Foreign Policy toward Soviet Russia, 1919-27

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David Cameron

    2005-01-01

    During the 1920s, the German Foreign Office looked to Russia as an important diplomatic partner in its efforts to revise the Versailles settlement. The radical nature of the Bolshevik regime, however, complicated Berlin’s efforts to build a close relationship with Moscow. Ultimately, Berlin believed that Soviet Russia would evolve away from Bolshevism and that through a policy of economic engagement

  9. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  10. Macroanalysis of the economic and environmental impacts of a 2005-2025 European Union bioenergy policy using the GTAP model and life cycle assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Dandres; Caroline Gaudreault; Pablo Tirado-Seco

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool to assess the medium- and long-term economic and environmental impacts of large-scale policies. The approach–macro life cycle assessment (M-LCA)–is based on life cycle assessment methodology and includes additional elements to model economic externalities and the temporal evolution of background parameters. The general equilibrium model GTAP was therefore used to simulate the economic consequences of

  11. Soviet automated rendezvous and docking system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.; Bushman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviets have been performing automated rendezvous and docking for many years. It has been a reliable mode of resupply and reboost. During the course of the Soviet space program, the autodocking system has evolved. The earlier IGLA system was replaced with the current KURS system. Both systems are radar-based. The variation in strength between antennas is used for computing relative positions and attitudes. The active spacecraft has a transponder. From discussions with Soviet engineers, it seems the docking process can be controlled either from the ground or from the active (docking) spacecraft's onboard computer. The unmanned Progress resupply ships regularly dock with the current MIR Space Station. The Soyuz T spacecraft incorporated the IGLA system, and the later Soyuz TM and Progress M Series spacecraft incorporated the KURS. The MIR Complex has both systems installed. The rear port and the KVANT docking port have the IGLA system installed to support earlier Progress ships that use the IGLA. The first Soyuz TM docking occurred in May of 1986, while the first Progress M docked in September of 1989.

  12. Soviet automated rendezvous and docking system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.; Bushman, David M.

    The Soviets have been performing automated rendezvous and docking for many years. It has been a reliable mode of resupply and reboost. During the course of the Soviet space program, the autodocking system has evolved. The earlier IGLA system was replaced with the current KURS system. Both systems are radar-based. The variation in strength between antennas is used for computing relative positions and attitudes. The active spacecraft has a transponder. From discussions with Soviet engineers, it seems the docking process can be controlled either from the ground or from the active (docking) spacecraft's onboard computer. The unmanned Progress resupply ships regularly dock with the current MIR Space Station. The Soyuz T spacecraft incorporated the IGLA system, and the later Soyuz TM and Progress M Series spacecraft incorporated the KURS. The MIR Complex has both systems installed. The rear port and the KVANT docking port have the IGLA system installed to support earlier Progress ships that use the IGLA. The first Soyuz TM docking occurred in May of 1986, while the first Progress M docked in September of 1989.

  13. Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, CA (United States); Helmberger, D.V. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Seismological Lab.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

  14. European Union 1. What are the most important treaties establishing the legal authority of the EU?

    E-print Network

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    European Union 1. What are the most important treaties establishing the legal authority of the EU is the difference between a Political Union, and an Economic Union? 8. What is he Eastern Partnership Program 9 17. Who is the President of the Council of the European Union? 18. Who is the President

  15. Russia's Wild Wild South: Two Tales of Economic Woes, Political Corruption and Spreading Insurgent Violence in Ingushetia and Dagestan

    E-print Network

    Grandstaff, John M.

    2011-05-14

    sections will intermix historical perspectives with contemporary information up to 2008. In conclusion, the final section will discuss the implications of the study, the limitations of the research and prospects for future studies. Existing Social... limited success by maintaining military rule over the region until the rise of the Soviet Union. In the early 20th century, the Soviet Union was busy consolidating power after the Russian Civil War. For the exception of multi-ethnic Dagestan...

  16. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  17. Soviet research on crystal channeling of charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an overview of Soviet research in charged particle beam channeling in crystals from 1972 to the present, and the resulting electromagnetic emission, including Soviet proposals for channeling emission lasers in the X-ray region of the spectrum. It analyzes Soviet attitudes toward crystal channeling of charged particles as a subject of research, describes performers of the research, and indicates the level of effort involved. It presents a brief history of crystal channeling research, the differences between channeling and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the definition of the main research issues, and estimates of the potential capabilities of channeling radiation, all based on the Soviet viewpoint. It then describes Soviet proposals for laser systems utilizing the channeling radiation mechanism, and analyzes Soviet experimental work involving the observation and measurement of channeling radiation. The author concludes that the outstanding feature of Soviet research in this area is the optimistic belief of Soviet specialists in the technological potential of this research, but finds that the role of the laser proposals in Soviet planning is ambiguous.

  18. Building under cold climates and on permafrost. Collection of papers from a US-Soviet Joint Seminar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The building of homes and other structures in cold weather poses special design and logistical problems for architects, urban planners, and construction engineers. As the United States expands development in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of North America, access to the research and achievements of other nations experienced in cold weather construction becomes increasingly important. The Soviet Union, with so much of its vast territory lying in the far north, performs about 85 percent of the world's research in this field. For this reason, experts at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have actively cooperated with Soviet experts under the framework of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Housing and Other Construction. The articles in this collection have been classified into the following five sections: Aspects of Architectural Planning, Construction and Environmental Considerations; Principles of Foundation Design and Behavior; Foundation Stabilization; Concrete Construction; and Excavation Techniques.

  19. Regulation 3: Students' Union REGULATION 3: THE STUDENTS' UNION

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Regulation 3: Students' Union 15 REGULATION 3: THE STUDENTS' UNION 1. Pursuant to Article 9 of the Charter, there shall be a students' union of the University. The name of the union shall be 'THE UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX STUDENTS' UNION' (hereinafter called the 'Union'). 2. The aims of the Union shall

  20. Union formation in fragile families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Carlson; Sara Mclanahan; Paula England

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union\\u000a formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate\\u000a the effects of economic, cultural\\/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship)\\u000a parents are romantically involved and living apart,

  1. The Soviet Physical Fitness Tests: An Essential Aspect of the Soviet Organizational Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Reet

    This study analyzes the Soviet award system, in particular the Prepared for Word and Defense (PWD) program. The PWD program is composed of five stages and embraces people from ages 10 to 60. Each stage has a section of requirements and a section of norms, which take into consideration age variations. The norms section, which is the most important…

  2. Energy, economics and security in Central Asia: Russia and its rivals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Blank

    1995-01-01

    Five Central Asian states emerged out of the Soviet Union`s Central Asian republics in 1991. Although U.S. policy makers presumed that Iran would inevitably sweep them into its sphere of influence, this has not happened. Nor is it likely to occur. Instead there has developed a multistate competition for influence and even control of these new states. This competition involves

  3. ,SHRIMP RESEARCH ABOARD SOVIET SHIP IN GULF OF ALASKA

    E-print Network

    ,SHRIMP RESEARCH ABOARD SOVIET SHIP IN GULF OF ALASKA Robert J . Wolotira Jr . One r esult- gate the shrimp resources in the Gulf of Alaska. The Soviet re s earch ves s e l 'Krill ' surveyed the shrimp species from south of the Alaska Peninsula near Kodiak Island. In 1970, this area yielded

  4. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet

  5. Educational Stratification in Russia during the Soviet Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Hout, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, in spite of state efforts to reduce educational inequities, stratification actually increased during the Soviet period. Removing gender preferences for men corrected some inequity. However, parents' education, occupation, and geographical origin contributed to the stratification. Contains a concise history of Soviet educational…

  6. Another perspective of the 1958 Soviet nuclear accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Trabalka; L. D. Eyman; F. L. Parker; E. G. Struxness; S. I. Auerbach

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence of a major Soviet nuclear accident involving stored, reprocessed, long-lived fission wastes has been reported by former Soviet citizens. Z.A. Medvedev, writing in the popular science magazine New Scientist, believed that the accident resulted in significant loss of life and required the permanent evacuation of the civilian population from a large area (several thousand square miles). Although Medvedev

  7. Investigating soviet espionage and subversion: the case of Donald Maclean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Kerr

    2002-01-01

    This essay sets out the dimensions of investigating Soviet espionage and subversion, highlighting how Maclean's image as a Soviet agent has developed over the past 50 years. It will then consider to what extent new documents at the Public Record Office alter his image. Maclean's crime was treachery but what exactly is the intellectual challenge in investigating espionage? Just what

  8. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    1991-07-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined.

  9. Mutual Predators: An Examination of Russia's Oil, Gas, and Nuclear Sectors in the Post-Soviet Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, Adam

    Russia's energy sector has changed dramatically over the past three decades and this study examines this change within the oil, gas, and nuclear sectors. Having inherited a state capitalist system after the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia's bureaucracy now presides over an incredibly rich and deeply problematic energy economy. At its core, this is a study on institutionalized corruption and the behavior of corrupt elites. More specifically, it examines whether Russia can succeed within this context and what this may teach us on the nature of corrupt states and institutions.

  10. Measurement of solar proton-proton fusion neutrinos with a Soviet-American gallium experiment: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, M.L.

    1989-06-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to low-energy proton-proton fusion neutrinos. A flux of 70 SNU is expected in a gallium detector from the p-p reaction independent of solar model calculations. If, however, neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed /sup 8/B flux measured by the Homestake /sup 37/Cl experiment, then a comparison of the gallium and chlorine results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 60-ton gallium detector is currently being constructed in the Baksan Laboratory in the Soviet Union, and should be taking data by the end of 1989.

  11. Measurement of solar proton-proton fusion neutrinos with a Soviet-American gallium experiment: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, M.L.

    1988-11-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to low-energy proton-proton fusion neutrinos. A flux of 70 SNU is expected in a gallium detector from the p-p reaction independent of solar model calculations. If, however, neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed /sup 8/B flux measured by the Homestake /sup 37/Cl experiment, then a comparison of the gallium and chlorine results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 60-ton gallium detector is currently being constructed in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, and should be taking data by early 1989.

  12. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y; Doodnik, Michail N

    2002-01-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit. After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era. PMID:12583369

  13. Union Membership (Annual)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thirteen percent of all American waged and salaried workers, or 16.5 million workers, were members of unions in 1999, reports the BLS. Government workers are four times as likely to be union members, and those employed by local governments, such as fire fighters and police officers, the most unionized, have 42.9 percent rate of membership.

  14. However, the European Union

    E-print Network

    However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new willingness by Japan to compromise talks with the European Union, which has been supporting France's bid. As a result, the Yomiuri said, China and Russia backed France. However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new

  15. Unions, Wages, and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Schumacher, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    National Longitudinal Survey of Youth aptitude scores confirmed that differentials in union-nonunion wages are highest for workers with low measured skills and lowest for workers with high measured skills. Results suggest that unions are more successful where skills are homogenous and unionized employers are reluctant to hire both the most as well…

  16. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idlis, G. M.

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  17. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  18. Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of ?35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

  19. Does a Currency Union Affect Trade? The Time Series Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Glick; Andrew K. Rose

    2001-01-01

    Does leaving a currency union reduce international trade? We answer this question using a large annual panel data set covering 217 countries from 1948 through 1997. During this sample a large number of countries left currency unions; they experienced economically and statistically significant declines in bilateral trade, after accounting for other factors. Assuming symmetry, we estimate that a pair of

  20. Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Barry Freeman

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines how measurement error biases longitudinal estimates of union effects. It develops numerical examples, statistical models, and econometric estimates which indicate that measurement error is a major problem in longitudinal data sets, so that longitudinal analyses do not provide the research panacea for determining the effects of unionism (or other economic forces) some have suggested. There are three

  1. Soviet montage cinema as propaganda and political rhetoric 

    E-print Network

    Russell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Most previous studies of Soviet montage cinema have concentrated on its aesthetic and technical aspects; however, montage cinema was essentially a rhetoric rather than an aesthetic of cinema. This thesis presents a ...

  2. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  3. Reciprocity and Norms in U.S.Soviet Foreign Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Ward; Sheen Rajmaira

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the nature of U.S.-Soviet relations over the past 4 decades. The authors focus especially on the 1980s. There has been a marked shift in U.S.-Soviet conflictual and cooperative foreign policy behavior subsequent to Gorbachev's rise to power. The authors explore quantitatively the changes in conflictual and cooperative behavior in the context of reciprocity and evolving norms. Using

  4. Nebraska Union Board Application 2013 Nebraska Union Board Application

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Nebraska Union Board Application 2013 Nebraska Union Board Application 2013 - 14 Academic Year to the Student Involvement Office, 200, Nebraska Union. Deadline is 5:00 p.m. ­ Friday, February 22, 2013 The Nebraska Union Board, composed of students, faculty and staff is a participant in Union policy

  5. INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICAL UNION I. Objective of the Union

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICAL UNION STATUTES 2006TPF FPT I. Objective of the Union 1. The objectives of the International Mathematical Union, hereinafter designated as the Union, are: (a) To promote international, pure, applied, or educational. 2. In the pursuit of its objectives the Union is explicitly

  6. Nebraska Union Board Application 2014 Nebraska Union Board Application

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Nebraska Union Board Application 2014 Nebraska Union Board Application 2014 - 15 Academic Year and return to the Student Involvement Office, 200, Nebraska Union. Deadline is 5:00 p.m. ­ Friday, February 28, 2014 The Nebraska Union Board, composed of students, faculty and staff is a participant in Union

  7. European Monetary Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

  8. Credit Unions vs. Banks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ng, Thiam Hee.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In the News looks at the debate between the banks and credit unions over the issues of membership. The nine resources discussed provide background information about the debate and the arguments from both sides of the issue. On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Credit Union Administration's policy of permitting federal credit unions to serve multiple unrelated groups was unlawful. As a result, the credit union lobby persuaded the House of Representatives to overwhelmingly pass HR 1151, the Credit Union Membership Access Act, by a vote of 411-8. HR 1151 will allow credit unions to form multiple common bonds with certain limitations. Similar legislation is now under consideration in the Senate.

  9. Trade unions in Germany, 1980-2004: On the road to perdition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Schnabel

    Although trade unions are given an important economic and political role in the German system of corporatism, an empirical analysis based on the ALLBUS social survey shows that in 2004 only about 12 percent of the population and around 20 percent of employees in Germany were union members. Moreover, union density fell substantially in western Germany from 1980 to 2004

  10. Exchange Rate Misalignments, Fiscal Federalism and Redistribution: How to Adjust in a Monetary Union

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Union Preliminary draft Vincent Duwicquet Jacques Mazier Jamel Saadaoui 9th Euroframe Conference on Economic Policy Issues in the European Union, 8 June 2012, Kiel Institute for the World Economy Abstract The euro zone crisis illustrates the insufficiency of adjustment mechanisms in a monetary union

  11. Trade unions and geographies of trans-national solidarity Andrew Cumbers

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Trade unions and geographies of trans-national solidarity Andrew Cumbers Andrew.Cumbers@ges.gla.ac.uk In the face of economic globalisation trade unions are coming to terms with the need to construct new forms of trans-national solidarity. The material realities of an increasingly global economy are forcing unions

  12. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  13. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

    1999-11-15

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as atmospheric transport, could be considered under future-funded research efforts for impacts to Alaska. The ANWAP risk assessment does not address the following wastes, media, and receptors: radioactive sources in Alaska (except to add perspective for Russian source term); radioactive wastes associated with Russian naval military operations and decommissioning; Russian production reactor and spent-fuel reprocessing facilities nonaqueous source terms; atmospheric, terrestrial and nonaqueous pathways; and dose calculations for any circumpolar locality other than Alaska. These other, potentially serious sources of radioactivity to the Arctic environment, while outside the scope of the current ANWAP mandate, should be considered for future funding research efforts.

  14. Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and Other Nations

    E-print Network

    musculus, around South Geor- gia crashed around the time of World War I, and further exploitation occurred nations) after World War II in Areas IV (27,201), V (38,146), and VI (7,195). More than one in other regions into the 1930's. There was a hiatus in whaling during World War II, but large

  15. Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

    1999-08-31

    This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

  16. New types of dwellings for prospective construction after 1981. [in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butuzov, V.; Kapustyan, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Architectural considerations for the next stage of mass housing construction in the U.S.S.R. are explored. The architects are concerned with both the aesthetic and functional quality of the constructions, in terms of the prospective inhabitants as well as the environments in which they will be located. Experimental building designs emphasize: variety of appearance, environmental control, and the communal life.

  17. Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

  18. EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural processes in ocean and terrestrial ecosystems together with human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. It is predicted that an increase in the concentrations of CO2 will cause the Earth's temperatures to rise and will accel...

  19. Health reform in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd; McKee, Martin

    2009-10-01

    In the two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist countries in Europe have pursued wide-ranging changes to their health systems. We describe three key aspects of these changes-an almost universal switch to health insurance systems, a growing reliance on out-of-pocket payments (both formal and informal), and efforts to strengthen primary health care, often with a model of family medicine delivered by general practitioners. Many decisions about health policy, such as the introduction of health insurance systems or general practice, took into account political issues more than they did evidence. Evidence for whether health reforms have achieved their intended results is sparse. Of crucial importance is that lessons are learnt from experiences of countries to enable development of health systems that meet present and future health needs of populations. PMID:19801097

  20. Symbolizing Borders: Swedish Travels into the Soviet Union during the 1930's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Tornbjer

    2008-01-01

    Travelling means meeting new and different cultures, and crossing different kinds of borders, both mental and physical, is part of the travelling experience. In this article I will investigate how Swedish travellers during the inter-war period conceptualized national borders. What did they experience when they crossed the border? Did these borders symbolize something more in the minds of the travellers?

  1. METHOD TO QUANTIFY THE CARBON CYCLE OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION (EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 which is predicted to cause the earth's temperatures to rise and accelerate rates of plant respiration and the decay of organic matter, disrupting the equilibrium of the terrestrial carbon ...

  2. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities. PMID:26064871

  3. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Jargin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities. PMID:26064871

  4. New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewing, Tom [ANL; Sakunov, Igor [AVIS CORP., KIEV, UKRAINE; Drapey, Sergey [GEORGE KUZMYCZ TRAINING; Nations, Jim [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

    2009-01-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

  5. Behind the nuclear curtain: Radioactive waste management in the former Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Payson; D. J. Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Behind the Nuclear Curtain paints a striking picture of the USSR and now FSU nuclear waste management activities, tracing the evolution of what is likely the world`s largest nuclear waste management problem. It draws on information from hundreds of literature sources as well as the author`s first-hand knowledge of nuclear waste related events in Russia. It represents the largest compilation

  6. Atypical Work and Trade Union Membership: Union Attitudes and Union Turnover among Traditional vs Atypically Employed Union Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjoerd Goslinga; Magnus Sverke

    2003-01-01

    Using data from three European countries (Sweden, Italy and the Netherlands), this study compares full-time and part-time as well as permanent and temporary employed trade union members on several union attitudes (commitment, support, trust, instrumentality and satisfaction) and union turnover intention. It was hypothesized that union attitudes would be less positive, and union turnover intentions would be higher among atypically

  7. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  8. Memorial Union Territorial Hall

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Coffman Memorial Union Comstock Hall Territorial Hall Frontier Hall Pioneer Hall Johnston HallAve.S.E. PleasantSt.S.E. PleasantSt.S.E. ChurchSt.S.E.(nothroughtraffic) UnionSt.S.E. (OneWay) (OneWay) Oak

  9. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  10. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  11. Challenging times for competition on the automotive market. The case of European Union and Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with one of the most important sectors in the European Union, the automotive sector seen from the economic as well as from the industrial perspective. As the economic efficiency is usually measured in competition parameters an important part is dedicated to the competition on the motor vehicle market in and outside the European Union, on the Global

  12. Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive.

  13. Unions Matter How the Ability of Labour Unions to

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Unions Matter How the Ability of Labour Unions to Reduce Income Inequality and Influence Public and internationally. www.labourrights.ca CFLR was established and is sponsored by the National Union of Public is significant- ly smaller. This paper adds to the literature by examining the relationship between labour unions

  14. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  15. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  16. Baptist Student Union 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    of the Energy Systems manufacturing units and the units that support the operation of the Energy Systems manufacturing units of the former Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Division plants plus the component of the Corporation that has been identified...

  17. Students' Union services and representation

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Students' Union services and representation The Students' Union is an independent, student Students' Union officers ensure that there is student representation throughout the University community so that your opinions are heard. Membership of the Union is free and all students are automatically members

  18. University of Pittsburgh Union Studies

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    University of Pittsburgh European Union Studies GRADUATE STUDENT CONFERENCE ON THE EUROPEAN UNION.ucis.pitt.edu/crees/grads_finaid.html for more information. Graduate Certificate Program European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Union Studies Graduate Certificate Program 4200-4400 Wesley W. Posvar Hall 230 South Bouquet Street

  19. Currency Unions and International Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Rose; Charles Engel

    2000-01-01

    This paper characterizes the integration patterns of international currency unions (such as the CFA Franc zone and the East Caribbean Currency Area). We empirically explore different features of currency unions, and compare them both to countries with sovereign monies, and to regions within nations. We ask: are countries within international currency unions as integrated as regions within political unions? We

  20. Trade Union Users of Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Colin

    A number of important consequences have resulted from the generally increased sensitivity of trade unions to questions of communication and representation, particularly the trade union's uses of videos. Primarily developed by union leadership as a response to general political problems they have faced in the last decade, trade union videos…

  1. Technology transfer – financing opportunities and limits in European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura GIURCA VASILESCU; Maria BUSE; Nicoleta DRACEA

    2009-01-01

    Technology transfer is an important instrument for promoting the economic growth and new jobs creation. Despite a high potential, the exploitation level of the research results is quite low in Europe. There are numerous barriers (structural, economic and legal) which affect the spin-out initiatives at the European Union but the main cause is represented by the lack of the investment

  2. The Katyn Massacre and Polish-Soviet Relations, 1941-43

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Sanford

    2006-01-01

    Polish-Soviet relations went through three periods during the second world war. Between 1939 and 1941, the nazi-Soviet allies destroyed the Polish state while the Soviets extinguished Polish influence in the Eastern Territories which they had occupied in September 1939. After April 1943 Stalin marginalized the ‘London’ Poles and asserted his favoured eastern frontier while his pro-Soviet forces took over Poland.

  3. American Geophysical Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), which was established in 1919 by the National Research Council and for more than 50 years operated as an unincorporated affiliate of the National Academy of Sciences, is now a nonprofit corporation chartered under the laws of the District of Columbia. The Union is dedicated to the furtherance of the geophysical sciences through the individual efforts of its members and in cooperation with other national and international scientific organizations.

  4. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  5. The Soviet\\/Russian antisatellite (ASAT) programme during the cold war and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Mowthorpe

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the development of the Soviet antisatellite (ASAT) in terms of both the organisational structure and eventual ASAT testing and the development of its capability. It analyses the Soviet ASAT testing methods to gain an insight into the strengths and operational capabilities of its programme. Having analysed the extensive Soviet ASAT development during the Cold War the article

  6. A State of the Art Review of Soviet Research in Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Soviet psychology, analyzes major themes based on these foundations, and identifies relevance of Soviet psychological research for American investigators. Basic social and political factors that influence Soviet research include centralization of all scientific and academic endeavors and…

  7. Teaching the Canon? Nation-Building and Post-Soviet Kazakhstan's Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses Kazakhstan's new generation literature textbooks for Kazakh-medium schools, with a focus on national identity and citizenship constructs that the revised textbooks promote. By comparing the literature textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the paper discusses Soviet institutional and cultural legacies that continue to…

  8. Economics of Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) manages this clearinghouse on the economics of biodiversity in support of equitable and sustainable natural resource use. IUCN arranges their discussion papers in full-text by theme, and a mixture of relevant economic, legal, and policy information is highlighted throughout the site.

  9. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Trabalka; L. D. Eyman; S. I. Auerbach

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level

  10. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  11. EXAMINING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN POST SOVIET KAZAKHSTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana B. Minbaeva; Kate Hutchings; S. Bruce Thomson

    In post-Soviet Eastern Europe, the former communist nations have increasingly internationalized through inward foreign direct investment initially from Western European and North American multinationals and more recently, from other transition economy multinationals. This paper specially explores human resource management (HRM) practices in foreign-owned subsidiaries in Kazakhstan to examine the development of HRM in Kazakhstan and the extent to which practices

  12. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 12 Soviet-American Cooperative

    E-print Network

    12 NOAA Technical Report NMFS 12 Soviet-American Cooperative Research on Marine Mammals. Volume 1 TECHNICAL REPORTS NMFS The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS, and publishes statistics on various phases of the industry" The NOAA Technical Report NMFS series

  13. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  14. The impact of Soviet dialectical materialism on China through translations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Shung Chang

    1971-01-01

    Although the study of Marxism-Leninism and its philosophy in China is still at its beginnings 1, there is no doubt about the importance for it of the Soviet philosophical works translated from Russian to Chinese following the Communist take-over in China. The present bibliography - a modest contribution to the field - will be published in four successive issues of

  15. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  16. The northern sea route: A new era in soviet policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willy Østreng

    1991-01-01

    Ever since the speech delivered by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev on October 1, 1987, in Murmansk, indications have multiplied to suggest that he was serious in his offer to open up the Northern Sea Route for international shipping. If this is the case, a dramatic shift in the thinking on Arctic security has taken place in the Kremlin. This article

  17. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report consists of an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of cooperation in space. Chapter 2 outlines the history of United States-Soviet cooperation in space, and the policy debates which have taken place in the U.S. since the beginning of the space age. It…

  18. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  19. Soviet Pedagogical Innovations, 1960s through 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gireva, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the period in Soviet Russia from the late 1950s to the early 1990s as one marked by socioeconomic change and Communist Party restructuring. Discusses the effect this turmoil had on the educational system. Reforms instituted during this time formed the basis for many of the changes implemented with perestroika. (MJP)

  20. Continuity and Change in Soviet Education under Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert H.

    1990-01-01

    The implications for Soviet education of "glasnost,""perestroika," and the other interrelated concepts of Gorbachev's reform program are examined. The manner in which Gorbachev's concept of restructuring has shaped the efforts of schools to promote communist ethics, the human factor, and independent thinking is considered. (SLD)

  1. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Adams; G. E. Robinson; L. E. Hochreiter

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel

  2. Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, S. Frederick; Boisture, J. Bruce

    This study was prepared to provide a convenient compendium of data for those participating in a conference on "Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States" held at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, in May, 1972. The purpose of the conference and of the study was to assess the state of teaching and research on the…

  3. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  4. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  5. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, L.R.; Wiggins, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m/sub b/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 +/- 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest US underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in m/sub b/ for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada.

  6. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Wiggins, Graham C.

    1986-01-01

    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 ± 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest U.S. underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in mb for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada. PMID:16593645

  7. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R; Wiggins, G C

    1986-01-01

    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m(b)) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 +/- 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest U.S. underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in m(b) for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada. PMID:16593645

  8. Consequences of the Ban of By-Products from Terrestrial Animals in Livestock Feeding in Germany and The European Union: Alternatives, Nutrient and Energy Cycles, Plant Production, and Economic Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rodehutscord; H. J. Abel; W. Friedt; C. Wenk; G. Flachowsky; H.-J. Ahlgrimm; B. Johnke; R. Kühl; G. Breves

    2002-01-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as

  9. Researching the European Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is the European Union's official and comprehensive guide for scholars and researchers studying its institutions. Users will find information on document access, treaties and institutions, legislation, and EU publishing operations. The site also provides overviews of official and related institutions and the legislative process in the Union. Researchers will be especially interested in the sections on Legislative Documents and Print Research Tools, Using Annual Reports and Informational Documents, and Bibliographic and Other Guides. The synoptic tables of basic documents, quick visual guides to the documents described on the site and their availability, are additional valuable tools.

  10. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: On the making of the Soviet hydrogen (thermonuclear) bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khariton, Yu B.; Adamskii, V. B.; Smirnov, Yu N.

    1996-02-01

    The May 1991 issue of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics-Uspekhi), devoted to the 70th birthday of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, included a translation of an article by D Hirsch and W Mathews, 'The H-bomb: Who Really Gave Away the Secret?' It was the Editors' hope that, prompted by this polemic and in many respects controversial publication, our physicists and nuclear weapons developers would speak out too. However, it is only now, five years later and with a number of formal restrictions lifted, that the Journal has received an article on the creation of the Soviet H-bomb written by Arzamas-16 (All-Union Research Institute of Experimental Physics) specialists (of whom Yu N Smirnov worked under A D Sakharov in the 1960s). The Editors are confident that this article will be of interest to our readers. What makes the article particularly authoritative is the co-authorship of Yulii Borisovich Khariton, a patriarch of national nuclear physicists. His brilliant debut dating back to the 1920s was made in the N N Semyonov group and at the famous Cavendsh Laboratory (then under E Rutherford); from 1946 to 1992 Yu B Khariton was a permanent scientific leader of the Arzamas-16 Nuclear Weapons Centre. It is primarily to I V Kurchatov and Yu B Khariton that we owe the creation of our nuclear weapons which laid the groundwork for the country's powerful defence potential. Editorial Board.

  11. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  12. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources. PMID:12389223

  13. Beyond Unions, Notwithstanding Labor Law

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    561 Beyond Unions, Notwithstanding Labor Law Marion Crain & Ken Matheny* Introduction .....................................................................................................................561 I. Labor Unionism and the Labor Law Frame IV. Implications of a Revived Right of Assembly for Labor Law..........................601

  14. A Biological Model of Unions

    E-print Network

    Kremer, Michael

    This paper applies principles from evolutionary biology to the study of unions. We show that unions that implement the preferred wage and organizing policies of workers will be displaced in evolutionary competition by ...

  15. Institutional Report: European Union

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester #12-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester Working Paper Prepared by Partner No. 4 July 2004 #12;P R E FA C E (CRIC) at the University of Manchester. The various country teams in the TRUSTINFOOD project have

  16. AnDa Union

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-11-02

    of the steppes. Throat singers, like the Chinese Mongolian members of Anda Union appearing at the Lied Center on November 5th, have impressive control over all parts of the human linguistic apparatus. Individual singers can produce as many as four notes at once...

  17. The union doctor

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, D. U.

    1980-01-01

    The appointment, terms of service, and work of the Poor Law medical officer, the union doctor, is described to illustrate one of the roles of the mid-nineteenth century general practitioner. It was this role which laid the foundation of modern general practice. PMID:6997483

  18. MATROID UNION ALECK JOHNSEN

    E-print Network

    Immorlica, Nicole

    MATROID UNION ALECK JOHNSEN EECS 495: Combinatorial Optimization Reading Project Presentation February 28th, 2011 Professor N. Immorlica Northwestern University 1. Partition Matroids Given set system M is a `partition' matroid Proof: DC Holds: If we remove elements from some X I, no X Ei will increase Exchange

  19. Sports Union Recreational Sport

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    Sports Union Recreational Sport Programme Futsal(5 a-side Football) Play football on a weekly basis and Semester 2 Entry form You must fill in a Recreational Sport Entry Form. This can be collected from the Sports Centre reception and hand it in along with your entry fee. Find us on Facebook at Heriot

  20. Inter-Parliamentary Union = Union Interparlementaire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Inter-Parliamentary Union, a "world organization of parliaments of sovereign States" since 1889, provides this informational site, which is highlighted by two searchable databases, PARLINE and PARLIT. PARLINE contains information about parliaments in over 190 countries, including structure, leader, percentage of women, term, and other useful data which may include distribution by political group and sex, candidacy eligiblilty requirements, and background to the last election. A comparative search function allows qualitative and quantitative search variables and returns country parliaments that meet specifications. PARLIT contains bibliographic references to a subset of IPU's 37,000 item database. Items from 1992-present are currently available. Searches can be performed on seven variables, including country, parliamentary organization, periodical, and language. The IPU site also contains links to parliamentary web sites and other information about the organization.

  1. Review of the Soviet oil industry in 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sagers

    1991-01-01

    Soviet oil production (including gas condensate) experienced its largest decline ever, falling by 37.6 million tons (6.2%) in 1990, from 607.3 million tons in 1989 to 569.7 million tons in 1990. This is down to about the level of output achieved in 1978. In 1990, the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 551.9 million tons, while the Gazprom Concern (the

  2. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT Canadian Union of

    E-print Network

    UNIT 3 COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between and Canadian Union of Public Employees Local 3903 2008­2011Printed by Union Labour Printed on Recycled Paper Effective from: April 24, 2009 to: August 31, 2011 the rank of supervisor, and persons for whom a trade union held bargain- ing rights at the date

  3. Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave an opportunity to add their names and graduation years to the stone plaza of the Oklahoma Memorial Union

  4. The Two Faces of Unionism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Freeman; James L. Medoff

    1979-01-01

    Our research demonstrates that the view of unions as organizations whose chief function is to raise wages is seriously misleading. For in addition to raising wages, unions have significant non-wage effects which influence diverse aspects of modern industrial life. By providing workers with a voice both at the workplace and in the political arena, unions can and do affect positively

  5. English in the Union Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebble, Maggi; Wallace, David

    1982-01-01

    A course developed by a college in conjunction with a major union focused entirely on English as a means of becoming more active in the union, understanding the collective bargaining agreement, and defending union member rights. Program development, material development, and teaching methods are discussed. (MSE)

  6. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  7. Does a currency union affect trade? The time-series evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Glick; Andrew K. Rose

    2002-01-01

    Does leaving a currency union reduce international trade? We answer this question using a large annual panel data set covering 217 countries from 1948 through 1997. During this sample a large number of countries left currency unions; they experienced economically and statistically significant declines in bilateral trade, after accounting for other factors. Assuming symmetry, we estimate that a pair of

  8. Teacher Unions, (Neo) Liberalism and the State: The Perth County Conspiracy of 1885

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaller, Harry

    2004-01-01

    In 1885, following a period of severe economic depression and social unrest in colonial Canada, state teachers in rural Perth County, Ontario met and formed the nucleus of what could clearly be described as a teachers' union. The idea spread quickly, and within six months the founding convention of a province-wide union was held in Toronto.…

  9. Soviet Mathematics and Dialectics in the Post-Stalin Era: New Horizons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Vucinich

    2002-01-01

    The post-Stalin period in Soviet history (1953–1991) was a time of weakening of official ideological interference with the professional activity of the Soviet scientific community. Many branches of mathematics—particularly cybernetics, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics—played an important role in the struggle against Stalinist ideological and philosophical dogmatism. The Soviet “constructivist” orientation in the foundations of mathematics expressed a

  10. The soviet market for inventions : the case of jet propulsion, 1932 to 1944

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Harrison

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the problem of aviation jet propulsion in the interwar period and World War II and analyses Soviet progress towards a solution using newly available archival documentation. Soviet R&D commitments were influenced by long–term security motivations and the need to invest in local tacit knowledge. The scale and diversity of the Soviet R&D effort is described. The allocation

  11. Thermonuclear milestones: (2) Beginnings of the Soviet H-bomb program

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, G.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center---All Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    Early Soviet theoretical work on thermonuclear ignition was adied by espionage, but many important ideas were conceived and developed independently {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Influence of renewal of production on indexes of economic activity. [USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Donchak, L.Ya.; Mazurova, I.I.; Romanovskii, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    Stable economic development of the socialist national economy in the eighties and beyond, as indicated by the decrees of the Twenty-Sixth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, can only be ensured by accelerated utilization of the achievements of scientific progress in engineering and technology. With respect to industry, this means the need to produce an output which meets the requirements of society with regard to its range, quality and cost with a minimum expenditure of materials and labor resources. Society's requirements change, of course, with time and they are influenced both by specific historical conditions and by current resources. With the increase in requirements for quality of output and efficiency of production the tasks of industry are becoming more complicated. The successful solution to these problems depends in many ways on to what extent the system of economic indexes used to evaluate the results of the work of branch factories and the branch as a whole defines the actual contribution of the teams to the final production.

  13. The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation

    E-print Network

    Malina, Robert

    We estimate the economic impacts on US airlines that may arise from the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small impact on US ...

  14. Currency unions and trade: how large is the treatment effect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Persson

    2001-01-01

    The impact of a common currency on trade can be grossly mismeasured if countries that belong to currency unions are systematically different from those that do not, and if the relationship between trade and its observable determinants is complex. I argue that such complications are plausible and likely to distort the empirical results of a recent Economic Policy paper by

  15. Corporate tax consolidation and enhanced coorporation in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Bettendorf; Albert van der Horst; Ruud A. de Mooij; Hendrik Vrijburg

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the economic implications of the introduction of consolidation with formula apportionment in the European Union under alternative enhanced cooperation agreements. We fi?nd that the consolidation is likely to yield a small aggregate welfare gain in Europe, but that not all countries benefi?t. A coalition of winning countries reduces the welfare gain and may induce a process of

  16. Currency unions and trade: the effect is large

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Rose

    2001-01-01

    The impact of a common currency on trade can be grossly mismeasured if countries that belong to currency unions are systematically different from those that do not, and if the relationship between trade and its observable determinants is complex. I argue that such complications are plausible and likely to distort the empirical results of a recent Economic Policy paper by

  17. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Alban; E. Pozio; J. Boes; P. Boireau; F. Boué; M. Claes; A. J. C. Cook; P. Dorny; H. L. Enemark; J. van der Giessen; K. R. Hunt; M. Howell; M. Kirjusina; K. Nöckler; P. Rossi; G. C. Smith; L. Snow; M. A. Taylor; G. Theodoropoulos; I. Vallée; M. M. Viera-Pinto; I. A. Zimmer

    2011-01-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across

  18. High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G. (editor); Clark, George W. (editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (editor); Abramson, David M. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

  19. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Y.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Y.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowl

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1990 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% CL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared with the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. UNION FORMATION IN FRAGILE FAMILIES*

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marcia; McLanahan, Sara; England, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We use multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effects of economic, cultural/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship) parents are romantically involved living apart, cohabiting, or married to each other about one year after the child’s birth. Net of other factors (including baseline relationship status), women’s education and men’s earnings encourage marriage. Cultural and inter-personal factors also have strong effects: women’s trust of men, both parents’ positive attitudes toward marriage, and both parents’ assessment of the supportiveness in their relationship encourage marriage. Supportiveness also encourages cohabitation, while fathers’ having a problem with alcohol or drugs and reporting higher conflict in the relationship discourage cohabitation. Fathers’ physical violence deters couples’ remaining in romantic non-resident relationships. PMID:15209039

  1. Prospects for economic fusion electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Cook; R. L. Miller; D. J. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Extensive studies of fusion economics have been performed in the last decade within the European Union and the United States. Over the same period major advances have been made in the physics and technology of fusion. This paper summarizes the prospects for fusion making an economically attractive contribution to the future energy mix. With modest physics optimization and anticipated near-term

  2. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a...RIN 3133-AD40 Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union...

  3. Union de variants abstraits Jacques Garrigue

    E-print Network

    Garrigue, Jacques

    Union de variants abstraits Jacques Garrigue Nagoya University, Grad. Sch. of Mathematics avec Romain Bardou, E.N.S. Cachan #12;J. Garrigue, R. Bardou -- Union de variants abstraits 1 Union concr -> show_v y val show : t -> unit #12;J. Garrigue, R. Bardou -- Union de variants abstraits 2 Union concr

  4. The College Union Outdoors. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Theodore

    This publication, one in a series of mongraphs on college unions, focuses on the outing-informal recreational activity taking place out-of-doors, usually undertaken by students in groups, and usually noncompetitive, a natural extension of the student union program. Main sections of the monograph include: (1) a suggestion for a basic program, (2)…

  5. The Science of Logic in Soviet philosophy and a reading in Hegelian dialectics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigmund Krancberg

    1981-01-01

    This allegiance to a doctrinaire world outlook blended with the singular philosophical school of institutionalized Marxist theory, narrows the choice of general perspectives and imposes a number of conditioning factors on Soviet philosophers. With the concepts of dialectical and historical materialism accepted as apodictic truths, Soviet philosophy is largely a paraphrased exposition of the Marxist-Leninist 'classics' - the major works

  6. Sets of Mathematics Teaching Aids. Soviet Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonovskii, M. Ya; And Others

    This is volume 1 of the series of translations of books from the Soviet literature on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction and on teaching methods influenced by the research. An introduction on Soviet education and mathematics education is provided. The purposes of this volume are to show how instructional media should be…

  7. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  8. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...Section 1245.7 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for...

  9. The rhetoric of presidential summit diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Soviet summits, 1985-1988 

    E-print Network

    Howell, Buddy Wayne

    2009-05-15

    President Ronald Reagan participated in more U.S.-Soviet summits than any previous U.S. president, as he met with his Soviet counterpart, Mikhail Gorbachev, on four occasions between November 1985 and June 1988. Prior to, ...

  10. Soviet objectives in the INF negotiations and European security. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, H.J.

    1987-12-01

    On 12 December 1979, NATO officials announced the decision to deploy 108 Pershing II nuclear missiles and 464 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles. The NATO decision was met by a determined Soviet effort to prevent the deployment of the new missiles. The Soviet effort consisted of negotiations, diplomatic propaganda, and covert measures. When it was clear that the deployment was not going to be stopped, the Soviets agreed to formal INF arms-reduction talks. It is this author's opinion that the Soviet negotiation tactics, during the INF talks, supported the long-range goal of reducing the military effectiveness of NATO, and also supported the goal of reducing U.S. influence in Europe.

  11. Productive Unionism Matthew Dimick*

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    implications that centralization has for economic productivity, and the ways that various labor law rules and the invitation to present at the "Reimagining Labor Law" symposium. Also, many thanks to Katherine Stone Benefits.............................................................................701 III. Labor Law

  12. Maximum union-free subfamilies

    E-print Network

    Fox, Jacob

    An old problem of Moser asks: what is the size of the largest union-free subfamily that one can guarantee in every family of m sets? A family of sets is called union-free if there are no three distinct sets in the family ...

  13. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  14. IUCN - The World Conservation Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Marsden; King Edward

    As a Union, IUCN seeks to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. A central secretariat coordinates the IUCN Programme and serves the Union membership, representing their views on the world stage and providing them with the

  15. Toward a More Perfect Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  16. Teaching Reform and Union Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles T.; Mitchell, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews present labor statutes and examines three alternatives to current practices; proposes that teaching, by its nature, is not well administered by industrial standards or well adjudicated through industrial unionism. Suggests "professional unionism" as a means of effecting educational reform. (DR)

  17. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

  18. Complexity of union-split-find problems

    E-print Network

    Lai, Katherine Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate various interpretations of the Union-Split-Find problem, an extension of the classic Union-Find problem. In the Union-Split Find problem, we maintain disjoint sets of ordered elements subject ...

  19. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

  20. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

  1. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

  2. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

  3. Structure for a knowledge-based system to estimate Soviet tactics in the air-land battle. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a prototype decision aid that can use knowledge about Soviet military doctrine and tactics to infer when, where, and how the Soviet Army plans to attack NATO defenses given intelligence data about Soviet (Red) military units, terrain data, and the positions of the NATO (Blue) defenses. Issues are raised that must be

  4. ‘Giving the Russians a Bloody Nose’:1 Operation Foot and Soviet Espionage in the United Kingdom, 1964–71

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraint Hughes

    2006-01-01

    On 24 September 1971 the British government expelled 105 Soviet diplomats and trade delegation officials resident in the UK. This was a response to the expansion of Soviet espionage in Britain during the 1960s, and to Moscow's refusal to respond to London's protests on this issue. This article examines the impact of the espionage problem on Anglo-Soviet relations during this

  5. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  6. The American Ornithologists' Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) was established in 1883, making it "the oldest and largest organization in the New World devoted to the scientific study of birds." Although primarily "a professional organization, its membership of about 4,000 includes many amateurs dedicated to the advancement of ornithological science." The AOU website contains information about membership, upcoming meetings, awards, a variety of publications, and more. The site also offers access to a comprehensive checklist for birds of North America; a preliminary classification of the bird species of South America; and online copies of the Ornithological Societies of North America's _Ornithological Newsletter_. Notably, the AOU site links to an online job board featuring a range of ornithological opportunities including tenure-track faculty positions, research assistantships, and internships.

  7. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  8. The Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This utterly fascinating digital project from Harvard University consists primarily of summary transcripts of 705 interviews conducted with refugees from the USSR during the early years of the Cold War. First-time visitors to the site should read over the introduction to the Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System (HPSSS) and then dive right into the documents. Those who wish to locate certain topical information quickly will want to click on the "Finding Aids" area right away, and it will also be helpful to click on the "Working with the HPSSS Online" area. In terms of orientation, most of the A-Schedule interviews consist of personal life histories and the B-Schedule interviews consist of special topic interviews on subjects such as family, government, stratification, nationalities, and partisan movements.

  9. Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

  10. Russian Immigrant Artists? Success as a Function of the Relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Kalika

    2006-01-01

    During three periods in the 20th Century, there have been notable surges in emigration from Russia to the United States. These periods coincide with distinct changes in the relationship between the two countries. This project evaluates the effect of this relationship on an immigrant artist?s success or failure in the United States. Immediately following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, over thirty-thousand

  11. VIRTUAL COLLECTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS, THEIR WILD-GROWING RELATIVES AND PEST ORGANISMS WITHIN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first revision of the Agricultural Atlas of the former USSR territories is now nearing completion. It will consist of maps and associated metadata, biological descriptions, including photographs, and GIS exploratory software. The Atlas presents maps reflecting the distribution of major and minor...

  12. European Science Notes Information Bulletin: Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science. Acoustics Research in Europe and the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feit, David; Orendorf, Connie R.

    1990-12-01

    This issue of European Science Notes Information Bulletin presents the view of European acoustics research developed by Dr. David Feit while serving as Liaison Scientist at the Office of Naval Research European Office (ONREUR) for the past 2 years. Dr. Feit is an internationally recognized expert in the field of structural acoustics and mechanics, and the coauthor with Miguel Junger of Sound, Structures and their Interaction. While at ONREUR, Dr. Feit has followed developments in structural acoustics, underwater acoustics, and physical acoustics. Activity in these specialties in Europe ranges from architectural applications, to active noise cancellation in automobiles and aircraft, to the areas of traditional naval interest in underwater sound propagation and signal processing. Working with other members of the ONREUR professional staff, Dr. Feit here presents a current perspective on the field. As in all ONREUR reporting, there is no claim to global coverage of the field--rather it is the appraisal drawn from selected professional visits during the past 2 years.

  13. Assessment of the impacts of transferring certain nuclear reactor technologies to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Jr

    1987-01-01

    The Office of International Security Affairs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers to assist in evaluating the impact that transfer of specific nuclear reactor technologies may have on US national security interests. The evaluation is intended to be used as a technical basis and guideline to approve or disapprove requests from government

  14. What Should Teachers' Unions Do in a Time of Educational Crisis? An Essay Review of Lois Weiner's "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice" (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2012, 220 pp.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    What roles can and should teachers' unions play in the deliberations, debates, and conflicts over school reform in a time when education sits at the center of so much of our economic, political, ideological, and cultural tensions? Lois Weiner's new book, "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice," speaks…

  15. From Morality to Moscow: Seven Views on What Economic Literacy Does and Doesn't Mean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Seven views on the meaning of economic literacy are presented in From Morality to Moscow, a special section of the December 1998 issue of The Region, a publication of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. The section give perspectives on economic comprehension in a variety of arenas -- daily life, K-12 classrooms, universities, and post-Soviet countries -- in addition to recommendations for change.

  16. Presidential State of Union Addresses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. President.

    For Internauts interested in historical perspective, a selected archive of State of the Union messages of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, along with a complete archive of messages from 1913 is available at the Northwestern University Political Science site.

  17. Governance in a Union Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Timothy K.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of a faculty union in a community college has a significant impact on its governance. This chapter offers recommendations for dealing with the challenges presented by collective bargaining in the postsecondary education environment.

  18. The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

  19. STUDENT UNION ANNUAL REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    STUDENT UNION ANNUAL REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Student Union made great strides over the course of the 2013 ­ 2014 year. The Student Union was able to increase programs and services while continuing. The Student Union organizational chart continues evolved toward primary areas of Administration & Finance

  20. FAU STUDENT UNION Boca Raton Campus

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    FAU STUDENT UNION Boca Raton Campus 2010-2011 Executive Summary The Student Union made great strides over the course of the 2010 ­ 2011 year. The Student Union Advisory Board continued to function, the Student Union continued to maintain financial stability, ending the year with a positive cash flow

  1. Maximum union-free subfamilies Choongbum Lee

    E-print Network

    Fox, Jacob

    Maximum union-free subfamilies Jacob Fox Choongbum Lee Benny Sudakov Abstract An old problem of Moser asks: how large of a union-free subfamily does every family of m sets have? A family of sets is called union-free if there are no three distinct sets in the family such that the union of two

  2. Community Services Counseling through Labor Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Anthony

    A community services counseling project was provided through a program for assisting unemployed union and non-union workers. At least 25 local unions in Middlesex County, New Jersey, participated in the effort. Thirty unemployed workers were screened and given an intensive training course in personal skills development, the role of the union

  3. How Unions Can Use the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joseph, Deborah.

    The latest Internet guide from the Catherwood Library at Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations examines the ways in which unions and union members can utilize the Internet. The guide gives an introduction to unions on the Web, explains the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web, and offers online resources that would be of use to unions. A large section explaining the benefits of having a union Website, which includes examples of well-designed union Websites and guidelines for creating union sites, is included as is an article on the pitfalls of using company email to organize.

  4. THE UNIVERSITY OF KENT The Students' Union (Kent Union) Code of Practice

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    1 THE UNIVERSITY OF KENT The Students' Union (Kent Union) Code of Practice 1. Membership of the Students' Union 1.1 All full and part-time registered students are entitled to full membership of the Students' Union (hereafter called "the Union"). 1.2 The rights of members Members are entitled to utilise

  5. THE UNIVERSITY OF KENT The Students' Union (Kent Union) Code of Practice

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KENT The Students' Union (Kent Union) Code of Practice 1. Membership of the Students' Union 1.1 All full and part-time registered students are entitled to full membership of the Students' Union (hereafter called "the Union"). 1.2 The rights of members Members are entitled to utilise

  6. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  7. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in US foreign policy: the Middle East-Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this book is to understand Moscow's convictions regarding recent events in the Middle East-Persian Gulf region and the motivations underlying US policy there. It identifies and analyzes the Soviet view of how America's energy problem has influenced US-Soviet relations in that area. Some attention also goes to the implications for American policy in the region. Key topics include Soviet perceptions of American foreign policy aims, US goals in the Middle East, US-Iranian relations during the Shah's region and after his fall, and the negative aspects of the energy problems for Moscow. Some speculative remarks are made regarding likely future directions of Soviet policies and the implications of such policies for the US. 95 references.

  8. Sustainable development and comprehensive capital : The post-Soviet decline of Central Asia

    E-print Network

    Sievers, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The general post-Soviet decline of the states of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) mirrors specific declines in the robustness of these states' stocks of financial, physical, ...

  9. The Carmen-Suite: Maya Plisetskaya Challenging Soviet Culture and Policy 

    E-print Network

    Kalashnikova, Anna

    2014-04-24

    On April 20 1967, the Carmen-Suite ballet, starring Maya Plisetskaya in the leading role, premiered in Moscow’s Bolshoi Ballet Theatre. The production was immediately banned by the Soviet Ministry of Culture for perceived ...

  10. European Union Scandal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Osmond, Andrew.

    This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

  11. The Paternity of the H-Bombs: Soviet-American Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gennady Gorelik

    2009-01-01

    There are major problems in the history of the American and Soviet hydrogen bombs. They are associated with the Teller-Ulam\\u000a and Teller-Oppenheimer controversies, and the question of whether the design of the Soviet H-bomb was an independent conception.\\u000a Because of the scarcity of documentary evidence, these problems have little chance of being settled if the histories of the\\u000a two are

  12. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit...

  13. Hempstead Union Free School District and United Public Service Employees Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bass Stuart L J. D. M. P. A

    2011-01-01

    In the matter of the fact-finding between the Hempstead Union Free School District, employer, and the United Public Service Employees Union, union. PERB case no. M2009-300. Before: Stuart L. Bass, fact finder.

  14. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  15. Mass estimation in the breakups of Soviet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the mass of the parent satellite from the mass of the debris remaining from its breakup using a technique based on the decay rate and radar cross-section time history. The decay of perigee and apogee with time of an object in orbit provides the area-to-mass ratio and the radar cross-section provides a measure of the effective area of the object, while combining the two gives the mass of the object. The technique has been successfully applied to 12 U.S. breakups and one Arianespace breakup. Calculations exhibiting good agreement with reference mass are also discussed for Soviet intact C-class boosters, intact ASAT target satellites, and intact navigational satellites. It is found that the calculated mass of the ASAT interceptor spacecraft is about one-half of the expected mass, but it is pointed out that this may be due to fuel carried on board. For ASAT target breakups the calculated mass is 20-30 times too low; no clear explanation can yet be found for this phenomenon.

  16. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for non-unions and delayed fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaden, Wolfgang; Fischer, Andreas; Sailler, Andreas; Karadas, Ender

    2005-04-01

    Although the primary management of fractures is highly developed in Central Europe 1% of fractures develop a non-union. After successful pilot studies the Traumacenter Meidling started in December 1998 to treat non-unions regularly with shock wave therapy. From December 1998 to August 2004, 1153 patients with non-union and delayed healing fractures were treated. The results of 755 patients are available up to September 2004. The patients consisted of 250 (33%) female and 505 (67%) male. The mean age was 44.1 years (10; 90). The mean age of the non-union was 15.5 months. In 74 (10%) osteomyelitis was present before shockwave therapy. Out of 755 non-unions 593 (79%) achieved bony healing. As expected, the subgroup of 284 delayed unions (shockwave therapy 3-6 months after the trauma or the last surgery concerning the bone) showed the best results. 245 (86%) healed. Out of 471 non-unions being older than 6 months 348 (72%) achieved bony healing. Because of the efficacy and the lack of complications as well as the economic advantage in comparison to surgery, shockwave therapy is considered as therapy of first choice in the treatment of non-union and delayed healing fractures.

  17. Attitudes Toward Labor Held by Young Blue-Collar Workers at Industrial Enterprises in the Soviet Era and the Post-Soviet Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temnitskii, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    As is well known, a worker's attitude toward labor is to a considerable extent determined by his age. During the Soviet era this was the cause of many problems, such as the high turnover in cadres, very poor labor discipline, and the decline of labor's role in the system of value orientations. Researchers pointed out that it was most often young…

  18. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

  19. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

  20. Virginia Tech - Union/Find

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cliff Shaffer

    Allows users to select set sizes of from 8 to 20 nodes, and then perform union operations on them. The result on the disjoint set is shown. Steps are explained as the user makes the connections. Shows both the union/find physical array and the logical (tree) view. The message panel clearly explains each step. Shows results either with or without path compression. Changes in the trees shown with animation and color. Should be a good way to show students a data structure and algorithm that they often have trouble with. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

  1. Soviet immigration in Israel: consequences for family planning and abortion services.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1991-09-01

    The massive influx of Soviet immigrants to Israel is expected to significantly increase the number of application for a legal abortion (AFLA). In 1990, about 200,000 people, most of them from the USSR, immigrated to Israel. This group included almost 50,000 women of childbearing age. In the USSR, abortion is extremely frequent. Estimates of the number of legal and illegal abortions for 1988 range from 9.5-11 million. An average Soviet women has close to 5 abortions during her lifetime. Some of the reasons for such a high rate of abortion include the lack of available contraceptives, the exaggeration of the possible dangers of modern contraceptives on the part of Soviet physicians, and the social and psychological acceptance of abortion by Soviet women as a routine medical procedure. Considering the number of AFLA from earlier Soviet immigrants, requests for abortions will increase. Data from 1988 indicates that USSR-born Israeli women (who arrived during a wave of immigration in the 1970s) had a general rate of AFLA 26% higher than the total rate for Jewish Israeli women. And for women age 20-29, the AFLA rate was 50% higher for USSR-born women than for Israeli women. The article estimates that the wave of new arrivals will lead to a 10% increase in the number of AFLA. The new wave of Soviet immigrants means that the government will need to expand its family planning services. The immediate implication of the family planning services. The immediate implication of the influx, though, is that the government will need to establish additional abortion medical committees to guarantee fair access to abortion. But since many of the would be aborting Soviet women are married, many will not meet the current abortion law criteria, and this will lead to an increase in the number of illegal abortions. PMID:12284556

  2. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  3. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  4. International Union for Quaternary Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) discusses quaternary scientists' investigations "to interpret the changing world of the glacial ages and their impact on our planet's surface environments.". Researchers can find out about INQUA-funded projects, meetings, scientific commissions, and INQUA's two publicaions, Quaternary International, and Quaternary Perspectives.

  5. Positive fast sealing union connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleber, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Union connections are designed for connecting high pressure flexible hoses from gas storage manifolds to gas transport trailers. Connection uses O ring seals which can be quickly assembled and disassembled without use of wrenches, and which do not twist hose. Worn or damaged O rings are easily replaced.

  6. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  7. Do Unions Affect Faculty Salaries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashraf, Javed

    1992-01-01

    Calculates the union relative wage effect for a large sample of college faculty in the United States. The data used are from "The 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate" and cover 4,250 faculty members at 158 institutions of higher education. Faculty characteristics are found to be more important in influencing salaries in nonunion schools than…

  8. FINITE UNIONS OF INTERPOLATION SEQUENCES

    E-print Network

    Schuster, Alex

    FINITE UNIONS OF INTERPOLATION SEQUENCES Peter Duren and Alexander P. Schuster Abstract. A unified. Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 PETER DUREN AND ALEXANDER P. SCHUSTER maps Hp onto p if and only if {zk to be independent of p and were described geomet- rically in a theorem of Carleson [2]. (See also Duren [3

  9. A preliminary assessment of Soviet development of optimum signal discrimination techniques: Optimum space-time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, J. W.

    1982-10-01

    This study provides an overview of Soviet work in the subject of optimum signal discrimination techniques. Its purpose is to aid U.S. scientists in becoming more familiar with an extensive signal processing effort of which they undoubtedly have had little prior awareness. It provides general substantive comment and bibliographic resource materials. If this work is successful in accomplishing its goal, it will serve as an example of reverse technology transfer. The Soviets have, for several decades, taken a more rigorous statistical approach to the study of oceanic processes and the theory of detection signals in the ocean environment than has the United States. The Soviets view this environmental as non-Gaussian, nonstationary, and nonwhite, and do not avoid the complications this presents to the formulation of the theory of optimum signal detection and estimation. There appears to be poor U.S. access to this work. The United States would probably benefit from selected uses of Soviet theory and algorithm developments in this topic. Soviet development of optimum signal detection and estimation techniques is broadly based, covering various aspects of radar, sonar, and communications. They have an extensive program in the development of optimum space-time processing (OSTP) and have extended the theory further than has the U.S. Their effort is based on the Karhunen-Loeve expansion extended to nonstationary space-time signals and noise.

  10. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology. PMID:11568130

  11. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section 704.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate...

  12. 12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Wholesale corporate credit unions. 704.19 Section 704.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.19 Wholesale...

  13. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section 704.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate...

  14. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section 704.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate...

  15. 12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Wholesale corporate credit unions. 704.19 Section 704.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.19 Wholesale...

  16. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. JOIN THE GLOBAL UNION'S EXECUTIVE BOARD! The Global Union, Lehigh's largest and most active student organization,

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    JOIN THE GLOBAL UNION'S EXECUTIVE BOARD! The Global Union, Lehigh's largest and most active student Presidents and related entities, represent the Global Union to the Lehigh community, be responsible for the Global Union affairs, preside over all Executive Board meetings, manage GU branding efforts with the Vice

  18. UNC Charlotte Student Union Page 1 University of North Carolina at Charlotte Student Union

    E-print Network

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    UNC Charlotte Student Union Page 1 University of North Carolina at Charlotte Student Union Laptop Checkout Policy 1.0 PURPOSE 1.1 Six Laptop Computers are available for checkout at the Student Union Policy can be revised at anytime to suit the needs of UNC Charlotte and the Student Union. 2

  19. Would you civil union me? Taxation and civil unions in France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Would you civil union me? Taxation and civil unions in France Marion Leturcq (PSE and CREST the decision to contract a civil union, which is a less binding marital contract. In France, since 1999, couples can either contract a mar- riage or a civil union (pacs). I assess the impact of taxation

  20. Science policies in the European Union

    E-print Network

    Science policies in the European Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality might be made of the following information. A great deal of additional information on the European Union Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality A report prepared for the European

  1. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452...1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section...officers which is advanced through the use of union funds to criticize or praise any...

  2. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452...1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section...officers which is advanced through the use of union funds to criticize or praise any...

  3. PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION

    E-print Network

    Beissinger, Steven R.

    PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION Ornithological Monographs S R. B , J R. W , D G. C Ornithologists' Union, has been established for major papers and presentations too long for inclusion in the Union's journal, The Auk. All material in this monograph may be copied for noncommercial purposes

  4. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452...1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section...officers which is advanced through the use of union funds to criticize or praise any...

  5. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  6. Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED ______________________________________________________

    E-print Network

    Jefferys, William

    #12;#12;Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pick-up All orders are to be picked up at the Texas Union Hospitality Center desk in the south end West with the Texas Union Policies and Procedures. I understand that I will be held responsible for any debts incurred

  7. WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY The International Union,

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT Between WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY and The International Union, U.A.W. and its W.S.U. Professional and Administrative Union, Local 1979, U.A.W. August 1, 2012 ­ July 31, 2016 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS. UNION RIGHTS

  8. UNION CONSTRUCTION JOB FAIR SPONSORED BY

    E-print Network

    Grishok, Alla

    UNION CONSTRUCTION JOB FAIR SPONSORED BY: EVENT COORDINATOR: To support subcontracting efforts to hire fully qualified local*, women and minority union members for construction projects at Columbia University Register by Friday, September 6, 2013 at http://UnionJobFair2013.eventbrite.com Date: Tuesday

  9. Understanding Reenlistment in the Union Army

    E-print Network

    Understanding Reenlistment in the Union Army during the American Civil War Mario Trottini and John that influenced the reelinst­ ment decision of the volunteers who fought in the Union Army during the American army, though enlarged for the war, could not supply such a number of men. Both the Union

  10. STAFF UNION REPRESENTATIVES & CAMPUS STEWARDS CSU, FULLERTON

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    STAFF UNION REPRESENTATIVES & CAMPUS STEWARDS CSU, FULLERTON (Revised 06/2009) UNIT ASSOCIATION ADMINISTRATOR (PHONE) 1 Federation of the Union of American Physicians & Dentists 12230 Venice Blvd. Ste 27 Los Employees Union 1129 10 th Street Sacramento, CA 95814 (866) 763-1452 Rebecca Beal 7031 Via Vista Dr

  11. Programming With Intersection Types, Union Types,

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Programming With Intersection Types, Union Types, and Polymorphism Benjamin C. Pierce February 5. The dual notion, union types, also appears to have practical interest. For example, by refining types ordinarily considered as atomic, union types allow a restricted form of abstract interpretation

  12. The effect of unionism on fringe benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Freeman

    1981-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of unionism on fringes paid to production workers, using data on individual establishments. It compares fringe expenditures in establishments having the same level of compensation per hour and finds that unionism raises the share of compensation allotted to fringes, particularly to pensions, vacation pay, and life, accident, and health insurance. In addition, since unionism also

  13. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452...1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section...officers which is advanced through the use of union funds to criticize or praise any...

  14. Parallel Volume Computation of Massive Polyhedron Union

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Parallel Volume Computation of Massive Polyhedron Union W. Randolph Franklin Rensselaer Polytechnic) Parallel Volume Computation of Massive Polyhedron Union 25 Oct 2013 1 / 25 #12;Large Geometric Datasets vs (RPI) Parallel Volume Computation of Massive Polyhedron Union 25 Oct 2013 2 / 25 #12;Parallel HW

  15. Students' Union Council Bye-Elections

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Students' Union Council Bye-Elections: Candidate Information (November 2011) #12;Thank you for showing an interest in being elected to your Students' Union Council. The following guide should help as a member of Council, contact: sucouncil@sheffield.ac.uk More information can also be found at: http://www.shef.ac.uk/union

  16. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452...1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section...officers which is advanced through the use of union funds to criticize or praise any...

  17. The First Attempts to Unionize the Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Faculty unionization is an important topic in modern higher education, but the history of the phenomenon has not yet been fully considered. This article brings together issues of professionalization and unionization and provides needed historical background to ongoing unionization efforts and debates. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  18. FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS

    E-print Network

    List of FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS in the United States, 1968 UNITED STATES LIST OF FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1968 By Branch of Foreign fishermen!s and fish shore workers! unions only. The list was originally compiled February 1948

  19. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  20. A Union by Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Terry M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how teacher unions influence public-school policies through collective bargaining; local, state and national politics; and opposition to certain school-reform initiatives such as school choice. States that unions pursue policies that benefit teachers rather than students. Suggests that as school choice spreads, power of teacher unions