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Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  2. Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

  3. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  4. Soviet Union's Energy Situation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union is a country of vast sources of energy supply including oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, and hydropower, all of which are used in varying degrees to supply its energy needs. In spite of this wealth of resources, the Soviet Union has difficulty meeting its demand for energy. Opinions on the situation vary, from those who claim the country is in the midst of an energy crisis to those who argue that distribution is the only difficulty. But in any event, the unfortunate fact is that in some areas of the country, energy needs exceed its availability. Until recently, soviet energy policy concentrated on supply. With the release of its 1983 Energy Program however, the Soviet Union acknowledged the necessity of a fundamental shift in energy policy from the supply side to the demand side in order to curb energy consumption.

  5. Assisting science in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The turmoil and economic hardships in the former Soviet Union have not bypassed its scientific community. Governments and scientists around the world bemoan the collapse of the Soviet science infrastructure and the potential loss of Soviet weapons scientists to untrustworthy nations. In joint research collaborations, many see both the chance to assist science in the former Soviet Union and a wellspring of potentially commercial technology.The biggest effort to date is a joint agreement among Russia, the European Community, Japan, and the United States to set up an International Science and Technology Center in Moscow. The center will act as a clearinghouse for proposals from the former Soviet Union to fund research for former weapons scientists. The member nations could support proposals either singularly or jointly. Although all the details have yet to be worked out, the United States has pledged $25 million to this effort so far.

  6. Nuclear proliferation from the former Soviet Union and the effects of US economic incentives. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the United States` role in stemming nuclear proliferation from the states of the Former Soviet Union. Proliferation from the FSU is a critical danger to the world. Because of the breakdown of many of the security structures within the FSU which formerly ensured the safety of their weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and related material, the danger is very real. The implementation of the START treaties has also generated a great deal of excess fissile material. Because of the economic conditions in the FSU, there is rising crime concerning the sale and distribution of this material. Finally, this paper examines the U.S. role in decreasing the danger of nuclear catastrophe caused by the lack of control. The primary force used in this effort is the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act (CTR) - better know as the Nunn-Lugar Program - which was initiated in 1991 immediately after the failed coup attempt in Moscow. The paper examines in broad scope the types of efforts that CTR supports and gives examples of how that money is being spent. The paper takes the position that the CTR is extremely important to the vital interests of the United States. Recommendations are then given to enhance this vital program.

  7. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  8. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  9. CME in the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Marvin

    1978-01-01

    This article documents the system of continuing medical education in the Soviet Union, as seen through the eyes of a visiting Canadian physician. The information was not easily obtained, since the visit was fraught with administrative difficulties, but the experience was highly educational, giving particular insight into the advantages and disadvantages of an educational system which is totally government funded. PMID:21301547

  10. Social, Political, and Economic Variables Associated with Successful and Unsuccessful Educational Change Efforts: Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, David; And Others

    This paper, using five examples (Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union, and the United States), explores some patterns of interactions among social, political, and economic activity (SPEA) and seven influences affecting the character of national systems of education. The educational change and improvement efforts in the five countries are…

  11. Economic crisis and access to care: Cuba's health care system since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Kamran; López-Pardo, Cándido M

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the effects on access to health care in Cuba of the severe economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the monetary and market reforms adopted to confront it. Economic crises undermine health and well-being. Widespread scarcities and self-seeking attitudes fostered by monetary and market relations could result in differential access to health services and resources, but the authors found no evidence of such differential access in Cuba. While Cubans generally complain about many shortages, including shortages of health services and resources before the economic recovery began in 1995, no interviewees reported systemic shortages or unequal access to health care services or resources; interviewees were particularly happy with their primary care services. These findings are consistent with official health care statistics, which show that, while secondary and tertiary care suffered in the early years of the crisis because of interruptions in access to medical technologies, primary care services expanded unabated, resulting in improved health outcomes. The combined effects of the well-functioning universal and equitable health care system in place before the crisis, the government's steadfast support for the system, and the network of social solidarity based on grassroots organizations mitigated the corrosive effects of monetary and market relations in the context of severe scarcities and an intensified U.S. embargo against the Cuban people. PMID:16320905

  12. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  13. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  14. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  15. The Soviet Union: Population Trends and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends and differentials among the Soviet Union's 15 republics and major nationalities are reviewed, focusing on fertility, mortality and urbanization, the prospect for labor supplies and military manpower, emigration, and projected population growth to 2000. Estimated at 270 million as of mid-1982, the Soviet population is currently…

  16. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  17. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  18. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  19. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  20. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  1. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

  2. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  3. (Radiation materials science in the Soviet Union)

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, L.K.

    1990-06-15

    The conference reflected the high level of effort on radiation effects in materials in the Soviet Union. About 400 reports were covered, distributed over four days in plenary sessions, two-track parallel sessions and poster presentations. There were approximately 300 attendees, with about 30 from outside the USSR. The point was made that a number of Soviet reports had to be turned away in order to keep the conference at reasonable size. Fifteen countries were represented. The conference scope ranged from overviews of nuclear power and policy in the USSR to details of point defect behavior. Both applied and basic materials work here were covered extensively. The number of researchers in this field appears to be several times, perhaps a factor of ten, higher than in the United States.

  4. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a pronatalist policy which they hope will lead to an increase in fertility, at least among the dominant Slavic groups of the multinational country. More than 9 billion rubles (U.S. $12.2 billion) is to be spent over the next 5 years to implement measures aimed at increasing state aid to families with children, to be carried out step by step in different regions of the country. It is this writer's opinion that overall fertility is not likely to increase markedly despite the recent efforts of the central authorities, and the Russian share of the total population will probably continue to drop while that of Central Asian Muslim peoples increases. PMID:12264357

  5. Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullov, Marat

    1991-11-01

    The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

  6. The Soviet Union and Its People. Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    This third grade teaching unit on the USSR covers an introduction to the Soviet Union and its people, its government, daily lifestyles, folk culture, and geography. Skill goals deal with telling the difference between facts and opinions, comparing cultures, and integrating and applying information from various topics about the Soviet Union to…

  7. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  8. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  9. Human Rights Problems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubert, Judah L.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet human rights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)

  10. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  11. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  12. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  13. Soviet Cybernetics Technology: XII. Time-Sharing in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doncov, Boris

    The only operational Soviet time-sharing systems are incorporated in special-purpose, fixed-application installations, most of which are intended for industrial applications of process control or management information. Despite the peculiar suitability of time-sharing to the Soviet economic system, with its heavy reliance on centralized planning…

  14. Attitude Change of American Tourists in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Peter

    Pre- and post-travel questionnaires mailed to American tourists visiting the Soviet Union record attitude change and serve as the basis for this eight-chapter research project report. Most of the report considers the relation of various factors to attitude change, including education, level of information, language ability, sex, age, occupation,…

  15. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  16. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  17. Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This bibliography lists 86 references, most of which are annotated, to papers and journal articles on computer assisted learning (CAL) in the Soviet Union. Topics dealt with include problem solving models, decision strategies, programmed instruction, algorithms, simulation, educational games, databases, and testing. The references have been…

  18. Recent Audio-Visual Materials on the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Edith Campbell

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and describes audio-visual materials (films, filmstrips, and audio cassette tapes) about the Soviet Union which have been produced since 1977. For each entry, information is presented on title, time required, date of release, cost (purchase and rental), and an abstract. (DB)

  19. The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: a report from the 'post-war' zone.

    PubMed

    Field, M G

    1995-12-01

    Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come. PMID:8607037

  20. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  1. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  2. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  3. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  4. Area Handbook for the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Eugene K.; And Others

    The volume is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Areas Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on objective…

  5. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  6. Camping in the Commonwealth. Or, Will Camper Exchanges Outlast the Soviet Union?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Jay R.

    1992-01-01

    Traces the development of camper exchange programs between the United States and the Soviet Union; notes differences between Soviet and U.S. residential camps; and discusses the benefits and future of camper exchange programs. Since 1987, 70 U.S. residential camps have hosted Soviet children and hundreds of U.S. campers have attended Soviet camps.…

  7. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former senior scientist (mensuration) for the Soviet Committee on Forests, now a scholar at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, has provided abundant contributions from the data available to him and from his experience. Forest stand carbon is concentrated in the Russian Far East (i.e. Primorski Kray), Central-Southern Siberia and European Russia But, soil carbon can be 10 times forest stand C. Our efforts in mapping the area and changes in area (as well as the internal structure) of forests have made major contributions to our joint understanding of the scale and status of these forests. To realize the importance of this contribution one needs only to recognize that any large scale Soviet-era maps of the area did not include latitude and longitude. Even today, there is great reluctance to provide these data, the basis of any GIS.

  8. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  9. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  10. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  11. Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipilov, Andrew

    The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

  12. Updating Teaching Lessons on the Soviet Union: Entering the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Explains how social studies teachers can help students understand perestroika, glasnost, and other current events in the Soviet Union. Describes strategies that teach how to analyze periodical and newspaper articles dealing with the Soviet Union. Lists resource materials for updating information on the USSR. Outlines a sample lesson on the 1989…

  13. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  14. Understanding population health: lessons from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was a massive natural experiment that has provided many insights that help our understanding of the determinants of population health. This paper identifies a series of lessons learnt from this experience: (1) Rapid transition can damage health. (2) When undertaking comparative research, it is essential to have a common understanding of what different terms mean in different places. (3) When looking at exposures and outcomes, it is important to appreciate that the delay between exposure to a risk factor and the appearance of disease can range from almost none to several decades. (4) Contrary to the views of some commentators, modern healthcare has made a substantial contribution to the health of populations in industrialised countries. (5) Science can flourish only where it is free from ideology. (6) Public health and basic science achieve most when they work together. (7) Without functioning democracy, the outlook for better health is poor. PMID:16138493

  15. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end. PMID:25461871

  16. Molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Botvinkin, Alexandr D; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Smith, Jean S; Orciari, Lillian A; Hughes, Gareth J; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-10-01

    Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which were similar to viruses from Alaska and Canada. Group B consisted of "Arctic-like" viruses, originating from the south of East Siberia and the Far East. Group C consisted of viruses circulating in the steppe and forest-steppe territories from the European part of Russia to Tuva and in Kazakhstan. These three phylogenetic groups were clearly different from the European cluster. Viruses of group D circulate near the western border of Russia. Their phylogenetic position is intermediate between group C and the European cluster. Group E consisted of viruses originating from the northwestern part of Russia and comprised a "northeastern Europe" group described earlier from the Baltic region. According to surveillance data, a specific host can be defined clearly only for group A (arctic fox; Alopex lagopus) and for the Far Eastern part of the group B distribution area (raccoon dog; Nyctereutes procyonoides). For other territories and rabies virus variants, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main virus reservoir. However, the steppe fox (Vulpes corsac), wolf (Canis lupus), and raccoon dog are also involved in virus circulation, depending on host population density. These molecular data, joined with surveillance information, demonstrate that the current fox rabies epizootic in the territory of the FSU developed independently of central and western Europe. No evidence of positive selection was found in the N genes of the isolates. In the glycoprotein gene, evidence of positive selection was strongly suggested in codons 156, 160, and 183. At these sites, no link between amino acid substitutions and phylogenetic placement or specific host species was detected. PMID:15650080

  17. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

  18. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  19. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  20. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  1. Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

  2. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-12

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted.

  3. Forecasting mankind's future: a view from the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bestuzhev-Lada, I.

    1981-08-01

    The author, a leading USSR sociologist and futurist, notes that Soviet forecasters see critical choices in the areas of population, energy, natural resources, and weapons. Soviet strategists recommend: (1) a two- to three-child family to help world population stabilize at zero growth; (2) the use of nuclear and thermonuclear power while mankind learns to use renewable energy sources; (3) a program of effective environmental protection; and (4) a concerted effort to halt the arms race. Each of these areas can prove catastrophic to mankinds future, but the author feels that each can, and could be fought for. 5 figures. (DCK)

  4. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  5. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  6. Problems of nuclear science and technology: the Soviet Union as a world nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosy'ants, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    This book, written by the Chairman of the State Commission for the Utilization of Atomic Energy in the Soviet Union, tells about the Soviet Union as a world nuclear power, using atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The book shows the transformation of nuclear science and technology into a gigantic branch of the national economy. The fourth edition of the book (1st Edition in 1970, 2nd Edition in 1972, and the 3rd Edition in 1976) has been revised and augmented with new information reflecting the achievements of nuclear science and technology in the ninth and tenth Five-year periods.

  7. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  8. Higher Education Correspondence Study in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Alexander J.

    Soviet education is designed not only to produce specialists whose skills will be more useful to the State, but also to reshape the character of the person so that it is compatible with Communist ideology. The study attempts to investigate and describe the development of higher education correspondence study in the U.S.S.R. Subproblems…

  9. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  10. THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, EDMUND

    IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY WAS…

  11. Determinants and consequences of child culture brokering in families from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Jones, Curtis J; Trickett, Edison J; Birman, Dina

    2012-09-01

    Child culture brokering occurs when immigrant children help their families navigate the new culture and language. The present study develops a model of the child culture broker role that situates it within the family and community economic and acculturative contexts of 328 families from the former Soviet Union. Path analysis was utilized to explore the relationships of community and family economic and cultural contexts with child culture brokering, child emotional distress, and family disagreements. All children reported some culture brokering for their parents. Less English proficient parents with lower status jobs, and living in areas with more Russian speaking families tended to utilize their children as brokers more often. Further, community economic conditions also predicted brokering indirectly, mediated by parent job social status. Brokering was related to child emotional distress and family disagreements. Further, culture brokering was a mediator of the impact of parent job social status on both child emotional distress and family disagreements. These results add to our understanding of the culture broker role and emphasize the utility of approaching research on it from an ecological perspective. PMID:22246563

  12. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  13. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  14. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  15. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  16. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    This supplement updates the 1985 "Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers," a guide to literature for middle and high school teachers. Each entry includes author, title, pages, a physical description, identifying numbers, imprint, price, and a brief evaluative summary. Section 1, "Reference Books," contains six items of a…

  17. Challenges of Tengiz oil field and other FSU joint ventures. [Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, R.H. )

    1994-07-04

    Chevron has been operating a joint venture for the past year to develop supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. This article contains impressions on doing business in the former Soviet Union, details of some of the unique challenges of working on that part of the world, an update of the Tengiz project, and discussion of the Caspian region pipeline situation.

  18. Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

    2005-01-01

    A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

  19. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  20. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  1. The Link between Libraries and Publishing in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartasov, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the various ways in which publishers and libraries work together in the Soviet Union to ensure the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP). The general library and publishing situation in the USSR, the distribution of materials to libraries, library acquisitions, cataloging and standardization, and specialized publishing are…

  2. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  3. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  4. CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

  5. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  6. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  7. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  8. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  9. Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

  10. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  11. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

  12. From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Denise P.

    1998-01-01

    Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

  13. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  14. Factors Associated with Early Employment among Refugees from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race, Kathryn E. H.; Masini, Blase E.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relationship among demographics, vocational service, and job placement among refugees from the former Soviet Union. Tracked vocational service and employment history for 12 months for 379 employable, adult refugees under age 55, and whose first visit to Jewish Vocational Service Chicago occurred between October 1 and December 31,…

  15. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  16. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  17. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

  18. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  19. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  20. Understanding Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union through History and Literature, 50 Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Donald, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book provides 50 learning activities with background materials for teaching about tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet Union. Use of literature, history, geography, primary sources, various learning strategies are all included. The lessons provide study of 19th and 20th century events to Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika.…

  1. The Social/Moral Basis of Occupational Life: Teacher Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    1982-01-01

    Three aspects of teacher preparation in the Soviet Union are discussed: (1) organization of teacher education; (2) social philosophy of the state and school; and (3) scientific-technological revolution. A relationship is shown between teacher preparation programs and social values in the USSR. (CJ)

  2. Current Trends in FL Testing in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prucha, Jan

    In Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, foreign language tests have been used rarely in schools, because more traditional oral and written examinations are preferred. However, recent changes in socialist pedagogical theory support a trend toward increasing efficiency in the instructional process, increased use of diagnostics, development of more…

  3. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  4. POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

  5. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  6. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  7. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  8. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  9. Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs. PMID:23955168

  11. Health Service Utilization in the Former Soviet Union: Evidence from Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin; Pomerleau, Joceline; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the countries that emerged from the Soviet Union have experienced major changes in the inherited Soviet model of health care, which was centrally planned and provided universal, free access to basic care. The underlying principle of universality remains, but coexists with new funding and delivery systems and growing out-of-pocket payments. Objective To examine patterns and determinants of health care utilization, the extent of payment for health care, and the settings in which care is obtained in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Methods Data were derived from cross-sectional surveys, representative of adults aged 18 and over in each country, conducted in 2001. Multistage random sample of 18,428 individuals, stratified by region and area, was obtained. Instrument contained extensive data on demographic, economic, and social characteristics, administered face-to-face. The analysis explored the health seeking behavior of users and nonusers (those reporting an episode of illness but not consulting). Results In the preceding year, over half of all respondents visited a medical professional, ranging from 65.7 percent in Belarus to 24.4 percent in Georgia, mostly at local primary care facilities. Of those reporting an illness, 20.7 percent of all did not consult although they felt they should have done so, varying from 9.4 percent in Belarus to 42.4 percent in Armenia and 49 percent in Georgia. The main reason for not seeking care was lack of money to pay for treatment (45.2 percent), self-treatment with home-produced remedies (32.9 percent), and purchase of nonprescribed medicine (21.8 percent). There are marked differences between countries; unaffordability was a particularly common factor in Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova (78 percent, 70 percent, 54 percent), and much lower in Belarus and Russia. In Georgia and Armenia, 65 percent and 56 percent of those who had consulted paid out-of-pocket, in the form of money, gifts, or both; these figures were 8 percent and 19 percent in Belarus and Russia respectively and 31.2 percent overall. The probability of not consulting a health professional when seriously ill was significantly higher among those over age 65, and with lower education. Use of health care was markedly lower among those with fewer household assets or a shortage of money, and those dissatisfied with their material resources, factors that explained some of the effects of age. A lack of social support (formal and informal) decreases further the probability of not consulting, adding to the consequences of poor financial status. The probability of seeking care for common conditions varies widely among countries (persistent fever: 56 percent in Belarus; 16 percent in Armenia) and home remedies, alcohol, and direct purchase of pharmaceuticals are commonly used. Informal coping strategies, such as use of connections (36.7 percent) or offering money to health professionals (28.5 percent) are seen as acceptable. Conclusions This article provides the first comparative assessment of inequalities in access to health care in multiple countries of the former Soviet Union, using rigorous methodology. The emerging model across the region is extremely diverse. Some countries (Belarus, Russia) have managed to maintain access for most people, while in others the situation is near collapse (Armenia, Georgia). Access is most problematic in health systems characterized by high levels of payment for care and a breakdown of gate-keeping, although these are seen in countries facing major problems such as economic collapse and, in some, a legacy of civil war. There are substantial inequalities within each country and even where access remains adequate there are concerns about its sustainability. PMID:15544638

  12. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their use of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Son, Catherine R; Stasyuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The population of older immigrants in the United States is growing and they bring their health beliefs and practices with them. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies which includes in part: 1) foods to which medicinal properties are attributed, 2) herbs, 3) external treatments, and 4) pharmaceuticals manufactured in the former Soviet Union and available over-the-counter. These remedies vary in their efficacy and are often used in combination with or in lieu of prescribed allopathic (Western) medications. Health beliefs regarding medicine in the United States has led older Slavic immigrant to distrust their US health care providers and system. Nurses are in a key position to inquire and work with older Slavic immigrants to safely use their CAM and provide more information about prescribed allopathic medications and the harmful effects of combining remedies without consultation. PMID:24702720

  13. Four Goals of School Reform in the Soviet Union, 1984-1989: A Bumpy Journey for "Perestroika".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joan B.

    Examined is the progress of four major goals of school reform in the Soviet Union as an integral part of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's call for a monumental restructuring (perestroika) of society. With the adoption of Fundamental Directions of General Education and Vocational School Reform (1984), four important goals were set in motion;…

  14. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  15. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  16. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  17. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia. PMID:23259276

  18. The imperiled future of solar-terrestrial research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Teague, Michael

    From the beginning of solar-terrestrial research (STR) during the International Geophysical Year 1957/58, the Soviet Union made substantial contributions to this new discipline. In many areas, such as magnetic pulsations, cosmic ray modulation, plasmasphere structure and dynamics, ionospheric modification, theoretical space plasma physics, and planetary ionospheres, Soviet scientists have pioneered and excelled.Some unique facts call for vigorous participation by the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program 1990-1997 (STEP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) (see, for instance, Rostoker [1990]). There are the existing brain power in many related disciplines, with particular strength in theoretical physics and analytical methods; the area's geographic importance, especially Russia's vast longitudinal extent at high northern latitudes; the existing magnetic, optical, and ionospheric observatory networks throughout the country, especially in the Arctic and important Antarctic bases; space mission capability with existing and planned satellite missions and a stock of available prototype spacecraft with their launch vehicles; an existing bank of STR data, some of it formerly classified, waiting to be analyzed; and ongoing research on “controversialrdquo topics such as the search for solar-terrestrial coupling effects on biological and human systems and the study of earthquake precursor effects in the ionosphere.

  19. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  20. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  1. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

  2. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

  3. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

  4. Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.D.

    1992-06-05

    Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

  5. Soviet Jews in the United States: An Analysis of Their Linguistic and Economic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature and analyzes 1980 census data to study English language fluency and earnings among Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Soviet Jews have a difficult initial adjustment, but, after five years in the United States, they achieve parity with other European immigrants in English and earnings. (SLD)

  6. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. The dissolution of the Soviet Union left behind many scientists still working to study pathogens using antiquated protocols in unsafe laboratories. To address this situation, the CTR program began improving laboratory infrastructure, establishing biosafety and biosecurity programs, and training scientists in modern techniques, with emphasis on biosurveillance and safe containment of especially dangerous pathogens. In the Republic of Georgia, this effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both isolated especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs in these facilities tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. A similar effort is ongoing in other former Soviet Republics. Here, we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists appointed by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and scientists to consider providing a sustainable biological science program in support of the One Health initiative. Opportunities, potential barriers, and lessons learned while meeting the needs of the Republic of Georgia and the Caucasus region are discussed. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a model for similar scientific needs in not only the former Soviet Union republics but also other regions challenged by infectious diseases where the CTR program operates. PMID:26636067

  7. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, James C.; Pearson, Andrew D.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; LeDuc, James W.; Hirschberg, David L.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. The dissolution of the Soviet Union left behind many scientists still working to study pathogens using antiquated protocols in unsafe laboratories. To address this situation, the CTR program began improving laboratory infrastructure, establishing biosafety and biosecurity programs, and training scientists in modern techniques, with emphasis on biosurveillance and safe containment of especially dangerous pathogens. In the Republic of Georgia, this effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both isolated especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs in these facilities tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. A similar effort is ongoing in other former Soviet Republics. Here, we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists appointed by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and scientists to consider providing a sustainable biological science program in support of the One Health initiative. Opportunities, potential barriers, and lessons learned while meeting the needs of the Republic of Georgia and the Caucasus region are discussed. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a model for similar scientific needs in not only the former Soviet Union republics but also other regions challenged by infectious diseases where the CTR program operates. PMID:26636067

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

  9. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  10. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  11. Midwifery training to improve ante- and perinatal health in low- and middle-income countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Glatleider, M Pauline

    2006-02-01

    Whether in the community or in the hospital, high-quality midwifery care is the preferable model of care for mothers and babies at the first level of care. Countries with professional midwifery care within a supportive system have the best outcomes for mother and babies. The low- and middle-income countries of the former Soviet Union report some of the highest maternal mortality and neonatal mortality in the European region, yet childbirth occurs in institutions with 'skilled attendants' (96-100%). Specific characteristics of maternal and neonatal care in countries of the former Soviet Union include over-medicalization, inappropriate use of technology, unnecessary hospitalizations, and ineffective and/or harmful interventions. This article highlights two midwifery trainings developed specifically to change the maternal and newborn care practices in countries of the former Soviet Union: the Family Centred Maternity Care Training of Trainers and the World Health Organization Essential Antenatal, Perinatal and Postpartum Care Training. PMID:16364706

  12. Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.

    1993-04-02

    This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

  13. Maternal and child health supercourse for the former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Karimova, Saida; Laporte, Ron; Shubnikov, Eugene; Linkov, Faina

    2007-11-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) is a growing concern among the countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) where economic issues and changing infrastructures are seriously deteriorating the public health system. Moreover, in the past decade, lack of primary prevention programs coupled with a shortage of well-trained public health professionals are having an increasingly negative impact on MCH outcomes. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the current state of MCH, health care and public health education in the FSU. We suggest that indices could be improved by developing new inexpensive information exchange systems, and that system is Supercourse (accessible at www.pitt.edu/ approximately super1). Supercourse is an Internet-based library of public health lectures in PowerPoint format that are accessible, free of charge to anyone, anywhere, who has Internet access including scientists, doctors, and, specifically, educators. As of April 2007, Supercourse has more than 3,200 public health lectures, a network of more than 42,000 faculty members across 151 countries, with Nobel Prize winners and the former head of the CDC being among the lectures' authors. Supercourse lectures are aimed at the educator with the goal of improving public health training through timely and customizable lectures. The distinguishing features of Supercourse are ease of access in low-bandwidth lecture, minimal cost, a distribution system for lectures in CD format, high-quality content, and the capacity to create and sustain a global network of public health professionals. Additionally, statistical process control procedures for industry developed by W. Edwards Deming are utilized to ensure the quality of Supercourse lectures. Papers on Supercourse already have been published in the British Medical Journal, Nature, and Lancet, and are having a wide impact in the field of public health. Currently, an increasing number of lectures in the Supercourse library are dedicated to the theme of MCH. Low cost, high impact projects such as Supercourse are needed to improve and deploy MCH education worldwide. PMID:17566856

  14. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  15. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  16. Migrant selection and the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T

    2012-05-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50-84). Our findings suggest an "epidemiologic paradox" in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970-1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987-2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  17. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  18. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants. PMID:26310209

  19. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

  20. Languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). Although the focus is on materials for the…

  1. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  2. Choices for the 21st Century: Facing a Disintegrating Soviet Union. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This mini-unit was designed to help high school students make sense of the complex issues raised by the disintegration of the Soviet Union, while letting them form their own conclusions about the direction of U.S. foreign policy. In the course of a five-day lesson plan, students have an opportunity to put recent events into perspective, deepen…

  3. POTENTIAL EFFECT OF NO-TILL MANAGEMENT ON CARBON IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOILS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. ince the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (OSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. o-till management represents a promising option to increase the amoun...

  4. Educational Experiences of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of an Ethnic School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the academic and psychosocial outcomes of immigrant students from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in an ethnic school in Toronto. Based on interviews with the principal, teachers, students and parents, together with questionnaire responses, the paper describes school programmes and practices that contribute to FSU immigrant…

  5. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  6. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  7. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  8. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

  9. Drug and alcohol use in the former Soviet Union: selected factors and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Davis, R B

    1994-02-01

    As new nations form out of the wreckage of the Soviet Empire, they will be encumbered by the persistent political, economic, and social problems that have plagued this region for centuries. Today, the leaders of the emerging central Eurasian area are focused solely on political and economic concerns. They are paying little attention to the drug use that, like the more traditional heavy alcohol use, is a means by which many people of this region escape the reality and manifold uncertainties of today's world. If and when the political and economic climate of the central Eurasian area stabilizes, regional leaders will face an addiction problem that will have, by then, become the region's greatest obstacle to social progress and sound public health. PMID:8188430

  10. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union`s Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    SciTech Connect

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union`s largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan`s independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an {open_quotes}atomic lake{close_quotes} and a 1 km{sup 2} area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs as well as the activation products {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h{sup -1}.

  11. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  12. The living arrangements of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union: a comparison of Israel and the United States.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Lowenstein, Ariela; Tavares, Jane L; Coyle, Caitlin; Mutchler, Jan E; Katz, Ruth; Khatutsky, Galina

    2012-12-01

    With the unprecedented emigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) during the 1990s as context, this study described the living arrangements of older FSU immigrants living in Israel and the US. Living arrangement choices represented an important strategy for coping with the migration process. Census data from Israel and the US were employed to examine the relationships among living arrangements (independent households, multigenerational households, and extended households) and personal characteristics, including duration of residence, Jewish identity, education, and home ownership. Results showed that the less time older immigrants lived in the host country, the more likely they lived in a multigenerational or extended household. The residency length and household relationship was stronger in Israel than in the US. Also, older FSU immigrants who owned their own home and who lived in a metropolitan area were more likely to live in a complex household than in an independent household. We discussed how the economic and social environments in each country contributed to the variability in living arrangement options among these older immigrants. PMID:22939536

  13. Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-01-01

    The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control. PMID:24506333

  14. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  15. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  16. U.S. cooperation with the Former Soviet Union in establishing national safeguards systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, R.; Kuzmycz, G.; Sanders, K.; Ting, P.

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission are leading US efforts to establish bilateral technical assistance programs with states of the Former Soviet Union in nuclear material safeguards and physical protection. These programs, which are being pursued under the nuclear weapons safety, security and dismantlement (SSD) initiative, are aimed at enhancing the national systems of nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A) and physical protection in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus. In addition to these SSD-related efforts, programs may be undertaken with other newly independent states. The recipient countries will be aided in establishing national regulatory programs, in implementing information systems for materials accountability, and in enhancing MC and A and physical protection at selected facilities. Plans call for a multi-year effort in each country, beginning with the definition of requirements and continuing through system design, development and implementation, and technology transfer. Technical assistance, training, equipment, and other materials and services will be provided. Agreements for cooperation with Russia and Ukraine have been negotiated, but have not been signed. An agreement with Kazakhstan has also been drafted. To date, Belarus has not requested assistance and discussions with other newly independent states have yet to occur.

  17. Pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by a variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  18. Health information networking via the Internet with the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed Central

    Teplitskaia, H

    1997-01-01

    Because of the severe financial hardships associated with the transition to a market economy in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, the Internet has become a major link to health care resources for many health care workers. In 1992, the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences (UIC LHS) initiated a special support project with goals of enhancing access to international biomedical information and facilitating international professional networking for interested NIS organizations and individuals. Project objectives included an information needs assessment, development of culturally sensitive Internet training applications, information and referral services, and follow-up e-mail consultations for NIS participants. This paper reviews the historical context of the health care partnerships between the United States and the NIS, and of the UIC LHS International Health Information Networking Project. In the context of UIC, international networking cross-cultural observations, teaching techniques, a Russian training experience, and the development of a Web-based course are reported. Images PMID:9431431

  19. Exclusion of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Finland: the meaning of intergenerational relationships.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sari J

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the exclusion of older immigrants in Finland. The meaning of intergenerational relationships to older immigrants in an everyday life context is versatile and comprises support, commitment and expectations between generations. The second and third generations are doing their best to cope with their own everyday life and integration process while being under the pressure to meet the varied expectations of the first generation. The topic is explored using qualitative data drawn from interviews with three-generation families from the former Soviet Union. The study found that satisfying factors of everyday life, such as housing or activities offered by society and the possibility to live close to the children and grandchildren reflect the feeling of inclusion to the host society. Dissatisfying feelings such as hostile attitudes, deficient language acquisition and a longing for the former home country, people and places there, affect the feelings of social and emotional exclusion. The exclusion faced by older immigrants in the Finnish society seems to be more complicated and sensitive than is generally recognized; it is illustrated through the emotions of immigrant elders rather than through their active actions or participation. PMID:21976211

  20. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. PMID:25581070

  1. Informal payments for health care in the Former Soviet Union: some evidence from Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Ensor, T; Savelyeva, L

    1998-03-01

    An important feature of the health care system of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Central and Eastern Europe is the presence of informal or under-the-table payments. It is generally accepted that these represent a significant contribution to the income of medical staff. Discussions with medical practitioners suggest that for certain specialities in certain hospitals a doctor might obtain many times his official income. Yet little empirical work has been done in this area. Informal payments can be divided into those paid to health care providers and those that go directly to practitioners. They can be further divided into monetary and non-monetary. The complexity of these payments make obtaining estimates using quantitative survey techniques difficult. Estimates on contributions to the costs of medicines in Kazakstan suggest that they may add 30% to national health care expenditure. Payments to staff are likely to add substantially to this figure, although few reliable statistics exist. Research in this area is important since informal payment is likely to impact on equity in access to medical care and the efficiency of provision. The impact of attempts to reform systems using Western ideas could be reduced unless account is taken of the effect and size of the informal payment system. PMID:10178184

  2. The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals' labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region. PMID:23292272

  3. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  4. A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Veziris, N; Frechet-Jachym, M; Metivier, N; Renvoisé, A; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases entirely related to patients born in the Former Soviet Union was observed in France in the last two years. Very few cases were clustered, suggesting it is a consequence of recent immigration of patients already infected in their country of origin. This major increase challenges the existing structures for management of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). PMID:23968874

  5. All-cause and Cardiovascular mortality among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Becher, Heiko; Razum, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost 2 million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany. This study compares their overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality to that of Germany's general population. Because of high overall and CVD mortality in the FSU and low socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, we hypothesize that their mortality is higher. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study for 1990–2002 with data of 34,393 Aussiedler. We assessed vital status at population registries and causes of death at the state statistical office. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the whole cohort and substrata of covariables such as age, sex and family size. To assess multivariate effects, we used Poisson regression. Results 1657 cohort members died before December 31, 2002, and 680 deaths (41.03%) were due to CVD. The SMR for the whole cohort was 0.85 (95%-CI 0.81–0.89) for all causes of death and 0.79 (95%-CI 0.73–0.85) for CVD. SMRs were higher than one for younger Aussiedler and lower for older ones. There was no clear effect of duration of stay on SMRs. For 1990–93, SMRs were significantly lower than in subsequent years. In families comprising at least five members upon arrival in Germany, SMRs were significantly lower than in smaller families. Conclusion In contrast to our hypothesis on migrants' health, overall and CVD mortality among Aussiedler is lower than in Germany's general population. Possible explanations are a substantially better health status of Aussiedler in the FSU as compared to the local average, a higher perceived socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, or selection effects. SMR differences between substrata need further exploration, and risk factor data are needed. PMID:16438727

  6. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  7. Economic and Monetary Union: Issues Relating to Education for Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes some key issues in debates about the introduction of economic and monetary union within the European Union, including some educational considerations. Describes a method used to teach undergraduates in the United Kingdom about the European Union. Discusses these issues in relation to citizenship education. (SLD)

  8. Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Emilio; Worsham, Patricia; Bearden, S.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lang, D.; Larimer, Frank W; Lindler, L.; Chain, Patrick S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

  9. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    PubMed

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

  10. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU. PMID:23849241

  11. Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S.

    1995-03-01

    To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

    2007-01-05

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

  13. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  14. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  15. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  16. History of the unconscious in Soviet Russia: from its origins to the fall of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Russia accepted the notion of the unconscious and psychoanalysis before many Western countries. The first Russian Psychoanalytic Society was established in 1911. After World War I and the Russian Revolution, for a short happy period, the following psychoanalysts were active: Sabina Spielrein, Tatiana Rosenthal, Moshe Wulff, Nikolai Osipov and Ivan Ermakov. Scholars associated with Soviet ideas participated too, including Aleksandr Luria, Michail Rejsner and Pavel Blonskij. Lev Vygotskij himself dealt with the unconscious. A second psychoanalytical society was set up in Kazan. Unfortunately, at the end of the 1920s, repression dissolved the psychoanalytic movement. Even the word 'psychoanalysis' was banned for decades. Nonetheless, interest in the unconscious, as distinct from psychoanalytic theory, survived in the work of the Georgian leader D. Uznadze. His followers organized the 1979 International Symposium on the Unconscious, in Tbilisi, Georgia, which marked the breaking of an ideological barrier. Since then, many medical, psychological, philosophical and sociological scholars have taken an interest in the unconscious, a subject both feared, for its ideological implications, and desired. Since the 1980s, psychoanalytic ideas have been published in the scientific press and have spread in society. The fall of the USSR in 1991 liberalized the scientific and institutional development of psychoanalysis. PMID:18405289

  17. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

  18. A Summary History of Reusable Spaceplane Development in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Beginning the early years of space advocacy in the 1920s, the Soviets proposed a large number of winged space vehicle concepts as part of broader work on space transportation systems. These designs left an important legacy that has remained unexamined. In the 1920s, theorists and publicists such as Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy and Fridrikh Tsander were the earliest proponents of spaceplane designs. These were followed in the 1930s by the first concrete projects for rocket-propelled aircraft designed by the young Sergey Korolev. During World War II, the Soviets experimented with a number of rocket-planes, not for spaceflight, but for battle purposes. Subsequently, in the postwar years, the Soviet government for the first time funded a research project into a hypersonic winged vehicle for delivery of nuclear weapons. In later years, in the 1960s, with the growth of the Soviet space program, Soviet designers fielded a multitude of spaceplane programs that all culminated in the development of the famous Buran space shuttle. In this article, I will summarize all known hypersonic and spaceplane proposals during the Soviet era. Despite considerable funding, none of the spaceplane designs ever reached operational status. My goal is to highlight the technological lineage of Soviet and Russian reusable spaceplane concepts in the hope of illuminating design approaches that have continued to influence approaches to developing space transportation systems.

  19. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. PMID:23398609

  20. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Programs, activities to support the safe, secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.

    1993-12-31

    In September 1991 President Bush announced sweeping cuts in the US nuclear weapon stockpile as well as changes in deployment to remove significant numbers of weapons from alert status and to return to the US for storage many weapons formerly based abroad in US sites. In October 1991 President Gorbachev announced similar moves for the Soviet Union. Even though the Gorbachev announcement represented a substantial step forward in reducing tension between the US and the Soviet Union, the US continued to be concerned about the deteriorating situation in the Soviet Union and the prospects for internal stability. As a result, in November 1991 the Administration began talks with the Soviets in a number of areas including field disablement of nuclear weapons to prevent unauthorized use, emergency response in the event of a weapons accident, and command and control of nuclear weapons. The Nunn-Lugar legislation assured assistance to the Soviet Union in the safe, secure dismantlement (SSD) of weapons to implement the Gorbachev commitment and in the development of measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting and collaborating with the Department of Defense (DOD) in several areas due to the DOE responsibilities for developing, assembling, and dismantling US warheads and as the custodian of the nuclear materials stockpile. Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, controls the nuclear weapons of the Former Soviet Union. Thus, DOE`s nuclear weapon and nuclear materials expertise are being applied particularly to Russia. However, the DOE is also providing assistance to Belarus and is prepared to assist Ukraine and Kazakhstan as well if agreements can be reached. In this paper, the DOE SSD activities in support of DOD as the US Executive Agent will be discussed. Two areas will not be covered, namely, DOD activities and the purchase of highly enriched uranium.

  2. Educating the Soviet Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Daniel P.

    1973-01-01

    The reshaping of man to the Soviet ideal through education is the context within which the author considers three recent books on Soviet education--Shiela Fitzpatrick's "The Commissariat of Enlightenment"; J. J. Tomiak's "The Soviet Union"; and Jean Pennar's "Modernization and Diversity in Soviet Education." (JH)

  3. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  4. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

  5. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-07-10

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. PMID:25011673

  6. CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

  7. Training of Youth for Working Life in the Soviet Union. Reports Studies C.96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semykin, N. P.

    The Soviet general secondary school provides youth with a wide range of knowledge and educates them in the spirit of communist consciousness and high moral standards. Research to improve labor training is guided by six principal premises of methodology: (1) Marxist-Leninist theory on the all-round and harmonious development of personality, (2)…

  8. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  9. An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

  10. Die Germanistik in der Sowjetunion (Germanic Studies in the Soviet Union)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Thirty percent of all students in the USSR learn German. The extent of Soviet linguistic research in the Germanic field is determined by this interest in German. The foci of this research are described and the most important publications are discussed briefly. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  11. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Ira

    Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

  12. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  13. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  14. Skobeltsyn and the early years of cosmic particle physics in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    D.V. Skobeltsyn was the first physicist to put a Wilson cloud chamber in a magnetic field and to show that cosmic rays are high energy particles. Also he observed the multiple particle generation by a cosmic particle for the first time. He initiated the cosmic ray research in Leningrad and Moscow and he has brought up a pleiad of distinguished cosmic ray physicists. He is the acknowledged founder of the Soviet, and Russian cosmic ray investigations.

  15. Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

  16. The burden of culture? Health outcomes among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Erin Trouth

    2012-04-01

    Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often expected to experience worse health than the native population. Using data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, I compare FSU immigrants with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites on several health measures. FSU immigrants are twice as likely as native whites to report fair or poor health, but they are less likely to smoke or drink, and are less likely to report a functional limitation. FSU immigrants' advantage in functional limitation is largely explained by their very high levels of education and marriage, indicating that selectivity is important to understanding the health of this population. PMID:21221807

  17. Alcohol use and treatment among Former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel: review of publications July 2009-December 2011.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, as an update to the 2 previous publications that reviewed studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew) and referred to earlier periods (from the early 1990s until 2006 and from 2007 through June 2009). This article reviews studies published primarily in Hebrew from mid-2009 throughout December 2011 and describes alcohol use patterns and treatment among FSU immigrants. As the third in the sequence of reviews aimed at English readers, it confirms the findings of the previous 2 reviews. Alcohol use among FSU immigrants continues to be more prevalent than among Israeli-born residents, and FSU immigrants continue to be overrepresented in treatment programs. Moreover, the review describes a severe worsening in alcohol use among FSU detached youth and no differences in alcohol use among early and recent immigrants between the ages of 18 and 40 years. PMID:23244559

  18. Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

  19. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  20. Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferberg, Natalie

    A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as well as…

  1. Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

  2. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  3. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  4. Changes in Land Use Intensity Within the Don and Dnieper River Basins Following the Collapse of the Soviet Union as Revealed by Spatio-temporal Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2007-12-01

    We analyzed changes in trends of land surface phenology (LSP) within two major river basins in Western Eurasia. The basins of Don and Dnieper Rivers extend over 862,000 ha and include 17% of the impounded water surface area in the former Soviet Union. Major changes in agricultural practices occurring after 1991 led to some time drastic reductions in the cultivated area receiving fertilizers and the amount of water consumed for irrigation in addition to other macro-indicators of agricultural sector land use intensity. Image time series analysis can localize the extent, direction, and intensity of changes during the 1990s. Using vegetation index data from the AVHRR PAL and GIMMS datasets from 1982-1988 (Soviet period) and 1995-2000 (post-Soviet period) coupled with contemporary land cover maps from MODIS, we identified the spatial extent of temporal trends and assess their significance using seasonal Mann-Kendall tests adjusted for first-order autocorrelation. Roughly 90% of croplands and forested land in Dnieper Basin exhibited no significant trends during the Soviet period. The Don Basin had more significant positive trends during the Soviet period than the Dnieper Basin. There was a substantial disagreement between datasets on the extent of significant positive trends in Don croplands (35% for GIMMS vs. 8% for PAL) and in Don forests during Soviet period (38% for GIMMS vs. 27% for PAL). Although very little area in either basins showed significant negative trends during the Soviet period, substantial areas fell under significant negative trends during the post-Soviet period. We also found major disagreement on extent of significant negative trends in Don forests during post-Soviet period (6% for GIMMS vs. 24% for PAL). Even though, there are some significant disagreements between the datasets, there is no evidence of a consistent bias in the change analysis. Changes in irrigation water use may account for some of the changes in trend direction.

  5. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  6. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities. PMID:23506911

  7. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

  8. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

    1997-01-10

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

  9. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

  10. Surrogate forces and Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the Soviet use of client actors in a surrogate capacity in the Third World. Although the employment of military proxies is certainly not a new phenomenon in international affairs, the level and scope of the Soviet use of surrogate forces is without recent precedent. Soviet clients and associated actors have supported terrorist organizations, guerrilla movements, and legitimate governments. In doing so, they have been employed as arms suppliers, training and advisory personnel, in specialized combat roles such as air defense, demolitions and communications and, most boldly, as independent field forces in conventional operations. The Soviet Union's level of effort in this area over time indicates that the employment of military proxies has become an integral aspect of its foreign policy. This is particularly true of Soviet policy toward the developing world where for reasons of access, attribution, and simple economics the use of proxy assets has provided Moscow with an unusually attractive means of indirect local intervention.

  11. Some results of the work on mass immunization in the Soviet Union with live poliovirus vaccine prepared from Sabin strains*

    PubMed Central

    Chumakov, M. P.; Voroshilova, M. K.; Drozdov, S. G.; Dzagurov, S. G.; Lashkevich, V. A.; Mironova, L. L.; Ralph, N. M.; Gagarina, A. V.; Ashmarina, E. E.; Shirman, G. A.; Fleer, G. P.; Tolskaya, E. A.; Sokolova, I. S.; Elbert, L. B.; Sinyak, K. M.

    1961-01-01

    In the course of campaigns for the mass immunization of large segments of the population of the Soviet Union with live poliovirus vaccine prepared in the USSR from attenuated Sabin strains, some 15 200 000 persons received oral vaccine in 1959 and over 77 478 800 persons (mainly between 2 months and 20 years old) in 1960. Approximately 95% of these were given the vaccine incorporated in dragées. The present paper gives data on the safety and immunological activity of the live vaccine, on virus carriage and transmission of the vaccine virus to contacts, and on virus interference. In a comparison between poliomyelitis incidence in 1960 in regions where mass live vaccine immunization had been carried out and the incidence in areas where inactivated Salk vaccine was used in 1958-60, it is shown that, while the Salk vaccine did not fundamentally influence the epidemic process, the Sabin live vaccine brought about a sharp reduction in incidence and prevented the usual summer-autumn rise in the number of poliomyelitis cases. It is concluded from the two years' experience in the mass use of live vaccine from Sabin strains that poliomyelitis epidemics can be prevented. PMID:13879389

  12. When role reversal and brokering meet: filial responsibility among young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Yael; Kurman, Jenny; Roer-Strier, Dorit

    2012-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of role reversal and brokering (language and cultural in immigration), in which children assume culturally atypical adult responsibilities, have developed as different scholarly domains, despite their theoretical similarity. The purpose of the present article is to increase the integration between the two bodies of literature to achieve a better understanding of filial responsibilities children assume upon immigration and their differential correlates with adjustment. The structure of filial responsibility in immigration, interrelations between its distinct components, and the ability of the brokering roles to add significantly to the predicting of adjustment are studied. Young adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel (n = 220) completed the Comprehensive Filial Responsibilities Inventory (CFRI), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the self-efficacy inventory. Factor analysis identified six CFRI domains with satisfying psychometric properties. The factors are dominance in family, cultural brokering, language brokering, emotional support to parents, self-reliance, and money issues. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a contribution of the brokering roles to prediction of psychological distress above and beyond traditional roles. The results support the validity of the CFRI and contribute to the understanding of interrelations among the various filial responsibilities, including brokering roles. PMID:22962846

  13. Paradoxes in antiretroviral treatment for injecting drug users: access, adherence and structural barriers in Asia and the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Offered proper support, injection drug users (IDUs) can achieve the same levels of adherence to and clinical benefit from antiretroviral treatment (ARV) as other patients with HIV. Nonetheless, in countries of Asia and the former Soviet Union where IDUs represent the largest share of HIV cases, IDUs have been disproportionately less likely to receive ARV. While analysis of adherence amongst IDUs has focused on individual patient ability to adhere to medical regimens, HIV treatment systems themselves are in need of examination. Structural impediments to provision of ARV for IDUs include competing, vertical systems of care; compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation services that often offer neither ARV nor effective treatment for chemical dependence; lack of opiate substitution treatments demonstrated to increase adherence to ARV; and policies that explicitly or implicitly discourage ARV delivery to active IDUs. Labeling active drug users as socially untrustworthy or unproductive, health systems can create a series of paradoxes that ensure confirmation of these stereotypes. Needed reforms include professional education and public campaigns that emphasize IDU capacity for health protection and responsible choice; recognition that the chronic nature of injecting drug use and its links to HIV infection require development of ARV treatment delivery that includes active drug users; and integrated treatment that strengthens links between health providers and builds on, rather than seeks to bypass, IDU social networks and organizations. PMID:17689372

  14. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  15. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder. PMID:24343028

  16. Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr.; Dutz, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jördis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Methods Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Results Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Conclusion Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin in migrants and call attention to the link between communicable and non-communicable diseases. PMID:18400085

  18. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

  19. Going beyond triage in Tajikistan. Health reform in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Alidina, S; Annett, H

    2000-01-01

    Tajikistan is among the few countries where life expectancy diminished during the 1990's. To rebuild a health system fractured by economic collapse, political disintegration and civil war, the Essential Hospital Services Project was initiated to restore essential hospital services, encourage structural reform and build the health system's capacity to sustain itself. The article provides an overview of these reform efforts, outlines some of the challenges of health reform in Tajikistan and illustrates the benefits global partnerships can achieve when sharing creative new approaches to health reform. PMID:11214986

  20. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  1. Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.L.; McRee, D.I.; Peterson, N.J.; Tilson, H.A.; Shandala, M.G.; Rudnev, M.I.; Varetskii, V.V.; Navakatikyan, M.I. )

    1989-05-01

    During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary.

  2. Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU. PMID:23861843

  3. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

  4. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  5. Improving Large-scale Biomass Burning Carbon Consumption and Emissions Estimates in the Former Soviet Union based on Fire Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E. I.; Kukavskaya, E.; de Groot, B.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating the amount of biomass burned during fire events is challenging, particularly in remote and diverse regions, like those of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Historically, we have typically assumed 25 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha) is emitted, however depending on the ecosystem and severity, biomass burning emissions can range from 2 to 75 tC/ha. Ecosystems in the FSU span from the tundra through the taiga to the forest-steppe, steppe and desserts and include the extensive West Siberian lowlands, permafrost-lain forests and agricultural lands. Excluding this landscape disparity results in inaccurate emissions estimates and incorrect assumptions in the transport of these emissions. In this work, we present emissions based on a hybrid ecosystem map and explicit estimates of fuel that consider the depth of burning based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Specifically, the ecosystem map is a fusion of satellite-based data, a detailed ecosystem map and Alexeyev and Birdsey carbon storage data, which is used to build carbon databases that include the forest overstory and understory, litter, peatlands and soil organic material for the FSU. We provide a range of potential carbon consumption estimates for low- to high-severity fires across the FSU that can be used with fire weather indices to more accurately estimate fire emissions. These data can be incorporated at ecoregion and administrative territory scales and are optimized for use in large-scale Chemical Transport Models. Additionally, paired with future climate scenarios and ecoregion cover, these carbon consumption data can be used to estimate potential emissions.

  6. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  7. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  8. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Wuhib, Tadesse; Chorba, Terence L; Davidiants, Vladimir; Mac Kenzie, William R; McNabb, Scott JN

    2002-01-01

    Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS) of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS) is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis) and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis). The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility. PMID:11914147

  9. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  10. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  11. A Dialectical Paradigm for Psychological Research: Implications Drawn from the History of Psychology in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    The psycho-philosophical issues involved in the shift to a dialectical perspective in early Soviet psychology are reviewed in order to clarify the implications of the dialectical method for contemporary Western cognitive psychology. (JMB)

  12. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses clarify the origin of the HIV-1 subtype A variant circulating in former Soviet Union's countries.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Cabello, Marina; Thomson, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype A variant dominating the HIV-1 epidemics in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries (A(FSU)) represents one of the major clades of the HIV-1 pandemic. This variant was reported to have begun spreading among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Ukrainian city of Odessa in late 1994. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed on the ancestral origin of the A(FSU) variant, locating it either in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) or in the Republic of Guinea (RG). The studies supporting these hypotheses employed phylogenetic analyses to identify HIV-1 sequences collected outside FSU countries ancestrally related to A(FSU). A different approach, based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and coalescent-based population genetics, has been employed here to elucidate the ancestry of this HIV-1 variant and to improve our knowledge on its spread in FSU countries. The analyses were carried out using env (C2-V3-C3) and p24(gag) fragments of the HIV-1 genome. The inferred migration for the HIV-1 A(FSU) variant revealed only one significantly supported migration pathway from Africa to Eastern Europe, supporting the hypothesis of its origin in the DRC and estimating the upper limit of the migration of the ancestral virus from Africa around 1970. The support for an origin in the RG was negligible. The results supported the main role of Odessa as the epicenter of the A(FSU) epidemic, dating the tMRCA of the A(FSU) variant around 1984, ten years before its explosive expansion among IDUs. The estimated origin of the AFSU subcluster responsible for the IDU outbreak was also located in Odessa, with the estimated tMRCA around 1993. Statistically supported migration routes from Odessa to other cities of Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Belarus were also inferred by the Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. These results shed new light on the origin and spread of the HIV-1 A(FSU) variant. PMID:25952568

  13. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  14. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  15. Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Felicity

    The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational guidance.…

  16. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  17. Health and nutrition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the decade of transition: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was the most important historical event at the close of the 20th century. The jarring nature of this transition has resulted in large fluctuations in household resources and increased uncertainty in all facets of life for the individuals concerned. Much academic research and popular writing has explored the socioeconomic and political ramifications of bringing these countries into mainstream capitalism. This paper provides a review of the literature examining health outcomes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the transition period. The research, which has studied the human face of transition, spans multiple disciplines and it is thus currently difficult for interested researchers to obtain an overview of the basic facts, as well as, the more detailed nuances, concerning developments. This paper highlights what we currently know about health outcomes in transition countries and what we do not know, and suggests future areas of research which may help fill important gaps in our knowledge. PMID:15890565

  18. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-07-14

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

  19. A Model of Identity and Language Orientations: The Case of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan-Cook, Pnina; Olshtain, Elite

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model featuring the relationship between identity and language orientations within the broader constellation of variables impacting immigration and acculturation processes was proposed within the framework of the current study and its applicability was tested with regards to 152 immigrant university students from the Former Soviet…

  20. Soviet Techniques and Devices for Automating Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zender, Bryce Franklin, Jr.

    Various Soviet conceptions of technology and their influence on the automation of instruction in the Soviet Union are examined, and the history of the development of Soviet programed instruction is sketched. Key principles and techniques from Soviet psychology, pedagogy, computer technology, and cybernetics are explained in terms of their…

  1. Soviet Education and Innovations toward Creativity: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the "socio-play" philosophy of drama education as practiced in the Soviet Union. Outlines the basic structure of the Soviet educational system. Recounts a Soviet educator's practice of socio-play philosophy. (SR)

  2. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. PMID:25315487

  3. Effect of acculturation and health beliefs on utilization of health care services by elderly women who immigrated to the USA from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Lyubov A; Krassen Covan, Eleanor; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, researchers explored what conditions influence women's use of professional health care services, and how sociocultural environments and acculturation affect utilization of health care services. We recruited 15 women in the Ukraine, 15 women who immigrated from the former Soviet Union, and 10 female U.S. citizens. Data include open-ended interviews, a "general information" questionnaire, and the Language, Identity and Behavioral Acculturation scale. Acculturation levels and length of residency in the United States were not consistent predictors of health-seeking behaviors for immigrants. The stronger predictor of health beliefs and health related behaviors among all participants was their mothers' health beliefs and health related behaviors. PMID:23909280

  4. Major Concepts/Events in United States-Soviet Union Relations: From the Origins to Recognition. Topic #4 in a Series of International Security and Conflict Curricula for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Robin; And Others

    This 4-day supplementary curriculum unit is designed for use in social studies classes at the upper secondary (9-12) and community college levels. The curriculum unit seeks to explore the roots of contemporary relations between the United State and Soviet Union through an examination of how that relationship evolved from the 18th century to the…

  5. Modernization of the Teachers' Further Education System. (Based on the Experience from Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, and Poland). Further Education of Teachers Collection of Papers, Reports and Reviews. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracek, Svatopluk, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this collection present the views of teacher educators in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Soviet Union on inservice, or "lifelong" teacher education. The first section contains five essays: (1) a new teachers' training project in Czechoslovakia; (2) further education of teachers and educational personnel in the Czechoslovak system…

  6. Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD. PMID:22413759

  7. IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, George J.

    1960-01-01

    Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

  8. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  9. Trade Union Education in Times of Economic Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostinone, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses a number of important factors having a bearing on the new requirements of workers' education. They include the expansion of workers' interests and trade unions' responsibilities, the expansion of collective bargaining, a movement toward effective tripartism, and the incorporation of rural workers into unions. (CT)

  10. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  11. Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, I P

    1992-01-01

    On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

  12. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  13. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants. PMID:22752661

  14. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  15. Soviet oil industry woes may extend crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-03

    Overall, the Soviet Union apparently has more BTU of principal fuels - oil, gas, and coal - than any other nation in the world. The West has expressed willingness, even eagerness, to help the U.S.S.R. develop its abundant energy resources. However, Moscow has demonstrated that it can be a difficult partner. What could change the entire scenario of Soviet/western cooperation in achieving a Russian petroleum industry rebound is the possibility that the U.S.S.R. will slip from deep crisis into complete political, economic, and ethnic chaos. This could lead to a breakup of the union, would likely stifle perestroika's reforms, might cause rejection of Western assistance (or increased reluctance by the West to provide it). The Soviet Union's petroleum industry has been battered during the past 3 years by the most severe and broad based setbacks ever suffered by a nation not involved in a major war or crippled by deliberate government decisions to limit oil flow. If early 1991 results are a reliable indicator, the U.S.S.R.'s recovery from its present oil crisis will take considerable time. But there is general agreement among western geologists and economists that the Soviet Union can, by adopting a rational energy policy and attracting substantial Western financial and technological assistance, halt the drop in crude/condensate production by the mid-1990s. Some observers believe that the most frequently cited estimates of current U.S.S.R. explored (proved plus probable) oil reserves are low and that the nation's ultimate crude/condensate reserves are enormous.

  16. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  17. Teaching in Transition: Examining School-Based Gender Inequities in Central/Southeastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Silova, Iveta

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, gender equity has become one of the most prominent issues in education reform efforts worldwide. Yet, questions of gender equity have received very little attention in the education reform efforts in the post-socialist countries during the transition period. Focusing on the political, economic, and social changes of the 1990s,…

  18. Unions.

    PubMed

    Drane, D

    1990-05-01

    Dealing with a union is not complicated. If you are a member of the union, take that membership seriously and exercise your rights and responsibilities. Know what your contract says and live by it. If you disagree with what you are told to do by your supervisor, do it and grieve later. If you are a manager, know your contract and always keep it handy for reference. When you are unsure of the answer, get help from your labour relations advisor. Treat discipline as a process for helping an employee to perform the way you want them to perform. If you were a good manager before you became unionized, you can probably just continue on as you were before and you won't have any serious problems. For both management and non-management employees, remember that both of you have a job to do. Those jobs should be compatible. When you get to know your union, you will learn that they really are. PMID:10105432

  19. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  20. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  1. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  2. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  3. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

    The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

  5. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  6. The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

  7. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  8. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  10. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union) show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239) of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse <7%). We stratified the prevalence of smoking among resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers) by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total) persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%). In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%). Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after migration. The observed convergence of the smoking habits with increasing duration of stay is in line with the hypothesis of migration as 'health transition'. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, further research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:20540769

  11. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  12. The elderly people of post-Soviet Ukraine: medical, social, and economic challenges.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2005-12-01

    Over the past 14 years, since Ukraine became an independent nation, the country has made major strides toward achieving political and economic reforms, exemplified by the recent populist uprising for fair and free elections. Despite these successes, many challenges still lie ahead, particularly in the area of health care for older people. The average life expectancy in Ukraine is only 67 years, and those who achieve old age often live in poverty. Women are expected to retire from their professions at age 55 and men at 60. Pensions are so low that retirees are often forced to take laborious jobs on the streets. Because of deficiencies in medical education, deteriorating hospital facilities, a lack of modern medications and supplies, and inadequate physician payment mechanisms that breed corruption, many elderly people mistrust the medical system and often turn to folk medicines and Eastern medical practices to treat their illnesses. By understanding the expectations and former medical practices of elderly patients who have emigrated from Ukraine, Western physicians will be better able to meet their emotional and medical needs. PMID:16398912

  13. Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and mountainous zones. Supportive material will include maps of watershed boundaries and location of observational sites. Text descriptions of the data, measuring techniques and hydrometeorological conditions related to each of the water-balance station will accompany the datasets. The database is supposed to be expanded with time in number of the stations (by 20) and available data series for each of them. It will be uploaded to the internet with open access to everyone interested in. Such a database allows one to test hydrological models and separate modules for their adequacy and workability in different conditions and can serve as a base for models comparison and evaluation. Special profit of the database will gain models that don't rely on calibration but on the adequate process representation and use of the observable parameters. One of such models, process-based Hydrograph model, will be tested against the data from every watershed from the developed database. The aim of the Hydrograph model application to the as many as possible number of research data-rich watersheds in different climatic zones is both amending the algorithms and creation and adjustment of the model parameters that allow using the model across the geographic spectrum.

  14. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  15. Soviet Space in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1991-01-01

    Discusses those U.S. counties that the State Department has forbidden former Soviet government personnel to enter. Includes a U.S. map indicating closed counties. Explains that the policy came in response to restrictions on foreigners' movements in the former Soviet Union. Suggests that teachers have students explore why particular U.S. regions…

  16. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  17. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  18. Learning about the Soviets: Selected Teaching Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educators for Social Responsibility, Cambridge, MA.

    Over 120 resources for teaching secondary and postsecondary level students about the Soviet Union, most of which have been produced since 1980, are listed in this guide. A resource list focusing on "Ten Things Soviets Say You Should Read to Understand Them" precedes annotated citations of articles; books; curricula; organizations involved in…

  19. The Moral Curriculum in the Soviet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Describes and comments on rationale for moral education under socialism in Soviet Union. Discusses current Soviet children's literature as attempt to systematize and coordinate moral education and political socialization in elementary and secondary schools. Cites evidence of reconstructionist ideology in curriculum and planned educational…

  20. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  1. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector. PMID:21752236

  2. The Role of Soviet Trade Unions in the Lifelong Education of Workers. Adult Education in Europe. Studies and Documents No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazykova, V. S.

    In the U.S.S.R., the trade unions see the continuous growth of the general educational, cultural and technical level of all workers as one of the conditions of social and scientific progress in the interests of the working class. The role of the unions in the lifelong education of the population is determined by their status in the political…

  3. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and may help prevent increases in HIV/HCV prevalence from occurring within these communities. PMID:22239997

  4. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  5. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  6. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  7. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  8. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  9. Soviet centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    As the Soviet Union (USSR) has been increasingly successful in gaining a foothold in the Western SWU market, there has been a great deal of speculation about the status of Soviet enrichment technology and the pricing of Soviet enrichment services. Dr. Alexander Chernov, Deputy General Director of V/O Techsnabexport, the marketing arm for uranium and enrichment and conversion services for the USSR, reported to the Uranium Institute in September 1989 that, {open_quotes}in 1989, gaseous centrifuges form a major part of the USSR [isotope] separation capacity, and the process represents a large potential for its further development. Numerous advantages over diffusion exist. First, a small specific energy consumption has been achieved (twenty to thirty times less), so that electricity has become a small part of the total operating costs. There is an environmental advantage connected to low power consumption. The plant can be built with the right number of centrifuges to bring it close to its ideal cascade size with almost no losses in the separative work. Lastly, gas centrifuges require low amounts of uranium hexaflouride to work, which ensures a high degree of production flexibility, such as when altering the cascade for a different final product or tails assay.{close_quotes} This commitment to centrifuge technology, first made in the early 1950s, probably accounts for the competitive pricing of enrichment services currently offered through Techsnabexport.

  10. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  11. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  12. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  13. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  14. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  15. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  16. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  17. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    Pimpin, L; Drumright, L N; Kruijshaar, M E; Abubakar, I; Rice, B; Delpech, V; Hollo, V; Amato-Gauci, A; Manissero, D; Ködmön, C

    2011-12-01

    In order to ensure the availability of resources for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV management and control, it is imperative that countries monitor and plan for co-infection in order to identify, treat and prevent TB-HIV co-infection, thereby reducing TB burden and increasing the years of healthy life of people living with HIV. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Data on the burden of HIV infection in TB patients and risk factors for TB-HIV co-infection in the EU/EEA were extracted from studies that collected information in 1996 and later, regardless of the year of initiation of data collection, and a narrative synthesis presented. The proportion of HIV-co-infected TB patients varied from 0 to 15%. Western and eastern countries had higher levels and increasing trends of infection over time compared with central EU/EEA countries. Groups at higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection were males, young adults, foreign-born persons, the homeless, injecting drug users and prisoners. Further research is needed into the burden and associated risk factors of co-infection in Europe, to help plan effective control measures. Increased HIV testing of TB patients and targeted and informed strategies for control and prevention could help curb the co-infection epidemic. PMID:21737549

  18. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  19. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  20. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  1. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  2. Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.

    PubMed

    Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

  3. New Perspectives of "old" Data Sources: the Dataset of Long-Term Research Watersheds in the Former Soviet Union for the Task of Hydrological Models Development, Verification and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, L.; Semenova, O.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of detailed process-oriented observational data is often claimed as one of the major obstacle for further advance of hydrological process understanding and development of deterministic models that do not rely on calibration. New sources of hydrological information (satellites, radars etc.) have the perspectives for the future but can not completely replace conventional and experimental observations at the moment. Long-term data-rich research catchments remain valuable if not the only source of information for development, verification, regionalization and comparison of different hydrological and environmental models. There existed the set of more than 20 such basins that were operated according to single observational program from the 1930-1950th to 1990th in the former Soviet Union. Research basins, so called water-balance stations, covered all main climatic and landscape zones such as taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, desert, mountains and permafrost regions. Each station conducted broad range of standard, special and experimental hydrometeorological field studies including spatially distributed meteorological observations, soil and snow variable states, measurements of the groundwater levels, hydrochemistry, evapotranspiration, discharges in several, often nested, slope- and small-scale watersheds, etc. The data were accompanied by the descriptions of observational techniques and landscapes allowing linking natural conditions with dominant hydrological processes. Each station is representative for larger area and the results of local studies could be transferred to other basins in similar conditions. Till recently the data existed only in hard copies in Russian language therefore they are not enough explored yet. We are currently digitizing main part of the observational and supportive materials and make it available for any scientific purpose via website http://hydrograph-model.ru/. We propose to hydrological community to use the data for comprehensive intercomparison studies of our models and their modules to reject inadequate algorithms and advance our process understanding and modeling efforts in different environments.

  4. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  5. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  6. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  7. The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Landau, David

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

  8. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  9. Soviet oil declines while gas levels off

    SciTech Connect

    Fueg, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports that oil production in the Soviet Union declined from 1988's record level as the country's largest oil fields begin to show their age. Ethnic unrest, strikes and equipment shortages prevent much-needed maintenance. Political changes in the rest of the Eastern bloc mean opportunities for western firms, according to the author.

  10. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  11. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  12. Soviet free-electron laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

  13. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Ecology and Economics: Controlling Pollution in the 70s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Marshall I.

    Fifteen leading authorities face vital issues and factors concerning pollution. Particular attention is given to possible cures and economical considerations involved. Examples of what is being done in this country and several other industrial countries comprising Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union are included. Case studies cover regions where…

  15. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  16. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  17. The "New Russian Literature" and Soviet Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekic, Maria

    It is widely believed that poetry in the Soviet Union has lost its place to newspapers and periodicals that have robbed literature of its readers. Prior to glasnost, non-official literature in the Soviet Union was more than a literary event; it was often the only mode of political discourse available to the literate public. This paper suggests…

  18. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Soviet American Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC.

    This is a glossary of Russian and English terms related to building design and construction. It is intended for use by interpreters and specialists dealing with American and Soviet literature on buildings. The glossary consists of two parts: the Soviet-American section, which presents the Soviet terms written in Russian and the American equivalent…

  20. An international carbon tax to combat global warming: An economic and political analysis of the European union proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Herber, B.P.; Raga, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    An international carbon tax has been the subject of considerable recent discussion as an economic incentive instrument to combat the perceived threat of global warming resulting, primarily, from the use of the carbon-emitting fossils - coal, oil, and natural gas - in the production of energy. During 1991, the European Union proposed the adoption of such a tax to be imposed by each member nation. The economic merits as well as the problems associated with the proposed European carbon tax are discussed along with the political prospects for its adoption. It is concluded that even though early adoption of the tax is unlikely, the economic merits of this tax instrument for the alleviation of global warming accompanied by changing political parameters may lead to its adoption in the long run.

  1. Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

  2. "Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

  4. US-Soviet arms control regime

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Few would question that the arms control relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union changed significantly between the late 1960s and the collapse of the Soviet state in 1991. The less obvious, but more significant question is whether the change represents a dramatic evolution of an arms control regime, or as some might argue, a by-product of the collapse of the Soviet economy and the U.S. determination to achieve peace through strength.' This study focuses on U.S.-Soviet cooperation on strategic arms control and the changes that have taken place in that cooperation over time. From a period when the Soviet Union's only response to U.S. arms control proposals was a resounding nyet, the Soviets accepted asymmetric reductions in forces to reach parity in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), as well as intrusive on-site inspections, previously thought to be non-negotiable. This study explores how and why these changes came about. Three key parameters of the U.S.-Soviet arms control regime provide evidence of regime growth: the emergence of a more substantial administrative apparatus and significant technical data exchange relationship; the willingness to allow intrusive on-site inspection for purposes of ensuring compliance; and the willingness to undertake asymmetric force reductions - unequal reductions to an equal outcome'. In the context of regime theory, these parameters reflect growth in the organizational form and strength of the regime. Structured, focused comparative case studies trace the evolution of the three parameters of the arms control regime, beginning with the first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) and proceeding through SALT II, INF and START. Each parameter is examined in terms of factors influencing change - power, interests, and values - to determine and document the degree of growth within the arms control regime.

  5. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  6. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders. PMID:21847844

  7. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  8. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  9. The Future of the Comparative Systems Course in the Undergraduate Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 32 colleges and universities on changes in undergraduate comparative economic programs since the collapse of the Soviet Union and centralized socialism. Finds that most institutions maintained the course with significant modifications in course content and approach. (CFR)

  10. From Plan to Market: Teaching Ideas for Social Studies, Economics, and Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Lopus, Jane S.; Morton, John S.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the transition from a legacy of central planning to a market orientation in the economic systems of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and China. These lessons seek to provide high school teachers with a well-informed approach to teaching about this transition. The…

  11. From Plan to Market: Teaching Ideas for Social Studies, Economics, and Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Lopus, Jane S.; Morton, John S.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the transition from a legacy of central planning to a market orientation in the economic systems of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and China. These lessons seek to provide high school teachers with a well-informed approach to teaching about this transition. The…

  12. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  13. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  14. Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

  15. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  16. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  17. 76 FR 32388 - Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union... of the Former Soviet Union. Pursuant to the authority vested in me as Deputy Secretary of...

  18. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  19. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

  20. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  1. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  2. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

    1988-07-01

    Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of the Volga River in the Stalingrad area that made it possible to drive tanks from the cast bank to the west bank of the river (width: about 1 km).In January 1943 a German Panzer army had to be withdrawn from the Caucasus. To accelerate the retreat, light elements of that army crossed some 42 km of the ice cover of the Gulf of Taganrog (Sea of Azov). The crossing was authorized after a meteorologist proved his estimate of the ice-cover thickness by landing in a light plane on the ice.In January 1945 weather forecasts played an important role in the major Soviet (2 200 000 troops and 5 000 warplanes) Oder-Vistula offensive. Marshal Koney writes with appreciation of the correct weather forecasts.In the Appendix, considerations that led German meteorologists to formulate a forecast for a minimum of five days of fog or low clouds from the Ardennes to southern England are reviewed. This forecast was used by the German High Command for the start of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

  3. The Adjustment of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in the Albany (N.Y.) Area. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenner, Walter P.; Hiller, Debra

    From 1974 to 1980, Albany, New York, and other communities received an influx of Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union. Organizations such as Jewish Family Services (JFS) have helped these new Americans to integrate into the new society. This report by the Albany JFS presents the results of a survey of resettlement efforts on behalf of Soviet…

  4. Soviet Jews in the United States. New Faces of Liberty Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Stephen J.

    The situation of Jews who have immigrated to the United States from the former Soviet Union is reviewed, and information is presented to help teachers of immigrant children. The onset of "glasnost" has made Soviets the largest refugee population to enter the United States in recent years. Thousands more are expected in the near future. Most Jews…

  5. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  6. Policy and Model Analysis: The Case of Soviet Immigrant Teacher Re-Training in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva-May, Iris

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates the largely successful retraining program for immigrant science teachers from the former Soviet Union to Israel in 1990-91 following the mass Soviet immigration. A list of policy recommendations is offered. The retraining considerations and models from this study might be applied in other countries experiencing major social changes. (SLD)

  7. News Media Use and Adolescents, Information about Nuclear Issues: A Soviet-American Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyenkov, Vladimir; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the extent of teenagers' news media exposure in the Soviet Union and America and its apparent impact on their information about nuclear issues. Finds that the Soviet teenagers were much more knowledgeable than American students about issues having to do with nuclear war. (MS)

  8. Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belousa, Inga

    2008-01-01

    The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality…

  9. Astronauts from ASTP office at JSC with Soviet hosts after reception in USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A group of Astronauts from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) office at JSC are photographed with their Soviet hosts after attending a reception at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow. They are standing on the front steps of the scientific institution. The Americans were in the Soviet Union to take part in ASTP familiarization training at the Cosmonaut Training Center near Moscow.

  10. Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belousa, Inga

    2008-01-01

    The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality…

  11. Soviet space power technology. Final report, 15 July-15 September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Timashev, S.V.; Kulandin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    This publication contains information on the space power experience of the former Soviet Union. Topics covered include nuclear power generation, thermionic energy conversion, thermoelectrics, thermal management, and radioisotope generators. This document is intended to be an AIAA textbook.

  12. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  14. Tuberculosis treatment outcome in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of surveillance data from 2002?2011.

    PubMed

    Karo, Basel; Hauer, Barbara; Hollo, Vahur; van der Werf, Marieke J; Fiebig, Lena; Haas, Walter

    2015-12-10

    Monitoring the treatment outcome (TO) of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to identify potential barriers for TB control. The global target is to reach a treatment success rate (TSR) of at least 85%. We aimed to assess the TB TO in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2002 and 2011, and to identify factors associated with unsuccessful treatment. Only 18 countries reported information on TO for the whole observation period accounting for 250,854 new culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases. The 85% target of TSR was not reached in any year between 2002 and 2011 and was on average 78%. The TSR for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB cases at 24-month follow-up was 49%. In the multivariable regression model, unsuccessful treatment was significantly associated with increasing age (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.02 per a one-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.02), MDR-TB (OR?=?8.7, 95% CI: 5.09-14.97), male sex (OR?=?1.40, 95% CI: 1.28-1.52), and foreign origin (OR?=?1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). The data highlight that special efforts are required for patients with MDR-TB and the elderly aged ?65 years, who have particularly low TSR. To allow for valid monitoring at EU level all countries should aim to report TO for all TB cases. PMID:26676247

  15. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  17. Meeting the Educational and Cultural Needs of Soviet Newcomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Sylvia F.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, although the majority of Jews leaving nations of the former Soviet Union are settling in Israel, a substantial number are coming to the United States. Asserts that a careful balance must be maintained between cultural and religious programming to avoid conflicts within immigrant families. (CFR)

  18. Approaches to the Study of Soviet Ethnic Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses various approaches to analysis of ethnic unrest in the former Soviet Union. With the collapse of the communist system in 1991, ideology has been replaced by ethnicity as the driving force in politics. The failure of the regime to address ethnic issues doomed it. (SLD)

  19. Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

  20. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

  1. Soviet Teachers and the Politics of Identity, 1931-1939.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    This historical review describes the expansion of elementary and secondary education in the Soviet Union during the decade of the 1930's under the Stalinist regime. This study explores how teachers participated in shaping the relationship between education and Stalinist political culture by examining how teachers made sense of their position in…

  2. Council of U.S. Academy of Sciences Expresses Concern to Soviet Counterparts over Sakharov Harrassment.

    PubMed

    1973-09-21

    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) president Philip Handler has made public a cable to his opposite number in the Soviet Union expressing the "deep concern" of the NAS Council for the welfare of dissenting Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov and warning that, if further measures were taken against Sakharov, "it would be extremely difficult to imagine successful fulfillment of American pledges of binational scientific cooperation . . . ." Handler's message is the strongest public expression to date of NAS concern over treatment of Soviet scientists and other intellectuals (Science, 6 April). The cable, addressed to M. V. Keldysh, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, is given in full below. PMID:17744285

  3. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  5. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships. PMID:25231098

  6. Soviet Jewish Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Public Radio, Washington, DC.

    The document presents a radio script about resettlement programs for contemporary Soviet Jewish refugees and problems and expectations concerning their acculturation and integration into American life. Part of a series entitled "Options in Education," it was produced by National Public Radio and the Institute for Educational Leadership. Two hosts…

  7. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  8. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  9. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants. PMID:11374307

  10. TEACHING MACHINES AND PROGRAMMED LEARNING IN THE SOVIET BLOC--A SURVEY OF THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE, 1962-1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, DC.

    THIS REVIEW REPORTS THE STATE OF THE ART OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN THE SOVIET UNION. A NUMBER OF TEACHING MACHINES ARE DESCRIBED, AS ARE PROJECTED DEVELOPMENTS IN SOVIET PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION. IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE 4TH ALL-RUSSIAN CONFERENCE ON THE APPLICATION OF TECHNICAL DEVICES AND PROGRAMING IN EDUCATION (JAN. 1964) WILL PROVIDE FURTHER…

  11. United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Douglas, Jr.

    Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

  12. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  13. Socio-Economic Forces and the Rise of the World-Class Research University in the Post-Soviet Higher Education Space: The Case of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    Mixed data analysis from 14 national research universities in Ukraine provides insights into the challenges faced by higher education reformers, as they push academic science to a higher position in the emerging knowledge economy, but are halted by deeply entrenched economic and political legacies. This paper examines competing forces that…

  14. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  15. Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold I.

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining is intended to define what constitutes faculty union rights. Union claims to rights must be based on the content of the Agreement. Several union rights negotiated by faculty organizations with college and university administrations are detailed. These include agreements on who manages internal union affairs; rights that…

  16. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  17. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison.

  18. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities became U.S.-Russian work on the International Space Station (ISS). The interest of the Kremlin and White House in making space an "area of common interests" for the two countries, the interest of U.S. and Russian space communities in meaningful cooperation with each other, and the interdependence of the two countries within the ISS project, give hope that the U.S.-Russian cooperation will finally develop a long-term character.

  19. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  20. Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Alcaide Capilla, Teresa; Chenlo Alonso, Unai; Rubio-López, Nuria; Alegre-Martinez, Antoni; Morales Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-12-15

    Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union. PMID:26671105

  1. Recent Soviet microelectronics research on III-V compounds semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sello, H.; Kirkpatrick, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    The activity in the Soviet Union on III-V compound semiconductor devices during the past five years is examined in the areas of materials, processes, radiation effects, and devices by a search of the translated technical journals. The majority of the work in III-V materials is concerned with gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the materials are certainly of the quality needed to make integrated circuits (ICs). However, the focus of Soviet growth and characterization studies appears to be basic materials properties, rather than development of capabilities and understanding for making integrated circuits. In processing, the Soviets appear to have very little effort on metaloorganic chemical vapor deposition on III-V compounds, while this is the process of choice in the West. There is, however, a substantial effort on X-ray lithography for silicon that could be extended to GaAs. High-quality work is also reported for ion beam, electron beam, optical projection, and laser processing silicon. Research on metallization (interconnection) and dielectric deposition processes for GaAs is absent. Soviet research on ion implantation and laser annealing in compound semiconductors is largely directed toward basic phenomena, such as defect information, rather than on electrical characteristics considered important for integrated circuit fabrication. Outstanding basic work is also being conducted on the radiation effects of electrons, protons, alpha, gamma, and X-rays on materials. These Soviet studies of radiation effects do not appear to be directed toward the fabrication of actual devices. Soviet GaAs device work appears to be generally of a theoretical nature, relying in part on device data obtained from Western articles. The most advanced involves the junction field effect transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistor, with little work reported on the fabrication of GaAs integrated circuits.

  2. Soviet gas processing expands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Soviet gas processing industry expanded with the recent completion of two new gas processing plants, the Krasnoleninskiy and Noyabr'sk plants, both located in West Siberia. Both process associated gas from nearby oil fields to remove valuable liquid hydrocarbons before putting the dry gas into pipelines; previously the gas was flared or vented. These plants represent part of a major program, ongoing since the 1970s, to increase the level of utilization of the tremendous amount of valuable associated gas now being produced in West Siberia. Another major effort to develop gas processing is under way in western Kazakhstan at the Tengiz and Zhanazhol' fields. At Zhanazhol', a small gas recovery plant went into operation in late 1984 in conjunction with a separation plant with a processing capacity of 1 million tons of oil per year. A much larger enterprise to refine oil and process associated gas is under construction at the Tengiz field. This enterprise is different from the major petrochemical operation planned to use feedstocks from Tengiz; the petrochemical operation will be constructed at Kulsary, 120 kilometers from Tengiz, and produce polyethylene, polypropylene, and other plastics.

  3. Economic targeting in modern warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.; Lewis, K.N.

    1982-07-01

    Nuclear weapons and strategies for their use play a variety of roles in the defense and foreign policies of the United States and Soviet Union. Accordingly, both nations buy forces and prepare war plans for many purposes. Although it is perhaps the least likely contingency for which either country prepares, the scenario in which both sides launch more or less all-out attacks against their opponent's economic or urban-industrial target system often dominates public consideration of strategic policy issues. These kinds of strikes, generically termed countervalue attacks, are usually assumed to throw many thousands of nuclear weapons against cities and isolated facilities in order to destroy the adversary nation as an organized, functioning, and economically viable entity.

  4. Close Up Special Focus: U.S.-Soviet Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Jacqueline

    Designed to accompany a 4-part video series, this high school unit on U.S.-Soviet relations focuses on each nation's world view, political system, and ideologies. A student handbook and teacher's curriculum guide are included. The student handbook is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 examines the political and economic system of each country…

  5. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  6. Public Education in Soviet Azerbaijan: Appraisal of an Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakov, R., Ed.; Atakishiev, A., Ed.

    A comprehensive review of the public education system in Soviet Azerbaijan, this book traces the system's development since its establishment in 1920; it examines the system's context, goals, and organization, and analyzes its achievements and their economic effects. Two sections (four chapters each) cover the periods before and since the…

  7. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

  8. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  9. Review of the Soviet oil industry in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Shabad, T.

    1986-01-01

    A sharp decline in Soviet oil production was probably one of the most striking developments in the energy sphere in 1985. The Soviet Union relies on exports of crude oil and refined products for about 60% of its hard-currency revenue from the Western countries, and a decline in oil exports cut sharply into the hard-currency earnings in 1985. The continued decline of the price of oil on the world market also contributed to the fall of Soviet export earning in the West. The problem area in Soviet oil production has now become West Siberia, which over the last 20 years has emerged as the nation's main oil producing region, accounting in 1985 for 62% of national output. To maintain production smaller fields are being put into operation, which, given the climate and terrain of West Siberia, is causing slowdowns. The administrations of the oil fields are also a problem, which is discussed in some detail. Oil production from Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is also described. Two potential new development areas are also mentioned: Barent Sea coast and East Siberia. The slowdown in the oil industry is also evident in plans for the construction of pipelines and refineries. The 12th five-year plan schedules the construction of 5900 km of crude oil pipelines and 7300 km of product pipelines. It appears that no further refinery capacity is needed for the time being.

  10. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  11. Workers' Involvement in the Soviet Union: From Lenin to Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlapentokh, Vladimir

    1988-01-01

    Mikhail Gorbachev's inclusion of worker's participation as an element in his program for workplace reform has been met with hostility by managers. There is danger that the program will degenerate into another ritualistic activity. (JOW)

  12. Teaching about Russia and the Soviet Union in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bruce F.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests themes in Russian history that can be integrated into existing history, social studies, civics, or religion classes. Expounds on the following themes: agriculture and collectivization, police force and legality, Jews and dissidence, plurality and ideology, and the arms race. Provides bibliographic sources. (RW)

  13. Problems in International Communication: China and the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    China and Russia generally adhere to the Leninist concept of the press as being integral to society and therefore subject to regulation. They both also contend with the Communist paradox: the press exists to criticize the system of which it is a part. They reconcile this paradox by directing criticism toward the erring individual rather than…

  14. Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

  15. Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

    1992-01-01

    Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

  16. Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

  17. Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

  18. Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; A. J. Antolak; D. H. Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S. Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E. Schlesinger

    1998-01-26

    Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (0.04 < x < 0.24) detector crystals grown in the Ukraine and Russia have been evaluated and compared to US-grown materials. Various analytical techniques were used to study the materials for trace impurities, precipitates, crystallinity, and electrical transport properties. Relatively high concentrations of carbon and trace impurities such as Se, Nd and Si have been detected in the crystals. In most cases, the crystals showed lower resistivity than US-grown CZT. However, recent crystals grown in Russia exhibited better detector performance than those grown in prior years, and good response to an {sup 241}Am radioactive source was found. Electron lifetimes below 1 {micro}s were measured in crystals having significant numbers of micro-defects, compared to lifetimes of 5--15 {micro}s found in spectrometer grade materials produced in the US. Furthermore, the zinc composition along the growth axis showed better homogeneity in comparison with the US material.

  19. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  20. [Contribution of E. W. Schmidt to the development of Soviet neurology and its international relations].

    PubMed

    Schulze, H A

    1987-05-01

    A short retrospect, occasioned by the death on July 13, 1985, of E. W. Schmidt, of his career as director of the Neurological Research Institute at the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, and his influence as scientist, medical man, and humanist on the development of neurology in the Soviet Union and its representation on the international scene. PMID:3306746

  1. National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

    This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

  2. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

  3. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  4. Psychological and Acculturation Correlates of Work Status among Soviet Jewish Refugees in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of work status to acculturation and psychological adaption among refugees from the former Soviet Union, examining life satisfaction, alienation, and work status. Findings underscore the relevance of work status to refugees' life satisfaction and psychological adaptation and suggest the importance of seeking employment in…

  5. Authenticity, Autonomy, and Authority: Feminist Jewish Learning among Post-Soviet Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lisa D.

    2008-01-01

    This articles explores how a group of women in the Former Soviet Union grapple with questions of Jewish identity and Jewish "authenticity" as they participate in adult Jewish learning program that employs methods of feminist pedagogy and transformative learning. The study reflects on areas of dissonance between the transformational learning…

  6. A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

  7. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  8. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  9. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  10. Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

  11. From Brezhnev Doctrine to New Thinking: Soviet Reforms and European Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Witold J.

    Mikhail Gorbachev has drastically altered the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, and in so doing has also brought about a new international political reality for all of Europe. This paper contrasts Gorbachev's "New Thinking" in foreign policy with the Brezhnev Doctrine (an approach associated with former USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev that…

  12. Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

  13. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  14. Navigating Identity Reformation, Marginalization, and "Soft" Colonization in Former Soviet Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines post-immigration reformed identity struggles among high school students from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Specifically, Belarusian, Kazakh, and Russian students in one U.S. public school district recognized and internalized "Russian" and inferior identities given to them by their U.S. teachers and peers,…

  15. Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

    Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

  16. Navigating Identity Reformation, Marginalization, and "Soft" Colonization in Former Soviet Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines post-immigration reformed identity struggles among high school students from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Specifically, Belarusian, Kazakh, and Russian students in one U.S. public school district recognized and internalized "Russian" and inferior identities given to them by their U.S. teachers and peers,…

  17. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  18. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  19. Initial surveillance of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the European Union and European Economic Area, April-September 2009.

    PubMed

    Devaux, I; Kreidl, P; Penttinen, P; Salminen, Mika; Zucs, P; Ammon, A

    2010-12-01

    European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries reported surveillance data on 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) through the Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) during the early phase of the 2009 pandemic. We describe the main epidemiological findings and their implications in respect to the second wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Two reporting systems were in place (aggregate and case-based) from June to September 2009 to monitor the evolution of the pandemic. The notification rate was assessed through aggregate reports. Individual data were analysed retrospectively to describe the population affected. The reporting peak of the first wave of the 2009 pandemic influenza was reached in the first week of August. Transmission was travel-related in the early stage and community transmission within EU/EEA countries was reported from June 2009. Seventy eight per cent of affected individuals were less than 30 years old. The proportions of cases with complications and underlying conditions were 3% and 7%, respectively. The most frequent underlying medical conditions were chronic lung (37%) and cardio-vascular diseases (15%). Complication and hospitalisation were both associated with underlying conditions regardless of age. The information from the first wave of the pandemic produced a basis to determine risk groups and vaccination strategies before the start of the winter wave. Public health recommendations should be guided by early capture of profiles of affected populations through monitoring of infectious diseases. PMID:21163182

  20. Verbal Regulation of Motor Behavior-Soviet Research and Non-Soviet Replications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Soviet investigation of the development of verbal inhibition of preseverative manual behavior are reviewed. Non-soviet investigations of verbal-manual interaction are considered in relation to the Soviet view of the development of voluntary behavior; and it is argued, on the basis of this evidence, that the Soviet position need not stand or fall…

  1. Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first…

  2. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  3. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  4. Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1986-09-16

    The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

  5. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  6. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  7. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  8. Soviet program for higher oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorets, N.

    1981-09-14

    In 1980, the Soviet Union's output of oil and gas condensate was 12,100,000 bpd; 1981's figure is 12,200,000 bpd. In 1985, production is expected to reach 12,500,000 to 12,900,000 bpd. Having taken the lead in oil production in the world in 1974, the USSR looks toward retaining it in the coming decade. Maintaining and raising oil output requires speedy development of new deposits. A case in point is the Tyumen region in W. Siberia where in the next 5 yr. it is planned to drill 80 million m of hole and to put into operation 27 new oil fields. The whole operation will call for over $35 billion (at the official rate of exchange). Deposits now being discovered in the USSR are, as a rule, situated in difficult-to-reach regions and have complicated geologic structures. Both involve higher costs. At the same time, output at some older deposits (mainly in the European part of the country) declines.

  9. A plan for Soviet nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-09-18

    If environmentalist forces are successful, the Russian government may soon establish the country's first comprehensive program for dealing with nuclear waste. Later this month the Russian parliament, back from its summer recess, is expected to begin considering a bill on this topic. A draft copy indicates that Russia is starting with the basics: It orders the government to develop a means of insulting waste from the environment, to form a national waste processing program, and to create a registry for tracking where spent atomic fuel is stored or buried. The bill comes on the heels of a November 1991 decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to step up efforts to deal with nuclear waste issues and to create a government registry of nuclear waste disposal sites by 1 January 1993. The former Soviet Union has come under fire from environmentalists for dumping low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes in the Arctic Ocean and for improperly storing waste at sites in the southern Urals and Belarus. Adding to the bill's urgency is the fact that Russia is considering sites for underground repositories for high-level waste at Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk, and on the Kola Peninsula.

  10. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union. PMID:16005557

  11. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new public management principles. PMID:21598269

  12. Soviet National Middle Atmosphere Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    Soviet national MAP program comprises seven projects: lower thermosphere (structure and dynamics); high latitude energetic sources and their effect on the structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere under conditions of the polar night; climate of the stratosphere and mesosphere (effects of various energetic sources on its formation); winter variability in the lower ionosphere; noctilucent clouds (climatology, dynamics, nature, and genesis); wave processes and structure and dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; and dynamics of the ozone layer.

  13. Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication. PMID:22753071

  14. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  15. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  16. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive than in Belarus and Ukraine. The same picture as for general water consumption is typical for industrial water use, domestic water consumption and especially for irrigated agriculture. On the contrary, calculating per head correlation of water consumption with climatic conditions is not seen because of the considerable influence of socio-economic factors. We also tried to find out correlation of the cost-effectiveness of water use (gross domestic product per used water unit) with the annual air temperature. The result illustrates that it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions while investigating the cost-effectiveness of water use in different countries and regions. Today the water management in all former Republics is directed towards gradual stabilization, but if adequate measures are not assumed the situation with water resources will deteriorate.

  17. Soviet Military Translations No. 132 (Armed Forces, Navy, Party Doctrine Machine Teaching, Higher Schools, Advanced Weapons, Space Flight).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, DC.

    Contained in this document are translations of military interest concerning the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The following specific items are included: (1) technical training methods, (2) the constantly improving party direction of administrative organs, (3) college for armed forces personnel, (4) development of Leninist principles in…

  18. The Western European and Soviet Culture Regions. Resource Unit III, Grade 7. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 7. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies; Europe and the Soviet Union. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into three subunits--physical geography, early history, and social development. The central portion of each subunit is laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. The guide…

  19. Early Bilingualism: The Soviet Experience. The Milton and Eleanor Fromer Lecture on Early Childhood Education (4th, March 5, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negnevitskaya, Elena J.

    A discussion of bilingualism in young children in the Soviet Union looks at the three main forms of early bilingualism (bilingual home environment, different languages spoken at home and in school, and second language instruction in school), notes the challenges they pose for development and maintenance of bilingual skills, and then describes a…

  20. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history. PMID:24032234

  1. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    PubMed

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics. PMID:19233533

  2. Determination of the Venus flyby orbits of the Soviet Vega probes using VLBI techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J.; Mcelrath, Timothy P.

    1988-01-01

    In December 1984, the Soviet Union launched two identical Vega spacecraft with the dual objective of exploring Venus and continuing to rendezvous with the comet Halley. The two Vega spacecraft encountered Venus in mid-June 1985 and successfully deployed entry probes and wind-measuring balloons into the Venus atmosphere. An objective of the Venus Balloon experiment was to measure the Venus winds using differential VLBI from the balloon and the flyby bus. NASA's Deep Space 64 meter subnet was part of a world wide network organized to collect data from the Vega probes and balloons. A critical element of this experiment was an accurate determination of the Venus relative flyby orbits of the Vega spacecraft during the 46 hour balloon lifetime. Venus flyby solutions were independently determined by the Soviets using two-way range and Doppler from Soviet stations and by JPL using one-way Doppler and VLBI data collected from the DSN. The Vega flyby solutions determined by the Soviets using a sparse two-way tracking strategy with JPL solutions using the DSN VLBI data to complement the Soviet data and with solutions using only one-way data collected by the DSN were compared.

  3. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  4. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  5. Strategic defenses and Soviet-American relations

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F.; Litwak, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on ballistic missile defense. Topics considered include the historical aspects of US strategic concepts and programs, Soviet perspectives on the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), national security, international cooperation, nuclear proliferation, arms control and SDI, the technical feasibility of the SDI, foreign policy, and US and Soviet views on prospects for a cooperative transition in strategic defense.

  6. Strategic targeting by Soviet SSBNS (Soviet ballistic-missile nuclear-powered submarines). Final report, December 1987-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Tritten, J.J.

    1988-05-16

    Declaratory targeting by Soviet Navy strategic missiles carried aboard submarines on forward deployment and in bastions is examined. The role of the Soviet Navy in strategic nuclear reserve is discussed. Soviet acceptance of mutual assured destruction (MAD) is assessed.

  7. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  8. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  9. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  10. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  11. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  12. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  13. Bleeding babies in Badakhshan. Symbolism, materialism, and the political economy of traditional medicine in post-Soviet Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2006-03-01

    The bleeding of infants via the skin (pile) and the roof of the mouth (qüm) is practiced in Badakhshan, the easternmost province of Tajikistan. Like folk practices elsewhere, pilé and qüm exist at the interstices of modern society and reflect a complex religious, historical, and social response to poverty, marginality, and the global processes associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, I attempt to move beyond an ethnomedical analysis by examining these bloodletting practices in the context of their contemporary meaning, as a moral response to suffering and to the social changes that have taken place in the post-Soviet period. PMID:16612994

  14. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  15. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task".

    PubMed

    Latypov, Alisher B

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  16. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  18. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  19. Resettlement and Assimilation of Soviet Jewish Emigres into the American Jewish Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Edith

    Analysis of information on Soviet Jewish immigration to the United States reveals the following: (1) the strongest motivation for emigration was anti-semitism, followed by a desire to secure one's children's future, opposition to or dissatisfaction with the political and economic system, the desire to join one's family, and the belief that there…

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  2. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  3. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  4. Soviet-American Relations: Cold War to New Thinking. Topic #5 in a Series of International Security and Conflict [Curricula] for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    This 12-day unit is designed for use in the social studies classroom for grades 9-12 and community college level. Students first learn about the ideological, political, and military rivalries of the United States and the Soviet Union that marked the Cold War. They are then introduced to the nuclear build-up, and they study its impact on matters of…

  5. Soviet-American Dance Medicine. Proceedings of the Glasnost Dance Medicine Conference and Workshops (Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheli, Lyle, Ed.; And Others

    The information shared in this document represents a dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union on the discipline of dance medicine, which involves the care of injured dancers as well as prevention of injuries. An introduction including a preface, opening remarks, and an overview of dance medicine comprises section 1. The second…

  6. Moscow in May 1963: Education and Cybernetics. An Interchange of Soviet and American Ideas Concerning Education, Programed Learning, Cybernetics, and the Human Mind. Bulletin, 1964, No. 38. OE-14106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Oliver J.; Graham, Loren R.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin chronicles the authors' visit to the Soviet Union, May 14-28, 1963, sponsored by the Ministry for Public Education of the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education of the U.S.S.R. The purposes of the visit were to renew earlier contacts with Soviet educators and scientists; to explore the possibility…

  7. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  8. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  9. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  10. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  11. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  12. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  13. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  14. The Soviet Jews. Fact Sheet Series #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    The uneven but continuing emigration of Soviet Jews since 1972 has been brought about by government policies that are all but openly anti-Semitic. More than 80,000 of these refugees have settled in the United States, many in New York City. They come from a population that is highly urbanized and well educated. Most speak Russian but identify…

  15. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  16. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  17. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  18. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  19. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  20. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  1. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  2. Unions on the Margin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchington, Mick

    1990-01-01

    Longitudinal case studies of four British organizations tested theories that union membership is waning, collective bargaining is being separated from strategic decision making, and employee involvement is lessening union impact. The conclusion reached was that the marginalization of unions has more complex causes; employee relations need to be…

  3. Unions Play Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, Anne

    1991-01-01

    The nation's two teacher unions' lobbying and political action efforts have been the subject of considerable criticism. In addition to the federal level, state and local union political action committees exist. Reviews the agency-shop issue, and estimates union dues paid and how they are spent. (MLF)

  4. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  5. Shamanism, Christianity, and Marxism: Comparisons and Contrasts Between the Impact of Soviet Teachers on Eskimos, Chukchis, and Koryaks in Northeastern Siberia, and the Impact of an Early Anglican Missionary on Baffin Island Inuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Compares and contrasts activities and experiences of the first Soviet teachers among Eskimos and Koryaks and the first Anglican missionaries among Inuit of Baffin Island. Concludes Soviets integrated natives into political, educational, economic structures of the USSR while missionaries concentrated on natives' spiritual life, not involvement in…

  6. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  7. [Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].

    PubMed

    Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

  8. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  9. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    PubMed

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

  10. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  11. Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

  12. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  13. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  14. Research results of Soviet scientists in some problems of occupational medicine. Review of the years 1981-1984.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H

    1985-08-01

    The paper reviews the extensive and manifold research of Soviet scientists in occupational medicine. Monographs published in 1981-1984 have been referred to. The data on the maximum allowable concentrations of 23 substances are presented. It should especially be emphasized that, at present, great attention is being paid in the Soviet Union to the mutagenic, gonadotoxic and embryotoxic, as well as other biological, effects of the substances under study. A short review has been presented of the research dealing with the setting of standards for substances coming in contact with the skin of the hands. Occupational hygiene aspects of problems related to the introduction of new substances and technological processes have been considered, and research on the effects of harmful factors (toxic substances, vibration, etc) on health and the early diagnosis of occupational pathology has also been reviewed. PMID:3903981

  15. Structural Adjustment: Biggest Challenge for Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloni, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    In more and more countries, workers and unions are faced with the shift away from the constraints of public ownership, central controls, and regulated markets toward a system where free enterprise becomes predominant and is a primary factor in producing rapid economic growth and increased well-being. (JOW)

  16. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  17. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  18. Governance: Senates and Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polishook, Irwin H.; Naples, Caesar J.

    1989-01-01

    Edited versions of two conference papers are presented. The first paper, "The Debate Over Academic Unions and Faculty Governance," by Irwin H. Polishook, discusses why the concept of collective bargaining continues to be a significant issue in academe and is considered to be incompatible with faculty governance. It examines the union experiences…

  19. [Unionization on Campus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter issue considers in separate articles: (1) unionization in 1981 among college faculty in the United States; (2) unionization at the California State University and College System (CSU) (by Lisa Flanzraich); (3) multi-year agreements; (4) contract size; (5) and, in "Yeshivawatch," developments pertaining to the National Labor…

  20. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…