These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Changes in Economic Education in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in economic education, economic research, and management training in the former Soviet Union since 1985. Contends that the demise of the Soviet command economy has left economics education in a shambles. Concludes that management training is blooming in the first stages of capitalism and will be a base for the renewal of…

Aslund, Anders

1992-01-01

2

Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

Hewett, A.

1984-01-01

3

Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

Osipian, Ararat L.

2004-01-01

4

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

E-print Network

Chernobyl This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl Patrick Hostert1 were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While

Radeloff, Volker C.

5

The Soviet Union: Political and military trends  

SciTech Connect

On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

1990-01-01

6

Proliferation and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

Not Available

1994-09-01

7

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

2011-10-01

8

Ethnicity in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Soviet Union, ethnicity is the major force for change. It is a multiethnic society, where the Russians constitute the ruling majority. The country's political system recognizes the ethnic principle in a federal state structure, but the real power is exercised by a unitary and highly centralized Communist party. The ruling ideology of Marxism-Leninism postulates class-based internation alism as

Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone

1977-01-01

9

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Teachers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was produced to provide K-12 teachers with basic materials on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, because U.S. textbooks frequently ignore this part of the world. These units about the Soviet Union include information on geography, education, lifestyles, government, the Communist Party, economics, and religion. Suggestions for…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

10

Comparative drought strategies: the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes agriculture in the Soviet Union as it is affected by climate. In contrast to North America, where gradients of temperature and moisture are perpendicular to each other, in the Soviet Union these gradients run in opposite directions, so that the optimal areas for agriculture are quite limited. A national policy of self-sufficiency in all agricultural commodities has

Lydolph

2009-01-01

11

Atlas of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

Young, Harry F.

12

Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

Not Available

1986-01-01

13

Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

Stevens, Robert E.

1987-01-01

14

Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

Horak, W.C.

1997-07-01

15

Adult Mortality in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mortality in the Soviet Union improved rapidly in the years immediately following World War II, so that in the mid-1960s life\\u000a expectancies in countries such as Russia and Ukraine were similar to those of the United States. However, this improvement\\u000a was not sustained; levels of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union today are similar to those found 50 years

Michael Murphy

16

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

1989-01-01

17

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power

Ponomarev-Stepnoi

1989-01-01

18

Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

Winokur, Marshall

1981-01-01

19

Medical education in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

After World War I, medical education in the Soviet Union and medical education in the United States headed in strikingly divergent directions. In keeping with the recommendations of the Flexner report, medical education in the United States became a university-based academic discipline based in the natural sciences. In contrast, the Soviet Union created a series of free-standing medical institutes whose admission, curricular, and pedagogic policies were centrally controlled in strict conformity with political doctrine. Notable features of the Soviet system were narrowly defined professional education; early specialization, beginning in the first year of medical school; and emphasis on empirical clinical training at the expense of scientifically based education. Despite the historical differences between Soviet and American medical education, there are several issues that face present-day medical educators in both the United States and the Soviet successor states. These include an overabundance of specialists, the need to provide equitable professional opportunities for physicians of both sexes, and the need to provide access to medical education for qualified candidates from underrepresented social or ethnic groups or from geographically remote regions. PMID:8615926

Barr, D A; Schmid, R

1996-02-01

20

The Collapse of the Soviet Union: TwentyYears On  

E-print Network

elections in Kyrgyzstan Dmitry V. Efremenko Eco-nationalism and the crisis of the Soviet empire (1986The Collapse of the Soviet Union: TwentyYears On The IARCEES annual conference is to be held) in conversation with Professor Ron Hill (Trinity College Dublin): The collapse of the Soviet Union twenty years

O'Mahony, Donal E.

21

Teaching about the Soviet Union. ERIC Digest No. 42.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the global significance of Soviet-U.S. relations, elementary and secondary school students should learn about the Soviet Union, but most students graduate from high school with little knowledge and many misconceptions about this country. It is important to teach about the Soviet Union because of: (1) its emphasis in the U.S. media; (2) its…

Citti, Lori A.

22

Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

Khabibullov, Marat

1991-11-01

23

The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.  

PubMed

Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a pronatalist policy which they hope will lead to an increase in fertility, at least among the dominant Slavic groups of the multinational country. More than 9 billion rubles (U.S. $12.2 billion) is to be spent over the next 5 years to implement measures aimed at increasing state aid to families with children, to be carried out step by step in different regions of the country. It is this writer's opinion that overall fertility is not likely to increase markedly despite the recent efforts of the central authorities, and the Russian share of the total population will probably continue to drop while that of Central Asian Muslim peoples increases. PMID:12264357

Feshbach, M

1982-08-01

24

The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.  

PubMed

Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning. PMID:12336442

Di Maio, A J

1980-04-01

25

The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense  

SciTech Connect

In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

Parrott, B.

1987-01-01

26

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

Spearman, M. L.

1984-01-01

27

Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Rand Corporation examines issues with respect to the former Soviet Union. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration, (available in .pdf format only) is "an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." It contains 10 papers, divided by region, as well as 4 papers on prospects for future cooperation and integration.

1996-01-01

28

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent

Patrick Hostert; Tobias Kuemmerle; Alexander Prishchepov; Anika Sieber; Eric F. Lambin; Volker C. Radeloff

2011-01-01

29

Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

1991-12-01

30

School health: a national policy issue in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

In the Soviet Union school health services are provided as an integral part of the health care delivery system, which is under the Ministry of Health. This paper presents an overview of the Soviet health care delivery system, the model for the delivery of school health services, the role and training of school personnel involved in school health services and implications the Soviet model may have for other countries. PMID:6550685

Stone, E J

1983-02-01

31

The Soviet Union in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is how historians and others have understood Soviet history since the demise of the Soviet Union. It is argued that, despite the opening of archives, changes in interpretation have been driven as much by external political and disciplinary developments as by greater availability of data. Important external considerations have been the Cold War and the

Sheila Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

32

International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon production, testing, and deterrence and now includes the environment, human and economic health, and the proliferation of weapons-of-mass destruction. For these reasons the fall of the Soviet Union provides a new imperative and opportunity for systematic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary international efforts to begin to solve these important environmental problems. The environmental degradation from nuclear contamination affecting states of the former Soviet Union is a large topic, and a full description is outside the scope of this paper. A comprehensive overview of environmental concerns and radioactive waste production, inventories, and impacted sites is provided by others. Portions of the summaries provided here are drawn from these works.

Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

2003-07-27

33

Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties  

SciTech Connect

A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

1991-12-01

34

The Soviet Union in the Third World: Purpose in Search of Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Soviet Union inherited its ideological commitment to revolution in the Third World from Lenin, it was only in Khrushchev's time, after industrialization and victory in World War II had made the Soviet Union a world power, that this commitment became an important component of Soviet foreign policy. Khrushchev envisaged a fairly rapid transition by postcolonial states toward Soviet-type

Fritz Ermarth

1969-01-01

35

Agriculture of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food production in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is described; the opportunities and limitations of the region's land resources for agriculture are examined; and the evolution of the institutional structures of agriculture are discussed. Recent developments to improve the food supply are outlined. (RM)

Stebelsky, Ihor

1985-01-01

36

The religious dimension of ethnic conflict in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic conflict to the point of violence and demands for separation from the USSR emerged as a principal political issue in the Soviet Union not long after Gorbachev's general program of radical reform was launched. Ethnic conflict is by nature complex, invariably multi-dimensional, multitiered, and involving a broad range of factors. This essay examines the religious dimension of such conflict

James W. Warhola

1991-01-01

37

Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

1991-01-01

38

Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward

1995-01-01

39

Physical Education and Sport in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents perceptions of the world of sport and physical education gained during a study-tour of the Soviet Union in 1977. This broad overview of individual and governmental involvement in physical activities includes the following--a survey of physical education and public participation in sport in tsarist Russia, governmental policy…

Maetozo, Matthew G.

40

Language Policy and Practice in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are more than 100 ethnic groups or nationalities in the Soviet Union. Many of these still speak their own native language. To accelerate mass education, these native languages are used in K-12 schools; however, the Russian language is promoted as the main language of science, technology, and international discourse. (RM)

Silver, Brian D.

1985-01-01

41

Regional input into centralized economic planning: The case of Soviet Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses the case of the Soviet Union to demonstrate that in centrally planned economies there remain both incentives and channels for regional administrators to express local interests to the center and have these interests reflected in national policy decisions. Debate over future economic development in Soviet Central Asia is fascinating in what it reveals concerning the nature of

Terese S. Zimmer

1985-01-01

42

Soviet America: Popular Responses to the United States in Post-World War II Soviet Union  

E-print Network

finally began to address the fact that this conflict was not just diplomatic or geo-political in nature. At the time of the Berlin Airlift and the Cuban Missile Crisis, both the Soviet Union and the U.S. also waged battles for the hearts and minds (to use...

Avramov, Konstantin

2012-08-31

43

Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

Lesperance, A.M.

1992-05-01

44

Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

Not Available

1990-01-01

45

The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

1986-01-01

46

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

Spearman, M. L.

1983-01-01

47

Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former senior scientist (mensuration) for the Soviet Committee on Forests, now a scholar at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, has provided abundant contributions from the data available to him and from his experience. Forest stand carbon is concentrated in the Russian Far East (i.e. Primorski Kray), Central-Southern Siberia and European Russia But, soil carbon can be 10 times forest stand C. Our efforts in mapping the area and changes in area (as well as the internal structure) of forests have made major contributions to our joint understanding of the scale and status of these forests. To realize the importance of this contribution one needs only to recognize that any large scale Soviet-era maps of the area did not include latitude and longitude. Even today, there is great reluctance to provide these data, the basis of any GIS.

Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

1997-01-01

48

Area Handbook for the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Areas Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on objective…

Keefe, Eugene K.; And Others

49

Former Soviet Union oil production and GDP decline: Granger causality and the multi-cycle Hubbert curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the transition of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) within the context of a 1987–1996 Soviet and FSU oil production decline. The conventional explanation of the break-up is that economic inefficiencies and the Cold War defense build-up caused it. Another possible explanation, one that is examined at length here, is that declining oil production was a contributing factor.

Douglas B. Reynolds; Marek Kolodziej

2008-01-01

50

Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. (Lomonosov State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. (All-Union Petroleum Geological Research Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

1991-02-01

51

Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States

Dunaway

1995-01-01

52

Convergences between East and West: Tradition and Modernity in Sex Roles in Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the participation of men and women in the agricultural and nonagricultural labor force during the 20th century, the present division of household tasks at home, and sex role attitudes are examined in Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union. Time and rate of industrialization, economical and ideological factors are used as explaining factors.There has not been any equivalent to

Elina Haavio-Mannila

1971-01-01

53

Convergences between East and West: Tradition and Modernity in Sex Roles in Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the participation of men and women in the agricultural and nonagricultural labor force during the 20th century, the present division of household tasks at home, and sex role attitudes are examined in Sweden, Finland and the Soviet Union. Time and rate of industrialization, economical and ideological factors arc used as explaining factors.There has not been any equivalent to

Elina Haavio-Mannila

1971-01-01

54

Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

Shipilov, Andrew

55

[History of psychotherapy in Russia and the Soviet Union].  

PubMed

Previously, articles on and contributions to the history of psychotherapy proceeded on the assumption that the most essential sources were to be found in Anglo-Saxon and German literature. Developments in other civilizations were usually treated as undeserving of consideration. It is important to note that a large amount of specialized literature on psychotherapy has been published in the Soviet Union, and this shows that a great importance is attached in that country to the treatment of nervous and mental disorders by psychological methods. A review of the writings of S. S. Korsakov and V. M. Bekhterev shows that the essential principles of group psychotherapy had been recognized by those authors already in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, respectively. Results achieved by Makarenko appear valuable in the light of what we know today. The method of "collective psychotherapy", which was first described by Libch, is discussed in detail. This method is being widely used in the Soviet Union. The concern of this paper is to describe developments which have not so far been covered in our literature, thus attempting to make an addition to psychotherapeutic activity in this country. PMID:343134

Eichhorn, H; Stern, G

1977-10-01

56

Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events

Rigby

1988-01-01

57

Education and Juvenile Delinquency in the Soviet Union: A Look at the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews accounts covering the last 20 years of the educational system in the Soviet Union and of the treatment of juvenile delinquency in that country. Similarities and differences between methods employed in the Soviet Union and in the Western democracies are noted. (Author)

Barth, J. L.

1978-01-01

58

The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

Reikofski, Joyce

59

Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.  

PubMed

At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1 child can make substitutions between having more children and raising the quality of children already born. The question is what does the model predict will happen to fertility with economic development. The positive income effect will be limited as increased income is channelled into child quality and other superior goods rather than child quantity. The Urlanis-Strumilin model of labor supply assumes that the household allocates its time among market employment, household production. The model shows that the effect of children on female labor supply is not ambiguous. The presence of young children raises the value of home services and lowers long run market wages, thereby reducing female market labor supply. According to the model, the socialist state can manipulate labor supplies through several channels. It can reduce the value of home services by providing market substitutes. Soviet writers recognize the linkages between labor supply and fertility without formalizing the simultaneous relationship. The comparative statics of the Soviet model are essentially the same as those of the neoclassical model: an increase in "costs" of children will have, at best, a small positive impact on fertility. PMID:12265719

Gregory, P

1983-06-01

60

EXPLAINING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN POST-SOVIET RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND BELARUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the impact of the economic collapse of the former Soviet Union on the lives of ordinary people in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus using qualitative as well as quantitative data. We argue that to understand the impact of the transformation it is necessary to take a sociological approach. To provide a framework for our analysis we use

Pamela Abbott; Claire Wallace

2010-01-01

61

Two Dimensions to Economic Incorporation: Soviet Immigrants in the Israeli Labour Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic integration of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union into the Israeli labour market in terms of occupational and earnings mobility (i.e. decreasing occupational and earnings disparities) in comparison with several Israeli Jewish sub-populations. Using data from annual Income Surveys conducted by the Israel Bureau of Statistics between the years 1995 and 2006, we find little

Anastasia Gorodzeisky; Moshe Semyonov

2011-01-01

62

Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and Other Nations  

E-print Network

71(1) 39 Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and Other Nations of Australia and western Oceania). Where possible, we summarize legal and illegal Soviet catches by year-exploitation levels despite reported strong growth rates off eastern and western Australia. Popula- tions in many

63

Censorship in translation in the Soviet Union in the Stalin and Khrushchev eras   

E-print Network

This thesis examines the censorship of translated literature in the Soviet Union between the 1930s and the 1960s. Reconsidering traditional understandings of censorship, I employ a theoretical approach influenced by ...

Sherry, Samantha

2012-11-27

64

Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

1993-09-01

65

Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

Kreindler, Isabelle

1997-01-01

66

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day  

PubMed Central

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

67

Family planning in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: are things changing?  

PubMed

In the postwar period, when population growth declined precipitously in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, governments in these countries adopted pronatalist population policies and restricted access to contraception. It will be interesting to observe the impact of recent social and political changes in this region on access to family planning services, including voluntary sterilization. For example, Yugloslovia is considering new legislation to make contraception more available and Romania recently overturned its restrictive abortion law. Family planning organizations in Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, and, most recently, the Soviet Union have affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Clinics for the distribution of contraceptives have been established in East Germany, Hungary, and Poland. Although reliable data on contraceptive practices in this region are unavailable, traditional methods (such as withdrawal or rhythm) appear to be used most widely. Obstetricians-gynecologists, the only health care providers authorized to provide the pill and IUD, lack medical training in family planning and are often reluctant to make these methods available. Particularly inaccessible to couples in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is sterilization, referred to in Soviet legislation as a "social danger." Given the limited access to reliable means of contraception, illegal abortion is a significant means of fertility control in this region and results in thousands of deaths. Because of the diversity of cultures, religions, and ethnic groups in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, family planning services are likely to develop in the years ahead in ways specific to the individual countries. PMID:12283252

Harper, P B

1990-04-01

68

Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

Weaver, Kitty D.

69

Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

Chernyak, Yuri

2005-03-01

70

Capital Flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 1998Foreign direct investment and, more recently, short-term debt and portfolio flows have become important parts of private capital flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Private flows have increased in response to reform efforts, the buildup of reserves, and prospective membership in the European Union.Private capital flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the former

Daniel Oks; Rossana Polastri; Stijn Claessens

1999-01-01

71

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

72

Evolution of AIDS policy in the Soviet Union. I. Serological screening 1986-7.  

PubMed

In a two-article series, a research scientist from Britain's National Institute for Medical Research reports on the Soviet Union's response to AIDS. The first article reviews Soviet policy in 1986-1987 when AIDS was regarded as a "Western" disease confined to certain risk groups that did not exist officially in the USSR. Small scale mandatory screening programs in 1986 and 1987 resulted in the deportation of HIV-positive foreigners and the apparent isolation of HIV-positive Soviets. A 1987 decree provided for mandatory HIV testing of all foreigners living in the USSR and for severe penalties for HIV carriers who placed others at risk of infection. Recent outbreaks of AIDS blamed on improperly sterilized hospital needles may convince Soviet authorities to begin an active campaign for AIDS prevention. PMID:2337704

Medvedev, Z A

1990-03-31

73

New Private Enterprises in Three Transitional Contexts: Central Europe, the Former Soviet Union and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the new private businesses that have been created in three transitional (from communism) contexts: Central Europe (Hungary, Poland and Slovakia), the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Georgia and Ukraine) and Asia (China). There have been major differences among these world regions in the contexts created for the development of new enterprises: in the pace of change, the extent

Ken Roberts; Changcheng Zhou

2000-01-01

74

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

75

A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

76

A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used by the Soviet Union for many different types of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear effects tests. Taking our information principally from numerous books and papers in Russian published from 1988 to 2003, we describe the test site history and facilities, the early underwater tests, the many atmospheric tests from 1957 to 1962, and

VITALY I. KHALTURIN; TATYANA G. RAUTIAN; PAUL G. RICHARDS; WILLIAM S. LEITH

2005-01-01

77

POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

78

Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

2012-01-01

79

Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former

Teena M. McGuinness; John P. McGuinness; Janyce G. Dyer

2000-01-01

80

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

81

Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

2006-01-01

82

CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

83

Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

1976-01-01

84

Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

2005-01-01

85

Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2011-01-01

86

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

87

Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

2004-01-01

88

The Role of Language Instruction in Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union (USSR) is an immense multinational and multilingual country. At the time of the Revolution (1917) there were 150 national languages spoken in the USSR and 180 recognized linguistic groups, however, 70% of the total population of the USSR was illiterate and the literacy rate of the Middle Asia varied from 1% to 5%. After 1917, mass…

Gale, Tatiana P.

89

Regional Science in the Former Soviet Union: History and New Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional science, as it exists in the West, is only now beginning to emerge in the former Soviet Union. Before perestroika, the focus of regional science was on the national economy and how to make the various regions fit into and contribute to it. Now the focus has shifted to satisfying individual needs and wants through the development of regions.

Leonard A. Kozlov; Boris M. Shtoulberg

1992-01-01

90

The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

2012-01-01

91

Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to provide middle school and high school teachers and others interested in Russia and the Soviet Union with a guide to printed materials, this booklet is divided into several sections. The first section, comprising the bulk of the publication, is devoted to reviews of 69 books that were written for classroom use or appear as if they might…

Talbot, Elizabeth, Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

92

The Link between Libraries and Publishing in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the various ways in which publishers and libraries work together in the Soviet Union to ensure the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP). The general library and publishing situation in the USSR, the distribution of materials to libraries, library acquisitions, cataloging and standardization, and specialized publishing are…

Kartasov, N. S.

1982-01-01

93

THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY WAS…

NASH, EDMUND

94

VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

Papadopoulou, Demetra

2012-02-01

95

Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former soviet union.  

PubMed

Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs. PMID:23955168

Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

2015-04-01

96

Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Study objective: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989–2000. Design: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality were evaluated through life expectancy at birth and age standardised mortality rates. Relative differences were assessed by mortality rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals, calculated using Poisson regression. Setting: Estonia before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Participants: Individual cause specific death data for 1987–1990 (69 549 deaths) and for 1999–2000 (33 809 deaths) came from the national mortality database. Population denominators came from the population censuses of 1989 and 2000. Main results: In the period 1989–2000, ethnic differences in life expectancy increased from 0.4 years to 6.1 years among men and from 0.6 years to 3.5 years among women. In 2000, Russians had a higher mortality than Estonians in all age groups and for almost all selected causes of death. The largest differences were found for some alcohol related causes of death especially in 2000. Conclusions: Political and economic upheaval, increasing poverty, and alcohol consumption can be considered the main underlying causes of the widening ethnic mortality gap. PMID:15194720

Leinsalu, M.; Vagero, D.; Kunst, A.

2004-01-01

97

Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

Gomez, Leo S.

1999-06-04

98

Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

99

Invisible weapons of mass destruction: The Soviet Union's BW programme and its implications for contemporary arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union secretly pursued an offensive biological weapons programme which gave it overwhelming superiority with regard to these weapons of mass destruction over the United States and other Western countries. This article traces the origins of the Soviet BW effort and it is within this historical context that explanations are sought for the expansion

Anthony Rimmington

2000-01-01

100

The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the Former Soviet Union, Cuba and China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, this website offers digitized images of both famous and obscure political propaganda posters. The ninety-nine posters are presented on three pages, one each for the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Even users with high-bandwidth connections should be patient when accessing these pages, since thumbnails for all thirty-some images load at once. A general introduction heads each page, and artist, title and date are listed for the posters. Each thumbnail links to a larger image of the poster, along with publication and production information and a descriptive caption. Separate pages provide information on the collections and the designers of the posters. Date coverage varies: 1919 to 1938 for the Soviet Union, 1962 to 1968 for Cuba, and c.1950 to 1992 for China. Once ubiquitous, now rarely seen, these posters have found new life on the Web.

1997-01-01

101

Extensional basins of the former Soviet Union — structure, basin formation mechanisms and subsidence history  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the structure and evolution of a number of Riphean-Phanerozoic rifts and extensional basins within the territory of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Horst-and-graben formation in strong crustal and subcrustal lithosphere layers can explain the multi-trough character of rift systems observed in the Russian platform, the Vilyuy rift, the West Siberian rift system, the Pechora-Kolva rift system and the

L. I. Lobkovsky; S. A. P. L. Cloetingh; A. M. Nikishin; Yu. A. Volozh; A. C. Lankreijer; S. L. Belyakov; V. G. Groshev; P. A. Fokin; E. E. Milanovsky; L. A. Pevzner; V. I. Gorbachev; M. A. Korneev

1996-01-01

102

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

Telen, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

103

Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

Telen, Marilyn J

2014-01-01

104

Computer Technology in Eastern European Countries and the Former Soviet Union: An Interpretative Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of 44 information sources on computer technology in Eastern Europe. Topics addressed include the history of computer technology in former Soviet Bloc countries; computer use in the economic, military, and educational sectors; information technology and its effect on society; and technology transfer and East-West…

Jankowska, Maria Anna

1993-01-01

105

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-06-01

106

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

White, P.C.

1995-12-31

107

Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1990-05-01

108

Minorities, Mullahs and Modernity: Reshaping Community in the Former Soviet Union  

E-print Network

Modernization and National Policy in Soviet Cen - tral Asia:national-statehood in Soviet political dis- course, Soviet policiesSoviet institution of territorially based national-statehood was further consolidated by promulgation of the policy

Saroyan, Mark; Walker, Edward W.

1997-01-01

109

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

110

Comparative reserves definitions: U. S. A. , Europe, and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Reserves definitions in use in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are described and discussed. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and SPE deterministic definitions and the 1983 World Petroleum Congress (WPC) probabilistic (1P, 2P, and 3P) definitions commonly used in Europe are compared with the A,B,C, and D system used in the FSU. The authors discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each system, the implication for quantification of reserves and resources in each area, and the translation difficulties between systems.

Grace, J.D.; Heather, D.I. (Troika Energy Services, Dallas, TX (United States)); Caldwell, R.H.

1993-09-01

111

Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease.  

PubMed Central

The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades. Factors contributing to the epidemic included a large population of susceptible adults; decreased childhood immunization, which compromised what had been a well-established childhood vaccination program; suboptimal socioeconomic conditions; and high population movement. The role of a change in the predominant circulating strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in this epidemic remains uncertain. Massive, well-coordinated international assistance and unprecedented efforts to vaccinate adults were needed to control the epidemic. PMID:9866730

Vitek, C. R.; Wharton, M.

1998-01-01

112

The bear awakens: Resurgence of oil and gas in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since dissolution of the Soviet Union (USSR) in late 1991, the oil and gas industries in the 15 component nations have been in a state of turmoil stemming mainly from past communist management practices and the transition to Western-style market economies and multiparty governments. As a result, oil and gas output have fallen dramatically. This study incorporates separate oil and gas production forecasts, predicted independently by onshore and offshore sectors, for each of the producing republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) over the period 1996-2005. Supply--assessed by full-cycle resource analysis--and demand, estimated from available historic and projected consumption figures, are balanced to yield a coherent picture. Production of both oil and gas for the FSU is forecast to recover strongly. Oil and condensate output--led by Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan--are forecast to rebound to 9,545 MBOPD by 2005, which will reinstate the FSU as one of the world`s premier crude exporting blocs. Natural gas output--propelled by gains in Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan--will likewise resurge, reaching a world-leading 96,051 MMCFD level, of which a large amount will be exported.

Foreman, N.E.

1996-12-31

113

Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics on Mutual Fisheries Relations  

E-print Network

Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics on Mutual Fisheries Relations (Basic Instrument For The U.S.-Russia States of America and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Mutual Fisheries

114

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

Horak, Stephan M.

115

Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

2010-01-01

116

A Comparative Analysis of Delinquency Among Youth From the Former Soviet Union and From Ethiopia in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Israel is a nation characterized by great ethnic complexity. It consists of the dominant group of native Israelis and various other immigrant ethnic groups from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the immigrants from Ethiopia. These 2 immigrant ethnic groups differ from each other both with regard to their adaptation to and the impact of Israeli society on them. The

Mally Shechory; Sarah Ben-David

2010-01-01

117

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

118

POTENTIAL EFFECT OF NO-TILL MANAGEMENT ON CARBON IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOILS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. ince the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (OSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. o-till management represents a promising option to increase the amoun...

119

Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

2005-01-01

120

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major

A. Kirilenko; N. Dronin

2010-01-01

121

Air transportation demand forecasts in emerging market economies: a case study of the Kyrgyz Republic in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to forecasting air transportation demand that was performed as part of a feasibility study for the rehabilitation of Bishkek-Manas International Airport located in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Since its separation from the former Soviet Union in August 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic has begun a transition from a planned economy to a market-based

Richard C. Cline; Terry A. Ruhl; Geoffrey D. Gosling; David W. Gillen

1998-01-01

122

Languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). Although the focus is on materials for the…

Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

123

Fairness in a tradeable-permit treaty for carbon emissions reductions in Europe and the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the distributional implications of alternative permit allocations in a tradeable permit regime for carbon emissions reductions (20% below baseline) in 2010 for a region consisting of Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Participation in such a regime is expected to hinge on the “fairness” of the distributional consequences. We find that initial permit

Peter Bohm; Bjorn Larsen

1994-01-01

124

The Soviet calculus of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

1986-01-01

125

Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-10-01

126

Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2005-01-01

127

Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the soviet union.  

PubMed

The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control. PMID:24506333

Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

2014-03-01

128

Educational Reform and Technological Change: Computing Literacy in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the 1985 Soviet national computer literacy campaign, its structure and assumptions, and computer hardware and software developed to support it. Compares Soviet and U.S. views about roles of computers in education and educational reform and the ways to promote computer use. Contains 50 references in English and descriptions of 4 Soviet

Kerr, Stephen T.

1991-01-01

129

T/sup 2/ high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem  

SciTech Connect

Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in their high-technology transfer (T/sup 2/) program. This study examines the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states in terms of the following: (1) significance of this problem to the US; (2) how the Soviets acquire American high technology; (3) how acquisition of American high technology assists the Soviet Union; (4) what the US government is doing to reduce Soviet T/sup 2/ efforts; and (5) the author's recommendations to enhance the US program to control high-technology transfer. The author offers several suggests to deal with this problem, including: establishment of ad hoc matrix organization, with representatives from both the public and private sectors; privatization of government tasks connected with the T/sup 2/ issue, e.g., the conduct by the private sector of background investigations on individuals working on classified military contracts; evaluation of the current Coordinating Committee (COCOM) agreement to treaty status; reduction of the number of items on American export control lists; and the reduction of Soviet diplomatic representation in the United States.

Smits, W.H. Jr.

1986-01-01

130

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sink of CO2 and the C budget of forest biomes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct methods: (1) ecosystem\\/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem\\/ecoregional method was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil\\/vegetation C data bases. The forest statistical approach was based on

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

131

Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States  

SciTech Connect

Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

132

Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

Thomas, Mark Andrew

133

Pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by a variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.

1993-01-01

134

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

135

Informal payments for health care in the Former Soviet Union: some evidence from Kazakstan.  

PubMed

An important feature of the health care system of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Central and Eastern Europe is the presence of informal or under-the-table payments. It is generally accepted that these represent a significant contribution to the income of medical staff. Discussions with medical practitioners suggest that for certain specialities in certain hospitals a doctor might obtain many times his official income. Yet little empirical work has been done in this area. Informal payments can be divided into those paid to health care providers and those that go directly to practitioners. They can be further divided into monetary and non-monetary. The complexity of these payments make obtaining estimates using quantitative survey techniques difficult. Estimates on contributions to the costs of medicines in Kazakstan suggest that they may add 30% to national health care expenditure. Payments to staff are likely to add substantially to this figure, although few reliable statistics exist. Research in this area is important since informal payment is likely to impact on equity in access to medical care and the efficiency of provision. The impact of attempts to reform systems using Western ideas could be reduced unless account is taken of the effect and size of the informal payment system. PMID:10178184

Ensor, T; Savelyeva, L

1998-03-01

136

Behind the nuclear curtain: Radioactive waste management in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Behind the Nuclear Curtain paints a striking picture of the USSR and now FSU nuclear waste management activities, tracing the evolution of what is likely the world`s largest nuclear waste management problem. It draws on information from hundreds of literature sources as well as the author`s first-hand knowledge of nuclear waste related events in Russia. It represents the largest compilation ever on nuclear waste management practices, past and present, in the former Soviet Union. It covers uranium mining, milling, and enrichment as well as reprocessing and disposal. Separate chapters are devoted to naval waste management and contamination of oceans and seas, as well as the conditions in the FSU and the Baltic countries and the weapons test sites. Separate chapters are devoted to Chernobyl and the three processing centers: Mayak, Tomsk, and Krasnoyark. The appendices contain information on operating and decommissioned reactors, as well as on comparative worldwide releases of radioactive into the environment, nuclear accidents, and nuclear weapons tests. Behind the Nuclear Curtain reveals some of the truths behind decades of nuclear neglect in that part of the world. The message of the book is clear: one can learn from the Russians` nuclear waste management problems; understanding their problems and helping them deal with them can provide valuable solutions to cleaning up US nuclear waste sites.

Payson, D.R. [ed.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bradley, D.J.

1997-12-31

137

Health information networking via the Internet with the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed Central

Because of the severe financial hardships associated with the transition to a market economy in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, the Internet has become a major link to health care resources for many health care workers. In 1992, the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences (UIC LHS) initiated a special support project with goals of enhancing access to international biomedical information and facilitating international professional networking for interested NIS organizations and individuals. Project objectives included an information needs assessment, development of culturally sensitive Internet training applications, information and referral services, and follow-up e-mail consultations for NIS participants. This paper reviews the historical context of the health care partnerships between the United States and the NIS, and of the UIC LHS International Health Information Networking Project. In the context of UIC, international networking cross-cultural observations, teaching techniques, a Russian training experience, and the development of a Web-based course are reported. Images PMID:9431431

Teplitskaia, H

1997-01-01

138

United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

139

The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

Perminov, V. G.

1999-01-01

140

Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

PubMed

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

141

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abbott, D.T. [Kaiser Engineering, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

142

Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Bearden, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lindler, L. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2007-01-01

143

Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

2007-01-05

144

Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.  

PubMed

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. PMID:23398609

Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

2013-07-01

145

Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

Osipian, Ararat L.

2007-01-01

146

Soviet crash program will attempt to avoid dependence on imported oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite contrary forecasts by the Central Intelligence Agency and other organizations, there is strong evidence that the Soviet Union will not accept the uncertainties of allowing Eastern Europe to rely on large quantities of imported oil from Arab countries. The evidence in official Soviet pronouncements, supported by economic statistics and trends reported in the Soviet press, suggest that the necessary

Szyndzielorz

1978-01-01

147

Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

2014-11-01

148

Analytic Reports Produced by the Directorate of Intelligence on the Former Soviet Union Declassified and Released for a March 2001 Conference at Princeton University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a sizable cross-section of the "Directorate of Intelligence's analyses of the Soviet Union's political, military, scientific, and economic structures during the period of the Cold War, 1947-1991." Unfortunately, these are accessible only via an unwieldy process involving two browser windows and a sometimes recalcitrant search engine. Instructions are provided at the first site listed. In test searches we had the most success entering either the document number or the title in the keyword search box. Users may also use a form to search by title, abstract, date created or released, and document number, but we had much less success with all of these options. The documents are presented as digitized page images.

2001-01-01

149

Danish Referendum on Economic and Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in October 2000, this document from the United Kingdom's House of Commons provides the details of the Danish referendum in which the country voted against joining Europe's common currency. The paper focuses on the country's 1992 arrangement not to proceed with the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) until it had been approved by a national referendum, and includes attention to the political campaigns for and against the referendum, public opinion, and the implications of this vote. Just 24 pages in length, this research paper gives an excellent, easy-to-understand overview of the reasons why Denmark's citizens decided to vote against joining the EMU. For more information on the Danish rejection of the Euro, see the September 29, 2000 Scout Report.

150

Reinstatement of the concept of the unconscious in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The author reports on a symposium on the concept of the unconscious held in Tbilisi, U.S.S.R., in October 1979 to which Western scientists, including psychoanalysts, were invited. He provides a brief historical review of Soviet psychology, then describes the more recent emergence of two distinct groups--"psychologists" and "antipsychologists." The "psychologists" are aware of the need for improved understanding of unconscious motivations; the "antipsychologists" maintain the physiology-oriented tradition of Pavlov. The author contrasts current Soviet views of the unconscious with those of Freud and his followers and provides an up-to-date report on current Soviet attitudes through January 1981. PMID:7015881

Chertok, L

1981-05-01

151

Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

Siddiqi, Asif A.

2000-01-01

152

Educating the Soviet Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reshaping of man to the Soviet ideal through education is the context within which the author considers three recent books on Soviet education--Shiela Fitzpatrick's "The Commissariat of Enlightenment"; J. J. Tomiak's "The Soviet Union"; and Jean Pennar's "Modernization and Diversity in Soviet Education." (JH)

Brower, Daniel P.

1973-01-01

153

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

SciTech Connect

In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

NONE

1994-12-31

154

Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.  

PubMed

The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. PMID:25011673

Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

2014-07-10

155

Ramifications of the Soviet energy situation: political, security and economic implications of the USSR's energy posture through the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the Soviet energy situation at present and projects supply and demand probabilities through the end of the century. It conludes that the Soviet Union will itself remain a net exporter of fuels in this period, but the East European requirement will severely strain Soviet export capabilities. In particular, it appears that the USSR's petroleum production will be inadequate to satiate the growing domestic and Soviet Bloc requirements for oil and, by the end of the decade, the communist countries of Europe will become net importers of petroleum. Natural gas will grow in importance, and exports will grow impressively. Coal production will be inadequate to meet planners' expectations and hydroelectric and nuclear power will make only marginal incremental contributions. The dilemma facing Soviet energy authorities is how to allocate the growing scarcity of oil production and to obtain the supplies that will be needed from abroad. The depletion of Soviet petroleum exports to West Europe will impinge greatly on the Kremlin's ability to purchase high-technology goods and grain from the West. Energy policy issues will arise as major points of division not only between the Soviet Union and the United States, but as items of contention between Washington and its Allies. Policy-makers in this country will increasingly deal with East-West energy issues in a national security context.

Cobb, T.W.

1982-01-01

156

ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

157

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

158

CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

159

The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

160

Minorities, Mullahs and Modernity: Reshaping Community in the Former Soviet Union  

E-print Network

Muslims [and] eradicating all [things] alien to Islam in [his] struggle against heresy, prejudicesprejudice is symptomatically expressed by Timur Kocaoglu, who claims that these [Muslim]Muslim religious administrations as append- ages of the Soviet state apparatus is based on a conceptual prejudice.

Saroyan, Mark; Walker, Edward W.

1997-01-01

161

The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines which of…

Boyle, George V.

162

Enlargement versus Deepening: The Trade-off Facing Economic Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between the size of an economic union and the degree of policy centralization. We consider a political economy setting in which elected representatives bargain about the degree of centralization within the union. In our model strategic delegation affects the identity of the representatives and hence the equilibrium policy outcome. We show that the relationship between

Oliver Lorz; Gerald Willmann

2008-01-01

163

Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures  

SciTech Connect

Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

Churkin, M. Jr.

1991-08-01

164

Union Retreat and Regional Economic Performance: The UK Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monastiriotis V. (2007) Union retreat and regional economic performance: the UK experience, Regional Studies41, 1–14. A panel of regional data is used to investigate the impact the well-documented decline in trade unionism in the UK had on the economic performance of its regions. The analysis departs from the traditional firm-level and cross-sectional analyses and looks at the economy-wide effects of

Vassilis Monastiriotis

2007-01-01

165

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330

G. G. Gaston; T. P. Kolchugina

1995-01-01

166

Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

2012-01-01

167

Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing

Jördis J Ott; Ari M Paltiel; Volker Winkler; Heiko Becher

2008-01-01

168

Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as well as…

Kupferberg, Natalie

169

Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

Rushby, N. J.

170

Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

1986-01-01

171

Natural gas imports from the Soviet Union: financing the North Star joint venture project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of exchanging USSR natural gas for U.S. technical and managerial know-how under the special financial arrangements of a joint venture. The United States would participate in the development of Soviet natural gas resources in exchange for payment in the form of production from the developed resources. Ideological-institutional constraints of the planned and free-market systems are

Kosnik

1975-01-01

172

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

173

Soviet energy  

SciTech Connect

As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress.

Not Available

1991-05-01

174

Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

1964-01-01

175

The Epidemiologic Vocabulary of the West and the Former Soviet Union: Different Sides of the Same Science  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this project was to develop an English-Russian Epidemiology Dictionary, which is needed for improved international collaboration in public health surveillance. Introduction As part of the US Department of Defense strategy to counter biological threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program is enhancing the capabilities of countries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) to detect, diagnose, and report endemic and epidemic, man-made or natural cases of especially dangerous pathogens. During these engagements, it was noted that Western-trained and Soviet-trained epidemiologists have difficulty, beyond that of simple translation, in exchanging ideas. The Soviet public health system and epidemiology developed independently of that of other nations. Whereas epidemiology in the West is thought of in terms of disease determinants in populations and relies on statistics to make inferences, classical Soviet epidemiology is founded on a more ecological view with the main focus on infectious diseases’ spread theory. Consequently many fundamental Soviet terms and concepts lack simple correlates in English and other languages outside the Soviet sphere; the same is true when attempting to translate from English to Russian and other languages of the FSU. Systematic review of the differences in FSU and Western epidemiologic concepts and terminology is therefore needed for strengthening understanding and collaboration in disease surveillance, pandemic preparedness, response to biological terrorism, etc. Methods Following an extensive search of the Russian and English literature by a working group of Western and FSU epidemiologists, we created a matrix containing English and Russian definitions of key epidemiologic terms found in FSU and Western epidemiology manuals and dictionaries, such as A Dictionary of Epidemiology (1), Epidemiology Manual (2) and many other sources. Particular emphasis was placed on terms relating to infectious disease surveillance, analysis of surveillance data, and outbreak investigation. In order to compare the definitions of each term and to elucidate differences in usage and existing gaps, all definitions were translated into English and Russian so that the definitions could be compared side by side and discussed by the working group. Results Six hundred and thirty one terms from 27 English and 51 Russian sources were chosen for inclusion based on their importance in applied epidemiology in either the West or the FSU. Review of the definitions showed that many terms within biosurveillance and infectious disease public health practice are used differently, and some concepts are lacking altogether in the Russian or English literature. Significant gaps in FSU epidemiology are in the areas of biostatistics and epidemiologic study designs. There are distinctive differences in FSU and Western epidemiology in the conceptualization and classification of disease transmission, surveillance practices, and control measures. Conclusions Epidemiologic concepts and definitions significantly differed in the FSU and Western literature. To improve biosurveillance and international collaboration, recognition of these differences must occur. Detailed analysis of epidemiology terminology differences will be discussed in the presentation and paper. Major limitations of the work were scarcity of prior research on the subject and lack of bilingual epidemiologists with the good understanding of FSU and Western approaches. A bilingual reference in the form of a dictionary will greatly improve mutual comprehension and collaboration in the areas of biosurveillance and public health practice.

Grigoryan, Anna; Clarke, Carmen; Zueva, Lyudmila; Chumachenko, Tetyana; Maes, Edmond F.; Smoak, Bonnie

2013-01-01

176

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account and analysis of the plan for European monetary union contained in the Maastricht Treaty. The provisions of the treaty itself are examined, showing how they evolved, what must be done to implement them, and some of the problems they will pose. Kenen goes far beyond the treaty, however, to survey and adapt recent research

Peter B. Kenen

1995-01-01

177

Environmental mobilisation and organisations in post-socialist Europe and the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

How have environmental movements and organisations evolved in the two decades since the end of state socialism? Focusing upon how the impact of external forces, the core debates concern how changing political opportunities and access to resources as a consequence of European Union accession have impacted on environmental NGOs, as well as the effects more generally of contentious transnational assistance

JoAnn Carmin; Adam Fagan

2010-01-01

178

Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

2013-12-01

179

Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

1997-01-01

180

Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Methods Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Results Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Conclusion Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin in migrants and call attention to the link between communicable and non-communicable diseases. PMID:18400085

Ott, Jördis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

2008-01-01

181

Gender-related Needs, Challenges, and Dangers in the Immigration Experience in Israel of Emerging Adults from the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews were conducted to examine gender-related patterns of adaptation and maladaptation, and the relationship between adaptation and relationships (parents, friends, and romantic partners) for 34 emerging adult immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel. Qualitative analysis highlighted gender-related needs, difficulties, and challenges following the immigration experience. Women’s adaptation was connected to mutually supportive and empathic relationships with parents,

Sophie Walsh; Shmuel Shulman

2006-01-01

182

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

1993-05-01

183

Health and depression in women from the former Soviet Union living in the United States and Israel.  

PubMed

Post-immigration adjustment is affected by demographic and health characteristics, as well as national resources. Since 1989, more than a million people emigrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to the United States and Israel. These countries differ substantially in health systems and immigrant benefits. The purpose of this study is to compare depressed mood between midlife women from the FSU who reside in the United States and Israel, controlling for demographic and health characteristics. The analysis includes 72 women, 36 from each country, who comprise subsets of larger studies and were matched on age and years since immigration. Women were aged 42-70, and immigrated fewer than 8 years prior to recruitment. Using multiple regression analyses it was found that living in the United States, having lower self-reported health status, and having arthritis predicted higher depression scores. Future cross-national interdisciplinary research should be directed toward identifying specific contextual factors that will guide interventions and influence health policy for new immigrants. PMID:16228701

Miller, Arlene Michaels; Gross, Revital

2004-10-01

184

Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-09-01

185

Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr. [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Dutz, M.

1996-12-31

186

Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union, and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. Methods Standardised cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/11 with 18000 men and women aged 18 years and above in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores. Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of ‘light’ cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures. Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco’s health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures. PMID:22705600

Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmore, Anna; Danishevski, Kirill; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

187

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

188

Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

1996-01-01

189

Improving Large-scale Biomass Burning Carbon Consumption and Emissions Estimates in the Former Soviet Union based on Fire Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the amount of biomass burned during fire events is challenging, particularly in remote and diverse regions, like those of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Historically, we have typically assumed 25 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha) is emitted, however depending on the ecosystem and severity, biomass burning emissions can range from 2 to 75 tC/ha. Ecosystems in the FSU span from the tundra through the taiga to the forest-steppe, steppe and desserts and include the extensive West Siberian lowlands, permafrost-lain forests and agricultural lands. Excluding this landscape disparity results in inaccurate emissions estimates and incorrect assumptions in the transport of these emissions. In this work, we present emissions based on a hybrid ecosystem map and explicit estimates of fuel that consider the depth of burning based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Specifically, the ecosystem map is a fusion of satellite-based data, a detailed ecosystem map and Alexeyev and Birdsey carbon storage data, which is used to build carbon databases that include the forest overstory and understory, litter, peatlands and soil organic material for the FSU. We provide a range of potential carbon consumption estimates for low- to high-severity fires across the FSU that can be used with fire weather indices to more accurately estimate fire emissions. These data can be incorporated at ecoregion and administrative territory scales and are optimized for use in large-scale Chemical Transport Models. Additionally, paired with future climate scenarios and ecoregion cover, these carbon consumption data can be used to estimate potential emissions.

Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E. I.; Kukavskaya, E.; de Groot, B.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

2012-12-01

190

Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

1995-06-01

191

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

192

Self-selection and earnings assimilation: immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States.  

PubMed

Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968-2000. Because the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled to refugee visas in the United States, the comparison can be viewed as a natural experiment in immigrants' destination choices. The results suggest that FSU immigrants to the United States are of significantly higher educational level and experience significantly faster rates of earnings assimilation in their new destination than their counterparts who immigrated to Israel. We present evidence that patterns of self-selection in immigration to Israel and the United States--on both measured and unmeasured productivity-related traits--is the main reason for these results. When the immigration regulations in the United States changed in 1989, and FSU Jewish immigrants to the United States had to rely on family reunification for obtaining immigrant visas, the adverse effects of the policy change on the type of FSU immigrants coming to the United States were minor and short-lived As early as 1992, the gaps in the educational levels between FSU immigrants coming to Israel and to the United States returned to their pre-1989 levels, and the differences in earnings assimilation of post-1989 immigrants in the United States and Israel are similar to the differences detected in the 1980s. PMID:17913015

Cohen, Yinon; Haberfeld, Yitchak

2007-08-01

193

Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary.

Mitchell, C.L.; McRee, D.I.; Peterson, N.J.; Tilson, H.A.; Shandala, M.G.; Rudnev, M.I.; Varetskii, V.V.; Navakatikyan, M.I. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-05-01

194

Economic costs of health inequalities in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn order to support the case for inter-sectoral policies to tackle health inequalities, the authors explored the economic costs of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the European Union (EU).MethodsUsing recent data on inequalities in self-assessed health and mortality covering most of the EU, health losses due to socioeconomic inequalities in health were calculated by applying a counterfactual scenario in which

Johan P Mackenbach; Willem J Meerding; Anton E Kunst

2010-01-01

195

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part I: establishing cigarette imports  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Design: Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Results: Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. Conclusions: BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact. PMID:15175531

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

196

Soviet ventures require careful structuring  

SciTech Connect

When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

Burt, J.A. (Arnold and Porter, Washington, DC (US))

1991-06-03

197

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

198

Economic Impacts of Unionization on Private Sector Employers: 1984-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic impacts of unionization on employers are difficult to estimate in the absence of large, representative data on establishments with union status information. Estimates are also confounded by selection bias, because unions could organize at highly profitable enterprises that are more likely to grow and pay higher wages. Using multiple establishment-level data sets that represent establishments that faced organizing drives

John DiNardo; David S. Lee

2004-01-01

199

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union--part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to

A B Gilmore; M McKee

2004-01-01

200

Modernization of the Teachers' Further Education System. (Based on the Experience from Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, and Poland). Further Education of Teachers Collection of Papers, Reports and Reviews. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this collection present the views of teacher educators in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Soviet Union on inservice, or "lifelong" teacher education. The first section contains five essays: (1) a new teachers' training project in Czechoslovakia; (2) further education of teachers and educational personnel in the Czechoslovak system…

Petracek, Svatopluk, Ed.; And Others

201

Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. PMID:25315487

Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

2015-02-01

202

Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD. PMID:22413759

2012-01-01

203

Rare and Endangered Species of Plants--The Soviet Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each

Thomas S. Elias

1983-01-01

204

Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991  

SciTech Connect

The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

Blacker, C.D.

1993-12-31

205

The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

Barr, D A; Field, M G

1996-01-01

206

Ethnic Enclosure in Soviet and Post-Soviet School Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we first explore the process of history writing and teaching in Soviet autonomies using the concept of ethnic enclosure as a framework to examine the way the distant past is presented in history textbooks published locally in the Soviet Union. We then show the conflicting character of ethnic historical narratives in the textbooks of rival ethnic groups

Vladimir ROUVINSKI

207

Sino-Soviet Military Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military relations between the Soviet Union and Communist China were never as close as many have assumed, and since 1960 they have been virtually nonexistent. The Chinese have accepted a penalty to their military power as part of the cost of challenging Moscow's leadership in the Com munist world. For the Soviets, the cost has been slight, though they have

Raymond L. Garthoff

1963-01-01

208

Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.  

PubMed

On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

Pavlov, I P

1992-01-01

209

Soviets and U. S. sign energy agreement  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the agreement between the Soviet State Fuel and the US Department of Energy for cooperation in the development of coal, oil, and gas technologies, and technical exchange on power generation. Topics include the unsettled nature of the Soviet Union, the reluctance of American firms to make deals, and Soviet oil production.

Greenberger, L.S.

1991-09-15

210

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-print Network

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01

211

Soviet Studies Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International education is one of Minnesota's education priorities. This resource guide to materials dealing with the Soviet Union is intended to provide teachers with materials and guidance for preparing students for leadership and active citizenship in an increasingly international society. The introductory section provides statements by various…

Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

212

The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear

M. Pellechi

1993-01-01

213

Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

Not Available

1994-01-01

214

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

PubMed

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy. PMID:22767433

Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2013-05-01

215

The ussr and total war : why didn't the soviet economy collapse in 1942?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany’s campaign in Russia was intended to be the decisive factor in creating a new German empire in central and eastern Europe, a living space that could be restructured racially and economically in German interests as Hitler had defined them in Mein Kampf. When he launched his armies against the Soviet Union in 1941 the world had two good reasons

Mark Harrison

2001-01-01

216

Soviet policy toward United Nations peacekeeping operations, 1956--1991: From confrontation to cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to analyze the confluence of historic developments that led to major changes in the foreign and defense policies of the former Soviet Union during the years 1956-1991. The proposition of this study may be stated as follows: Having concluded that the domestic economic malaise had reached crisis proportions and the prevailing worldview had become an impediment to

Timothy Alan McElwee

1995-01-01

217

Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

218

The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965  

E-print Network

"The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside ...

Smith, Jenny Leigh

2006-01-01

219

Russia: Political and Institutional Determinants of Economic Reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to analyze the course, determinants and political economy of economic reforms in Russia conducted in the period 1985-2003. The year 1985 can be considered an important turning point in Soviet\\/Russian history, marked as it was by the election of Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Union

Rafal Antczak; Vladimir Mau; Aleksey Shapovalov; Irina Sinitsina; Konstantin Yanovskiy; Sergei Zhavoronkov

2004-01-01

220

Regional Patterns of Industry Location in Transition Countries: Does Economic Integration with the European Union Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resmini L. (2007) Regional patterns of industry location in transition countries: does economic integration with the European Union matter?, Regional Studies41, 747–764. Recent developments in international trade theory predict that increased globalization will be associated with increased locational concentration of economic activities, and hence increased specialization of national and regional economies. Relatively little empirical evidence exists about whether these predictions

Laura Resmini

2007-01-01

221

The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

222

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

223

Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary  

SciTech Connect

During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuperberg, J.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Biczo, I.L. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1994-10-01

224

Soviet debate on missile defense  

SciTech Connect

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

Parrott, B.

1987-04-01

225

Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.  

PubMed

In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980. PMID:17734310

Elias, T S

1983-01-01

226

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

227

'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data  

PubMed Central

Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union) show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239) of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse <7%). We stratified the prevalence of smoking among resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers) by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total) persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%). In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%). Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after migration. The observed convergence of the smoking habits with increasing duration of stay is in line with the hypothesis of migration as 'health transition'. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, further research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:20540769

2010-01-01

228

Economic and Monetary Union: Critical Notes on the Maastricht Treaty Revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maastricht European Council clarified above all two features of the so-called stage II. (1) the duration of the stage for those participants who meet the requirements of convergence to qualify for full economic and monetary union (EMU); and (2) the need to focus on these issues, including the likely implications for the stability of the EMS and for the

Niels Thygesen

1992-01-01

229

Liberalization, regional economic development and the geography of demand for air transport in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the liberalization of the airline industry in the European Union (EU) from the perspective that transport can be properly analysed only in the context of its wider political and socio-economic milieu. The central interest lies with the internal geography of demand for scheduled air transport within the EU. It is argued that significant tensions exist

Brian Graham

1998-01-01

230

The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

1981-01-01

231

Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

Lim, Adriene

2012-01-01

232

Soviet debates on the nuclear threat  

SciTech Connect

Looking at how the Soviet Union views nuclear war and peace and how Soviet views on these critical questions differ from those in the West, this book examines how the academic debate on the nuclear threat and peace relates to Soviet perspectives on arms control. The author penetrates the surface of political unanimity to reveal major differences between traditional hard-liners and a growing group of specialists and politicians who see peace as an absolute value.

Shenfield, S.

1987-01-01

233

Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

Holland, Wade B.

234

Soviet Space in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses those U.S. counties that the State Department has forbidden former Soviet government personnel to enter. Includes a U.S. map indicating closed counties. Explains that the policy came in response to restrictions on foreigners' movements in the former Soviet Union. Suggests that teachers have students explore why particular U.S. regions…

Vogeler, Ingolf

1991-01-01

235

War, Militarism and the Soviet State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

Holloway, David

236

Soviets seek scientific exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

237

Soviet Military Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After the fall of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1991, thousands of items of Cold War paraphernalia found ready markets across the world, including the United States. High school and college students were now able to purchase the heavy wool jackets of Soviet and East German troops, and military buffs were able to acquire a number of patches, medals, and other items. The medals were often highly prized, and whether people understood the iconography and symbolism or not, they sought them out just the same. Fortunately for those interested in the wide world of Soviet military awards, there is this fine site which offers photographs and information about the various medals and their respective honors. With over 50 medals on the site, visitors can learn about the Order of October Revolution, the Pilot-Cosmonaut of USSR, and the rather curious Medal for Development of Virgin Lands, which commemorates the "young soviets" who relocated to Siberia, the Volga region, and northern Caucasus. For those whose interest is piqued by this material, there is also a newsletter that visitors can look through online.

238

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector. PMID:21752236

2011-01-01

239

Komsomol participation in the Soviet First Five-Year Plan  

E-print Network

Communist League (Komsomol) provides the single most intense means of socialization in the Soviet Union. It is an organization of Soviet youths between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight. The Komsomol is responsible for the correct political education... and indoctrination of Soviet young people, and consequently purports to reflect the values inherent in "The New Soviet Man. " If a young person in the Soviet Union has aspirations of rising up in the Communist Party appara. tus, he or she cannot avoid membership...

Todd, Ann

1985-01-01

240

Military objectives in Soviet foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union's military developments and the size of its armed forces strongly influence Western assumptions about Soviet foreign policy. The author shows how the need to plan for the contingency of world war has shaped Soviet policy, resulting in a force structure often perceived as far in excess of legitimate defense needs. In this book the motivations underlying Soviet policy are investigated as thoroughly as the military posture is examined. According to the author, a doctrinal decision in late 1966 about the likely nature of a world war resulted in a basic change in Soviet strategic objectives. Corresponding changes occurred in operational concepts, the approach to arms control, and policy in the third world. The necessary restructuring of Soviet forces took place during the 1970s and 1980s. This book identifies the old and new hierarchies of strategic objectives, analyzes the implications of the shift, and deduces the Soviet operational plan for waging world war, should it prove inescapable. This plan explains the structure of Soviet strategic forces and their military posture in Euro-Atlantic, Asian-Pacific, and Indo-Arabian regions. Decisions taken in the 1967-68 and 1976-77 periods explain much of current Soviet policy. However, Soviet-American relations sharply deteriorated between 1978 and 1983. The author also considers the kind of decisions that the Soviets may have taken in recent years in response to these developments.

McGwire, M.

1987-01-01

241

The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union and the post-soviet states  

E-print Network

1 The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union the collapse of the USSR and the enlargement of the European Union to the Baltic the border between them became Russia, and Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). The purpose is to analyze the role

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

242

The Role of Soviet Trade Unions in the Lifelong Education of Workers. Adult Education in Europe. Studies and Documents No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the U.S.S.R., the trade unions see the continuous growth of the general educational, cultural and technical level of all workers as one of the conditions of social and scientific progress in the interests of the working class. The role of the unions in the lifelong education of the population is determined by their status in the political…

Yazykova, V. S.

243

The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City  

PubMed Central

Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and may help prevent increases in HIV/HCV prevalence from occurring within these communities. PMID:22239997

2012-01-01

244

Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup  

SciTech Connect

NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

Not Available

1991-09-06

245

Soviet Studies in the Fitness of the Aged  

PubMed Central

Much attention is being paid in the Soviet Union to the relationship between physical exercise, health and longevity. Many studies are conducted with the purpose of substantiating the hypothesis that physical activity has a positive effect on longevity while the lack of it shortens life. These studies are conducted in close cooperation between specialists in physical culture and medicine. Many groups of athletes are formed with the purpose of investigating the effect of physical exercise on different organs and systems of the human body. The Soviets also consider physical exercise as an economic factor: improving the health of the individual worker raises his level of productivity. To promote and encourage the participation of older people in athletic activities, special athletic meets are organized in which people as old as 70 show remarkable results. PMID:20468833

Shneidman, N. Norman

1972-01-01

246

Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

1992-07-01

247

Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill  

SciTech Connect

For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

Morrison, D.C. (National Journal, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-04-01

248

Problems of Economic Security of Russia and the Countries of the Commonwealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destruction of the single economic and political space of the USSR altered Russia's geopolitical position; many previously internal regions have become border territories. This has been accompanied by the spontaneous division of the Soviet Union's property, the destruction of the country's single highly integrated national economic complex, and the severance of traditional economic ties.

D. Orlova; V. Kotilko

1998-01-01

249

Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

250

Agriculture and economic reform in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic and political climate of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is changing rapidly. Because of these dramatic changes, it is difficult to provide an analysis of development in agriculture. Average annual agricultural production for the 1986-1990 period increased somewhat in volume when compared to the 1980-1985 average. However, the trend of increasing production did not continue in

Yuri A. Novoselov; Andrei Y U. Streletsky; Carol E. Lewis; Joshua A. Greenberg

1993-01-01

251

GLOBAL TRANSFORMATIONS, LOCAL ACTIVISM: “NEW” UNIONISM’S ENGAGEMENT WITH ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CARE TRANSFORMATION IN URBAN CENTRAL APPALACHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been argued that the organization of the U.S. health care system is shaped by the struggles between capital and labor, and this relationship is of increasing significance today. Transformations from an industrial to a service economy, rising insurance costs, neoliberal social policies, and decreased labor union power have increased the number of Americans with reduced access to

Rebecca Adkins Fletcher

2011-01-01

252

Intra-urban landscapes of priority: the Soviet legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the urban experience of the Soviet Union, this article explores the value of the so-called priority approach for understanding the mechanisms that contributed to the creation of the spatial structure of the Soviet\\/socialist city. The changes in priority status that the various urban functions were subject to are highlighted. It is then proposed that these variations were instrumental

Michael Gentile; Örjan Sjöberg

2006-01-01

253

Analysis of the 1957-1958 Soviet Nuclear Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of an extensive environmental contamination zone in Cheliabinsk Province of the Soviet Union, associated with an accident in the winter of 1957 to 1958 involving the atmospheric release of fission wastes, appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the Soviet radioecology literature. The contamination zone is estimated to contain 105 to 106 curies of strontium-90

John R. Trabalka; L. Dean Eyman; Stanley I. Auerbach

1980-01-01

254

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

255

The EFTA option for Eastern Europe: Towards an economic reunification of the divided continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Europe is in the midst of a radical change. In order to increase the chances of success of their Perestroika, the reformers, especially those from Hungary, Poland and the Soviet Union, are striving for closer links between their countries and the economically-advanced Western , Europe. Thus, an economic reunification of the divided continent has become a real possibility -

Wojciech Julian Kostrzewa; Holger Schmieding

1989-01-01

256

U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

Brown, Lester R.

257

U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

Armacost, Michael H.

258

The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

Melville, Keith; Landau, David

259

Soviet Rural-Urban Integration through Mass Media Use: A Dependency Model Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of policy statements made in the past 10 years in Soviet academic journals and Communist Party newspapers indicates that integrating rural and urban populations has become a concern of academics, government officials, and policymakers in the Soviet Union. One means by which the rural segment of Soviet society could be pushed or helped…

Fair, Jo Ellen

260

Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

2012-01-01

261

Uninvited guests in the communal apartment: nation-formation processes among unrecognized Soviet nationalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, a body of scholarship arose which effectively bypassed Miroslav Hroch's work on the emergence of small nations. Rogers Brubaker, Yuri Slezkine and Ronald Suny, among others, persuasively argued that Soviet nationalities policies shaped the ethnogeographic make-up of the post-Soviet space some sixty or seventy years later: it had become literally almost unimaginable to

Ian Appleby

2010-01-01

262

The Ethnic Composition of Families in Russia in 1989: Insights into the Soviet \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample from the 1989 Soviet census is used to study the ethnic composition of families in the Russian Federation on the eve of the breakup of the Soviet Union. The aim is to gain insight into the consequences of the Soviet \\

Nikolai Botev

2002-01-01

263

Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

264

Perspectives on the Future of Soviet Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles discuss various aspects of educational policy and practices in the Soviet Union with regard to expected future developments. Topics discussed include declining enrollments due to declining national birthrate, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, improving the ten-year general educational plan, and meshing educational reforms with the…

Soviet Education, 1980

1980-01-01

265

Syllabus for Use in Soviet Russian History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus outlines a one semester course intended to provide a comprehensive study of the Soviet Union today, and the relationship that Russian has with the United States and the rest of the world. Content covers Russia's history beginning with the fall of the Romanovs with emphasis on the revolutionary movement in Russia. The guide presents a…

Husum, Carol

266

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

267

Soviet free-electron laser research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

Kassel, S.

1985-05-01

268

Soviet satellite communications science and technology  

SciTech Connect

This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

1991-08-01

269

A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

270

Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

Bennett, Gary L.

1992-01-01

271

Soviet nationality front: Some implications for US Foreign and Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, U.S. policymakers and policy planners took it for granted that the Soviet Union would enter the 21st century as a unified country. The great uncertainty was not whether the USSR, but whither. This presumed alternative has been overtaken by events. Instead of normalizing or backsliding, the Soviet Union seems to be disintegrating before our very eyes. From this

Azrael

1991-01-01

272

The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change  

SciTech Connect

The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

1991-07-01

273

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of

J. Neumann; H. Flohn

1988-01-01

274

Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.  

PubMed

In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

2012-01-01

275

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

276

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

277

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.  

PubMed

Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

2013-12-31

278

"Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

Pehowski, Marian

279

[Demographic developments in the Soviet Union].  

PubMed

The author examines some of the causes of variations in rates of population growth, migration, and assimilation among the different nationalities in the USSR. The impact of the policy of Russification on the various national groups is also considered PMID:12338419

Novikov, N

1980-01-01

280

FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

1986-01-01

281

Essays on economic policy and foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

All but one of the nineteen essays in these pages were previously published as op-ed articles--sometimes in a slightly abbreviated form--in The Wall Street Journal, The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Newsweek, during the three years between November 1981 and November 19084. The essays are grouped into two sections dealing, respectively, with economic policy (Section I), and with foreign policy (Section II). Sometimes this division is arbitrary: for example, the discussion of international debt (which is in Section I) bears on foreign policy, and the discussion of Western lending to the Soviet Union (which is in Section II) bears on economic policy. The single essay that was not previously published (Another Look Through the Pipeline) deals with the Soviet Union's gas pipeline to Western Europe.

Wolf, C.

1985-03-01

282

About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

MccGwire, M. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-11-01

283

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

Garshnek, V

1988-05-01

284

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

Garshnek, V

1989-07-01

285

Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

286

Soviet Economic Reform: Socialism and Property. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stanley Foundation annually assembles a panel of experts from the public and private sectors to assess specific foreign policy issues and to recommend future direction. The participants in the round-table discussion summarized in this report agreed that the Soviets are moving from a Marxist-Leninist version of socialism to a broader version,…

Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

287

The Economic Marginalization of Post-Soviet Russia's Elderly Population and the Failure of State Ageing Policy: A Case Study of Magadan City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how senior citizens in the far north-eastern Russian city of Magadan have restructured their lives in order to ensure their survival in the face of enduring post-Soviet marginalization. While this is an extreme example of the problems Russia's senior citizens must now face, due to the city's remoteness, climate and high cost of living, the discussions have

John Round

2006-01-01

288

The Soviet Censorship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

289

Women’s employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of women’s employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004\\/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004) the risk

Magdalena M. Muszynska

2008-01-01

290

Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

2013-01-01

291

Soviet attitudes toward regional security  

SciTech Connect

This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

Campbell, K.M.

1987-01-01

292

American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

Herman, William E.

293

Policy and Model Analysis: The Case of Soviet Immigrant Teacher Re-Training in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the largely successful retraining program for immigrant science teachers from the former Soviet Union to Israel in 1990-91 following the mass Soviet immigration. A list of policy recommendations is offered. The retraining considerations and models from this study might be applied in other countries experiencing major social changes. (SLD)

Geva-May, Iris

1998-01-01

294

America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future. Teacher's Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum project focuses on U.S.-Soviet relations and the choices that U.S. citizens face today in addressing the Soviet Union and the threat of nuclear war. This book is intended as a resource guide to accompany a 22-minute video presentation and student text that are part of the "Four Futures" curriculum. The resource book includes the…

Berger, Karl; And Others

295

Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine  

E-print Network

Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine T O are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where fluxes in western Ukraine (57 000 km2 ) and to assess the region's future carbon sequestration potential

Radeloff, Volker C.

296

Learning from Each Other: A Meeting of U.S. and Soviet Children's Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a visit by American children's librarians to the Soviet Union for a formal colloquium on children's library services. The Soviet attitude toward children as reflected in the quality of facilities, services, and research is discussed, and the benefits of such cultural exchanges are stressed. (CLB)

Somerville, Mary

1990-01-01

297

The Immediate Tasks of Soviet Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tasks of Soviet statistics were defined by the historic decisions of our party's 23rd Congress, the October 1964, March and September 1965, and May 1966 plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which faced economic, planning, and administrative organizations with new and more complicated tasks: those of improving the methods of managing the economy, and of the scientific

V. Starovskii

1968-01-01

298

The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

Lynch, Allen

1991-01-01

299

Soviet 8/2q/4 Activist leader one  

E-print Network

% Gay Men, Kalinin,24, isthe-leader of the Soviet Union's fledgling gay movement. He works out and a laser printer, Kalinin conduds his battles - with more than a little help from friendsin San Francisco and elsewhere. As last week's coup unfolded, things looked to get even worse than they already are for Kalinin

Brody, James P.

300

Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Friedman, H. [E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (United States); Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

1996-11-01

301

Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

Yessis, Michael, Ed.

1974-01-01

302

Korenizatsiia: Restructuring Soviet nationality policy in the 1920s  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1923 the Russian Communist Party formalized the policy of korenizatsiia (indigenization or nativization) in order to defuse the hostility it provoked among the large non?Russian Soviet population during the Civil War. By promoting non?Russians into leading positions in the party, the government, and the trade unions and by subsidizing the development of distinct national cultures in the USSR,

George Liber

1991-01-01

303

Economics and politics of advertising: evidence from the enlarging European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of economic and political factors on advertising industry in the enlarging EU. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employed random effect time series cross-section (TSCS) models and cross sectional regressions to investigate the impacts of these factors on advertising industry in the enlarging EU. Findings – It was found that

Nir Kshetri; Nicholas C. Williamson; Andreea Schiopu

2007-01-01

304

The Economic Value of Noise Within the European Union - A Review and Analysis of Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform cost-benefit analyses of action plans to be constructed under the new EU Environmental Noise Directive to reduce noise and maintain environmental noise quality where it is good, the EC and individual Member Countries need to establish interim economic values for noise from different transportation modes and industrial noise. The paper provides an updated overview and evaluation

S. Navrud

305

Building Property Rights: Capitalists and the Demand for Law in Post-Soviet Russia  

E-print Network

in Russia: Problems and prospects. OECD Economics Work- ingsoviet russia. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39(7):Russia’s tax crisis: Explaining falling revenues in a transitional econ- omy. Economics &

Gans-Morse, Jordan Luc

2011-01-01

306

Council of U.S. Academy of Sciences Expresses Concern to Soviet Counterparts over Sakharov Harrassment.  

PubMed

National Academy of Sciences (NAS) president Philip Handler has made public a cable to his opposite number in the Soviet Union expressing the "deep concern" of the NAS Council for the welfare of dissenting Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov and warning that, if further measures were taken against Sakharov, "it would be extremely difficult to imagine successful fulfillment of American pledges of binational scientific cooperation . . . ." Handler's message is the strongest public expression to date of NAS concern over treatment of Soviet scientists and other intellectuals (Science, 6 April). The cable, addressed to M. V. Keldysh, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, is given in full below. PMID:17744285

1973-09-21

307

Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

Crandon, Christopher

2004-12-01

308

The new impetus towards economic integration between Europe and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union the large economic space of the Eurasian super-continent has also become part of the world-wide globalization process. How this process of integration of Eurasia is proceeding in key areas of cross-continental linkages is of great importance for the future of the region and for the future

Johannes F. Linn; David Tiomkin

2006-01-01

309

Economic evaluation of human papilloma virus vaccination in the European Union: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is a new and expensive vaccine potentially effective in the prevention of a cancer.\\u000a We reviewed the economic evaluations (EEs) on the vaccine in the EU to assess their potential contribution to public decision-making\\u000a in a fairly homogeneous setting where HPV vaccination has been widely adopted. A literature search on PubMed selected EEs\\u000a on

Daniela Koleva; Paola De Compadri; Anna Padula; Livio Garattini

2011-01-01

310

U.S. assistance programs for economic and political reform and dismantling of weapons of mass destruction in the NIS. Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, March 3, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The hearing addresses United States Assistance Programs for Economic and Political reform and dismantling of weapons of mass destruction in the New Independent States (NIS) created after the disolution of the former Soviet Union. Witnesses described the conditions and needs in the NIS for assistance and the proposed budget. Statements of government and industry officials are provided along with documents submitted for the record.

NONE

1995-12-31

311

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

PubMed Central

Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships. PMID:25231098

Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

2014-01-01

312

The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security  

SciTech Connect

The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

1986-01-01

313

Waste management in the European Union: National self-sufficiency and harmonization at the expense of economic efficiency?  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, the European Union (EU) has developed an impressive body of waste management legislation, although, according to the principle of subsidiarity, responsibilities belong to the most local level at which the tasks can be carried out effectively. Using economic theory, this paper examines several factors that influence the efficient distribution of regulatory authority among the EU and the member states. The authors specifically analyze the role of harmonization that, in their opinion, will often lead to an overcentralization. Within this context, a second issue is becoming more important, as ongoing discussions show. If no consensus can be reached about harmonization, should member states be allowed to stop cross-border shipments of waste, or should the EU strive for a common market for waste? The authors take the position that most objections against waste shipments are not convincing, especially if the member states implement minimum standards for landfills and waste processing facilities and common information and control systems. Competition between different national regulations within adequate constraints that, e.g., control transboundary externalities leads to more efficient waste management structures in Europe than national self-sufficiency or centralized decision-making at the EU level.

Karl, H.; Ranne, O. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Faculty of Economics] [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Faculty of Economics

1999-02-01

314

Soviet Jewish Refugee Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following article, you will meet some typical Soviet Jewish refugee women. Three came to America more than a decade ago, the others within the last eighteen months. Although they are from different regions and diverse backgrounds, their stories bear a common thread of the effects of living under totalitarian rule. They suffered anti-Semitism on the streets and sexual

Deborah Fuller Hahn

1992-01-01

315

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

316

Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985  

SciTech Connect

This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

Not Available

1985-06-05

317

The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

2007-01-01

318

United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

McLain, Douglas, Jr.

319

The European Union's counter-terrorism policy towards the Maghreb: trapped between democratisation, economic interests and the fear of destabilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sheds light on the European Union's counter-terrorism policy in the Maghreb taking into account the diverse influences and interests shaping its strategic thinking. To explain the complex web of opportunities and constraints, the article refers to Terry Deibel's framework for the analysis of foreign and security affairs. The author concludes that the Union's counter-terrorism policy in the Maghreb

Franz Eder

2011-01-01

320

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Doug Downing, Kelly Vargas, Lawrence Penkar, James Investigation into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Technology and Society ­ APSC 261 is handled must be considered in detail. Nearly 48% of the total waste from the SUB is compostable

321

From the Other Shore: Reflections of Russian Émigré Thinkers on Soviet Nationality Policies, 1920s–1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the complex ethnic situation in the late Russian Empire and the early Soviet Union as seen by Russian émigrés. Observers from many political perspectives identified that, whereas ethnic minorities often had a relatively well-developed sense of national identity within the empire\\/union, “Russia” was relatively undeveloped in terms of self-identification. This paradox affected both Soviet policy and émigré

Igor Torbakov

2003-01-01

322

Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities  

SciTech Connect

Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

NONE

1993-12-31

323

The rhetoric of presidential summit diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Soviet summits, 1985-1988  

E-print Network

?tente as ?a one-way street that the Soviet Union has used to pursue its own aims.? He condemned the Soviets? ?promotion of world revolution and a one-world Socialist or Communist state,? and criticized what he described as the Soviet government?s view... of morality in pursuit of its international goals: ?[T]hey reserve unto themselves the right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat, in order to attain that [a one- world Communist state].?1 Seven years later during a U.S.-Soviet summit in Moscow, Russia...

Howell, Buddy Wayne

2009-05-15

324

The influence of social capital on health in eight former Soviet countries: why does it differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research has identified the role of social capital in explaining variations in health in the countries of the former Soviet Union. This study explores whether the benefits of social capital vary among these countries and why.MethodsThe impact of micro social capital (trust, membership and social isolation) on individual health was estimated in each of eight former Soviet republics using

Béatrice dHombres; Lorenzo Rocco; Marc Suhrcke; Christian Haerpfer; Martin McKee

2009-01-01

325

Breast-Feeding Practices of Former Soviet Women in Their Homelands and After Immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:To identify five practices regarding breast-feeding before and after immigration of former Soviet women.A trend from breast-feeding to commercial infant formula has been described for most immigrant groups studied. However, since the breakup of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), immigrants from the newly independent republics are arriving in the United States (US) and there is very

M. D. Houghton; R. B. Knapp

1997-01-01

326

Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison.

Peterson, D.J.

1993-01-01

327

Soviet discussion on enterprise incentives and methods of planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some years a discussion has been in progress among economists in the Soviet Union on methods of securing the active and\\u000a positive participation of individual enterprises in a centrally planned economy. The main theme of discussion has been the\\u000a problem: how to arrange the system of plan indices, prices, enterprise bonuses, etc. to encourage enterprise interest in higher\\u000a plan

Harald Hallaråker

1963-01-01

328

Conscientious objection policies and the Soviet national ethos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a civilian alternative to military service in East?Central Europe at the end of the 1980s, and the resistance to it in the Soviet Union, and then Russia, is frequently taken as evidence of the strength of the civic culture of the East?Central European countries, and of its weakness in Russia. But the latter has a long historical

Bruno Coppieters

1992-01-01

329

GAO study outlines obstacles to Soviet warhead dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

In a new review, the GAO concluded that significant gaps remain in US understanding of how to best deal with the former Soviet Union's nuclear weapons and delivery systems. The report noted that Russia's position since the start of the safety, security, and dismantlement (SSD) talks has been that [open quotes]it neither needs nor wants a direct US role in its dismantlement operations.[close quotes] Storage facilities for the plutonium are briefly discussed.

Lockwood, D.

1993-04-01

330

Soviet nationality front: Some implications for US Foreign and Security Policy  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, U.S. policymakers and policy planners took it for granted that the Soviet Union would enter the 21st century as a unified country. The great uncertainty was not whether the USSR, but whither. This presumed alternative has been overtaken by events. Instead of normalizing or backsliding, the Soviet Union seems to be disintegrating before our very eyes. From this perspective, the principal uncertainty facing the U.S. policy community is obviously no longer whether the Soviet Union will evolve into a normal country. Rather, it is: how will U.S. interests be affected as the newly self-assertive peoples of the USSR and the central authorities from whom they are in the process of emancipating themselves continue to work (and fight) out what have already become completely new relationships both with each other and with the outside world.

Azrael, J.R.

1991-01-01

331

Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities became U.S.-Russian work on the International Space Station (ISS). The interest of the Kremlin and White House in making space an "area of common interests" for the two countries, the interest of U.S. and Russian space communities in meaningful cooperation with each other, and the interdependence of the two countries within the ISS project, give hope that the U.S.-Russian cooperation will finally develop a long-term character.

Karash, Yuri Y.

332

Olympic Culture in Soviet Uzbekistan  

E-print Network

emotional support: identification · Education in health, hygiene, diet: self-responsibility · Physical 1952 · Trained at the College of Physical Education, Tashkent & Moscow · `Soviet Honour Master of Sport. Aims of Soviet Olympic Culture 1951-91 Building a physical sports culture Prestige 2. Civic

333

The New Scientific-Methodological Concept of the Soviet School Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Soviet geography curriculum comprised of: Introduction to Physical Geography; Geography of the Continents and Oceans; Geography of the USSR; Geography of the USSR II; and Economic and Social Geography of the World. Discusses the program's scientific content and describes the trends of geography instruction in Soviet classrooms.…

Maksakovsky, Vladimir

1989-01-01

334

Soviet national security policy in Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean: the case of Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the aims and methods of Soviet influence in Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean. The possibility of involvement and future success has been vastly improved since the Portuguese coup, with Mozambique becoming the focal point of Soviet attention. In attempts to increase its influence in Mozambique through increased economic aid and more sophisticated military weapons, the

Peter Vanneman

1976-01-01

335

Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in western European Union countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within various renewable energy technologies, photovoltaics (PV) today attracts considerable attention due to its potential to contribute a major share of renewable energy in the future. However, PV market development is, undoubtedly, dependent on the political support of any given country.In this paper, after a brief analysis of national support policies in PV technology in western European Union (EU) countries,

Luigi Dusonchet; Enrico Telaretti

2010-01-01

336

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

337

Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin: Soviet-Russian Foreign Relations with the United States from 1990 Through the Fall of 2008: A Strategic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold War Soviet foreign policy was driven by a strategic competition. A competition-detente cycle based on the superpower rivalry between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including the Warsaw Pact dependencies, and the United States of America and its respective alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) existed for over forty-five years. Following the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and

Terry W. Simmons

2008-01-01

338

Recent Soviet microelectronics research on III-V compounds semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity in the Soviet Union on III-V compound semiconductor devices during the past five years is examined in the areas of materials, processes, radiation effects, and devices by a search of the translated technical journals. The majority of the work in III-V materials is concerned with gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the materials are certainly of the quality needed to make integrated circuits (ICs). However, the focus of Soviet growth and characterization studies appears to be basic materials properties, rather than development of capabilities and understanding for making integrated circuits. In processing, the Soviets appear to have very little effort on metaloorganic chemical vapor deposition on III-V compounds, while this is the process of choice in the West. There is, however, a substantial effort on X-ray lithography for silicon that could be extended to GaAs. High-quality work is also reported for ion beam, electron beam, optical projection, and laser processing silicon. Research on metallization (interconnection) and dielectric deposition processes for GaAs is absent. Soviet research on ion implantation and laser annealing in compound semiconductors is largely directed toward basic phenomena, such as defect information, rather than on electrical characteristics considered important for integrated circuit fabrication. Outstanding basic work is also being conducted on the radiation effects of electrons, protons, alpha, gamma, and X-rays on materials. These Soviet studies of radiation effects do not appear to be directed toward the fabrication of actual devices. Soviet GaAs device work appears to be generally of a theoretical nature, relying in part on device data obtained from Western articles. The most advanced involves the junction field effect transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistor, with little work reported on the fabrication of GaAs integrated circuits.

Sello, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

1988-08-01

339

Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic

Osipian, Ararat L.

2009-01-01

340

U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

Chibucos, Pamela E.

341

GENDER AND NGOS IN POST-SOVIET ARMENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social experience in post-Soviet Armenia is characterized by a state of flux, a constant process of tearing down and building up that is rife with internal contradictions. The uncertainty and constant transformations in the social, political, and economic domains cause individuals to find new means of coping with all the myriad changes and these adaptations are informed by an amalgamation

Armine Ishkanian

342

Relative Indices of Growth in Soviet Industry and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of proper proportions is a vital feature of national economic planning. In planning ā for a given period ā the necessary rate of growth in all branches of the national economy and the correct proportions of their development on the basis of the preferential expansion of Department I, the Communist Party and Soviet Government are guided by the basic

N. Lagutin

1961-01-01

343

Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

344

Nuclear winter and nuclear policy: implications for US and Soviet deterrence strategies. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons were rapidly incorporated into the policies for maintaining the national security objectives of both the Soviet Union and the United States--in spite of poorly understood nuclear-weapons effects. The nuclear winter hypothesis, the basis of which was first proposed in 1982, directed scientific research into the consequences of massive amounts of dust and smoke, from nuclear detonations, on the

1987-01-01

345

Filming Shakespeare in a cultural thaw: Soviet appropriations of Shakespearean treacheries in 1955–6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though most critics of Shakespearean film know the work of Kosintzev, Shakespeare first appears on film in Russia well before Kosintzev turns to film in the 1960s. Between 1954 and 1956, the Soviet Union plunged headlong into representing Shakespeare's plays on film with the unusual production of four Shakespearean films. During 1955 alone, two major Russian film studios produced full?length

Laurie E. Osborne

1995-01-01

346

The specter of post-communism: Women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol

Brian Philip Hinote; William C. Cockerham; Pamela Abbott

2009-01-01

347

Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

348

Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

349

The Fate of the Book Chambers and National Bibliography in the Former Soviet Republics Since 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Soviet years, each of the fifteen constituent union republics established a book chamber tasked with maintaining legal deposit of publications, archival preservation, national bibliography, centralized cataloging, and other book-related responsibilities. This introductory article summarizes the fate of the book chambers and national bibliographies after the dissolution of the USSR in late 1991. Several countries have maintained their book

Grant G. Harris

2010-01-01

350

National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

351

Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. [Glossary included  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to

Rosengaus

1987-01-01

352

The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

353

The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

Karp, Alexander

2007-01-01

354

Authenticity, Autonomy, and Authority: Feminist Jewish Learning among Post-Soviet Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articles explores how a group of women in the Former Soviet Union grapple with questions of Jewish identity and Jewish "authenticity" as they participate in adult Jewish learning program that employs methods of feminist pedagogy and transformative learning. The study reflects on areas of dissonance between the transformational learning…

Grant, Lisa D.

2008-01-01

355

The good vs. “the own”: moral identity of the (post-)Soviet Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the meaning of perestrojka? There is no doubt that it led to the end of the Cold War and had a huge impact on the international situation. Nevertheless,\\u000a there is no consensus as to the outcomes of perestrojka. Perestrojka brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union. This fact might be interpreted positively: it opened the possibility to

Nerija Putinait?

2008-01-01

356

Soviet threat perceptions of NATO's Eurostrategic missiles  

SciTech Connect

The problem investigated here is how Soviet perceptions of particular military threats, in this case from NATO's new INF missiles, affect their arms control negotiating policy. This study most closely examines Soviet writings in the 1979-83 period and relies on extensive interviewing, sponsored by IREX, at the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institutes. It attempts to distinguish between Soviet portrayals and real perceptions of the military and political threats from the 1983 INF deployments. It explores how such Soviet assessments interrelate with Soviet military doctrine and broader foreign policy strategies, and how perceptions might differ among Soviet analysts and officials. It is divided into six chapters: (1) Historical Perspectives; (2) Soviet Threat Portrayals; (3) Evaluating Soviet Threat Portrayals; (4) Soviet Military Doctrine and the INF Threat; (5) Soviet Political-Military Interests at the INF Negotiations; (6) The Soviet Net Assessment. The study finds that Soviet threat portrayals are loosely consistent with Soviet perceptions of the potential threat, especially from an extended-range Pershing missile against their National Command Authorities.

Garner, W.V.

1985-01-01

357

Reconsidering Economic Relations and Political Citizenship in the New Iberia of the New Europe: Some Lessons from the Fifteenth Anniversary of the Accession of Portugal and Spain to the European Union by  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to use the fifteenth anniversary of the accession of Portugal and Spain to the European Union as an opportunity to reflect on what has happened to both countries since 1986. It examines the integration process and how it has affected political, economic and social developments in Portugal and in Spain over the last fifteen

Sebastiįn Royo; Christopher Manuel

358

CIA's Analysis Of The Soviet Union, 1947-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a compilation of declassified documents which collectively offer a retrospective on the CIA's analytical role during the Cold War. These are grouped in five chapters, each of which is prefaced by some brief comments.

2001-01-01

359

Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

360

Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

1992-01-01

361

Problems in International Communication: China and the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China and Russia generally adhere to the Leninist concept of the press as being integral to society and therefore subject to regulation. They both also contend with the Communist paradox: the press exists to criticize the system of which it is a part. They reconcile this paradox by directing criticism toward the erring individual rather than…

Pehowski, Marian

362

U. S. National Security Policy and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book is to treat the core material of US national security policy as hypotheses that can be subject to verification. The author uses a variety of approaches and techniques to study four central issues-the role of military force in the nuclear era; domestic influences on national security policy; the search for stability in strategic nuclear weapons

1990-01-01

363

[Emigration from the former Soviet Union: premises and unknown factors].  

PubMed

Trends in emigration from the USSR are reviewed. Three waves of migration are identified: the first two resulted from the 1917 revolution and the two world wars; the third has involved minority nationalities, such as Jews or Germans, who were dissatisfied with recent conditions in the country. The focus of the article is on the possible implications for migration of the laws guaranteeing freedom of movement, which will come into effect in January 1993. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12284729

Vichnevski, A; Zayontchkovskaia, J

1991-01-01

364

Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

365

African Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As visitors enter this site, they will be presented with a collage of African nations coming together to form the entire continent, accompanied by the words ā??Africa must unite.ā?¯ It is a visually stimulating image, and one that sets the tone quite nicely for the content within. The site is the homepage of the African Union (AU), which was created in 1999 as part of a declaration from the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). While their mission is complex to say the least, their primary goal is to promote the ā??ā?¦accelerated socio-economic integration of the continent, which will lead to greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples.ā?¯ The site presents a cornucopia of material on their work, contained within sections titled ā??Member Statesā?¯, ā??Conferences & Eventsā?¯, and ā??Documentsā?¯. One of the best places to start is the ā??News and Eventsā?¯ area, which contains a sampling of information on their recent work on gender equity, sustainable development, higher education systems, and so on. As might be expected, visitors can also browse through many of these materials in Arabic, French, and Portuguese.

366

The Soviet settlement system--current issues and future prospects.  

PubMed

"A survey of current urban issues and trends in the Soviet Union sets the stage for an analysis of the problems of the urban system of the USSR and discussion of recent efforts at planning and policy development for a national settlement system. The General Scheme of Settlement, issued in 1975 and revised in 1982 to guide the development of such a national system, is examined as is the ensuing debate between two opposing schools of thought as to the best approach for restructuring the urban system." PMID:12269003

Demko, G J

1987-12-01

367

Soviet automated rendezvous and docking system overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviets have been performing automated rendezvous and docking for many years. This paper will present an overview and brief history of the Soviet AR&D system, based on the open literature and publicly available sources.

Hinman, Elaine M.; Bushman, David M.

1991-01-01

368

Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

Goure, L.

1986-09-16

369

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~  

E-print Network

-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 397 August 26, 2014 891 1673 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Conducted for: AMS;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 3 CONTEXT

370

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~  

E-print Network

-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 497B November 01, 2013 282 1667 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Email: Phone: Conducted for: November 2013 #12;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC

371

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

372

Soviet fertility as viewed by Soviet authors: the Franco-Soviet demographic meeting of Suzdal (USSR).  

PubMed

The author reports on the Franco-Soviet Seminar of Demography, held in Suzdal, USSR, in 1986. She examines "how the problem of fertility is viewed by Soviet authors, why and when they began to study its theoretical aspects, and what means they propose to raise fertility." Topics considered include sources of information on fertility in the USSR; analysis of fertility and reproductive behavior; the study of selected determinants of fertility, including geographical and ethnic differences, female labor force participation, and the relationships among family planning, health, and reproductive behavior; and means of developing an effective population policy. PMID:12341868

Hecht, J

1988-01-01

373

Fact Sheets on the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

374

Soviet image pattern recognition research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an assessment of the published Soviet image pattern recognition (IPR) research and was written by a panel of six US academic experts in that research field. Image pattern recognition is a set of technological research topics involving automatic or interactive computer processing of pictorial information, utilizing optical, electronic, and computer technologies. This report focuses on IPR system

B. L. McKenney; M. McGrain; A. Klinger; J. K. Aggarwal; N. J. George; R. M. Haralick

1989-01-01

375

Industrial development of Siberia and the Soviet Far East. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980s the Soviet leadership will be forced to cope with a growing energy shortage in the western industrialized core of the USSR by accelerating the extraction of fuel and raw materials east of the Urals. The major issue of Soviet policy is and has been the debate over the appropriate nature and pace of economic development for the eastern regions, whether to maintain concentration on the fuel energy complex or to attempt balanced development across industries and between eastern and western regions. Although official declaratory policy continues to call for balanced comprehensive development, the energy-fuel focus has, if anything, increased. Given the general investment constraint the Soviet leadership is now facing, combined with the Soviet leadership's resistance to reform and change, it is unlikely that there will take place the major shift and restructuring of investment for regions east of the Urals that a balanced economic development would require.

Pinsky, D.E.

1984-09-01

376

Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

Spearman, M. Leroy

2006-01-01

377

Some Notes on Current Problems of Foreign Economic Relations of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses developments on the trade front in Russia since the deep structural crisis during the 90s which significantly affected the dynamics and structure of Russian foreign trade. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the consequent formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a major part of the Soviet Union's internal trade has become a component

Leonid Abalkin

2002-01-01

378

The Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 601.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearings on The Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983 are presented. Objectives of the act are to help ensure the nation's independent factual knowledge of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries, to help maintain the national capability for advanced research and training on which that knowledge depends, and to provide…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

379

The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

1989-01-01

380

Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. Slavic women\\u000a have been trafficked to the sex markets of Western Europe, Asia, and North America. The surge in human trafficking is the\\u000a result of numerous factors, including the dramatic fall of the economic system and complete deterioration of the social safety\\u000a net.

Yuliya V. Tverdova

381

Scientific and Technical Translation and the All-Union Translation Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation and use of machine translation as an adjunct to human translation at the Soviet Union's All-Union Translation Center, a centralized scientific and technical translation facility, is examined. The issues of error correction, the variety of translation types needed, and special lexical considerations are discussed. (MSE)

Marchuk, Yuri Nikolaevich

1984-01-01

382

Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.  

PubMed

During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new public management principles. PMID:21598269

Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

2011-01-01

383

National Taxpayers Union & National Taxpayers Union Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1969, both the National Taxpayers Union (NTU), along with its research arm, the National Taxpayers Union Foundation (NTUF), were designed to explore and research the various aspects of taxation, government spending, economics, and regulation. From their homepage, visitors can learn about their latest works and read about the organization's activities in the "About" section. For persons with policy interests, the "Research" section will be a place to spend some time in, as it contains commentaries, full research reports, and issue briefs. The site also has several special features, including their official blog and the NTU's own generated rankings of members of Congress. The site is rounded out by an area where visitors can sign up to receive news briefs and updates from the NTU.

384

A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.  

PubMed

Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support. PMID:17484561

Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

2007-05-01

385

Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

1998-01-01

386

Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.  

PubMed

The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication. PMID:22753071

Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

2012-12-01

387

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua, Jordan Smith, Kelsey Zhu University Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua Jordan Smith Kelsey Zhu LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS GLOSSARY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 ROOFTOP COMPOSTING

388

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m\\/sub b\\/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The

L. R. Sykes; G. C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

389

Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most

Lynn R. Sykes; Graham C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

390

National idea, state-building and boundaries in the post-Soviet space (the case of Georgia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of the Newly Independent States at the end of 1991, although due to the coincidence of historical events, was a logical outcome of the political crisis within the USSR. The nations had been actively formed during the Soviet period and they considered their homeland the territory which bore the name of a definite nationality. Since all the Union

Revaz Gachechiladze

1997-01-01

391

Cold War Librarianship: Soviet and American Library Activities in Support of National Foreign Policy, 1946-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the international rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and how ideological premises were used to bring libraries into the conflict. In the aftermath of World War II, the two superpowers were left with international hostilities that carried over into cultural institutions. Libraries served as important tools in the implementation of

Pamela Spence Richards

2001-01-01

392

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

393

Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

Catudal, H.M.

1989-01-01

394

ECONOMIC REFORM AND COMMUNIST REGIME SURVIVABILTY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  

E-print Network

While the collapse of communist rule and process of transitioning to democracy in the former-Soviet Union and its numerous satellite states certainly warrants the wealth of attention received, by no means does this signal that the history...

Nelson, John

2006-08-16

395

Arms control and Soviet grand strategy  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents therelationship between Soviet approaches to arms control and their security policy and military stragety. Soviet objectives are discussed for the post World War II period, lthe SALT I and II periods, and the most recent period of INF and START proposals.

Pilat, J.F.

1988-02-01

396

Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

Soviet Education, 1981

1981-01-01

397

Nationality policy in the Soviet army  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet military employed non?Slavic nationalities alternately in ethnically pure national units and integrated formations. The predominantly Slavic officer corps preferred the first option, which avoided the language, educational, and cultural problems that arose from integration. When military exigency or domestic nationality policy permitted national units, the Soviet military effectively employed non?Slavs. However, when domestic policy and demographic reality forced

Christopher G. Cavoli

1998-01-01

398

Soviet military doctrine and Western security policy  

SciTech Connect

The late 1970s and early 1980s witnessed an unprecedented polarization of Western political and analytical opinion about the Soviet military and how policy should adapt to the emergence of parity between the superpowers. This study analyzes the roots of this polarization, and brings together for the first time a thorough survey of Western perceptions of Soviet military thought and doctrine, as well as of Soviet perceptions of Western military thought and doctrine. The work demonstrates how both East and West regularly makes judgements on the other's military profile on the basis of political preconceptions about the other's intentions. Western analysis of the Soviet military has not gone much beyond this unfortunate condition because most of the critical questions cannot be answered definitively with existing data and methodology. The study offers an assessment of how analysis of Soviet doctrine can be better factored into Western arms control and force posture planning.

Flynn, G.

1987-01-01

399

The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

Connolly, James P. (editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (editor)

1990-01-01

400

Gulag: Soviet Forced Labor Camps and the Struggle for Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Certain words that reference specific places or locales can have a chilling effect on their readers. One need only think about those places associated with the Holocaust to be reminded of this fact (such as Buchenwald or Dachau). Of course, there is the word "gulag", which for many brings to mind these rather well-known labor camps in the Soviet Union. Drawing on an innovative partnership between the Gulag Museum, the National Park Service, and the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, this exhibit tells the story of these places through both primary documents and short essays. The exhibit is divided into four parts, including those that deal with the growth of the gulag under Stalin and the human rights movement that attempted to redress the grievances of those forced to work and live in such places. The site is rounded out by an area that allows visitors to offer their own comments on the online exhibit.

2006-01-01

401

The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan  

SciTech Connect

A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I. [AN SSSR, Mosco

1990-01-01

402

Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals  

SciTech Connect

For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

Weickhardt, G.C.

1987-09-01

403

The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

2011-01-01

404

"To Live Well, To Live at Ease": Reflections on Life by Post-Soviet Russian Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on life-history interviews it was determined that Russian teenagers emphasized continuity over change, and described themselves more as passive participants than active shapers of a democratic society. Concludes that post-Soviet Russian adolescents, having witnessed political and economic upheavals but experiencing a lack of tangible…

Markowitz, Fran

1999-01-01

405

Service as a major source of growth in Russia and other former Soviet states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private services could contribute greatly to economic growth in Russia and the other former Soviet states. The authors use econometric analysis to identify the gap between expected and actual levels of service activities in these countries and simulate the effect on GDP and employment of closing the gap. The gap is particularly wide for business and consumer services. Transport and

William Easterly; Martha de Melo; Gur Ofer

1994-01-01

406

4-D Soviet Style: Defense, Development, Diplomacy, and Disengagement in Afghanistan During the Soviet Period. Part II: Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part two of the authors' study of the Soviet involvement in Afghnistan deals with social development as one of the elements of the overall Soviet state-building strategy. The authors conclude that Soviet social development policies, the effects of Soviet inspired nationalities policy, and the heavy-handed response to the opponents of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) alienated much of

Anton Minkov; Gregory Smolynec

2010-01-01

407

Soviet leadership on nuclear war. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the last decade, the Soviet politico-military leadership has provided startling evidence of a new Soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Leading Soviet military thinkers have themselves traced the origin of this phenomenon to evolving technological developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. In his 1982 book--Always in Readiness to Defend the Fatherland, Ogarkov used provocative language to describe recent developments in military affairs: A profound and revolutionary in the full sense of the word, perevorot (revolution, turnabout, upheaval) in military affairs is occurring in our time.... He connected this revolution with rapid quantitative developments in nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles, and with the significantly qualitative upgrading of conventional means of destruction. In his 1985 post-transfer book--History Teaches Vigilance, hereafter cited as History--he stressed that his profound and revolutionary, in the full sense of the word, perevorot is continuing in our time.... This document presents opinions on Soviet leadership in nuclear war.

FitzGerald, M.C.

1987-04-01

408

U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

409

[Conjugal unions and reproductive strategies in Brazil].  

PubMed

Data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses and from surveys conducted by the Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning between 1975 and 1977 were used to analyze changing patterns of conjugal unions in Brazil. Consensual unions have increased significantly throughout the country, at the expense of religious unions and often even of legal unions. More recent unions tend to be consensual while older unions are religious. Most of the unions surveyed (88%) were 1st unions; of these 71% were legal unions. The proportion of religious unions has declined over time, dropping from 18.4% among those cohorts united before 1960 to 7.3% among those united after 1970. The decline has been particularly marked in urban areas, where the proportion fell from 14.0% to 2.6%. Questions concerning the relative advantages of the different types of unions reveal that informants of both sexes consider civil marriages to be better because they provide economic and psychological security to families, spouses and children in addition to social legitimacy and legal protection. Financial aspects are considered particularly important for women, while the legality of the union is seen as especially advantageous for men. The absence of legal ties and material insecurity are considered to be the chief advantages of purely religious unions. At the same time, the lack of legal restraints against "switching wives" is seen as the major advantage of consensual union for men. Yet the instability of relations is seen as the main disadvantage of consensual unions. 1/2 of all informants feel that couples should separate if the marriage is not going well. Curiously, those from the more traditional sectors of the country tend to be more pro-separation. Although consensual unions are found at all socioeconomic levels, they predominate among the less affluent. In most regions, women in religious unions tend to have more children on the average, than the rest; those in consensual unions have the fewest. Between 1970 and 1976, the average age at which unions are entered tended to rise. Informants indicated that the best age for women to marry was between 20 and 24 years; for men, 25-29 years. The ages for both sexes are lower in the rural areas. Marriage is seen as a rite of passage into responsible maturity, and women are considered to mature earlier than men. As the age at marriage increases and unions are postponed, fertility can be expected to decrease. PMID:12280271

Berquo, E; Loyola, M A

1984-01-01

410

On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

Balockaite, Rasa

2014-01-01

411

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

412

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

413

Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

Dewberry, David R.

2005-01-01

414

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

415

78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Application its strategy for raising matching...support the economic development of the community served...narrative describing its strategy for raising matching...the credit union's marketing strategy to reach members...

2013-01-23

416

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-07-24

417

Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

1986-01-01

418

Shamanism, Christianity, and Marxism: Comparisons and Contrasts Between the Impact of Soviet Teachers on Eskimos, Chukchis, and Koryaks in Northeastern Siberia, and the Impact of an Early Anglican Missionary on Baffin Island Inuit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts activities and experiences of the first Soviet teachers among Eskimos and Koryaks and the first Anglican missionaries among Inuit of Baffin Island. Concludes Soviets integrated natives into political, educational, economic structures of the USSR while missionaries concentrated on natives' spiritual life, not involvement in…

Bartels, Dennis

1985-01-01

419

Interpretations: Understanding Soviet arms control motivations and verification attitudes  

SciTech Connect

The root motivation at the heart of present Soviet arms control motivations and verification attitudes is grounded within the broad historical perspective of the Russian and Soviet mobilization struggle. It is from this perspective that present Soviet behavior is rooted. Our understanding of this root motivation is essential to identifying opportunities to enhance US-Soviet relations and in turn our national security. 33 refs.

Gere, S.B.

1988-12-01

420

Students' Union / Introduction Representation and advice / Students' Union Students' Union  

E-print Network

Staff Liaison Committees (SSLCs), of which elected student representatives are members, meet regularly for election in academic societies, SSLCs or Union committees and roles. The Students' Union exists- time elected officers, who represent students in all aspects of the university experience and raise

Bristol, University of

421

Union formation in fragile families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union\\u000a formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate\\u000a the effects of economic, cultural\\/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship)\\u000a parents are romantically involved and living apart,

Marcia Carlson; Sara Mclanahan; Paula England

2004-01-01

422

Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

Ivie, Robert L.

423

THE POST-SOVIET CITY: IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to track both physical and social urbanization patterns of the post-Soviet city, and how a city's identity and type can shape community development needs and potential. Because the legacy of the Soviet period is a specter that continues to shape urbanity, I begin this paper with an exploration of the Soviet city in order

J. Robinson

424

Soviet naval forces and nuclear warfare: Weapons, employment, and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on formal content analysis of the writings of Admiral Sergei G. Gorshkov and past Soviet ministers of defense and heads of the Politburo, the author interprets what the Soviets say they will do in the event of nuclear war. He then constructs a hardware and exercise analysis of the strategic employment of the Soviet Navy in a nuclear war,

Tritten

1986-01-01

425

"Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

Pehowski, Marian

1978-01-01

426

Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

Merrill, Martha C.

1990-01-01

427

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

428

Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

Bancroft, W. Jane

429

Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

Glantz, D.M.

1985-01-01

430

Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys

Weickhardt

1987-01-01

431

Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

Rogers, Carl R.

1987-01-01

432

press.princeton.edu Economics & Finance  

E-print Network

Economic History & History of Economics 32 Public Policy 36 Economic Sociology & Related Interest 37 of the remote New Hampshire town where representatives of forty-four nations gathered in July 1944, in the midst, very privately, ad- mired Soviet economic planning and engaged in clandestine communications

Landweber, Laura

433

Union Membership (Annual)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirteen percent of all American waged and salaried workers, or 16.5 million workers, were members of unions in 1999, reports the BLS. Government workers are four times as likely to be union members, and those employed by local governments, such as fire fighters and police officers, the most unionized, have 42.9 percent rate of membership.

434

Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, CA (United States); Helmberger, D.V. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Seismological Lab.

1994-08-01

435

Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc  

SciTech Connect

The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

Davey, W.G.

1982-03-01

436

Soviet automated rendezvous and docking system overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviets have been performing automated rendezvous and docking for many years. It has been a reliable mode of resupply and reboost. During the course of the Soviet space program, the autodocking system has evolved. The earlier IGLA system was replaced with the current KURS system. Both systems are radar-based. The variation in strength between antennas is used for computing relative positions and attitudes. The active spacecraft has a transponder. From discussions with Soviet engineers, it seems the docking process can be controlled either from the ground or from the active (docking) spacecraft's onboard computer. The unmanned Progress resupply ships regularly dock with the current MIR Space Station. The Soyuz T spacecraft incorporated the IGLA system, and the later Soyuz TM and Progress M Series spacecraft incorporated the KURS. The MIR Complex has both systems installed. The rear port and the KVANT docking port have the IGLA system installed to support earlier Progress ships that use the IGLA. The first Soyuz TM docking occurred in May of 1986, while the first Progress M docked in September of 1989.

Hinman, Elaine M.; Bushman, David M.

1991-01-01

437

Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

Welker, Jean Edward

1995-01-01

438

Stalinist Labour Coercion during World War II: An Economic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a study of Soviet legal practices, the article examines the enforcement of coercive laws and their limitations in the Soviet command economy. New archival documentation shows the scale and scope of Stalin's coercive machinery. Firstly, we show why labour legislation assumed its specific form, based on an economic analysis of the command economy. Secondly, we identify four specific limits

Martin Kragh

2011-01-01

439

The ECU as the "Mark" of Unity: Europe between Monetary Integration and Monetary Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews progress toward economic integration and monetary union within the European Economic Community. Maintains that Germany has the greatest influence on the system because of its strong currency and monetary policies. Concludes that a "two-speed" course toward economic union may be the only practical path. (CFR)

Riemer, Jeremiah

1993-01-01

440

Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

Chaiko, Lev I.

1990-01-01

441

The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)  

SciTech Connect

This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree.

Kaufman, S.J.

1991-01-01

442

Credit Unions vs. Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the debate between the banks and credit unions over the issues of membership. The nine resources discussed provide background information about the debate and the arguments from both sides of the issue. On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Credit Union Administration's policy of permitting federal credit unions to serve multiple unrelated groups was unlawful. As a result, the credit union lobby persuaded the House of Representatives to overwhelmingly pass HR 1151, the Credit Union Membership Access Act, by a vote of 411-8. HR 1151 will allow credit unions to form multiple common bonds with certain limitations. Similar legislation is now under consideration in the Senate.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

1998-01-01

443

European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

444

information & research skills programme European Union Resources  

E-print Network

reports of EU agencies) as well as separate publications on a variety of economic, social 14 Transport. Communication. Tourism 15 Energy 16 Science and Technology 17 Education. Training. Culture 18 External Relations 19 Law EUROPA ­ Gateway to the European Union http://europa.eu/index

Hickman, Mark

445

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-print Network

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

446

The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model

1991-01-01

447

Between Moscow and Baku: National Literatures at the 1934 Congress of Soviet Writers  

E-print Network

in Soviet policy to ground the concept of a Soviet nationalnational development as the Marxist-Leninist nationalities policy required, the Sovietspolicy has provided and which are only possible under Soviet power, as opposed to the national

Schild, Kathryn Douglas

2010-01-01

448

Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

Burovskiy, N. N.

1979-01-01

449

Investigating soviet espionage and subversion: the case of Donald Maclean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay sets out the dimensions of investigating Soviet espionage and subversion, highlighting how Maclean's image as a Soviet agent has developed over the past 50 years. It will then consider to what extent new documents at the Public Record Office alter his image. Maclean's crime was treachery but what exactly is the intellectual challenge in investigating espionage? Just what

Sheila Kerr

2002-01-01

450

Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site;

R. E. Linnemann

1987-01-01

451

The Trial of Harry Dexter White: Soviet Agent of Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Scare of the late 1940s and 1950s was fueled by claims of governmental espionage from former members of the communist underground. Harry Dexter White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury was accused of being a Soviet agent of influence. This paper will analyze the current issues in the discussion of Soviet espionage and focus on White's activities in this

Tom Adams

2004-01-01

452

Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States  

E-print Network

in sub-Saharan Africa after decolonisation - or whether instead Russia's policies reflected a genuine is concerned, and regarding the fate of Russians living beyond the new borders. More often than not, though Conflicts in the Former Soviet Space 148 Chapter4: Russia's EnergyTrade with the Former Soviet States 237

Blandford, Ann

453

Special Tasks and Sacred Secrets on Soviet Atomic Espionage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful review of the depiction of Soviet atomic espionage provided in Pavel Sudoplatov's Special Tasks and Sacred Secrets by Jerrold and Leona Schecter demonstrates how faulty memories, Soviet intelligence agency disinformation, sloppy citations, misplaced trust in documents provided by unidentified sources under unexplained circumstances, and egregious lapses in logic and judgment can lead to conclusions unsupported by evidence. The

Harvey Klehr; John Earl Haynes

2011-01-01

454

JAPANESE, SOVIET, AND SOUTH KOREAN FISHERIES OFF ALASKA  

E-print Network

» '««fp JAPANESE, SOVIET, AND SOUTH KOREAN FISHERIES OFF ALASKA DEVELOPMENT AND HISTORY THROUGHL, MftSS. BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Circular 310 } ' OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Japanese, Soviet, and South Korean

455

Unions, Contractors and CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

Jarosz, Francesca

2006-01-01

456

Governance: Senates and Unions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edited versions of two conference papers are presented. The first paper, "The Debate Over Academic Unions and Faculty Governance," by Irwin H. Polishook, discusses why the concept of collective bargaining continues to be a significant issue in academe and is considered to be incompatible with faculty governance. It examines the union experiences…

Polishook, Irwin H.; Naples, Caesar J.

1989-01-01

457

Sustainability in the Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

2012-01-01

458

Teacher Unions 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

Koppich, Julia E.

2012-01-01

459

Students' Union Richmond Building  

E-print Network

Weekend opening Cafe Vending machine All study spaces have wi-fi, computers, and photocopiersVictoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Coa Royal Fort Gardens Victoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Wills Memorial Building Coa

Mottram, Nigel

460

Students' Union Richmond Building  

E-print Network

/Printer Scanner Wi-fi Wheelchair access 24/7 Late opening Weekend opening Cafe Vending machine 12 miles southVictoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Coa Royal Fort Gardens Victoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Wills Memorial Building Coa

Subramanian, Sriram

461

Soviet perspectives on British security policy: a reader. Final report  

SciTech Connect

How the Soviets perceive developments in U.S. security policy is a matter of understandable interest to U.S. security analysts and military planners. Less well known in American security circles, but also a matter of pertinent interest, are Soviet views about the defense policies, postures, and politics of key U.S. allies. This reader, part of a series of CNA reports concerning the western alliance is an initial step toward filling the gap in the case of one such ally: the United Kingdom. A collection of original translations of recent authoritative essays in a Soviet journals and the Soviet press, the reader provides a rich introduction to Soviet perspectives on the multiple dimensions of British security.

Clark, S.L.; Lacy, J.L.

1986-10-01

462

UNION BOARD History of the Union Board  

E-print Network

for the Miss Louisiana Pageant is chosen from an array of beautiful and talented young women. Spring Fling entertainment, concerts, the Miss Tech Pageant, Spring Fling, its annual Talent Show, comedians, dances Tech Pageant is also produced by the Union Board. On this special evening Tech's representative

Selmic, Sandra

463

Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

464

{open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

1997-07-01

465

Thirty years together: A chronology of U.S.-Soviet space cooperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chronology covers 30 years of cooperation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States, of which the Russian Federation is the leading space power). It tracks successful cooperative projects and failed attempts at space cooperation. Included are the Dryden-Blagonravov talks; the UN Space Treaties; the Apollo Soyuz Test Project; COSPAS-SARSAT; the abortive Shuttle-Salyut discussions; widespread calls for joint manned and unmanned exploration of Mars; conjectural plans to use Energia and other Russian space hardware in ambitious future joint missions; and contemporary plans involving the U.S. Shuttle, Russian Mir, and Soyuz-TM. The chronology also includes events not directly related to space cooperation to provide context. A bibliography lists works and individuals consulted in compiling the chronology, plus works not used but relevant to the topic of space cooperation.

Portree, David S. F.

1993-01-01

466

Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras  

PubMed Central

We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of ?35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

2014-01-01

467

Economic relations with the USSR  

SciTech Connect

Contributors examine the costs and benefits to U.S. and Soviet economics of the East-West trade. Topics include the political climate since the collapse of detente, the role of technology imports, and such issues as the Siberian pipeline, Polish and Romanian debt, and U.S. sanctions against Poland.

Becker, A.S.

1983-01-01

468

EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural processes in ocean and terrestrial ecosystems together with human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. It is predicted that an increase in the concentrations of CO2 will cause the Earth's temperatures to rise and will accel...

469

METHOD TO QUANTIFY THE CARBON CYCLE OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION (EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 which is predicted to cause the earth's temperatures to rise and accelerate rates of plant respiration and the decay of organic matter, disrupting the equilibrium of the terrestrial carbon ...

470

Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained

D W Layton; R Edson; M Varela; B Napier

1999-01-01

471

Imaging XUV spectroscopy of a Z-pinch plasma in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 a group of scientists from the Angara 5 pulsed power facility at the Kurchatov Institute in Troitsk, Russia had determined the thermal emission from an implosion of xenon gas onto an annular, molybdenum doped foam liner to be 30 TW/cm{sup 2}. This represents an extremely efficient conversion of energy into a high fluence radiation field. In order to verify this claim and better understand the process of producing radiation by means of a Z-pinch plasma device, a series of experiments were proposed through a collaboration from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Due to previous experience with x-ray spectroscopic measurements in the XUV region, the team from Lawrence Livermore Lab took on the task of designing, constructing, and fielding the necessary diagnostic equipment to spatially and temporally resolve plasma temperatures throughout the implosion of the high Z foam target.

Bruns, H.C.; Springer, P.T.; Emig, J.A.; Lanier, N.E.; Hernandez, J.A.

1993-08-11

472

Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as atmospheric transport, could be considered under future-funded research efforts for impacts to Alaska. The ANWAP risk assessment does not address the following wastes, media, and receptors: radioactive sources in Alaska (except to add perspective for Russian source term); radioactive wastes associated with Russian naval military operations and decommissioning; Russian production reactor and spent-fuel reprocessing facilities nonaqueous source terms; atmospheric, terrestrial and nonaqueous pathways; and dose calculations for any circumpolar locality other than Alaska. These other, potentially serious sources of radioactivity to the Arctic environment, while outside the scope of the current ANWAP mandate, should be considered for future funding research efforts.

Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

1999-11-15

473

Health reform in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

In the two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist countries in Europe have pursued wide-ranging changes to their health systems. We describe three key aspects of these changes-an almost universal switch to health insurance systems, a growing reliance on out-of-pocket payments (both formal and informal), and efforts to strengthen primary health care, often with a model of family medicine delivered by general practitioners. Many decisions about health policy, such as the introduction of health insurance systems or general practice, took into account political issues more than they did evidence. Evidence for whether health reforms have achieved their intended results is sparse. Of crucial importance is that lessons are learnt from experiences of countries to enable development of health systems that meet present and future health needs of populations. PMID:19801097

Rechel, Bernd; McKee, Martin

2009-10-01

474

New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries  

SciTech Connect

AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewing, Tom [ANL; Sakunov, Igor [AVIS CORP., KIEV, UKRAINE; Drapey, Sergey [GEORGE KUZMYCZ TRAINING; Nations, Jim [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

2009-01-01

475

Directory of Palaeontologists of the World (Excl. Soviet Union & Continental China), 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three major parts of this directory are (1) the alphabetical list of palaeontologists, (2) the indices of specialization, and (3) the regional list of institutions employing paleontologists. Listed under Part 1 are name and business address, major and minor regional specializations, disciplinary specializations, and major and minor systematic…

Westermann, G. E. G.

476

The Role of Language in the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examines the dynamics of cultural pluralism and language in the ethnic mobilization, and resulting dissolution, of the USSR. It first examines ethnic composition, dominant nationalities, language groups without separate nationalities, patterns of ethnic populations within nationalities, and the influence of this multiculturalism on…

Marshall, David F.

477

Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

1985-01-01

478

New types of dwellings for prospective construction after 1981. [in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architectural considerations for the next stage of mass housing construction in the U.S.S.R. are explored. The architects are concerned with both the aesthetic and functional quality of the constructions, in terms of the prospective inhabitants as well as the environments in which they will be located. Experimental building designs emphasize: variety of appearance, environmental control, and the communal life.

Butuzov, V.; Kapustyan, Y.

1977-01-01

479

Corruption in Post-Communist Societies: Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Michael Johnston of Colgate University's Department of Political Science, this working bibliography lists print and electronic resources relevant to the study of corruption and development in post-communist societies. The modest bibliography, which focuses on English language materials published since 1989, is searchable by keyword. In addition, the site includes an Events section, which posts announcements for conferences, training courses, and other events related to the topic of the bibliography.

480

The Kopenhagen operation of the Soviet KGB. The Kopenahagen interview of Niels Bohr by a Soviet scientist and KGB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describes the Soveit KGB operation of interviewing Niels Bohr by soviet scientist Yakov. P. Terletskii(1912-1993) and KGB kolonel Lev Petrovich Vasilevskii (b. 1903) on 24 september 1945-20 november 1945 concerning the American Nuclear weapons (Manhattan project)undertaken under the project of the Soviet KGB Lieder Lavrentij P. Berija and supervised by Soviet KGB generals Pavel A. Sudoplatov (b. 1907) and Nikolay S. Sazykin (1910-1985) after the detailed magnetophone interview of Professor Ya. P. Terletskij before his die in Moscow.

Andreev, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. B.; Yavelov, Boris E.

481

Soviet montage cinema as propaganda and political rhetoric   

E-print Network

Most previous studies of Soviet montage cinema have concentrated on its aesthetic and technical aspects; however, montage cinema was essentially a rhetoric rather than an aesthetic of cinema. This thesis presents a ...

Russell, Michael

2009-01-01

482

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

Not Available

1989-09-01

483

Za Zdorovye!Soviet Health Posters as Social Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet-era health campaigns relied heavily on posters. Soviet-era health posters can be viewed as social advertising, aiming to attract interest and to motivate behavior change. Health-related posters from major Russian and US collections were analyzed in terms of their themes and the types of appeals used. These posters, promoting cleanliness and better infant and child care and attacking smoking and

Karen F. A. Fox

2009-01-01

484

The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

Van Den Abeelen, L.

485

Daily Arctic Ocean Rawinsonde Data from Soviet Drifting Ice Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has made available the data set Daily Arctic Ocean Rawinsonde Data from Soviet Drifting Ice Stations. These measurements include wind direction and speed, atmosphere pressure, humidity, air temperature, geopotential height, and surface-based observations for cloud cover (amount, type, and height) from the Soviet North Pole for the period of April 19, 1954 to July 31, 1990.

486

Corresponding with the enemy: Eisenhower's letters to the Soviets  

E-print Network

War II, Communists, in general, and the Soviets, in particular, have worn the dubious distinction most frequently. The perception of Soviet savagery advanced by Truman in 1947 has persisted for over forty years despite several periods of improved... 1955 and March 1958, the colloquy officially involved President Eisenhower and Premier Bulganin. However, because the general perception at the time was that Premier Bulganin was merely a figurehead, controlled by Communist Party Chairman Khrushchev...

Castellanos, Gustavo Edwardo

1992-01-01

487

Changing soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In January 1977, General Secretary L. I. Brezhnev delivered an address in the city of Tula whose impact on Soviet doctrine and capabilities continues to this day. By rejecting the possibility of a means of defense against nuclear weapons, or a damage-limiting capacity in nuclear war, Brezhnev closed the door on a debate that had lasted for over a decade in Soviet military thought. Since Tula, the Soviet politico-military leadership has presented a consensus on the reality of Mutual Assured Destruction in present-day conditions. The Soviet debate on the viability of nuclear war as an instrument of policy was likewise resolved by a consensus: nuclear war is so unpromising and dangerous that it remains an instrument of policy only in theory, an instrument of policy that cannot be used. While the Soviet consensus on the diminishing military utility of nuclear weapons represents a ground-breaking shift in doctrine since the heyday of Marshal Sokolovskiy, there is scant evidence of any dispute on the new correlation of war and policy in a nuclear age. Marshal N. V. Ogarkov and other hard-minded military figures have themselves emerged as the architects of the Soviet shift away from a nuclear war-fighting and war-winning strategy, while General Secretary Gorbachev has fashioned a corresponding arms control agenda.

FitzGerald, M.C.

1986-10-01

488

Two essays on monetary union and international finance  

E-print Network

Bessler Head of Department, Leonardo Auernheimer August 2005 Major Subject: Economics iii ABSTRACT Two Essays on Monetary Union and International Finance. (August 2005) Nai-Wei Chen, B.S., National Sun Yat-Sen University; M.S., Texas... OF TABLES??????????????????????????? x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION?????????????????????. 1 A. EU, EMU and Euro???????????????????... 2 B. Euro and Purchasing Power Parity?????????????? 5 C. Effects of Corporate Governance and Monetary Union...

Chen, Nai-Wei

2005-11-01

489

Democracy and Economic ReformsDeveloping Underdeveloped Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1980s many African countries were compelled by bad economic circumstances and poor economic prospects to adopt structural adjustment programs dictated by their external creditors. By the late 1980s, it had become clear that these economic reform programs were failing to achieve their objectives. This factor as well as the effective disintegration of the Soviet empire enabled the

Ufo Okeke Uzodike

1996-01-01

490

Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

1990-01-01

491

Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

Lumsden, C.A.

1990-06-01

492

Consequences of the Ban of By-Products from Terrestrial Animals in Livestock Feeding in Germany and The European Union: Alternatives, Nutrient and Energy Cycles, Plant Production, and Economic Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as

M. Rodehutscord; H. J. Abel; W. Friedt; C. Wenk; G. Flachowsky; H.-J. Ahlgrimm; B. Johnke; R. Kühl; G. Breves

2002-01-01

493

Scaphoid Non-Union Fracture  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Scaphoid Non-Union Fracture Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... customize your collection. DESCRIPTION A scaphoid non-union fracture refers to a wrist fracture that is failing ...

494

A Biological Model of Unions  

E-print Network

This paper applies principles from evolutionary biology to the study of unions. We show that unions that implement the preferred wage and organizing policies of workers will be displaced in evolutionary competition by ...

Kremer, Michael

495

Unions and Workplace Reorganization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

496

Sports Union Recreational Sport  

E-print Network

Sports Union Recreational Sport Programme Futsal(5 a-side Football) Play football on a weekly basis and Semester 2 Entry form You must fill in a Recreational Sport Entry Form. This can be collected from the Sports Centre reception and hand it in along with your entry fee. Find us on Facebook at Heriot

Howie, Jim

497

Marketing the College Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

498

AnDa Union  

E-print Network

of the steppes. Throat singers, like the Chinese Mongolian members of Anda Union appearing at the Lied Center on November 5th, have impressive control over all parts of the human linguistic apparatus. Individual singers can produce as many as four notes at once...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-02

499

Inter-Parliamentary Union = Union Interparlementaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inter-Parliamentary Union, a "world organization of parliaments of sovereign States" since 1889, provides this informational site, which is highlighted by two searchable databases, PARLINE and PARLIT. PARLINE contains information about parliaments in over 190 countries, including structure, leader, percentage of women, term, and other useful data which may include distribution by political group and sex, candidacy eligiblilty requirements, and background to the last election. A comparative search function allows qualitative and quantitative search variables and returns country parliaments that meet specifications. PARLIT contains bibliographic references to a subset of IPU's 37,000 item database. Items from 1992-present are currently available. Searches can be performed on seven variables, including country, parliamentary organization, periodical, and language. The IPU site also contains links to parliamentary web sites and other information about the organization.

1998-01-01

500

Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and climatic and socio-economic change in arid and semi-arid central Asia.

Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

2012-12-01