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1

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: National Economy, Economic Policy, Industrial, Development, Performance, agriculture, Construction, Consumer Goods, Domestic Trade, Energy, Human Resources, Machine Building, Transportation, Robotics.

1988-01-01

2

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, military, economic, environmental, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical da...

1991-01-01

3

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, military, economic, environmental, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical da...

1991-01-01

4

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political. military, economic, environmental. and sociological news, commentary. and other information, as well as scientific and technical da...

1991-01-01

5

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports ...

1990-01-01

6

Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

Hewett, A.

1984-01-01

7

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper explains both the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery afterwards in Russia and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) economies. Before the crisis banks do not lend to the real sector of the economy, and firms use non-bank finance - including trade credits and barter trade - to finance production. The banking failure

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Cheng-Gang Xu

2003-01-01

8

Estimating the Economic Impact of HIV\\/AIDs on the countries of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report assesses the evidence on the extent and prospects of an HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in the countries of the former Soviet Union and the impact this will have on the economies of those countries. The main focus of the report is the Russian Federation. The economic and demographic context against which the epidemic is developing is first discussed. All of

Martin Wall

2003-01-01

9

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a unified theory to explain the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery in Russia and the former Soviet Union afterwards. Before the crisis, the banking sector in these economies was stuck in a development trap in which the banking sector is separated from the real sector of the economy. The separation

Dalia Marin; Haizhou Huang; Chenggang Xu

2002-01-01

10

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery and Banking Development in Former Soviet Union Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains both the onset of the financial crisis in 1998 and the striking economic recovery afterwards in Russia and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) economies. Before the crisis banks do not lend to the real sector of the economy and firms use non-bank finance, including trade credits and barter trade, to finance production. The banking failure arises due

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Chenggang Xu

2003-01-01

11

Assisting science in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turmoil and economic hardships in the former Soviet Union have not bypassed its scientific community. Governments and scientists around the world bemoan the collapse of the Soviet science infrastructure and the potential loss of Soviet weapons scientists to untrustworthy nations. In joint research collaborations, many see both the chance to assist science in the former Soviet Union and a

Audrey T. Leath

1992-01-01

12

An Economic Analysis of Transboundary Air Pollution between Finland and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net benefits of bilateral cooperation between Finland and the former Soviet Union on reducing sulphur emissions are evaluated for both parties. The analysis is based on a sulphur transportation model and on estimated abatement cost functions. It is shown that efficient cooperation may entail financial transfers from Finland to the Soviet Union because it is cheaper to abate sulpher

Veijo Kaitala; Matti Pohjola; Olli Tahvonen

1992-01-01

13

ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ACCESS TO CARE: CUBA'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the effects on access to health care in Cuba of the severe economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the monetary and market reforms adopted to confront it. Economic crises under- mine health and well-being. Widespread scarcities and self-seeking attitudes fostered by monetary and market relations could result in differential access to health

Kamran Nayeri; CÁndido M. LÓpez-Pardo

2005-01-01

14

What might the Soviet Union learn from the OECD countries in economics and politics ? An article from 1991 with some comments from 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cleaning up my archives I came across a short article of April 1991 co-authored with Jan Tinbergen, on what the Soviet Union might learn from OECD countries in economics and politics. The article apparently never got published, partly since the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991. Jan Tinbergen died in 1994. Reading the article again in 2005 shows that

Thomas Cool; Jan Tinbergen; Thomas Colignatus

2005-01-01

15

NATIONALISM, DEMOCRATIZATION AND ECONOMIC REFORM: POLITICAL TRANSITION IN THE SOVIET UNION, HUNGARY, AND TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HSWP) of Hungary, and the Kuomintang (KMT) of Taiwan were the only three initiators of political reform among the Leninist-type ruling parties. The three countries' political transition processes in the late 1980's and early 1990's have not been sufficiently analyzed by political scientists. This paper argues that

Yu-Shan Wu

16

Assisting science in the Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turmoil and economic hardships in the former Soviet Union have not bypassed its scientific community. Governments and scientists around the world bemoan the collapse of the Soviet science infrastructure and the potential loss of Soviet weapons scientists to untrustworthy nations. In joint research collaborations, many see both the chance to assist science in the former Soviet Union and a wellspring of potentially commercial technology.The biggest effort to date is a joint agreement among Russia, the European Community, Japan, and the United States to set up an International Science and Technology Center in Moscow. The center will act as a clearinghouse for proposals from the former Soviet Union to fund research for former weapons scientists. The member nations could support proposals either singularly or jointly. Although all the details have yet to be worked out, the United States has pledged $25 million to this effort so far.

Leath, Audrey T.

17

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The services for chronically handicapped people with psychiatric disorders in the Soviet Union are described. The system is based upon a network of community units, each of which includes a day centre, a follow-up clinic, and a sheltered workshop. British services could profitably learn from the experience of these units. The diagnostic system used by many Soviet psychiatrists is different

J. K. Wing

1974-01-01

18

Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents - - An Historical Appraisal of Cuba's Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance: The Latin American Debt Crisis; Castro's 'Solution' to the Debt Crisis; Cuba's Foreign Debt; Soviet Economic Assistance; An Evaluation of Cuba's Military ...

R. L. Bartusch

1986-01-01

19

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

2011-10-01

20

Proliferation and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

Not Available

1994-09-01

21

Ethnicity in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Soviet Union, ethnicity is the major force for change. It is a multiethnic society, where the Russians constitute the ruling majority. The country's political system recognizes the ethnic principle in a federal state structure, but the real power is exercised by a unitary and highly centralized Communist party. The ruling ideology of Marxism-Leninism postulates class-based internation alism as

Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone

1977-01-01

22

Soviet Union targets still beckon  

SciTech Connect

The excitement generated by the opening of the Soviet Union to Western oil companies has not waned since that first overture by the Soviet oil ministries and, considering the potential opportunities, sustained enthusiasm is understandable. A significant portion of the world's largest country remains virtually untouched by a drill bit, and even the mature regions are still prospective particularly with state-of-the-art Western technologies. The exploration history of the USSR is a testament to the potential that remains in new basins and plays. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves range from 50 to 80 billion barrels of oil, the largest concentration outside the Persian Gulf. Also, the country has estimated proved reserves of 1,500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is over 38% of the worldwide total. This paper briefly describes each of the five currently mapped oil regions which is based on geography, geology, and exploration maturity. It also provides historical information on the USSR oil industry.

Shirley, K.

1991-03-01

23

Understanding Patients From the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing numbers of immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are coming to the United States. Educated and resilient, this population has many ethnic origins, but all have shared a common experience under the Soviet system and the deterioration of health care since the collapse of the Soviet Union. An ethnomedical approach was used to review published work and

Linda Grabbe

2000-01-01

24

Migration Patterns During a Period of Political and Economic Shocks in the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of Yaroslavl' Oblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines migration in Russia during the period that preceded the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and during the current transition period. An unusually rich dataset is used to conceptualize the impact that the political and economic collapse of a world superpower has on a migration system. A regional case study of migration in Yaroslavl' Oblast from

Beth Mitchneck; David Plane

1995-01-01

25

Amateur Radio Operation in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of amateur radio operation in the Soviet Union. The importance of amateur radio activity in Soviet society is shown. The reader learns about the Administration of Soviet Amateur Radio Activity, and RADIO, the official journal of Soviet am...

F. G. Durham

1965-01-01

26

Science Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The school system, programs, textbooks, teachers, supplemental studies, and special schools of the Soviet Union are discussed from the point of view of two Soviet students. Secondary school and college education are the primary focus. (CW)|

Chernyshev, Sergey; Kusenko, Alexander

1990-01-01

27

Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book deals with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It describes and analyzes its political, economic social, and national security systems and institutions, and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shape...

R. E. Zickel

1989-01-01

28

Economic crisis and access to care: Cuba's health care system since the collapse of the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

This article explores the effects on access to health care in Cuba of the severe economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the monetary and market reforms adopted to confront it. Economic crises undermine health and well-being. Widespread scarcities and self-seeking attitudes fostered by monetary and market relations could result in differential access to health services and resources, but the authors found no evidence of such differential access in Cuba. While Cubans generally complain about many shortages, including shortages of health services and resources before the economic recovery began in 1995, no interviewees reported systemic shortages or unequal access to health care services or resources; interviewees were particularly happy with their primary care services. These findings are consistent with official health care statistics, which show that, while secondary and tertiary care suffered in the early years of the crisis because of interruptions in access to medical technologies, primary care services expanded unabated, resulting in improved health outcomes. The combined effects of the well-functioning universal and equitable health care system in place before the crisis, the government's steadfast support for the system, and the network of social solidarity based on grassroots organizations mitigated the corrosive effects of monetary and market relations in the context of severe scarcities and an intensified U.S. embargo against the Cuban people. PMID:16320905

Nayeri, Kamran; López-Pardo, Cándido M

2005-01-01

29

The Soviet Union: commercial and technical information sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline of the changes in the Soviet foreign trade structure is followed by an introduction to the main Russian and English-language sources of commercial and technical information relating to the Soviet Union. These include guides, national economic plans, newspapers, journals, updating services, trade statistics, reports, patents and standards, online databases and organisations.

Tania Konn

1988-01-01

30

Western Policy and the Demise of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Western governments in the disintegration of the Soviet Union was complex. The two most important factors that undermined the Soviet state were the deepening economic chaos under Mikhail Gorbachev and the rapid growth of internal political dissent. Western policies tended to magnify both of these factors. This is not to say, however, that Gorbachev's original decision to

Celeste A. Wallander

2003-01-01

31

The End of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

Hergesheimer, John

1992-01-01

32

International Education--Focus: Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From March 8 to March 11, 1989, student schedules at Lake Region High School in Bridgton, Maine were replaced by Soviet Union culture and history classes. The project was called "Focus: Soviet Union," and was intended as only the first of a series of International Education Days designed to increase United States understanding of other cultures…

LaFerriere, Jake; Broyles, India

33

The prospects for democratisation in the Soviet Union: a brief survey of modern Soviet history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses political change in the Soviet Union through its various stages from the mid?1980s to the period immediately after the abortive coup in August 1991. Gorbachev's failure to reconcile the contradictory imperatives of freedom and control in economics and politics led to a conservative reaction, which collapsed primarily because of the Soviet economy's dependence on foreign finance and

Vladimir Tikhomirov

1992-01-01

34

Atlas of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

Young, Harry F.

35

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations of selected articles in the Russian-language monthly journal SSHA: EKONOMIKA, POLITIKA, IDEOLOGIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of U.S. and Canadian Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Economic Cooperation: W...

1990-01-01

36

Economic superpowers and the environment: the United States, the Soviet Union, and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the world's nations, the three countries chosen are clearly the leading producers, consumers, and polluters. Moreover, their political, economic, and social institutions exhibit important differences. National sovereignties constitute the framework within which solutions to the environmental crisis must be found, barring the sudden and improbable emergence of effective world government. An attempt is made to provide some insight into

D. R. Kelley; K. R. Stunkel; R. R. Wescott

1976-01-01

37

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains translated articles from foreign language periodicals concerning political affairs in the Soviet Union. Some topics discussed include: political parties, state affairs, media, propaganda, history, philosophy, religion, culture, soci...

1989-01-01

38

Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

Stevens, Robert E.

1987-01-01

39

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains foreign media information from the Soviet Union on issues related to political party, state affairs, history, philosophy, religion, culture, social issues, regional issues and political revolution.

1988-01-01

40

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains translated articles from foreign language periodicals on political affairs in the Soviet Union. Topics discussed include: political parties, state affairs, media, propaganda, history, philosophy, religion, social and regional issues...

1989-01-01

41

Progress of Television in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress of tv broadcasting and tv technology in the Soviet Union are briefly reviewed. Soviet claims for early inventions related to tv techniques are laid. The central tv black-and-white broadcast program is transmitted from Moscow to 114 cities and...

P. V. Shmakov

1968-01-01

42

The Soviet Union and Arms Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of the paper is to provide a frame of reference in which the subjects of arms control, limited war, and peacekeeping may be related to both current Soviet disarmament policy and to wider questions of the Soviet Union's aims and behavio...

T. W. Wolfe

1966-01-01

43

Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union has been examined in the areas of eptitaxial layer growth and device processing, photonic devices such as semiconductor laser and photodetectors, high-speed lasers, the integration of photonic devices and transistors for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC's), optical amplifiers, optoelectronic switching, and optical communications. These devices are largely prepared with 3-5 compound semiconductors. The assessment by a panel of US experts is based on a review of the translated Soviet technical literature, supplemented by information from recent visits to the former Soviet Union. The majority of Soviet optoelectronic devices were fabricated on wafers prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy. The strongest area of Soviet optoelectronic device research has been semiconductor lasers. No reports of ER(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers were found in the Soviet literature. However, Er(3+)-doped fiber fabrication is extremely simple, and, given its traditional strengths in the area of glass fabrication, the former Soviet Union should have the capability to fabricate Er(3+)-doped optical-fiber amplifiers. The current turmoil in the former Soviet Union makes predictions of the future difficult. It is likely that researchers will be driven to develop funding ties with foreign entities, and they also will become better integrated into the world research community by publishing in foreign (mainly US) journals.

Casey, H. C., Jr.; Bishop, S. G.; Eichen, E.; Kazarinov, R. F.; Taylor, H. F.

1992-05-01

44

Adult Mortality in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mortality in the Soviet Union improved rapidly in the years immediately following World War II, so that in the mid-1960s life\\u000a expectancies in countries such as Russia and Ukraine were similar to those of the United States. However, this improvement\\u000a was not sustained; levels of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union today are similar to those found 50 years

Michael Murphy

45

Cancer epidemiology in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Cancer epidemiology in the former USSR is predominantly descriptive and depends heavily on cancer registration. Cancer epidemiologists have spent most of the last 35 years "correcting" the serious inconsistencies in reported incidence data, as official cancer statistics are notoriously incomplete and inaccurate. Professional standards of Soviet cancer epidemiologists reflect the prevailing conditions they have worked in, notably, severe censorship, bans on publishing, lack of computers for compilation of data or analysis, loose recordkeeping practices in institutions, restricted access to scientific literature, and limited opportunities for training in biostatistics and epidemiology. In the eyes of a new generation of young scientists, modern epidemiology is not an attractive discipline. Despite having one of the largest and most diverse populations in the world, the scientific productivity of ex-Soviet cancer epidemiologists is small. The increasing number of publications from the former USSR in international journals and of ongoing projects is an encouraging sign that cancer epidemiology in the republics that comprised the Soviet Union may be emerging from its prolonged infancy. Prospects depend on the ability of researchers to weather current economic and political disturbances. PMID:1391142

Rahu, M

1992-09-01

46

The New Soviet Union: An unfinished revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attempted coup in the Soviet Union in August of this year appeared to many to finally signal the collapse of communist power and to herald in a new age of reform and democracy. However, the aftermath of the coup has shown that there can be no straightforward answers to the myriad problems of the crumbling Union, from the disintegration

Lisa Jameson; Mitchell Reiss

1991-01-01

47

Angola, National Liberation, and the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Angolan Civil War-with the United States and the People's Republic of China supplying aid to the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNIT A), and with the Soviet Union and Cub...

D. S. Papp

1978-01-01

48

Monetary integration in the ex-Soviet Union: A ‘union of four’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe governments of four ex-Soviet countries recently discussed forming a currency union. To examine the economic feasibility of this proposition, we use conventional techniques and show that the arrangement is likely to find it difficult to handle the lack of structural symmetry, the asymmetric pattern of shocks, and the lack of market flexibility among the potential participants. Moreover, the union

Vladimir Chaplygin; Andrew Hughes Hallett; Christian Richter

2006-01-01

49

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

1989-01-01

50

Neural networks in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

Wunsch, D.C. II.

1993-01-01

51

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet Union. The immensity of the country, the rapidly growing intellectual demands of the people, the general literacy of the popula- tion and insatiable thirst for knowledge, and the great demand of the economy for highly qualified specialists have all contributed to the fact that in the U.S.S.R. the network of libraries, their book collections and numbers of readers have

MARGARITA RUDOMINO

52

Nuclear power in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power

Ponomarev-Stepnoi

1989-01-01

53

Encephalitis Lethargica in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although encephalitis lethargica (EL) appeared in epidemic form in the Soviet Union during the 1920s as it did in most of the world, the Western literature, particularly English, contains little information about the manifestations of the disease there. Here we summarize articles by prominent Russian neurologists who wrote about the disease as they viewed it during the epidemic period. As

Joel A. Vilensky; Ravil Z. Mukhamedzyanov; Sid Gilman

2008-01-01

54

The Soviet Union and détente of the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Détente of the 1970s was a vital stage in global history of the 20th century, when the rise of Soviet communism stopped and the collapse of the Soviet bloc began. Soviet behaviour during détente was not a consistent policy, but rather an extension of Soviet conservative ideological regime under Leonid Brezhnev. Despite some windfall gains, the Soviet Union failed to

Vladislav Zubok

2008-01-01

55

Adopted children from the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy.

Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

56

Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

Mohler, S R

1980-05-01

57

Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are

J. B. Rhinelander; G. Bunn

1991-01-01

58

A Model of Soviet-Type Economic Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, planning agencies in the Soviet Union construct an annual eco- nomic plan for the calendar year that fol- lows. The annual plan is an important element in the Soviet schema for achieving long-term economic growth. Goals of less detailed long-range plans must be con- sidered in the design of the annual plan. Furthermore, the plan is supposed to

Michael Manove

1971-01-01

59

The Current Crisis in the Former Soviet Union and the Perspectives of Its Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gives a brief account of what has happened, what is happening and what is going to happen in the country formerly called the Soviet Union. Analyses the socio-economic nature of the Soviet system and its evolution prior to Gorbachev?s reforms. Presents the causes for the emergence of perestroika and for the collapse of the system and the State. Discusses the

Ernest Raiklin

1994-01-01

60

The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: A report from the ‘post-war’ zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in ‘peace time.’ In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was ‘war time,’ although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result

Mark G. Field

1995-01-01

61

The potential for terrorism within the Soviet Union in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapsing political and economic structures, the rise of Islamic nationalism, and the defeat in Afghanistan are viewed as contributing factors to potential terrorism within the Soviet Union. These factors are discussed within the framework of nationalist terrorism. An attempt is made to predict, based on the current trends, sociopolitical results if nationalistic terrorism becomes a reality in the Soviet

Robert J. Maley

1990-01-01

62

Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

Rannut, Mart

1991-01-01

63

After the Soviet Union: The Post-Soviet States in the World System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in the creation of 15 independent states. This paper examines the contribution of world-systems theory to our understanding of the role of the Soviet Union in the global economy and considers the prospects for the post-Soviet states. It concludes that world-systems theory, together with regional geography, can provide useful insights into the

Michael J. Bradshaw; Nicholas J. Lynn

1994-01-01

64

Economic Information: First Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First Union, a large bank holding company, has made available its economic publications at its web site. The Economic Indicator Analysis section analyzes the main economic indicators as they are released, such as GDP, durable goods orders, housing demand, trade deficit, and prices. The Weekly Economic Commentary examines a domestic economic issue, while the Weekly International Economic Commentary offers a brief survey of selected aspects of the global economic situation. The site also houses the Regional Economic Review, Quarterly Economic Outlook, and summary tables of economic and financial data.

65

Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Rand Corporation examines issues with respect to the former Soviet Union. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration, (available in .pdf format only) is "an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." It contains 10 papers, divided by region, as well as 4 papers on prospects for future cooperation and integration.

1996-01-01

66

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

Leonard, R. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

67

Economic Factors and Soviet Arms Control Policy. The Economic Burden of the Soviet Defense Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soviet defense expenditures, 1950-1965 Difficulties and complications The official defense budget The 'real' defense budget The cost of military manpower Trends in Soviet defense spending The economic impact of the Soviet defense effort Defense ...

F. Ermarth

1964-01-01

68

Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

1991-12-01

69

Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second,

2009-01-01

70

The Soviet Union in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is how historians and others have understood Soviet history since the demise of the Soviet Union. It is argued that, despite the opening of archives, changes in interpretation have been driven as much by external political and disciplinary developments as by greater availability of data. Important external considerations have been the Cold War and the

Sheila Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

71

Politics and Trade in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen independent countries emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989-91. Aside from the Russian Federation, the former Soviet Republics lie in four geographic regions: the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia); Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan); the Baltics (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania); and Eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine).

Marianna Khachaturyan; Wesley Peterson

2010-01-01

72

Strategic Marketing of Tourism Technology to the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the reasons why the Soviet tourism industry has remained underdeveloped. Besides exploring its present state of affairs, the paper suggests how the U.S. tourism multinationals can reap dividends from the burgeoning tourists trade in the Soviet Union. They can do so by marketing their globally acclaimed tourism technology and know-how in response to the incentives offered to

Zafar U. Ahmed

1993-01-01

73

Current Mental Retardation Research in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper consists of a review of 24 studies on mental retardation published in two Soviet journals between 1970 and 1980. An introductory section focuses on the theoretical framework for mental retardation research in the Soviet Union with a differentiation between oligophrenics (who have organic brain damage) and the intellectually backward (or…

Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

74

Conservation of marine resources in the former Soviet Union: An environmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s the Soviet Union, like other coastal states, extended its economic zone and put in place new policies and structures for managing marine resources. These measures followed years of neglect, and resource conservation did not fit well with Marxian doctrine or the centrally planned economic system. Hence, overexploitation and environmental deterioration continued. Democratization, peres?troika, and the restructuring of

Elena N. Nikitina; Peter H. Pearse

1992-01-01

75

Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

French, Hilary F.

76

Levels and determinants of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well recognised that the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent widespread social and economic changes impacted on the levels and distribution of physical health, there is very limited evidence on the social patterning of mental health in the countries that emerged. The aim of this paper is to assess levels of psychological distress and describe

Bayard Roberts; Pamela Abbott; Martin McKee

2010-01-01

77

Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses anthropometric and archival data to reassess the standard of living in the Soviet Union. In the prewar period, the population was small in stature and sensitive to the political and economic upheavals experienced in the country. Significant improvements in child height, adult stature, and infant mortality were recorded from approximately 1945 to 1970. While this period of

Elizabeth Brainerd

2010-01-01

78

Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

French, Hilary F.

79

Watching the Bear: Essays on CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Contributors to this Volume; Introduction and Overview of the Conference Papers; Origins of CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Union; CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Economy; Analyzing Soviet Politics and Foreign Policy; CIA's Analysis of Sovie...

G. A. Haines R. E. Leggett

2003-01-01

80

The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

is a strategic year for former Soviet Union countries, representing the end of a system. A major historical change took place when Soviet Socialist Republics have decided to become independent states. But what happened to the institutions of these countries? Did they develop similar orientations of change or did they keep the previous models? Is it an exogenous induced change?

Rodica PLUGARU

81

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Party, State Affairs, History, Philosophy, Religion, Culture, Social Issues, Regional Issues, Address, Ideological, Representatives, Pact, Contemporary Culture Conference, AIDS Research, Environmental, Natural resource, New Union, Radioa...

1988-01-01

82

The Soviet Union: A normal totalitarian society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of twentieth?century Russian history is fraught with wild variation of opinion, mainly due to the heavy influence of moral assessments, which polarized all branches of the social sciences. Many strongly expressed interpretations, including those of the opposing ‘totalitarian’ and ‘revisionist’ schools, proved to be quite incapable of capturing the essence of Soviet society, and hence of predicting and interpreting

Vladimir Shlapentokh

1999-01-01

83

Secessionist Rebellion in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of ethnic violence increased in Eurasia after the Soviet collapse. Two theories are tested to account for this increase. Horowitz's theory emphasizes psychological mechanisms affecting self-esteem. An alternative theory by Fearon and Van Houten, based on Brubaker's “triadic configuration,” and relying on a commitment logic, emphasizes the level of an external homeland's support for a minority population in

DAVID D. LAITIN

2001-01-01

84

The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: a report from the 'post-war' zone.  

PubMed

Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come. PMID:8607037

Field, M G

1995-12-01

85

The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

86

Marxism after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article studies the implications for historical materialism of the failure of the socialist project in the Soviet Union. The author demonstrates that the said failure broadly confirms central historical materialist theses, which would have been difficult to sustain if the Russian revolution had succeeded in its goal of superseding capitalism and establishing a socialist society.

G. A. Cohen

1999-01-01

87

Paediatric Clinical Pharmacology in the Former Soviet Union: Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many challenges facing the newly created states formed in Eastern Europe and Central Asia after the collapse of the Soviet Union is the development of medical education and health care independent of many of their former ties to Moscow. Ukraine, the largest of these states following the Russian Republic, is facing many of these challenges. Paediatric clinical pharmacology

Michael J. Rieder

1995-01-01

88

Cybernetics and Its Development in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an introduction to the subject of cybernetics, with special reference to its origins and ramifications in the United States and its subsequent development in the Soviet Union. As a survey document only, it was prepared to provide a non-scien...

R. Levien

1964-01-01

89

OVERVIEW OF CURRENT PARAPSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an in-depth discussion of research of anomalous mental phenomena (AMP) in the former Soviet Union. The authors spent approximately two months in Russia during 1992 and 1993, interacting with researchers in Moscow and Novosibirsk. The authors primarily discuss experiments in anomalous perturbation (often referred to as psychokinesis-PK and bio- which have been the main focus of AMP

Edwin C. May; Larissa Vilenskaya

90

Ethnic Identification in the Former Soviet Union: Hypotheses and Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article seeks to ‘measure’ the concept of ‘identification as titular’ in regard to the members of five ethnic groups in the former Soviet Union (Bashkirs, Karels, Komis, Tatars and Yakuts) and the factors which strengthen, or conversely weaken, such identification. In order to do this it uses multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and multigroup structural equation modelling. Identification is mainly

Enzo Loner; Pierangelo Peri

2009-01-01

91

Islam in the former soviet union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A History of Islamic Societies (Second Edition), Ira M.Lapidus, Cambridge University Press, 2002, HBK: ISBN: 0521770564 £80.00, PBK: ISBN: 0521779332 £29.95, pp. 1000 (including: figures, maps, bibliography & index)Islam in Post?Soviet Russia: Public and Private Faces, Hilary Pilkington & Galina Yemelianova (eds), Routledge Curzon, 2003, HBK: ISBN: 0415297346 £60.00 $90.00, pp. 307 (including: bibliography and index)Jihad: The Rise of Militant

Sally N. Cummings

2004-01-01

92

Epidemic syphilis in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Major syphilis epidemics are occurring in the former Soviet Union as a result of the effects of rapid political, economic and social reform on clinical services and sexual behaviour. Together with epidemics of injecting drug use-associated HIV infection, they pose a major threat of large sexually transmitted HIV epidemics. Economic realism demands that control efforts address the market and ideological forces driving the development of interventions, as well as technical aspects of their design. PMID:17033368

Renton, A M; Borisenko, K K

1998-02-01

93

Soviet Union: eastern deposits continue to be developed  

SciTech Connect

Although national production has declined slightly, new mines and plentiful reserves make the coal industry capable of bouncing back. The factor of long distance transportation of coal enters in a significant manner into the equation that governs the question of supplying the Soviet Union with energy. It is now necessary to rely increasingly on resources that are far away from the consumers. Soviet coal reserves are estimated at 8,500,000,000,000 tons. An output rate of 2,000,000,000 tons per year should not be difficult to reach, maintain, and surpass. However, 90 percent of that coal lies in the Soviet Far East and Siberia. Soviet economists see this coal as a major factor in foreign trade by the end of this century. Such coal is already sold to Belgium, Finland, and Greece. Japan is a likely customer for future purchases. Within the Soviet Union, economists also consider the development of Siberian mining as being of paramount importance. The Eleventh Five Year Plan anticipates not only that 800,000,000 tons will be produced in 1985 but that mining will shift toward Siberian resources. Still, to reach the level of 800,000,000 tons by 1985 requires an annual growth rate of 1.5 percent. The emphasis of the current Five Year Plan is on the development of large-scale technology for surface mines while keeping overall production steady by modernizing the underground mines.

Not Available

1981-11-01

94

Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

Lesperance, A.M.

1992-05-01

95

Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

Not Available

1990-01-01

96

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports....

1989-01-01

97

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBlS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political. economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports ...

1990-01-01

98

JPRS Report Soviet Union Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports....

1989-01-01

99

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBlS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports ...

1990-01-01

100

JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Military Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, military, economic, environmental, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical da...

1991-01-01

101

Globalization and the Contradictions of Development in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Prospects for pist-soviet Development in the Age of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical analysis of the impact of globalization on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It argues that the globalization of capital is having a major impact on the social, economic, and political structure of countries in these regions, and that this process is generating serious problems for these countries as they become incorporated into the

Berch Berberoglu

2005-01-01

102

New currencies in the Former Soviet Union: a recipe for hyperinflation or the path to price stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the break-up of the rouble zone after the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and the opportunities and risks involved in establishing separate currencies in the new republics of the FSU. Fundamental disagreements about the desirable pace of economic reform, together with the need for radical changes in the pattern of economic activity, greatly weakened

Chris Melliss; Mark Cornelius

1994-01-01

103

Ethnic Factor in the New Soviet Union: The Future of the USSR's Multinational Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the effects of increasing inter-ethnic tensions on the Soviet armed forces. While nationalist sentiments have long been a factor in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev's policies of glasnost' and democratization have allowed these tensions to ...

S. L. Clark

1991-01-01

104

A Payments Mechanism for the Former Soviet Union: Is the EPU a Relevant Precedent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the trade of its successor states has spiralled downward. The European Payments Union of the 1950s is frequently invoked as a model for solving this problem. In this paper I show that in fact the EPU is an inappropriate framework for organizing the former Soviet Union's trade and payments. The only multilateral clearing

Barry Eichengreen

1993-01-01

105

The Motherland Calls!: Nationalist Propaganda in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the Soviet Union’s methods of promoting nationalism during World War II in specific relation to newspapers, film, and poster propaganda. The Soviet Union used traditional and heroic imagery in propaganda with the intention to inspire nationalism during World War II in an effort to unify and strengthen its citizenry. Through the integration of modern language and traditional

Carolyn Blood

2010-01-01

106

Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. (Lomonosov State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. (All-Union Petroleum Geological Research Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

1991-02-01

107

Oil, gas resources estimated in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in countries of the former Soviet Union. The assessments were made by participants of the World Energy Resources Program of the US Geological Survey using a modified Delphi (subjective) method and based on multiyear studies of the geology of FSU basins and exploration results. Reserves and undiscovered resources are allocated by basin to the newly independent states (NIS). Identified reserves have not been published, and the corresponding numbers in the table present a best guess'' based on reserves of the largest fields and/or basin production rates.

Ulmishek, G.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Masters, C.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1993-12-13

108

Teaching about the Soviet Union in Relation to the Nuclear Arms Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the nuclear arms race usually involves curiosity about the Soviet Union. Students want to know about all aspects of the USSR. How teachers can help students see the human side of the Soviets and understand the Soviet point of view is discussed. (RM)|

Alexander, Susan; Barclay, Jeanne

1985-01-01

109

Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of

Gomez; Leo S

1999-01-01

110

The Observance of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that the Soviet state is under the total control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is widely known. Party control over the Soviet state has not received legal elaboration full enough to be considered a match to what is effectuated in pra...

V. Chalidze

1980-01-01

111

Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events

Rigby

1988-01-01

112

The Limits of Superpower: The United States and the Soviet Union since World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpowers are of critical importance in the regulation of global affairs. Since World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union imposed a bipolar order that had worldwide repercussions. Now that the Cold War has ended and the Soviet Union has disintegrated, the eyes of the world are on the U.S., as the sole remaining superpower and on its role

Jan Nijman

1992-01-01

113

Catalyzing the Collapse: The Computer and the Fall of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of my AHS Capstone project has been to analyze the role of computers and the computing gap during the period between Gorbachev’s rise to power in 1985 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Specifically, I attempted to identify the means by which computers and the computing gap affected the Soviet Union during this active period

Michael Curtis

2006-01-01

114

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were

1995-01-01

115

Design Evolution and Performance of the Soviet Union's Large Polar Icebreakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1985 the Soviet Union operated approximately 70 icebreakers of many types and 14 specialized icebreaking cargo ships of the SA-15 class. However, within this fleet only 16 vessels can be considered true polar icebreakers - large, powerful ships capable of independent operations in multi-year ice. These polar icebreakers, all built since 1959, are the mainstay of the Soviet Union's

L. Brigham; Kara Strait; Kara Seas

1986-01-01

116

Controlling Nuclear Weapons and Preventing Arms Proliferation in the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The disintegration of the former Soviet Union is often celebrated in the West as a victory of democratic ideals and institutions over a repressive communist regime. The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union is definitely worth heralding. but it's impo...

T. Bodenhamer

1993-01-01

117

The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

Reikofski, Joyce

118

Paediatric clinical pharmacology in the former Soviet Union: Ukraine.  

PubMed

Among the many challenges facing the newly created states formed in Eastern Europe and Central Asia after the collapse of the Soviet Union is the development of medical education and health care independent of many of their former ties to Moscow, Ukraine, the largest of these states following the Russian Republic, is facing many of these challenges. Paediatric clinical pharmacology is markedly underdeveloped in the Ukraine. There is little clinical pharmacology content in undergraduate medical education and essentially none in postgraduate training. Underdevelopment of paediatric clinical pharmacology also increases difficulties faced because of lack of a domestic pharmaceutical industry. This situation compounds the difficulty of how physicians in Ukraine can best learn to choose and apply rational individualized therapy. PMID:8580220

Rieder, M J

1995-01-01

119

“Change and continuity” – the experience of trade unions in the cultural sector of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to map the critical changes in the history of trade unionism in the countires which until the late 80s early 90s formed the USSR, and spans a period from 1905 to 2005. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author has chosen to assess the role of trade unions in the former Soviet states by placing them into their

Vladimir Kamen

2005-01-01

120

The dynamics of professional commitment: immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union in Israel.  

PubMed

The paper examines professional commitment among physicians who immigrated to Israel form the former Soviet Union during the early 1990s. This population faces severe limits regarding occupational continuity because of the highly saturated market in which non-negligible groups will, in the long run, of necessity undergo occupational change. The theoretical background for the analysis is drawn from the literature regarding recent changes in professional roles with particular reference to the shifting meaning of work in post-modern societies and its consequences for occupational commitment. The professional context of medical practice in the former Soviet Union and the social and economic constraints of Israeli society in the 1990s set the scene for the analysis. Several dimensions of professional commitment are examined empirically, on the assumption that there are a variety of ways to consider the notion of commitment and that no one measure tells a complete story. Prolonged processes of deprofessionalization of medicine in the Soviet Union, suggest that medicine for most immigrant physicians is not so much a 'calling' to which they are devoted; rather it is a necessary means to gain a livelihood, the only occupation for which they have been trained for many years after stringent selection to medical school and the only job in which they have worked consistently since completing their formal training. Two and a half years after arrival in Israel the immigrant doctors are characterized by a short-range time perspective which makes them unwilling to accept the constraints of the saturated market; intense efforts are made by most to obtain a license despite the fact that only a fraction of them will be able to work in their profession on a regular basis. Despite this over-riding reality, many hope that they will be among the selected few who will be able to obtain a medical post. PMID:8730902

Shuval, J T; Bernstein, J

1996-04-01

121

The Collapse of East European Communism and the Repercussions within the Soviet Union (Part 3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the concluding part of a three-part article that discusses the transformation of Soviet-East European relations in the late 1980s and the impact of the sweeping changes in Eastern Europe on the Soviet Union. This final segment is divided into two main parts: First, it provides an extended analysis of the bitter public debate that erupted in the Soviet

Mark Kramer

2005-01-01

122

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy International Relations, No. 1, January 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Report from the Soviet Union contains articles on World Economy and International Relations. The articles are a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute ...

1989-01-01

123

LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) is to help coordinate the LLNL Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) Middle East, North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FS...

J. L. OBoyle S. D. Ruppert T. F. Hauk D. Dodge M. Firpo

2000-01-01

124

Information Science in the Soviet Union and the West: A Review Article  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a series of publications of the International Federation of Documentation (FID) that includes many papers in the field of information science produced in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (PF)|

Yovits, Marshall C.

1976-01-01

125

Intraplate Earthquakes and State of Stress in the former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on intraplate earthquakes in the Former Soviet Union and adjacent regions is collected from historical and instrumental records. Since most of the territory of the Russian Republic is intraplate in its tectonic character, intraplate earthquake...

L. R. Sykes S. Yunga T. Rautian

1998-01-01

126

The Soviet Union and the Cold War: Assessing the Technological Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military competition engendered by the Cold War provoked rapid and sustained innovation in military technology. New information that has become available since the end of the Cold War permits a detailed reassessment of technical capabilities and developments in the Soviet Union, both with respect to strategic nuclear forces and to conventional weapons. This article shows that initially Soviet capabilities

Christoph Bluth

2010-01-01

127

Peaceful coexistence at all costs: Cold War exchanges between Britain and the Soviet Union in 1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khrushchev's visit to Britain in 1956 exemplified and gave impetus to the proliferation of transnational ties that connected Britain and the Soviet Union during the period of de-Stalinisation. This article shows how Khrushchev's visit affected British–Soviet relations at the levels of policy and mass perceptions. It analyses the significance of the exchanges that resulted in the areas of trade, technology

Mark B. Smith

2012-01-01

128

Peaceful coexistence at all costs: Cold War exchanges between Britain and the Soviet Union in 1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khrushchev's visit to Britain in 1956 exemplified and gave impetus to the proliferation of transnational ties that connected Britain and the Soviet Union during the period of de-Stalinisation. This article shows how Khrushchev's visit affected British–Soviet relations at the levels of policy and mass perceptions. It analyses the significance of the exchanges that resulted in the areas of trade, technology

Mark B. Smith

2011-01-01

129

Labor Markets in Transition: Science and Migration after the Collapse of the Soviet Union: Dissertation Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies the collapse of the Soviet Union to shed light on the behavior of workers and the human capital they embody. The first two essays concern the behavior of scientists. Using information from the earliest large-scale grant program for Soviet scientists, the author employs a regression discontinuity design to obtain causal estimates of the impact of grants. Findings

Ina Ganguli

2011-01-01

130

Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread

1992-01-01

131

The Collapse of East European Communism and the Repercussions within the Soviet Union (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largely peaceful collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 reflected the profound changes that Mikhail Gorbachev had carried out in Soviet foreign policy. Successful though the process was in Eastern Europe, it had destabilizing repercussions within the Soviet Union. The effects were both direct and indirect. The first part of this two-part article looks at Gorbachev's policy toward

Mark Kramer

2003-01-01

132

Threat level green: Conceding ecology for security in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the predicted scenarios of Central Asian water wars and catastrophic nuclear accidents have failed to materialize. However, the Aral Sea continues to shrink apace, and dangerous Soviet-built nuclear reactors have since proliferated in the former eastern bloc. These seemingly paradoxical outcomes can in part be attributed to the framing of these environmental issues

Mark Lawrence Schrad

2006-01-01

133

Insight into the studies of the practical use of microalgae in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae have been intensively cultivated and used in the national economy of the Soviet Union in Russia (Moscow, Leningrad, Pushcino, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk), the Ukraine, Byelorussia (Minsk), \\u0009Azerbaijan (Baku), Uzbekistan (Tashkent), Latvia (Riga) and other former Soviet republics. The first studies on the practical use of microalgae started already at the beginning of last century and were connected with treatment of

Santa Purvina; Maija Balode

2004-01-01

134

Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six

Riva; J. P. Jr

1993-01-01

135

Harbingers of sputnik: The amateur radio preparations in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

After recapitulating and re?evaluating the principal early signals that the Soviet Union was planning to launch an artificial earth satellite (Sputnik 1) in 1957, which have long been familiar to space historians, this article presents some additional pre?sputnik material from Radio, the Soviet government's monthly magazine for radio amateurs, and from other sources, which has not previously been identified by

Rip Bulkeley

1999-01-01

136

Soviet Union's Hard-Currency Balance of Payments and Creditworthiness in 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of Soviet hard-currency balance-of-payments structure and creditworthiness in 1985 is intended to be not a prediction but rather a set of projections of the Soviet Union's financial position in 1985 based on several scenarios plausible assumpti...

G. Grossman R. L. Solberg

1983-01-01

137

Old trees new roots: The resettlement experience of older Jews from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges of making an international migration in old age are enormous. Soviet Jews are the second largest immigrant group in New York City and 30% were over 60 when immigrating. (HIAS, 2000). This dissertation was a descriptive, cross sectional non-probability study of the demographic, social and health utilization profile of older Jews from the former Soviet Union living in

Debra Greenberg

2004-01-01

138

The Collapse of East European Communism and the Repercussions within the Soviet Union (Part 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a three-part article that looks at the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the repercussions of those events in the Soviet Union. The first part focused on the direct spillover from Eastern Europe into the Soviet Union, whereas this segment examines the indirect spillover, which took four forms:(1) the discrediting of Marxist-Leninist ideology,

Mark Kramer

2004-01-01

139

Determinants of residence and migration in the Soviet Union after World War 2: the immigrant population in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet migration literature stresses the importance both of the interests of people and of state policy in shaping the migration process in the Soviet Union. However, most empirical studies are descriptive and rely on bivariate analysis; multivariate analysis is scarcely used. Conventional Western research, in turn, mostly stresses the importance of structural factors in explaining migration in the Soviet Union.

Hill Kulu

2004-01-01

140

The Development of Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology for the Treatment of Former Soviet Union Research Reactor Fuel  

SciTech Connect

On-site application of the MMD process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union (FSU) High Enriched Uranium (HEU) research reactor fuel to a safe and secure Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) ingot. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active equipment deployment in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the FSU.

Adams, T.

2003-10-09

141

Varieties of Educational Transformation: The Post-Socialist States of Central\\/Southeastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former socialist countries of Central\\/Southeastern Europe and the Soviet Union share many commonalities, while forming\\u000a an increasingly diverse region of the world in terms of sociopolitical development. Among the most striking commonalities\\u000a are the shared socialist past, as well as the sheer scale and significance of the political, economic, and social transformation\\u000a since the collapse of socialism in 1989.

Iveta Silova

142

Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

Dunaway, R.L.

1995-11-01

143

The Last Workshop on Theoretical Physics in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago, in October 1990, I found myself attending a workshop on Theoretical Physics in Chernomorka (Ukraine) intended only for Soviet physicists. That trip to the USSR\\/CCCP as well as the preceding months at CERN were highly surrealistic with plenty of adventures, crucial events and anecdotes, the most amazing one involving Niels Bohr. A few months later the Soviet

Beatriz Gato-Rivera

2010-01-01

144

Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

Kreindler, Isabelle

1997-01-01

145

Trade Union Objectives and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds that of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labour. Considering a monopoly union

Andreas Irmen; Berthold Wigger

2001-01-01

146

Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six republics were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union by the Red Army after the revolution. The Russians were considered colonial rulers by the inhabitants of these Muslim states, whereas the Azeris, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, etc., were often regarded as backward by the Russians and given little autonomy. The Soviets, while proclaiming their efforts to improve public health and protect nature, relentlessly degraded both.

Riva, J.P. Jr. (Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C. (United States))

1993-01-04

147

Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted.

Not Available

1991-08-12

148

Taiwan and the Soviet Union During the Cold War: Enemies or Ambiguous Friends?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article questions Michael Share's thesis concerning the reasons behind the continued hostility between the Soviet Union and Taiwan during the Cold War, irrespective of re-established contacts in the late 1960s–early 1970s. It argues that the newly emerged evidence concerning Soviet–Taiwanese relations during the Cold War validated John Garver's conclusions, published in 1977, while Share fails to provide sufficient evidence

Czeslaw Tubilewicz

2005-01-01

149

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day  

PubMed Central

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies.

Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

150

Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

Fraser, Erica L.

2009-01-01

151

The origins of proletarian diplomacy: The Chinese attack on the American Embassy in the Soviet Union, 4 March 1965  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attack by several thousand, mostly East Asian, students on the American embassy in the Soviet Union on 4 March 1965 was one of the most violent assaults on a diplomatic mission in the 1960s. It occurred in the wake of the deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations, the US escalation of the Vietnam War, and massive Soviet aid offers to North

Lorenz M. Lüthi

2009-01-01

152

Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

Fraser, Erica L.

2009-01-01

153

Forecasting mankind's future: a view from the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The author, a leading USSR sociologist and futurist, notes that Soviet forecasters see critical choices in the areas of population, energy, natural resources, and weapons. Soviet strategists recommend: (1) a two- to three-child family to help world population stabilize at zero growth; (2) the use of nuclear and thermonuclear power while mankind learns to use renewable energy sources; (3) a program of effective environmental protection; and (4) a concerted effort to halt the arms race. Each of these areas can prove catastrophic to mankinds future, but the author feels that each can, and could be fought for. 5 figures. (DCK)

Bestuzhev-Lada, I.

1981-08-01

154

Childless and One-Child Families in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet authorities have recently initiated a demographic policy aimed particularly at reducing the levels of childless and one-child families. An examination of available data indicates that the USSR has a level of childlessness equivalent to that of the United States, but a frequency of one-child families that is considerably greater. Popular explanations for very low fertility, such as inadequate housing

JERRY G. PANKHURST

1982-01-01

155

The Soviet Union and Korea: Perceptions, scholarship, propaganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the four countries divided after World War II (three since 1975), only Germany and Korea became divided as a result of military occupation by the Red Army, with the occupied part eventually being saddled with a Leninist regime and a centrally planned economy. But while East Germany is still forced to tolerate a sizable Soviet military presence, North Korea

Peter Berton

1986-01-01

156

Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

157

The KGB, Perestroika, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of the Committee on State Security (KGB) during the turbulent six-and-a-half years under Mikhail Gorbachev, from March 1985 to December 1991. Contrary to popular impressions, the KGB was never an independent actor in the Soviet system; it acted at the behest of the Communist Party. When Vladimir Kryuchkov replaced Viktor Chebrikov as head of the

Amy Knight

2003-01-01

158

THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY…

NASH, EDMUND

159

Centralization versus Decentralization in Mainland China and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both Communist China and the Soviet Un ion, one of the major problems facing the leadership is how to ensure that farmers and factory managers act in accordance with the dictates of the central plan. To accomplish this aim, they have at their disposal two types of controls. These are centralized controls, which rely on direct orders to the

Dwight H. Perkins

1963-01-01

160

Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

161

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

162

Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former

Teena M. McGuinness; John P. McGuinness; Janyce G. Dyer

2000-01-01

163

CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

164

Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

2005-01-01

165

MANAGING MILITARY URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)-the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons-are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the

Matthew Bunn; John P. Holdren

1997-01-01

166

Nuclear contamination from weapons complexes in the former Soviet Union and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 50-year period, the Soviet Union and the United States developed the largest nuclear weapons complexes in the world. In doing so, they also created the world`s largest inventories of radioactive waste. Although some of the waste has been stored in safely managed systems such as tanks or converted into stable and storable forms such as glass, significant amounts

Don J. Bradley; Clyde W. Frank; Yevgeny Mikerin

1996-01-01

167

Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

2012-01-01

168

Challenges of Tengiz oil field and other FSU joint ventures. [Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Chevron has been operating a joint venture for the past year to develop supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. This article contains impressions on doing business in the former Soviet Union, details of some of the unique challenges of working on that part of the world, an update of the Tengiz project, and discussion of the Caspian region pipeline situation.

Matzke, R.H. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

1994-07-04

169

The bering sea: A maritime delimitation dispute between the United States and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1867 Cession of Alaska Treaty is the subject of an ongoing maritime delimitation dispute between the United States and the Soviet Union. This treaty divides the Bering Sea along a southwesterly axis, creating the longest maritime boundary in the world. However, without the aid of an illustrative map attached to the treaty at the time of its signing, the

Camille M. Antinori

1987-01-01

170

Was the Soviet Union Responsible for the Outbreak of the Korean War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzes the role of the Soviet Union in the outbreak of the Korean War from-an atypical perspective. Rather than reexamine the limited information with the result being a recapitulation of the .acts, the analysis will focus on the influence of...

A. R. Garrett

1992-01-01

171

The collapse and reemergence of networks within and between Republics of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of research explores the characteristics of networks in Western economies. This study primarily analyzes supply networks in Estonia before and after the breakup of the former Soviet Union and the impact of networks on firm performance. Of particular interest is whether firms which had to reestablish networks were better off than those which were able to sustain

James H. Davis; J. Dennis Patterson; Igor Grazin

1996-01-01

172

Transferring gas-turbine technologies to the former Soviet Union: Opportunities and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States are notoriously energy- inefficient. States like Russia and Ukraine seek technologies from the West that will improve efficient combustion of fossil fuels. Recently, scientists in the United States and the former Soviet Union have explored the idea of transferring technologies to Russia and Ukraine to develop and mass-produce aeroderivative gas turbines,

Matthew R. Auer

1993-01-01

173

Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

2004-01-01

174

Challenges of Tengiz oil field and other FSU joint ventures. [Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron has been operating a joint venture for the past year to develop supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. This article contains impressions on doing business in the former Soviet Union, details of some of the unique challenges of working on that part of the world, an update of the Tengiz project, and discussion of the Caspian region pipeline situation.

Matzke

1994-01-01

175

THE EFFECTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD SATISFACTION ON PERCEPTION OF SAFETY AMONG REFUGEES FROM THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighborhood and urban conditions have long been shown to have a strong impact on residents’ feelings of safety and fear or crime. Researchers, however, have not tested the relationship between neighborhood conditions and perception of safety among refugees groups. Comparisons between a general sample of Louisville residents and refugees from the former Soviet Union indicated that refugees were less satisfied

L. Allen Furr; D. Mark Austin; Sarah E. Cribbs; Steven H. Smoger

2005-01-01

176

Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that many peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon

M. S. Botch; K. I. Kobak; T. S. Vinson; T. P. Kolchugina

1995-01-01

177

Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon

M. S. Botch; K. I. Kobak; T. S. Vinson; T. P. Kolchugina

1995-01-01

178

Maritime Doctrines and Capabilities: The United States and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades, the sea power of the Soviet Union has undergone remarkable growth in size as well as capability. At the same time, that of the United States has suffered steady decline. Moscow has moved deliberately to exploit its new-found maritime outreach for political purposes, while ensuring that its sea power will be capable of successfully discharging

Robert J. Hanks

1981-01-01

179

The trade in people in and from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the trafficking and smuggling of human beings from and through the former Soviet Union. It explores the reasons for the rise in the illegal movement of people; the groups which facilitate it; the demographics of the people who are moved and the business side, including the profits, the disposition of profits and the use of corruption

LOUISE SHELLEY

2003-01-01

180

POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

181

‘Znakomstva I Svyazi’ (Acquaintances and connections) – Blat, the Soviet Union, and mundane entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion regarding entrepreneurship and society has often presupposed that this society by necessity will be one that embraces the market economy as a guiding principle. This paper questions this assumption by discussing a command economy, namely the Soviet Union, as a fundamentally entrepreneurial society. By introducing the case of the blat, ‘Russia’s economy of favours’, the paper illustrates how

Alf Rehn; Saara Taalas

2004-01-01

182

Vocational Training of Specialists within the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 129.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union has no efficient system of vocational training that provides adequate levels of knowledge for specialists working with new techniques and new technologies. General secondary school graduates with no preliminary vocational education become engineers. Secondary vocational graduates lack the opportunity to continue their education in…

Paljanov, Michael P.

183

Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

1994-03-01

184

Pools and Fluxes of Biogenic Carbon in the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies ...

T. S. Vinson T. P. Kolchugina

1993-01-01

185

Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: ASIA. Glaicers of the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glaciers in the Former Soviet Union cover a total area of 78,938 km2; 72 percent (56,894 km2) are in the Russian Arctic (Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya, and Wrangel Island) and 28 percent (22,044 km2) in various mountain ranges (mainly ...

2005-01-01

186

Nuclear material control and accounting and physical protection cooperation with the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during

K. Sanders; R. Cherry; G. Kuzmycz

1993-01-01

187

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

188

Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades. Factors contributing to the epidemic included a large population of susceptible adults; decreased childhood immunization, which compromised what had been a well-established childhood vaccination program; suboptimal socioeconomic conditions; and high population movement. The

Charles R. Vitek; Melinda Wharton

1998-01-01

189

Disiccation of the Aral Sea: A Water Management Disaster in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea in the Soviet Union, formerly the world's fourth largest lake in area, is disappearing. Between 1960 and 1987, its level dropped nearly 13 meters, and its area decreased by 40 percent. Recession has resulted from reduced inflow caused primarily by withdrawals of water for irrigation. Severe environmental problems have resulted. The sea could dry to a residual

Philip P. Micklin

1988-01-01

190

Childless and one-child Families in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Soviet authorities have recently initiated a demographic policy aimed particularly at reducing the levels of childless and one child families. An examination of available data indicates that the USSR has a level of childlessness equivalent to that of the United States, but a frequency of one child families that is considerably greater. Popular explanations for very low fertility, such as inadequate housing or finances, do not explain the decision to remain childless or to stop childbearing after a single child is born. Furthermore, the effects of education and female labor force participation are mediated by cultural factors. It is these cultural factors that seem to differentiate among zero, one, and two child families. In the Soviet case, the most appropriate policy tool for intervention in such cultural processes is propaganda, but such a value transformation approach is more complex and unpredicatable than a structural approach. Nevertheless, a structural explanation for fertility decline is inadequate for this situation. PMID:12264679

Pankhurst, J G

1982-12-01

191

Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

Adushkin, V.C.

1995-11-11

192

Trade Union Objectives and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly

Andreas Irmen; Berthold Wigger

2001-01-01

193

Trade Union Objectives and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly

Andreas Irmen; Berthold U. Wigger

2000-01-01

194

Trade Union Objectives and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade union whose purpose is to raise wages above the competitive level may foster economic growth if it succeeds in shifting income away from the owners of capital to the workers and if the workers' marginal propensity to save exceeds the one of capitalists. We make this point in an overlapping generations framework with unionized labor. Considering a monopoly

Andreas Irmen; Berthold U. Wigger

2002-01-01

195

Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

There is a great deal of uncertainty over the levels of, and trends in, infant mortality in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. As a result, the impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union on infant mortality in the region is not known, and proper monitoring of mortality levels is impaired. In this paper, a variety of data sources and methods are used to assess levels of infant mortality and their trend over time in one Central Asian republic, Kyrgyzstan, between 1980 and 2010. An abrupt halt to an already established decline in infant mortality was observed to occur during the decade following the break-up of the Soviet Union, contradicting the official statistics based on vital registration. Infants of Central Asian ethnicity and those born in rural areas were also considerably more at risk of mortality than suggested by the official sources. We discuss the implications of these findings, both for health policy in this seldom studied part of the former Soviet Union and for our understanding of the health crisis which it currently faces. PMID:24143947

Guillot, Michel; Lim, So-Jung; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

2013-11-01

196

VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

Papadopoulou, Demetra

2012-02-01

197

Economic ideas and institutional change: Evidence from soviet economic debates 1987–1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the shift in ideas that took place in Soviet economic thought between 1987 and 1991 and its relation to the changes in the real economy. The main focus of the article is on the issue of whether the evolution of Soviet economic thought in the analysed period changed in a gradual, path-dependent manner, or in a discontinuous,

Joachim Zweynert

2006-01-01

198

Russia and the Soviet Union Then and Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main focus of this paper is on the process and progress of economic reform in Russia. But I start with four historical questions that bear on the current situation. How advanced was Russia in 1913? What relevance, if any, does the New Economic Policy of the 19205, or NEP, have for the current situation? Why did economic growth in

Stanley Fischer

1992-01-01

199

Income security in transition for the aged and children in the Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

A dynamic process of social security reform took place during the economic transition in the Soviet Union from 1985 through 1991, and in the Russian Federation in 1992. Despite administrative and financial difficulties, the Gorbachev reform objectives have been incorporated (with modest revisions) into the Russian Federation pension legislation and family allowance programs. Following the adoption of a radical economic reform policy in January 1992, policymakers in the Russian Federation have been hard pressed to meet rising social needs under severe fiscal constraints. As the number of the vulnerable population has increased, and as the emerging poor have had to face more severe hardships, the social security system has overcome unprecedented political and economic disruptions to become fully operational. Local governments and civic groups are organizing assistance to help meet needs where the State-operated programs have been inadequate. These efforts, however, have been made haphazardly. PMID:8211565

Liu, L

1993-01-01

200

The first year of hyperinflation in the former Soviet Union: nutritional deprivation among elderly pensioners, 1992.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Hyperinflation began in early 1992 in the former Soviet Union. This paper describes factors associated with nutritional status that year among elderly pensioners. METHODS. Approximately 300 pensioners were selected randomly in each of eight cities. Surveys of diet, weight, health status, and social and economic conditions were done between June and December 1992. This paper reports on 2281 completed questionnaires. RESULTS. Half the pensioners reported that they had lost 5 or more kilograms in the prior 6 months; 57% did not have enough money to buy food, and 39% needed medicines they could not afford. Forty percent consumed less than a half kilogram of meat, 50% consumed less than a half kilogram of fruit, a third consumed less than a liter of milk, and a third consumed less than 2 kg of bread per week. Weight loss was strongly associated with not having enough money to buy food, and inability to afford medication, and consumption of fewer than three meals a day. Concurrent with these conditions, there was a large increase in mortality in Russia. CONCLUSIONS. The results of these surveys suggest that many elderly pensioners were experiencing severe nutritional deprivation in the latter half of 1992.

Rush, D; Welch, K

1996-01-01

201

Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

202

Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

Gomez, Leo S.

1999-06-04

203

Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

204

T² high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in

Smits; W. H. Jr

1986-01-01

205

The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the Former Soviet Union, Cuba and China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, this website offers digitized images of both famous and obscure political propaganda posters. The ninety-nine posters are presented on three pages, one each for the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Even users with high-bandwidth connections should be patient when accessing these pages, since thumbnails for all thirty-some images load at once. A general introduction heads each page, and artist, title and date are listed for the posters. Each thumbnail links to a larger image of the poster, along with publication and production information and a descriptive caption. Separate pages provide information on the collections and the designers of the posters. Date coverage varies: 1919 to 1938 for the Soviet Union, 1962 to 1968 for Cuba, and c.1950 to 1992 for China. Once ubiquitous, now rarely seen, these posters have found new life on the Web.

1997-01-01

206

Adopted children from the former Soviet Union: Are they at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?  

PubMed

Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

Koren, Gideon

2013-10-01

207

How have nuclear weapons affected the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Individual study report  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mankind enters the final decade of the 20th century, it faces a world of unprecedented political and military change. Events in Central Europe and in the Soviet Union over the past two years have been truly remarkable and have forced the United States to reevaluate its nation's security strategy. Some feel the potential for a war with the Soviets

Gaddie

1991-01-01

208

Freedom of prices and the price of freedom: The miners' dilemmas in the Soviet Union and its successor states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal?miners' movement played a signficant role in the collapse of the Soviet Union and the evolution of state policy towards the mining industries of post?Soviet Russia and Ukraine. The movement was animated by the historically unique condition of the mining industry as a ‘planned loss’ sector. Gorbachev presented fresh opportunities for revising this condition, and the rhetoric of marketization

Lewis H. Siegelbaum

1997-01-01

209

Out of the Soviet Union: the re-emergence of R?ga as a tourist capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the development of tourism in R?ga, the capital city of Latvia, a country that was once part of the Soviet Union. An in-depth investigation of the diverse interpretations of the city's cultural heritage, and of the influence of political and ideological propaganda during the periods of, and immediately after, the Soviet era, has resulted in the identification

Maija Rozite; Andris Klepers

2011-01-01

210

Out of the Soviet Union: the re-emergence of R?ga as a tourist capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the development of tourism in R?ga, the capital city of Latvia, a country that was once part of the Soviet Union. An in-depth investigation of the diverse interpretations of the city's cultural heritage, and of the influence of political and ideological propaganda during the periods of, and immediately after, the Soviet era, has resulted in the identification

Maija Rozite; Andris Klepers

2012-01-01

211

Invisible weapons of mass destruction: The Soviet Union's BW programme and its implications for contemporary arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union secretly pursued an offensive biological weapons programme which gave it overwhelming superiority with regard to these weapons of mass destruction over the United States and other Western countries. This article traces the origins of the Soviet BW effort and it is within this historical context that explanations are sought for the expansion

Anthony Rimmington

2000-01-01

212

"Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

Rapoport, Anatoli

2006-01-01

213

Estimation of output loss from allocative inefficiency: A comparison of the Soviet Union and the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two different estimates of the output loss resulting from allocative inefficiency in the Soviet Union and the United States. Surprisingly, the evidence from our examination of nine industrial sectors during the period 1960–1984 shows only small differences in measured allocative inefficiency between the United States and Soviet economies. Instead of immediately rejecting this result as the product

Humberto Barreto; Robert S. Whitesell

1992-01-01

214

National and transnational challenges in the former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is 20 years since the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and the more peaceful, but still problematic, break-up of the Soviet Union. The on-going question of the status of Kosovo, continuing international involvement in Bosnia, the dormant conflicts in Transdniestria and Nagorno-Karabakh, recurrent violence in the North Caucasus, and the 2008 war between Russia and Georgia show that issues surrounding

James Headley

2012-01-01

215

Microfossils in conophyton from the soviet union and their bearing on precambrian biostratigraphy.  

PubMed

Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) "index fossil" Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian. PMID:17759251

Schopf, J W; Sovietov, Y K

1976-07-01

216

Chernobyl Disaster Sequelae in Recent Immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term mental health sequelae of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster have been documented for exposed populations who remained\\u000a in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Havenaar et al., 1997), and in a cohort migrated to Israel (Cwikel et al., 1997). This paper\\u000a reports on Chernobyl disaster sequelae in émigrés (n = 321) to the United States. Demographic characteristics, migration factors, and self-reported physical health were considered.

RoseMarie Perez Foster; Marjorie F. Goldstein

2007-01-01

217

Trends in Jewish Identity in Israeli Society: Effects of Former Soviet Union Immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in the Jewish identity of Israeli society are reviewed with special reference to the mass immigration from the former\\u000a Soviet Union (FSU) that took place during the last decade of the 20th century. The analysis uses data from two comprehensive\\u000a studies carried out in 1991 and 2000 by the Guttman Institute, and addresses three main issues: (1) changes over

Shlomit Levy

2009-01-01

218

Prospects for technical communications in the emerging countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The reorganization of communication flow within and to the former USSR, from the imposed bottleneck through Moscow during the communist era, to the relatively free flow of international scientific information, deserves consideration and analysis. Of the many newly formed independent states resulting from the break up of the Soviet Union, this paper focuses particularly on those in Central Asia. For the most part this is suggestive research that outlines a broad framework for future technical communications in Central Asia.

Noel, R.E.

1992-06-16

219

Diversity of Bacillus anthracis Strains in Georgia and of Vaccine Strains from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Despite the increased number of anthrax outbreaks in Georgia and the other Caucasian republics of the former Soviet Union, no data are available on the diversity of the Bacillus anthracis strains involved. There is also little data available on strains from the former Soviet Union, including the strains previously used for vaccine preparation. In this study we used eight-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses to genotype 18 strains isolated from infected animals and humans at different sites across Georgia, where anthrax outbreaks have occurred in the last 10 years, and 5 strains widely used for preparation of human and veterinary vaccines in the former Soviet Union. Three different genotypes affiliated with the A3.a cluster were detected for the Georgian isolates. Two genotypes were previously shown to include Turkish isolates, indicating that there is a regional strain pattern in the South Caucasian-Turkish region. Four of the vaccine strains were polymorphic, exhibiting three different patterns of the cluster A1.a genotype and the cluster A3.b genotype. The genotype of vaccine strain 71/12, which is considered an attenuated strain in spite of the presence of both of the virulence pXO plasmids, appeared to be a novel genotype in the A1.a cluster.

Merabishvili, Maya; Natidze, Merab; Rigvava, Sergo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Chanishvili, Nina; Tediashvili, Marina; Sharp, Richard; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Visca, Paolo; Daffonchio, Daniele

2006-01-01

220

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

221

The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

222

Evolution of the Government–Business Relationship and Economic Performance in the Former Soviet States – Order State, Rescue State, Punish State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between the reform process and economic performance in the states\\u000a of the former Soviet Union (FSU). There were two strategies used by the former Soviet states to cope with the collapse of\\u000a the USSR. Some of the FSU countries, in an effort to overcome the institutional vacuum caused by the

Ichiro Iwasaki

2003-01-01

223

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-06-01

224

Significance of the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the significance of the high-technology transfer issue in the US, centering on the primary problem of high-technology transfer, i.e., protection of critical technology (to avoid its assimilation into Soviet weapons systems), and the economic ramifications of tight government regulation which limits American trade and can have a stifling effect on high technology industry. This article does not suggest specific remedies to this problem, but it does recommend that a balanced view be taken by both the US Government and American industry to provide the greatest gain to American society as a whole. The author believes that too biased a view on either side of this issue could result in serious problems - a weakened national defense or significant economic reductions in the American high-technology industry. 1 figure.

Smits, W.H. Jr

1986-01-01

225

Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1990-05-01

226

Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

2013-01-01

227

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

228

Was the Soviet Union Totalitarian? The View of Soviet Dissidents and the Reformers of the Gorbachev Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explains why Soviet dissidents and the reformers of the Gorbachev era chose to characterize the Soviet system as totalitarian. The dissidents and the reformers strongly disagreed among themselves about the origins of Soviet totalitarianism. But both groups stressed the effects of totalitarianism on the individual personality; in doing so, they revealed themselves to be the heirs of the

Jay Bergman

1998-01-01

229

Construction, reconstruction, deconstruction: The fall of the Soviet Union from the point of view of conceptual history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fall of the Soviet Union is analysed in conceptual terms, drawing on Reinhart Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte. The author seeks to interpret the instrumental role of the concepts perestrojka, glasnost´, reform, revolution, socialist pluralism, and acceleration in the Soviet collapse. The semantics and pragmatics are related\\u000a to a wider intellectual and political context, and the conceptual perspective is used to help

Kristian Petrov

2008-01-01

230

Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

Smallidge, E.R.

1997-08-01

231

THE BRITISH COMMUNIST MOVEMENT AND MOSCOW: HOW THE DEMISE OF THE SOVIET UNION AFFECTED THE COMMUNIST PARTY AND ITS SUCCESSOR ORGANISATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the impact upon the British Communist Party and its successor organisations of the demise of the Soviet Union is explained. It first places these parties in their wider political environment. Then it looks at the historical relation, including the financial one, of the Communist Party to the Soviet Union. Conflicts within the Party as to attitudes toward

MIKE MOSBACHER

232

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

Horak, Stephan M.

233

Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

Brown, Lester R.

1982-01-01

234

Beyond Russia, becoming local: Trajectories of adaption to the fall of the Soviet Union among ethnic Russians in the former Soviet Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Soviet Union began to unravel in the late 1980s, many observers expected that the 25 million ethnic Russians who lived in the non-Russian republics represented an important group of people who could be mobilized by ‘empire-savers’ to stem this process. Russians who would end up as minorities in new nationalizing states, had little if anything to gain from

Pål Kolstø

2011-01-01

235

Research and Analytical Evaluation of the Soviet Union and Modernization of Nuclear Weapons Forces in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments...

M. Rothenberg

1982-01-01

236

Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with

Miro

1993-01-01

237

Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

2010-01-01

238

Regional and district-level drivers of timber harvesting in European Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the forestry sector in Russia underwent substantial changes: the state forestry sector was decentralized, the timber industry was privatized, and timber use rights were allocated through short- and long-term leases. To date, there has been no quantitative assessment of the drivers of timber harvesting in European Russia following these changes. In this paper

Kelly J. Wendland; David J. Lewis; Jennifer Alix-Garcia; Mutlu Ozdogan; Matthias Baumann; Volker C. Radeloff

2011-01-01

239

TOBACCO AND TRANSITION: UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF TRANSITION ON TOBACCO USE AND CONTROL IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and its transfer from a command to a market economy precipitated immense change changes in the region’s tobacco industry. Most notable were the rapid and unregulated entry of the multinational and transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and the privatisation of previously state owned tobacco industries. The impact of investment liberalisation and privatisation of

Anna BC Gilmore

2005-01-01

240

The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out

Lucy Alexandra Kerner

1999-01-01

241

Choices for the 21st Century: Facing a Disintegrating Soviet Union. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mini-unit was designed to help high school students make sense of the complex issues raised by the disintegration of the Soviet Union, while letting them form their own conclusions about the direction of U.S. foreign policy. In the course of a five-day lesson plan, students have an opportunity to put recent events into perspective, deepen…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

242

Cold War Bridge-Building: U.S. Exchange Exhibits and Their Reception in the Soviet Union, 19591967  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the presentation of the American National Exhibition in Moscow in 1959, nine exhibits organized by the United States Information Agency traveled in the Soviet Union from 1961 to 1967. This article discusses the aims, preparation, content, and reception of these exhibits, which attracted more than five million visitors and provoked diverse reactions. The exhibitions and their guides served as

Tomas Tolvaisas

2010-01-01

243

Potential Effect of No-Till Management on Carbon in the Agricultural Soils of the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. Since the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. No-till management represents a promising o...

G. G. Gaston T. Kolchugina T. S. Vinson

1993-01-01

244

Discretion vs. Valor: The Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Game about Being a Believer in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of "Discretion vs. Valor," a simulation game designed to give North American players a chance to: (1) identify with "believers" (Christians) in the Soviet Union in order to form new images of these persons; (2) gain empathy for Christians by understanding the dilemmas they face as they exercise…

Blackstone, Barbara

245

Air transportation demand forecasts in emerging market economies: a case study of the Kyrgyz Republic in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to forecasting air transportation demand that was performed as part of a feasibility study for the rehabilitation of Bishkek-Manas International Airport located in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Since its separation from the former Soviet Union in August 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic has begun a transition from a planned economy to a market-based

Richard C. Cline; Terry A. Ruhl; Geoffrey D. Gosling; David W. Gillen

1998-01-01

246

Country survey XVI the defence sector in the economy of a declining superpower: Soviet Union and Russia, 1965-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union was able to develop a large military-industrial complex and become the world's second superpower despite deficiencies in its centrally planned economy because defence was given high priority status and special planning, rationing and administrative mechanisms were used to attain national security objectives. However, in the period 1976-85 the effectiveness of priority protection diminished and defence institutions experienced

Christopher Davis

2002-01-01

247

Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

2010-01-01

248

Terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in the former Soviet Union, the conterminous United States, Mexico and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed land-use impacts on C flux at a national level in four countries: former Soviet Union, United States, Mexico and Brazil, including biotic processes in terrestrial ecosystems (closed forests, woodlands, and croplands), harvest of trees for wood and paper products, and direct C emission from fires. The terrestrial ecosystems of the four countries contain approximately 40% of the

Michael A. Cairns; Jack K. Winjum; Donald L. Phillips; Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1997-01-01

249

Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

2005-01-01

250

Health and Depression in Women from the Former Soviet Union Living in the United States and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postimmigration adjustment is affected by demographic and health characteristics, as well as national resources. Since 1989, more than a million people emigrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to the United States and Israel. These countries differ substantially in health systems and immigrant benefits. The purpose of this study is to compare depressed mood between midlife women from the FSU

Arlene Michaels Miller; Revital Gross

2004-01-01

251

Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education in Schools in the Soviet Union. Science and Technology Education Document Series No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current reform of general secondary education and vocational training in the USSR is aimed at further improving quality and meeting social demands. This document is an addendum to "Science and Mathematics Education in the General Secondary School in the Soviet Union," published in July 1986. It discusses some of the new reform thrusts in…

Demidova, S. I.; And Others

252

Longitudinal Changes in Acculturation for Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time.

Miller, Arlene Michaels; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura A.; Sorokin, Olga

2011-01-01

253

Epidemiologic features of recent trends in coronary heart disease in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Beginning in the mid 1960s the Soviet Union experienced a sharp increase in the mortality rate for men over the age of 20 and for women 50 to 64 years. The principal cause of this increase appears to be the rising rates of coronary heart disease. The rate of increase in coronary heart disease for men in the 30 to 59 year age group over the years 1966 to 1972 was almost 7% per year. Rural death rates have increased at a faster rate than those in cities, although the absolute level remains somewhat lower. Mortality from other major cardiovascular diseases has also increased. It would appear that the coronary heart disease epidemic has been particularly severe in the USSR and there is no evidence that it has abated. PMID:6875119

Cooper, R S

1983-09-01

254

Chernobyl disaster sequelae in recent immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union (FSU).  

PubMed

Long-term mental health sequelae of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster have been documented for exposed populations who remained in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Havenaar et al., 1997), and in a cohort migrated to Israel (Cwikel et al., 1997). This paper reports on Chernobyl disaster sequelae in émigrés (n = 321) to the United States. Demographic characteristics, migration factors, and self-reported physical health were considered. Both geographical proximity to the 1986 disaster, and perception of radiation risk stood as long-term indicators of current psychological distress. Proximity was related to poor self-perceived physical health, as well as current symptoms of depression (p<.05), anxiety (p<.01), and Chernobyl-related trauma distress (p<.001) on standardized measures. Environmental contamination as a reason for migration was also associated with greater mental health symptomatology. PMID:17180723

Foster, RoseMarie Perez; Goldstein, Marjorie F

2007-04-01

255

[The migration of Jews from the former Soviet Union: a new challenge for Israel?].  

PubMed

"This article is a contribution to the knowledge on the migratory results stemming from the collapse of the communist bloc. Since 1989, more than half a million... Jews have left the former Soviet Union for Israel. Thus, the Jewish state [has become] one of the major countries [to feel] the effects of this important geopolitical event. So, in this contribution, we will try to expose, with the first results of research, the patterns of this migration and to answer the inherent questions in this kind of [problem]: who are these migrants and what are their motives? and what are the effects of this migration for this area...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12347243

Berthomiere, W

1995-01-01

256

Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-10-01

257

Sakhalin earthquake renews concerns about seismic safety in the former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 28,1995, a shallow, Ms = 7.6 earthquake struck the northeastern portion of Sakhalin Island, which lies north of Japan in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Most of the oil town of Neftegorsk (Figure 1) was leveled; of its 3000 inhabitants, as many as 2000 may have died. This earthquake is the worst natural disaster to strike the former Soviet Union since 1988, when an Ms = 6.8 earthquake occurred in a populated region of Armenia, killing more than 25,000.Building damage was reported as far north as Okha, 125 kilometers north of Neftegorsk. Ground shaking ruptured the main oil pipeline in at least twelve places between the epicentral area and Okha, and caused the spillage of oil from a storage tank.

Leith, William

258

The cultural context of smoking among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to gain understanding of the cultural context of smoking among immigrants from former Soviet Union countries now living in the Midwest United States. Semistructured interviews were conducted in focus group or individual settings (N = 14), including smokers and former smokers recruited from community settings. Social factors and stress management strongly motivated smoking behavior. Personal willpower was the most helpful cessation strategy, with firm lack of openness to pharmacologic approaches. Top past stressors included food insecurity and societal unrest, with the top current stressors being acculturative issues. The importance of social connectedness and the relatively low priority of prevention were also themes. Based on these interviews, interventions should include acculturative stress management and maintaining social connectedness, while addressing life experiences in the insecurity of basic needs. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored beyond just language use and address these specific issues are suggested. PMID:21311086

Baker, Cathy J; Fortney, Christine A; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ahijevych, Karen L

2011-02-10

259

Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites.

Elo, Irma T.

2012-01-01

260

Migrant selection and the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50-84). Our findings suggest an "epidemiologic paradox" in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970-1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987-2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T

2012-05-01

261

Nuclear material control and accounting and physical protection cooperation with the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during their 40-yr standoff. With the FSU more susceptible than ever to proliferation and terrorist threats, it is probable that countries that intend to develop nuclear weapons will attempt or may already have attempted to obtain nuclear material not only from dismantled weapons but from civilian nuclear programs as well. Numerous reports have emerged in the international media during the past year alone on FSU nuclear material being lost, stolen, or recovered following theft attempts. Under the US initiative for nuclear weapons safety, security and dismantlement (SSD), and the President's Nonproliferation Initiative, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are engaged in establishing bilateral technical assistance programs with FSU states in nuclear material safeguards. The overarching objective of US assistance is to help the FSU states improve their capabilities to effectively safeguard and protect nuclear material. The assistance will be carried out under bilateral agreements for cooperation and supported by funds authorized by Congress in the Soviet Nuclear Reduction Act of 1991 and successor legislation, such as the Freedom Support Act (1992).

Sanders, K.; Cherry, R.; Kuzmycz, G. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

262

Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2005-01-01

263

Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union`s Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages  

SciTech Connect

Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union`s largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan`s independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an {open_quotes}atomic lake{close_quotes} and a 1 km{sup 2} area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs as well as the activation products {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h{sup -1}.

Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

1996-07-01

264

Soviet Union, Iran and Pakistan in the 1990's: Security Implications for the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, a Muslim, nonaligned Third World buffer state located on the Soviet border but outside the core zone of Soviet security, may mark a watershed in Soviet policy toward Iran and Pakistan. The western dependence on Persian ...

R. G. Darius

1980-01-01

265

The Economies in the Black Sea Region: How Did They Fare after the Collapse of the Soviet Union?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the economic developments in countries bordering the Black Sea. Of the three former soviet republics bordering the Black Sea, Georgia showed the best economic per-formance, in particular in the late 1990s. The economic performance of Russia and Ukraine is poor. Their economies shrank severely in the 1990s. Though the transition depression seems to have bottomed out, it

M. Peter van der Hoek

2002-01-01

266

Danish Referendum on Economic and Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in October 2000, this document from the United Kingdom's House of Commons provides the details of the Danish referendum in which the country voted against joining Europe's common currency. The paper focuses on the country's 1992 arrangement not to proceed with the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) until it had been approved by a national referendum, and includes attention to the political campaigns for and against the referendum, public opinion, and the implications of this vote. Just 24 pages in length, this research paper gives an excellent, easy-to-understand overview of the reasons why Denmark's citizens decided to vote against joining the EMU. For more information on the Danish rejection of the Euro, see the September 29, 2000 Scout Report.

267

The economic effects of labor unions revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a variety of statistical techniques, we conclude that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts —trillions\\u000a of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment- population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected\\u000a by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries,\\u000a and union militancy in coal

Richard Vedder; Lowell Gallaway

2002-01-01

268

Soviet Defense Spending: The Spartan Analogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note attempts to provide the means for evaluating the frequently made comparison between the Soviet Union and ancient Sparta as states where politics takes precedence over economics. It marshals and explicates both the ancient evidence and modern sch...

A. H. Bernstein

1989-01-01

269

Rent-Seeking, Hierarchy and Centralization: Why the Soviet Union Collapsed So Fast and What it Means for Market Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opening of the archives confirmed that the Soviet Union was a hierarchical economy driven by planning, not a rent-seeking society. Rent-seeking could not govern the classical socialist society because lower-level officials could not trust their superiors to collaborate. Individual incentives would have favored widespread rent-seeking in the absence of punishment, therefore loosening of control during perestroika infused the system with

Guinevere Liberty Nell

2011-01-01

270

The Burden of Culture? Health Outcomes Among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center\\u000a around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union\\u000a may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often\\u000a expected to experience worse

Erin Trouth Hofmann

271

Rent-Seeking, Hierarchy and Centralization: Why the Soviet Union Collapsed So Fast and What it Means for Market Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opening of the archives confirmed that the Soviet Union was a hierarchical economy driven by planning, not a rent-seeking society. Rent-seeking could not govern the classical socialist society because lower-level officials could not trust their superiors to collaborate. Individual incentives would have favored widespread rent-seeking in the absence of punishment, therefore loosening of control during perestroika infused the system with

Guinevere Liberty Nell

272

An Analysis of Value-Added Taxes in Russia and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia and the other countries which were members of the USSR have adopted value-added taxes. The value-added tax now provides a very significant portion of total tax revenue in all of these countries. Ideally, the value-added tax will serve as a relatively efficient, neutral, revenue source at the

Victoria P. Summers; Emil M. Sunley

1995-01-01

273

Radioepidemiology in the aftermath of the nuclear program of the former Soviet Union: Unique lessons to be learnt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military and civilian nuclear activities in the former Soviet Union led to unique exposures and resulted in high cumulative\\u000a doses in several populations. In comparison to the atomic bomb survivors, at present the most important cohort in radiation\\u000a epidemiology, collective and individual doses received by early workers in the plutonium production facilities at Mayak (Chelyabinsk),\\u000a Techa River residents downstream

W. Burkart

1996-01-01

274

Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics: Case Studies in the Former Soviet Union, the Conterminous United States, Mexico and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed land-use impacts on C flux at a national level in four countries: former Soviet Union, United States,\\u000a Mexico and Brazil, including biotic processes in terrestrial ecosystems (closed forests, woodlands, and croplands), harvest\\u000a of trees for wood and paper products, and direct C emission from fires. The terrestrial ecosystems of the four countries contain\\u000a approximately 40% of the

Michael A. Cairns; Jack K. Winjum; Donald L. Phillips; Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1997-01-01

275

Analysis of comparative advantage in the textile complex : A study of Eastern European and former Soviet Union nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present an exploratory investigation into ten-year (1995-2004) patterns of trade specialization among Eastern European and former Soviet Union Nations, assessing patterns of comparative advantage across the textile machinery, man-made fiber, textile, and apparel sectors of the textile complex to determine whether these conform with both trade specialization and industry evolution theories. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Peter Kilduff; Ting Chi

2007-01-01

276

Self-selection and earnings assimilation: Immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings\\u000a assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968–2000. Because\\u000a the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled\\u000a to

Yinon. Cohen; Yitchak. Haberfeld

2007-01-01

277

The Defence Sector in the Economy of a Declining Superpower: Soviet Union and Russia 1965-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union was able to develop a large military-industrial complex and become the world’s second superpower despite the small size of its malfunctioning planned economy because defence was given high priority status and special planning, rationing and administrative mechanism were used to ensure attainment of national security objectives. However, in the period 1976-85 the effectiveness of priority protection diminished

Christopher Davis

2000-01-01

278

Personal resources, appraisal, and coping in the adaptation process of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Between 1989 and 2005, Israel absorbed over a million new immigrants, about 90% of whom were from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The present study investigated the adaptation of these FSU new immigrants in a sample of 301 participants (67% women, ages 25-45 years), who completed inventories measuring personal resources (tolerance of ambiguity and cognitive flexibility), cognitive appraisals (of employment, language, and housing problems), coping strategies, well-being, distress, and willingness to remain in Israel. A structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that tolerance for ambiguity and cognitive flexibility contributed positively to control appraisals, task-oriented coping, and level of participant well-being, and negatively to threat/loss appraisals, emotion/avoidance-oriented coping, and distress. Control appraisals contributed to task-oriented coping, whereas threat/loss appraisals contributed to both emotion/avoidance-oriented and task-oriented coping. Control and challenge appraisals, and task-oriented coping, contributed positively to participant willingness to remain in Israel, whereas emotion/avoidance-oriented coping contributed positively to distress levels, which in turn were negatively related to willingness to remain in Israel. The results of this study have significant implications for such aspects of immigrant adaptation as absorption policies and the provision of individual care by professionals and organizations. PMID:18954179

Yakhnich, Liat; Ben-Zur, Hasida

2008-04-01

279

Pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by a variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.

1993-01-01

280

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

281

Health information networking via the Internet with the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed Central

Because of the severe financial hardships associated with the transition to a market economy in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, the Internet has become a major link to health care resources for many health care workers. In 1992, the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences (UIC LHS) initiated a special support project with goals of enhancing access to international biomedical information and facilitating international professional networking for interested NIS organizations and individuals. Project objectives included an information needs assessment, development of culturally sensitive Internet training applications, information and referral services, and follow-up e-mail consultations for NIS participants. This paper reviews the historical context of the health care partnerships between the United States and the NIS, and of the UIC LHS International Health Information Networking Project. In the context of UIC, international networking cross-cultural observations, teaching techniques, a Russian training experience, and the development of a Web-based course are reported. Images

Teplitskaia, H

1997-01-01

282

The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.  

PubMed

This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals' labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region. PMID:23292272

Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

283

United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

284

S. 2437: a bill to remove foreign policy controls on exports to the Soviet Union of oil and gas equipment and technology. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 12, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Equipment Export Act of 1986 removes foreign policy controls on exports of oil and gas equipment and technology to the Soviet Union. The legislation is in response to findings that foreign policy constraints have had an economic impact on the petroleum equipment and services industry by damaging its competitive position in international markets. The bill will allow US companies to compete, subject to applicable national security limitations or p rior sanctions imposed by the US government.

Not Available

1986-01-01

285

T/sup 2/ high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem  

SciTech Connect

Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in their high-technology transfer (T/sup 2/) program. This study examines the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states in terms of the following: (1) significance of this problem to the US; (2) how the Soviets acquire American high technology; (3) how acquisition of American high technology assists the Soviet Union; (4) what the US government is doing to reduce Soviet T/sup 2/ efforts; and (5) the author's recommendations to enhance the US program to control high-technology transfer. The author offers several suggests to deal with this problem, including: establishment of ad hoc matrix organization, with representatives from both the public and private sectors; privatization of government tasks connected with the T/sup 2/ issue, e.g., the conduct by the private sector of background investigations on individuals working on classified military contracts; evaluation of the current Coordinating Committee (COCOM) agreement to treaty status; reduction of the number of items on American export control lists; and the reduction of Soviet diplomatic representation in the United States.

Smits, W.H. Jr.

1986-01-01

286

The Development of Trade Union theory and Mainstream Economic Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-war approaches to trade unions were mainly based on the theoretical and methodological viewpoints of early institutional economics. Trade unions were conceived of as politico-economic organizations whose members were motivated by relative comparisons and also were concerned with issues of equity and justice. In the post-war period, there was a major theoretical and methodological shift towards the idea of

Stavros A. Drakopoulos; Ioannis Katselidis

2012-01-01

287

Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: The City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

PubMed

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

288

Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)] [and others

1995-03-01

289

Prostate cancer in Germany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in males. We investigate prostate cancer in Gernmany among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and compare them to indigenous German population with regard to prostate cancer incidence, mortality and longitudinal effects. Methods Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal states of North Rhine Westphalia (n=34,393) and Saarland (n=18,619). Vital status was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the federal statistical office or from local health authorities. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland Cancer Registry using record linkage. Results From 1990 to 2005 we observed 3360 deaths of which 28 were due to prostate cancer. In the Saarland cohort 35 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the respective period. Migrants had lower prostate cancer incidence (SIR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.52–1.03)) and mortality (SMR 0.57 (95% CI: 0.38–0.83)) compared to the German population. Multivariate analysis showed a strong age effect on incidence meaning young migrants (below age 60) were diagnosed significantly more often with prostate cancer compared to Germans of the same age. However, mortality did not show any effects. Discussion Lower prostate cancer mortality and incidence among migrants may reflect an ongoing situation in the FSU. Additionally, longitudinal analysis did not reveal convergence of migrant prostate cancer to German rates as expected from lifestyle driven cancer sites. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis of a genetic effect on prostate cancer risk.

Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

2012-01-01

290

Overview of holography in Russia and other FSU (former Soviet Union) states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we have had our Class reunion (Physics Department of the renown St. Petersburg University, Russia). Amidst all the warm greetings, embraces, and gasps of surprise at the view of receding hair, bulging waistlines and other signs of relentlessly encroaching middle age we swapped the tales and had come to a rather unsurprising conclusion: if you are still in science, it means you are working abroad, if you are still in Russia, it means you are not in science. Indeed, in the wake of rapid changes that swept over the former Soviet Union following its disintegration in 1991 millions of people who formerly had positions in the vast scientific and technical establishment have found themselves adrift without any conceivable means of support. Many have been forced to abandon science for good and to seek opportunities in the burgeoning private sector and quite a few have achieved spectacular successes in their new business endeavors. Their names are well known and their future appears to be bright. This article though is not about them. It is about those stubborn individuals who despite overwhelming odds have kept their faith and commitment to science, who went on and persevered. It is a tribute to those who remained fully engaged in research and upheld the traditions of Russian school, who have faced and overcome all the innumerable obstacles such as delays in salary payment, aging physical plant, accident-prone electrical, water and heating systems, dearth of funding, etc. It now seems, that thanks to the selfless effort of these remarkable individuals Russian science is finally turning the corner and that things are indeed getting better. This article is homage to all the scientists in the FSU whose inquisitive minds and boundless thirst for knowledge have preserved and strengthened the glorious traditions of Russian science through all these years of troubles.

Reingand, Nadya

2005-04-01

291

Russian Military Reform Since the Collapse of the Soviet Union: How Effective is the Russian Military as a Fighting Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the disintegration of the Soviet armed forces beginning in the 1990's, Russia has had to create a national military force within the context of a new political and economic environment. The Russian armed forces' difficulties in redefining and restruc...

J. S. Skelton

2000-01-01

292

Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States  

SciTech Connect

Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

293

Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.  

PubMed

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. PMID:23398609

Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

2013-02-11

294

The State of Art in Eastern Europe before and afterthe Collapse of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is still the conventional view that Socialist Realism dominated Soviet art and culture right up to the beginnings of perestroika and that the art produced under Communism was stylistically monotonous and aesthetically inferior. A flowering of the arts, therefore, was expected from all the former Soviet Republics after the elimination of the censoring regime and the collapse of the

Aroussiak Gabrielian

2002-01-01

295

Role of the Soviet Union in the Arab-Israeli Peace Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After defining the significance of the Middle East in Soviet foreign policy and reviewing current Soviet initiatives in the region, this paper examines post-war II trends and events that have brought Moscow's involvement in the Arab-Israeli peace process ...

D. T. Carrow

1985-01-01

296

Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

Weigle, M.A.

1988-01-01

297

Political and Economic Dimensions of the European Union Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of political and economic reasons in support of what eventually came to be known as European Union (EU) were also evident in its recent expansion. Under the politico-military umbrella of NATO , the principles of capitalism were strengthened in Europe, and by extension the interests of the U.S. were promoted. The future economic benefits of new EU members

Apostolos Serletis; Panos Afxentiou; Kazem Yavari

2003-01-01

298

Guns for Cotton? Aid, Trade, and the Soviet Quest for Base Rights in Egypt, 1964–1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reexamines the economic and strategic aspects of Soviet-Egyptian relations in the mid-1960s based on recently declassified documents from Russian archives and recently published memoirs in Arabic. The article explores the tensions that developed between the Soviet Union and Egypt as the Soviet government exploited Egypt's economic difficulties to press for basing rights that would help to offset the

Jesse Ferris

2011-01-01

299

Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

Osipian, Ararat L.

2007-01-01

300

Former Soviet Union immigrant and native-born adolescents in Israel: substance use and related problem behavior.  

PubMed

Studies on immigration and adolescence show that youth experience a variety of emotional and cognitive adjustments as well as conflicts related to acculturation and the realities of life in their new country. Such conditions place many of them at increased risk for psychosocial problems including personal stress, interpersonal conflicts, mental illness, school failure, delinquency, substance use, and other risk-taking behavior. This prospective study compares the patterns of substance use and problem behaviors among 365 at-risk adolescents born in Israel and those who immigrated to that country from the Former Soviet Union. Findings show that Former Soviet Union youth tend to have higher levels of last 30-day alcohol and ecstasy use and binge drinking. Multiple regression shows binge drinking behavior related to trading property to obtain drugs; deterioration of school achievement; selling drugs; and time spent when being absent from school and hanging around during the day. Country of origin was not found related to this behavior. Further research is needed to study substance use and related problem behavior among immigrant youth controlling for the impact of acculturation and other factors. PMID:17430820

Isralowitz, Richard E; Reznik, Alex

2007-01-01

301

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

SciTech Connect

In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

NONE

1994-12-31

302

Why Economic Reforms Fail in the Soviet SystemA Property Rights-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do economic reforms fail in Soviet-type systems despite the obvious interest of ruling groups in improving the performance of their ailing economies? The author applies a property-rights-based analysis stressing modes of rent-maximization by ruling groups as a crucial explanatory variable. Party apparatchiks and economic bureaucrats particularly benefit from persistent interference in the economic sphere and, consequently, are most interested

Jan Winiecki

1990-01-01

303

The Strength of the Projected Union vis-à-vis Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet concern over the European Economic Community is recent. The Soviet critique reflects a mixture of dogma and realism. The doctrinal position is that the Common Market will not succeed because collaboration, inte gration, and unity on economic, political, and cultural levels are contrary to the nature of capitalism. Thus, the Soviet Union professes optimism about the long-range future but

Frederick C. Barghoorn

1963-01-01

304

U.S.-Soviet Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to help students understand the challenges and opportunities facing relations between the United States and the former Soviet Union, this book is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the differing world views of the two superpowers and the major elements that make up those world views--including geography, economics, and…

Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

305

U.S.-Soviet Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help students understand the challenges and opportunities facing relations between the United States and the former Soviet Union, this book is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the differing world views of the two superpowers and the major elements that make up those world views--including geography, economics, and…

Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

306

The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

Gorman, Ira

307

The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

308

The Collapse of the Soviet Union and the Productivity of American Mathematicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been difficult to open up the black box of knowledge production. We use unique international data on the publications, citations, and affiliations of mathematicians to examine the impact of a large post-1992 influx of Soviet mathematicians on the productivity of their American counterparts. We find a negative productivity effect on those mathematicians whose research overlapped with that of

George J. Borjas; Kirk B. Doran

2012-01-01

309

No need for heroes: Politics and the poet in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground dissident balladeer Vladimir Vysotsky resisted, through verse and song, the terrorism and structural violence of the state. He enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, despite the lack of official recognition from Soviet authorities. In an age of made?to?order socialist realism, he countered the hypocrisy of approved and widely published writers and the mass media with honest confrontation of

Madhu Malik

1989-01-01

310

An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

Gilder, Eric

311

Developmental Psychology in the Soviet Union and Its Relevance for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This overview of Soviet developmental psychology and its influence on special education focuses on dialectical materialistic interpretations of behavior, socio-historical determinism, zones of proximal development, realization and enhancement of children's cognitive potential, influence of Jean Piaget's work, linking of mental retardation with…

Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

1988-01-01

312

Die Germanistik in der Sowjetunion (Germanic Studies in the Soviet Union)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty percent of all students in the USSR learn German. The extent of Soviet linguistic research in the Germanic field is determined by this interest in German. The foci of this research are described and the most important publications are discussed briefly. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)|

Bernstein, Wolf

1974-01-01

313

Developmental Psychology in the Soviet Union and Its Relevance for Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of Soviet developmental psychology and its influence on special education focuses on dialectical materialistic interpretations of behavior, socio-historical determinism, zones of proximal development, realization and enhancement of children's cognitive potential, influence of Jean Piaget's work, linking of mental retardation with…

Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

1988-01-01

314

Images of the Adversary: NATO Assessments of the Soviet Union, 19531964  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the analysis of the study groups set up by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to assess the non-military aspects of Soviet power and potential during the era of Nikita Khrushchev. Following Stalin's death, the Western alliance tried to form a comprehensive view of the strengths and weaknesses of the USSR's economy and political system. This was

Evanthis Hatzivassiliou

2009-01-01

315

Carbon Sources and Sinks in Forest Biomes of the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equ...

T. P. Kolchugina T. S. Vinson

1993-01-01

316

Implications of the disintegration of the former Soviet Union for desertification control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the removal of censorship on environmental information in 1986 the magnitude of the Aral Sea disaster has been publicly acknowledged while the situation has continually worsened. Major efforts by the USSR Academy of Sciences as well as republic scientists since the 1970s have been supplemented by international expertise. The Soviet government adopted a special resolution on the Aral Sea

T. A. Saiko; Drake Circus

1995-01-01

317

UNDERSTANDING THE CARIFORUM-EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 October 2008, the Caribbean became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a 'full' Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to

Tony Heron

2009-01-01

318

Market Size and Economic Integration when Labor Markets are Unionized  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe paper explores the effects of economic integration on trade, wages, and welfare when market sizes differ. A duopoly model with two-way intraindustry trade in similar products and with unionized labor markets is employed. It is confirmed that, for a wide range of different relative market sizes, integration leads to higher wages, employment, and welfare. However, where market sizes differ

Andromachi S. Piperakis; Robert C. Hine; Peter W. Wright

2003-01-01

319

[Genetic and taxonomic diversity of the house mouse Mus musculus from the asian part of the former Soviet Union].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of the house mouse Mus musculus from 12 local populations (n = 65) of the central and eastern parts of the former Soviet Union was examined using RAPD-PCR. About 400 loci were identified, encompassing approximately 500 kb of the mouse genome. Genetic diversity was assessed using NTSYS, POPGENE, TFPGA, and TREECON software programs. In general, the house mouse sample from the regions examined was characterized by moderate genetic variation: polymorphism P = 95.6%, P99 = 60.7%, P95 = 24.2%; heterozygosity H = 0.089; the mean observed number of alleles n(a) = 1.97; effective number of alleles n = 1.13; intrapopulation differentiation deltaS = 0.387; gene diversity h = 0.09. Individual local populations displayed different levels of genetic isolation: the genetic subdivision index G(st) varied from 0.086 to 0.324 at gene flow Nm varying from 5.3 to 1.05, while the interpopulation genetic distance D(N) ranged from 0.059 to 0.186. Most of the genetic diversity of the total sample resided within the local populations: H(S) = 0.6, total gene diversity H(T) = 0.09. The exact test for differentiation, however, did not confirm the affiliation of all the mice examined to one population: chi2 = 1446, d.f. = 724, P = 0.000. Molecular markers specific to four subspecies (musculus, castaneus, gansuensis, and wagneri) were identified. Moreover, in some cases the populations and individual animals exhibited traits of different subspecies, suggesting their introgressive hybridization. It was demonstrated that the house mouse fauna on the territories investigated was characterized by the prevalence of musculus-specific markers, while gansuensis-specific markers ranked second. The castaneus-specific markers were highly frequent in the Far East, but almost absent in Central Asia, where wagneri-specific markers were detected. It was suggested that house mice from Turkmenistan could belong to one of the southern subspecies, which had not deeply penetrated into the Asian fauna of the former Soviet Union. In phenogenetic (UPGMA) and phylogenetic (NJ) reconstructions this form with the high bootstrap support was placed at the tree base, while the isolation of other clusters was not statistically significant. It is thus likely that the house mice from Turkmenistan are closest to the ancestral form of the genus Mus on the territory of the former Soviet Union. PMID:15575505

Spiridonova, L N; Chelomina, G N; Moriwaki, K; Yonegawa, H; Bogdanov, A S

2004-10-01

320

Soviet Banks and Bankers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the organization of the Soviet banking system and the functions performed by it, as well as some glimpses of the role which Soviet bankers play in the economy of the Soviet Union are presented. The history of the Soviet banking syst...

E. Neuberger

1964-01-01

321

Health and nutrition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the decade of transition: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the Soviet Union was the most important historical event at the close of the 20th century. The jarring nature of this transition has resulted in large fluctuations in household resources and increased uncertainty in all facets of life for the individuals concerned. Much academic research and popular writing has explored the socioeconomic and political ramifications of bringing

Steven Stillman

2006-01-01

322

Wild Reindeer of the Soviet Union. Proceedings of the Interdepartmental Conference on the Preservation and Rational Utilization of Wild Reindeer Resources (1st).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reindeer are an important member of the Arctic and subarctic biocenose of the old and new world. In Soviet Union the problem of wild reindeer has become very acute. Wild reindeer are a rare and protected species which has multiplied to such an extent in c...

E. E. Syroechkovskii

1984-01-01

323

Report on the Visit of a U.S. Nuclear Safety Delegation to the Soviet Union, August 19-31, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During August 1988 a U.S. delegation of nuclear reactor safety specialists, led by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Lando W. Zech, Jr., visited the Soviet Union to initiate cooperative activities in civilian nuclear reactor safety between the t...

1989-01-01

324

Trends in high-speed camera development in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics \\/USSR\\/ and People's Republic of China \\/PRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in high-speed camera technology are being made in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and People's Republic of China (PRC), which were revealed to the author during recent visits to both of these countries. Past and present developments in high-speed cameras are described in this paper based on personal observations by the author and on private communications

W. G. Hyzer

1981-01-01

325

Beyond a Cross-Cultural Definition of Child Maltreatment: Comparing Immigrants from the Caucasus and European Countries of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared knowledge and attitudes regarding inappropriate parenting among immigrant parents from European and Caucasus countries of the former Soviet Union residing in Israel. Found that immigrants from the Caucasus related inappropriate parental behaviors to what is normative, whereas European immigrants were concerned with potential harm to the…

Shor, Ron

1999-01-01

326

Welfare state type, labour markets and refugees: a comparison of Jews from the former Soviet Union in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive exodus of Jews from the former Soviet Union [FSU] has been accompanied by welfare state retrenchment and labour market restructuration in the two preferred destination countries of refugee resettlement: the United States and Germany. This study compares the resettlement policies and outcomes of FSU Jews and shows how the context of resettlement, viz. differences in welfare state type,

Madeleine Tress

1998-01-01

327

Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

2012-01-01

328

Pharmaceutical Drug Testing in the Former Soviet Union: Contract Research Organizations as Broker-Dealers in an Emerging Testing Ground for America's Big Pharma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are a fertile testing ground for the research and development of new drug products. Recently, Western pharmaceutical companies expanded their overseas drug testing from India and Africa to the former Soviet Union, where doctors in need of reliable income conduct clinical trials on subjects seeking access to medical care. Although U.S. government agencies monitor clinical drug trials sponsored

Yevgenia Shtilman

2009-01-01

329

Evaluating the Potential for the Development of Illegal Trade in Fissile Material from the Former Soviet Union: An Application of Ullman's Triad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the likelihood that illegal trade in fissile material from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) could occur between the nuclear successor states of the FSU and bona fide customers - states/groups which may, now or in the...

M. F. Gutierrez

1999-01-01

330

90Sr in mammal teeth from contaminated areas in the former Soviet Union measured by imaging plates.  

PubMed

Imaging plates sensitive to beta rays were used to obtain the images of 90Sr in tooth samples taken from mammals collected in contaminated areas of the former Soviet Union. The average concentrations of 90Sr in the samples were determined by comparing the intensities of the luminescence using a single crystal of KCl. The results showed that the determined 90Sr concentration has a positive correlation with the soil contamination levels in the South Ural region. Tooth samples from both inside of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the villages nearby have detectable amounts of 90Sr, indicating the possible presence of residual soil contamination. The present study demonstrates that using imaging plates is a very sensitive method to detect 90Sr in teeth as well as to estimate low-level 90Sr contamination in soil. PMID:20065705

Toyoda, Shin; Hino, Yoshitsugu; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Tarasov, Oleg; Pivovarov, Sergey P; Hoshi, Masaharu

2010-02-01

331

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

332

Natural gas imports from the Soviet Union: financing the North Star joint venture project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of exchanging USSR natural gas for U.S. technical and managerial know-how under the special financial arrangements of a joint venture. The United States would participate in the development of Soviet natural gas resources in exchange for payment in the form of production from the developed resources. Ideological-institutional constraints of the planned and free-market systems are

Kosnik

1975-01-01

333

Images of the Adversary: NATO Assessments of the Soviet Union, 1953“1964  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the analysis of the study groups set up by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to assess the non-military aspects of Soviet power and potential during the era of Nikita Khrushchev. Following Stalin’s death, the Western alliance tried to form a comprehensive view of the strengths and weaknesses of the USSR’s economy and political system. This was

Evanthis Hatzivassiliou

2009-01-01

334

Models of economic integration - Russian and post-Soviet experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for an optimal model of regional economic integration remains one of the key problems for economic policy and theoretical research. This paper attempts to study the factors of developemnt and comparative efficiency of regional integration model, and takes into account the asymmetry of power in an integration project, as well as the role of non-governmental players in the

Alexander Libman

2009-01-01

335

Changes in Land Use Intensity Within the Don and Dnieper River Basins Following the Collapse of the Soviet Union as Revealed by Spatio-temporal Trend Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed changes in trends of land surface phenology (LSP) within two major river basins in Western Eurasia. The basins of Don and Dnieper Rivers extend over 862,000 ha and include 17% of the impounded water surface area in the former Soviet Union. Major changes in agricultural practices occurring after 1991 led to some time drastic reductions in the cultivated area receiving fertilizers and the amount of water consumed for irrigation in addition to other macro-indicators of agricultural sector land use intensity. Image time series analysis can localize the extent, direction, and intensity of changes during the 1990s. Using vegetation index data from the AVHRR PAL and GIMMS datasets from 1982-1988 (Soviet period) and 1995-2000 (post-Soviet period) coupled with contemporary land cover maps from MODIS, we identified the spatial extent of temporal trends and assess their significance using seasonal Mann-Kendall tests adjusted for first-order autocorrelation. Roughly 90% of croplands and forested land in Dnieper Basin exhibited no significant trends during the Soviet period. The Don Basin had more significant positive trends during the Soviet period than the Dnieper Basin. There was a substantial disagreement between datasets on the extent of significant positive trends in Don croplands (35% for GIMMS vs. 8% for PAL) and in Don forests during Soviet period (38% for GIMMS vs. 27% for PAL). Although very little area in either basins showed significant negative trends during the Soviet period, substantial areas fell under significant negative trends during the post-Soviet period. We also found major disagreement on extent of significant negative trends in Don forests during post-Soviet period (6% for GIMMS vs. 24% for PAL). Even though, there are some significant disagreements between the datasets, there is no evidence of a consistent bias in the change analysis. Changes in irrigation water use may account for some of the changes in trend direction.

Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

2007-12-01

336

Fulbrights for Soviet Lectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Council for International Exchange of Scholars is still accepting applications for Fulbright awards to lecture in the sciences in the Soviet Union for academic year 1989-1990. Because the original deadline, September 15, has passed, applications will be processed immediately, and the 1989-1990 Fulbright Scholar Program Faculty Grants close when an adequate number of applicants is approved for nomination.Applications can be in the “Any Field” category or in the more specific categories sought by the Soviet Union, including geophysics at Tashkent; geology at the Gubkin Institute of Oil, Chemical, and Gas Industry; environmental sciences (cultivation of microalgae in sewage; continental shelf development, water resources protection, and economic aspects); and forest restoration technology. Awards are also available in chemistry, life sciences, and physics and astronomy.

Packard, Craig

337

Different paths of the second transition in the post-Soviet world: a political-economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of economic reforms in the post-Soviet countries mostly resulted in formation of sustainable inefficient institutional equilibria, what may be described as the transition from “plan” to “clan”. Therefore the problem of the “second transition” from “clan” to “market” becomes especially important, turning in the centre of the transition studies. In the last years many post-Soviet states initiated

Alexander Libman

2006-01-01

338

Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness

1983-01-01

339

Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended.

Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

1996-01-01

340

Soviet health care and perestroika.  

PubMed Central

Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system.

Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

1990-01-01

341

Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.  

PubMed

Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities. PMID:23506911

Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

2013-03-18

342

Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood: A Study of Former Soviet Union and Veteran-Israeli Children Living in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study set out to investigate the adjustment of Former Soviet Union (FSU) children living in Israel as well as their veteran-Israeli peers. The sample consisted of 145 children (70 veteran-Israelis and 75 FSU) between the ages of 4.0 and 6.5 years old (M = 5.54, SD = .48) and their parents. Mothers and fathers reported about the children’s

Naama Atzaba-Poria

2011-01-01

343

Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Introduction of a Market Economy and the Future BTWC Compliance Protocol: Impact on the Russian Biotechnology Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As a consequence of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War in the early 1990s Russian science has suffered\\u000a severe setbacks in terms of government funding and support. This has led to a severe loss of personnel, reduction in the ability\\u000a to do research, and even the closing of some institutes. Most science was connected

John Compton

344

Gender-related Needs, Challenges, and Dangers in the Immigration Experience in Israel of Emerging Adults from the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews were conducted to examine gender-related patterns of adaptation and maladaptation, and the relationship between adaptation and relationships (parents, friends, and romantic partners) for 34 emerging adult immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel. Qualitative analysis highlighted gender-related needs, difficulties, and challenges following the immigration experience. Women’s adaptation was connected to mutually supportive and empathic relationships with parents,

Sophie Walsh; Shmuel Shulman

2006-01-01

345

When role reversal and brokering meet: filial responsibility among young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Traditional conceptualizations of role reversal and brokering (language and cultural in immigration), in which children assume culturally atypical adult responsibilities, have developed as different scholarly domains, despite their theoretical similarity. The purpose of the present article is to increase the integration between the two bodies of literature to achieve a better understanding of filial responsibilities children assume upon immigration and their differential correlates with adjustment. The structure of filial responsibility in immigration, interrelations between its distinct components, and the ability of the brokering roles to add significantly to the predicting of adjustment are studied. Young adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel (n = 220) completed the Comprehensive Filial Responsibilities Inventory (CFRI), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the self-efficacy inventory. Factor analysis identified six CFRI domains with satisfying psychometric properties. The factors are dominance in family, cultural brokering, language brokering, emotional support to parents, self-reliance, and money issues. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a contribution of the brokering roles to prediction of psychological distress above and beyond traditional roles. The results support the validity of the CFRI and contribute to the understanding of interrelations among the various filial responsibilities, including brokering roles. PMID:22962846

Ponizovsky, Yael; Kurman, Jenny; Roer-Strier, Dorit

2012-09-10

346

Some results of the work on mass immunization in the Soviet Union with live poliovirus vaccine prepared from Sabin strains*  

PubMed Central

In the course of campaigns for the mass immunization of large segments of the population of the Soviet Union with live poliovirus vaccine prepared in the USSR from attenuated Sabin strains, some 15 200 000 persons received oral vaccine in 1959 and over 77 478 800 persons (mainly between 2 months and 20 years old) in 1960. Approximately 95% of these were given the vaccine incorporated in dragées. The present paper gives data on the safety and immunological activity of the live vaccine, on virus carriage and transmission of the vaccine virus to contacts, and on virus interference. In a comparison between poliomyelitis incidence in 1960 in regions where mass live vaccine immunization had been carried out and the incidence in areas where inactivated Salk vaccine was used in 1958-60, it is shown that, while the Salk vaccine did not fundamentally influence the epidemic process, the Sabin live vaccine brought about a sharp reduction in incidence and prevented the usual summer-autumn rise in the number of poliomyelitis cases. It is concluded from the two years' experience in the mass use of live vaccine from Sabin strains that poliomyelitis epidemics can be prevented.

Chumakov, M. P.; Voroshilova, M. K.; Drozdov, S. G.; Dzagurov, S. G.; Lashkevich, V. A.; Mironova, L. L.; Ralph, N. M.; Gagarina, A. V.; Ashmarina, E. E.; Shirman, G. A.; Fleer, G. P.; Tolskaya, E. A.; Sokolova, I. S.; Elbert, L. B.; Sinyak, K. M.

1961-01-01

347

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 2, February-March 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBlS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports....

1989-01-01

348

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 5, September-October 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports....

1989-01-01

349

Evaluating Soviet ESP technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP

Pike

1991-01-01

350

Surrogate forces and Soviet foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the Soviet use of client actors in a surrogate capacity in the Third World. Although the employment of military proxies is certainly not a new phenomenon in international affairs, the level and scope of the Soviet use of surrogate forces is without recent precedent. Soviet clients and associated actors have supported terrorist organizations, guerrilla movements, and legitimate governments. In doing so, they have been employed as arms suppliers, training and advisory personnel, in specialized combat roles such as air defense, demolitions and communications and, most boldly, as independent field forces in conventional operations. The Soviet Union's level of effort in this area over time indicates that the employment of military proxies has become an integral aspect of its foreign policy. This is particularly true of Soviet policy toward the developing world where for reasons of access, attribution, and simple economics the use of proxy assets has provided Moscow with an unusually attractive means of indirect local intervention.

McCormick, G.H.

1986-01-01

351

Evaluating Soviet ESP technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP manufacturing capacity in the world. Soviet ESPs offer some interesting features and are reported to have impressive running lives.

Pike, W.J. (World Oil, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB))

1991-05-01

352

Going beyond triage in Tajikistan. Health reform in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Tajikistan is among the few countries where life expectancy diminished during the 1990's. To rebuild a health system fractured by economic collapse, political disintegration and civil war, the Essential Hospital Services Project was initiated to restore essential hospital services, encourage structural reform and build the health system's capacity to sustain itself. The article provides an overview of these reform efforts, outlines some of the challenges of health reform in Tajikistan and illustrates the benefits global partnerships can achieve when sharing creative new approaches to health reform. PMID:11214986

Alidina, S; Annett, H

2000-01-01

353

Economic Impacts of Unionization on Private Sector Employers: 1984-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic impacts of unionization on employers are difficult to estimate in the absence of large, representative data on establishments with union status information. Estimates are also confounded by selection bias, because unions could organize at highly profitable enterprises that are more likely to grow and pay higher wages. Using multiple establishment-level data sets that represent establishments that faced organizing drives

John DiNardo; David S. Lee

2004-01-01

354

Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary.

Mitchell, C.L.; McRee, D.I.; Peterson, N.J.; Tilson, H.A.; Shandala, M.G.; Rudnev, M.I.; Varetskii, V.V.; Navakatikyan, M.I. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-05-01

355

Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

356

Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

AIMS: To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. METHODS: Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18 years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores. RESULTS: Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of 'light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures. PMID:22705600

Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmore, Anna B; Danishevski, Kirill; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

2012-06-15

357

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

358

Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond  

PubMed Central

In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching.

Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

2008-01-01

359

Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa  

PubMed Central

The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms.

Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauss, B

2013-01-01

360

Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.  

PubMed

The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

2013-03-12

361

At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Documents: A Compendium of National Intelligence Estimates and Assessments - The Soviet Crisis: Gorbachev and the Perils of Perestroika; The End of Empire I: Eastern Europe; The End of Empire II: National Secession and Ethnic Conflict in the USS...

B. B. Fischer

1999-01-01

362

Health and nutrition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the decade of transition: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The collapse of the Soviet Union was the most important historical event at the close of the 20th century. The jarring nature of this transition has resulted in large fluctuations in household resources and increased uncertainty in all facets of life for the individuals concerned. Much academic research and popular writing has explored the socioeconomic and political ramifications of bringing these countries into mainstream capitalism. This paper provides a review of the literature examining health outcomes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union during the transition period. The research, which has studied the human face of transition, spans multiple disciplines and it is thus currently difficult for interested researchers to obtain an overview of the basic facts, as well as, the more detailed nuances, concerning developments. This paper highlights what we currently know about health outcomes in transition countries and what we do not know, and suggests future areas of research which may help fill important gaps in our knowledge. PMID:15890565

Stillman, Steven

2006-01-01

363

Problems of using digitized thematic maps on the territory of the former soviet union upon the creation of the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soviet and Russian pedologists, ecologists, geobotanists, geographers, and other specialists created a large set of maps on the territory of the former Soviet Union. In most cases, these maps were published; at present, they are available as hardcopies. Their digitization clearly shows various merits and demerits of thematic maps on the territory of the Soviet Union and Russia. A 20-year experience of the Laboratory of Soil Informatics at the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute on the creation of digitized maps integrated into the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system (GIS) is discussed. The major stages of this work and the technology developed to solve the problems appearing during it are described. The reasons for certain difficulties in matching cartographic information contained on the maps of different and similar scales, the problems of georeferencing of the maps, and the problems related to the use of remote sensing materials and digital elevation models are discussed. The necessity of creating a unified cartographic base for thematic maps included in the GIS "Soils of Russia" [28] and the technology for its development are characterized. The distortions on the original topographic maps are corrected with the use of locally affine transformation functions realized in the GeoDraw-GeoGraph software package. The requirements for the quality of the maps—their suitability for georeferencing, topological correctness, and compatibility of different versions—are formulated. The problems of digital soil mapping upon the use of object-oriented GIS are elucidated. The Soil Map of the Russian Federation (1: 2.5 M scale) was initially digitized in 1997. Since that time, four digital versions of this map have been created to reduce the initial errors and inconsistencies. It is argued that the fifth and sixth versions of this map should be created with allowance for the accumulated experience.

Rukhovich, D. I.; Wagner, V. B.; Vil'Chevskaya, E. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

2011-09-01

364

The Role of Labor Unions in Fostering Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1995In this essay on how labor unions work, the author proposes a framework for the law on collective bargaining in developing countries. The structure of developing economies cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as in industrial economies. Typically less (often much less) than a quarter of the workers in a developing country are covered by collective bargaining

John Pencavel

1999-01-01

365

Social attitudes, labor law, and union organizing: Toward a new economics of union density  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon (Freeman, R.B., 1998. Spurts in union growth: defining moments and social processes. In: Bordo, M., Goldin, C., White, E. (Eds.), The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the 20th Century. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago)

Thomas I. Palley; Robert M. LaJeunesse

2007-01-01

366

Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Design Multilevel analysis of cross?sectional data. Setting 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Participants Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15?331 respondents). Mean outcome measures Poor self?rated health. Results There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20?fold difference). Ecologically, the age? and sex?standardised prevalence of poor self?rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r?=??0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country?level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10?point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Conclusion Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual?level socioeconomic characteristics. The finding that these effects were similar in persons with lower and higher income suggests that these factors do not operate exclusively through poverty.

Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

2007-01-01

367

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

368

From the European Monetary System to Economic and Monetary Union — How and why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts from the premise that the Delors Report is the main point of reference to create economic and monetary union in the EC countries. After a brief review of the Report, the study focuses on the transition phase leading to union and in particular to the gradual transfer of monetary authority to the EC level. It is argued

Niels Thygesen

1990-01-01

369

Soviet Foreign Trade Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade and contacts among nations can help pre vent war. A characteristic of the present Soviet trade is its high rate of development—today she holds the sixth place in world trade volume. Another feature is the change in the commodity composition of the exports and imports of the country. The number of states carrying on trade with the Soviet Union

Vladimir S. Alkhimov

1959-01-01

370

Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational guidance.…

O'Dell, Felicity

371

Functionality of riparian forest ecotones in the context of former Soviet Union and Swedish forest management histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest management in Central and Eastern Europe, under direct or indirect Soviet influence, for a long time followed different management objectives and strategies as compared to the forest management in countries with market economies in Western Europe located in the same biogeographic zones. In the light of the appearing paradigms of natural disturbance regimes and ecosystem-based forest management we evaluate

Marius Lazdinis; Per Angelstam

2005-01-01

372

Soviet ventures require careful structuring  

SciTech Connect

When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

Burt, J.A. (Arnold and Porter, Washington, DC (US))

1991-06-03

373

Modernization of the Teachers' Further Education System. (Based on the Experience from Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union, and Poland). Further Education of Teachers Collection of Papers, Reports and Reviews. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this collection present the views of teacher educators in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Soviet Union on inservice, or "lifelong" teacher education. The first section contains five essays: (1) a new teachers' training project in Czechoslovakia; (2) further education of teachers and educational personnel in the Czechoslovak system…

Petracek, Svatopluk, Ed.; And Others

374

A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF\\/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were

A. S. Rood; M. L. Abbott

1991-01-01

375

Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD.

2012-01-01

376

Soviet Goals in the Yemeni Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soviet involvement in the Yemeni Civil War constituted a landmark in Soviet-Third World relations, and in particular, Soviet-Arab relations. Never before had the Soviet Union provided major quantities of military material and manpower to overtly support a...

W. H. Thornton

1986-01-01

377

Fifty-Year Progress in Soviet Clinical Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Drug therapy of rheumatism in the USSR during the last fifty years; Treatment of tuberculosis in the Soviet Union: Fifty years of progress; Fifty years of Soviet pneumology; Surgical advances during the fifty years of the Soviet regime; Accompli...

M. A. Yasinovskii F. A. Mikhailov A. T. Lidskii I. I. Elkin

1968-01-01

378

Soviet Treatment of Jews -- Internationalization of an Internal Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the history of Jews in the Soviet Union, recent Russian pressures to assimilate them into the Soviet society, and Senator Henry M. Jackson's amendments to the Foreign Trade Act tying Soviet emigration practices to granting of increased ...

H. J. Trubitt

1975-01-01

379

Information Technology and Economic Modelling. A Joint Finnish-Soviet Symposium. Held in Helsinki, Finland on November 20-22, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents include: System Architectures for Banking Applications; Soviet Society Informatization; Mathematical Modelling of Economic Systems; Macromodel of Centrally planned Economy; Computer-Aided Design System for Objects Location and Reservoir with Disp...

P. Uuspaeae G. Pulkkis

1992-01-01

380

Small but Beautiful? Economic Impacts of the Size of Nations in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the economic meaning of the size of the state for members of the European Union, thereby making the economic success of EU states statistically tangible. Firstly, we show in descriptive illustrations that the theoretically expected characteristics of small countries clearly apply to the current EU states. From the theoretical perspective, only the bivariate relationship between the population

Jörg König; Renate Ohr

2011-01-01

381

A plan for a free, just and stable European Monetary and Economic Union (1976)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores how European monetary systems have become an heterogeneous conglomerate with the passing of time, questioning the failures of the modern gold standard and the international monetary fund. Asks what kind of monetary and economic union is desirable, examining the choice in terms of the monetary and economic systems. Offers practical measures for the realization of a free and stable

Anghel N. Rugina

2001-01-01

382

Interview with Mr. Albert A. Shishkin and Mr. Boris V. Nikipelov of the Soviet Union`s Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry  

SciTech Connect

NUEXCO first interviewed Mr. Nikipelov in the fall of 1989 on the subject of V/O Techsnabexport (TENEX) and its growing commercial presence in the international nuclear fuel market. In that interview, Mr. Nikipelov, First Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry (MAEI), concluded with a discussion of the non-nuclear production capability within the Ministry. He also emphasized the mutual benefits that might be derived from increased international trade in these areas. In this follow-up interview, Mr. Albert A. Shishkin, General Director of TENEX, joins Mr. Nikipelov in giving us more detail on the state-sponsored program of converting the production capacity of the Soviet nuclear fuel cycle and its supporting infrastructure from defense and power generation to commercial purposes.

NONE

1991-08-01

383

Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes

Rothenberg

1982-01-01

384

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 6, June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations of selected articles in the Russian-language monthly journal SSHA: EKONOMIKA, POLITIKA, IDEOLOGIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of U.S. and Canadian Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Titles include: Nationa...

1990-01-01

385

The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes.

Barr, D A; Field, M G

1996-01-01

386

Propaganda and Agitation in the Soviet Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet Armed Forces constitutes the only potential challenger to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for leadership power and control. To ensure its domination over the Armed Forces, the Communist Party has instituted a system of political control...

R. L. Gambolati

1975-01-01

387

Soviet Airborne Operations in Theater War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1984, at a ceremony attended by numerous generals and officers of the Soviet Airborne Troop Headquarters' Staff, Airborne Troop Commander - in - Chief, Army General Dmitry S. Sukhorukov presented the Hero of the Soviet Union (Gold Star) medal and ...

G. H. Turbiville

1986-01-01

388

OTA predicts growing Soviet energy trade  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) takes a commercial perspective when it recommends that the administration cooperate with Europe and the Soviet Union on the Siberian natural-gas pipeline because there is no evidence that a trade boycott could succeed, although it could slow progress. The US can take other initiatives, such as building stockpiles or installing dual-fuel boilers, to help Europe avoid energy dependence on the USSR. President Reagan has no coherent trade policy toward the USSR, partly because he fears rapid energy development and exports would provide the Soviets with capital to buy supplies and compensate for their own economic problems. The OTA concludes that the Soviets will manage without US technology, that both oil and natural gas production will increase slower than US intelligence estimates, and that gas production will increase at a pace with European interest in selling steel and finding non-OPEC energy sources. (DCK)

Marshall, E.

1981-12-11

389

New Soviet Leadership Confronts a Sagging Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the current state of the Soviet economy and the problems confronting the new Soviet leadership under Mikhail Gorbachev form the basis for an analysis of the Soviet economic system and prospects for its improvement. The relationships betwe...

R. L. Rhame

1986-01-01

390

Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991  

SciTech Connect

The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

Blacker, C.D.

1993-12-31

391

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes' : understanding access to HIV\\/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and\\u000a Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal\\u000a access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU)\\u000a countries,

Neil Spicer; Daryna Bogdan; Ruairi Brugha; Andrew Harmer; Gulgun Murzalieva; Tetiana Semigina

2011-01-01

392

Asymmetric bargaining and development trade-offs in the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 October 2008, CARIFORUM became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the

Tony Heron

2010-01-01

393

Asymmetric bargaining and development trade-offs in the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 October 2008, CARIFORUM became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the

Tony Heron

2011-01-01

394

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe and Constraints on National Budgetary Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the pros and cons of institutionalized constraints limiting the freedom of national budgetary policies within an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in Europe. The issue is approached from three angles: the influence of EMU on (i) budget discipline; (ii) intergenerational equity and intertemporal efficiency; and (iii) macroeconomic stabilization. The desirability of constraints on budgetary policy is related

A. Lans Bovenberg; Jeroen Kremers; Paul Masson

1990-01-01

395

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe and Constraints on National Budgetary Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pros and cons of institutionalized constraints limiting the freedom of national budgetary policies within an economic and monetary union in Europe are reviewed. The issue is approached from three angles: the influence of EMU on budget discipline, intergenerational equity and intertemporal efficiency, and macroeconomic stabilization. The desirability of constraints on budgetary policy is related to the arrangements for EMU-wide

A. Lans Bovenberg; Jeroen J. M. Kremers; Paul R. Masson

1991-01-01

396

The Lisbon Strategy: a Tool for Economic and Social Reforms in the Enlarged European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates achievements and shortcomings of the Lisbon Strategy launched by the European Union in the spring of 2000 aiming to increase the competitiveness of the European economy within ten years. A careful examination of the Strategy’s pros and cons shows that its general rationale was sound and helpful despite an incorrect and naive political call to economically outperform

Barbara Blaszczyk

2005-01-01

397

Soviet pipeline sanctions: the European perspective. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, September 22, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Three Europeans testified on how they perceived US trade sanctions against the natural-gas pipeline from Siberia to Western Europe. Committee Chairman Henry S. Reuss expressed his opinion that there was no clear legal or trade-policy basis for the Reagan refusal to participate in the pipeline, nor any criteria for lifting the sanctions. Andre Fontaine of Le Monde explored possible avenues of compromise to bring the US back into accord with the Western Alliance. Andrew Knight of The Economist argued that, while sanctions do have some leverage against the Soviet Union, the pipeline dispute offers an opportunity for Europeans to rethink their policy of easy trade and credit terms of the Eastern countries and that Europe and the US will be able to identify their common ground. Thierry de Montbrial of the French Institute for International Relations defended the pipeline and trade with the Soviet Union and urged more continuity in US foreign policy. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

398

“Kitchen Gardens” in Tajikistan: The Economic and Cultural Importance of Small-Scale Private Property in a Post-Soviet Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the earliest days of the Soviet Union, the people of Tajikistan were allowed to have small “kitchen gardens” attached\\u000a to their homes or in the vicinity of their apartments in which they could augment their diets with fresh food and also keep\\u000a a milk cow and perhaps chickens. Over time however, families began to produce far more than they

William Campbell Rowe

2009-01-01

399

Soviet space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A profusely illustrated history of the Soviet space program is presented. The topics addressed include: early Soviet rockets, satellites and planetary probes, cosmonauts in space, space stations, international cooperation in space, and the Soviet space program today and tomorrow.

Miller, Jay

400

Changing face of Soviet strategy. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union is our main competitor for power and influence in the world. It has the power to destroy our society, as we know it, within hours. To prevent this from happening, we must understand the Soviet's political and military objectives and strategy relating to global conflict. Evidence suggests that the Soviets may have made, or may be in the process of making, serious revisions in their global nuclear and conventional strategy and doctrine. This paper briefly traces the history of Soviet military strategy and doctrine since World War II and presents evidence that they are at a crossroad in their strategic thinking. They are currently weighing the economic, political, and military consequences of continuing a confrontational, offensive nuclear warfighting strategy, doctrine, and force posture and are considering a change to a less-threatening and affordable posture. A brief look at their reaction to President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative and General Secretary Gorbachev's latest arms control initiatives reinforces the argument that a shift in Soviet strategy may take place in the near future if America lets it happen.

Kaufmann, J.W.

1988-05-01

401

Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridial acetone–butanol fermentation from renewable carbohydrates used to be the largest biotechnological process second only to yeast ethanol fermentation and the largest process ever run under sterile conditions. With the rising prices for mineral oil, it has now the economical and technological potential to replace petrochemistry for the production of fuels from renewable resources. Various methods for using non-food biomass

V. V. Zverlov; O. Berezina; G. A. Velikodvorskaya; W. H. Schwarz

2006-01-01

402

Sino-Soviet Military Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military relations between the Soviet Union and Communist China were never as close as many have assumed, and since 1960 they have been virtually nonexistent. The Chinese have accepted a penalty to their military power as part of the cost of challenging Moscow's leadership in the Com munist world. For the Soviets, the cost has been slight, though they have

Raymond L. Garthoff

1963-01-01

403

The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

Brandist, Craig

2003-01-01

404

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

405

Help seeking and barriers to utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The study aimed to examine utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing recent and long-term immigrants, to identify barriers to service utilisation, and to examine factors related to utilisation. Participants (n = 402) recruited from a random community sample of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel, aged 55 and over, residing in urban areas throughout the country were interviewed by telephone. Using an expanded framework of Andersen's behavioural model, the independent variables included predisposing, enabling and need variables, and additional variables--barriers to utilisation or difficulties encountered during utilisation of services. For multivariate analyses of the dependent variables, a linear multiple regression model was employed for utilisation of medical services and a logistic regression model for utilisation of social work services. The main findings show that utilisation rates were high for medical services, but low for social work services. Recent immigrants had similar utilisation rates of medical services but utilised more social work services than long-term immigrants. There were few barriers but numerous difficulties in utilisation of medical services, while there were barriers but negligible difficulties in utilisation of social work services. Predisposing and need variables explained utilisation of medical services, whereas a combination of predisposing, enabling and need variables explained utilisation of social work services. The findings suggest that different factors are associated with the use of non-discretionary versus discretionary (social work) services. There is a need to reduce difficulties in utilisation of medical services and to enhance awareness about health social work services among the immigrants. PMID:16324189

Soskolne, Varda; Auslander, Gail K; Ben-Shahar, Ilana

2006-01-01

406

The challenges and opportunities for the trade union movement in the transition era: two socialist market economies – China and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both China and Vietnam are undergoing a social experiment as they diverge from the path of their Soviet compatriots and attempt the transition to a ‘socialist market economy’. This article tackles the role of trade unions in China and Vietnam in the context of globalization and market-orientated economic reform by identifying both challenges and opportunities for the trade unions in

Ying Zhu; Stephanie Fahey

2000-01-01

407

Sustainable development and advanced nuclear energy concepts of the post-Soviet countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development and the status and prospects of nuclear power in the newly-independent states on the territory of former Soviet Union are considered. The ecological and economic prerequisites as well as the scientific-technical and industrial basis, advanced nuclear energy technologies for implementation of the national programs are discussed.

A. Yu Gagarinski

1995-01-01

408

Conflict and Political Realignment in Post-Soviet Caucasus Region and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the territory of the Cau- casus and Central Asian, on which eight new states were created, have been the scene of political instability and numerous hostilities. The causes of these conflicts are diverse: from ethnic and political divisions, to the incompatible economic and strategic interests to the ambivalent consequences of the process

IVAN IVEKOVI

409

The Role of Domestic Food Production in Everyday Life in Post-Soviet Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union's collapse brought economic uncertainty to many Ukrainians. Approximately 20 percent of the population, 10 million people, currently survive on incomes below the state-set subsistence minimum figure. Given the unrealistic nature of this state-produced definition, “poverty” levels are in reality much higher. A distinctive feature of this marginalization is its longevity, as seventeen years since the dismantling of

John Round; Colin Williams; Peter Rodgers

2010-01-01

410

The ussr and total war : why didn't the soviet economy collapse in 1942?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany’s campaign in Russia was intended to be the decisive factor in creating a new German empire in central and eastern Europe, a living space that could be restructured racially and economically in German interests as Hitler had defined them in Mein Kampf. When he launched his armies against the Soviet Union in 1941 the world had two good reasons

Mark Harrison

2001-01-01

411

The Impact of EU Enlargement on Economic Restructuring in Russia and Future Relations between Russia and the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia is shown to have every reason to seek special consideration of, as well as express its concerns over, the impact of the European Union¿s (EU) eastern enlargement. The latter relate, in particular, to the current and expected negative repercussions of the changes in the political and economic situation in Europe. Closer study of crucial EU enlargement issues arising as

Svetlana Glinkina; Natalia Kulikova

2007-01-01

412

Women’s Empowering Carework In Post-Soviet Azerbaijan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Azerbaijan has undergone major social, political, and economic transition since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. In this article, the author examines how this transition and the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia have affected women’s caregiving roles and how women’s advocacy associations have emerged and function both as caregivers to Azeri women and as a mechanism

Mehrangiz Najafizadeh

2003-01-01

413

Central Planning in the Soviet System  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was always maintained by Soviet theorists that the distinguishing feature of the Soviet socialist or Communist economy would be centralized economic planning. This was their sine qua non and all discussions over the Soviet economic model revolved around two questions: what should be the nature of economic planning and how was an effective centrally planned economy to be constructed?

Vladimir Mau

2011-01-01

414

Competitiveness of Companies and Sectors on the Road to the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now nearly two decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the failure of other economic systems that relied on central planning, state ownership of the major factors of production, and protection from competitive and market forces. It is generally accepted that a competitive economic system, based on market determined prices, transparent information, and the unfettered movement

Bruce L. Jaffee

415

USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

416

Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes the objectives, instruments, and achievements of Soviet policy toward Western Europe. It focuses on the mechanisms used by the Soviet Union to pursue its objectives in Europe, including diplomacy, military power, arms control, the Wes...

J. Van Oudenaren

1986-01-01

417

Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design ...

M. L. Spearman

2006-01-01

418

Suez, A Future Sarajevo. The Significance of the Reopening of the Suez Canal to the Soviet Union and the Atlantic Alliance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the reopening of the Suez Canal and its future influence on the political situation in the Middle East in the light of growing Soviet naval power and presence east of Suez together with western alternatives.

T. N. Bentley

1974-01-01

419

Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness to effect such changes, and what the implications of this indecision portend for both the East bloc and the West. Using primary source material in translation, he concentrates on the entire energy sector and not just on oil. His analysis covers contradictory Soviet fuel choices and personnel problems, the natural gas market in Europe, and the dispute between the US Defense Intelligence Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency on the degree of seriousness of the Soviet energy dilemma. The analysis concludes with positive recommendations on how the alliance can repair the discord of the pipeline controversy. The author raises questions about the institutional viability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet the Eastern bloc's energy challenges, and warns that a failure to thoroughly examine a number of other policy issues could imperil the future of the West. 184 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

Stein, J.B.

1983-01-01

420

Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

Shabad, Theodore

1978-01-01

421

The Linguistic and Economic Adjustment of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in the United States, 2000: A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and

Barry R. Chiswick; Michael Wenz

2004-01-01

422

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

2011-01-01

423

Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and mountainous zones. Supportive material will include maps of watershed boundaries and location of observational sites. Text descriptions of the data, measuring techniques and hydrometeorological conditions related to each of the water-balance station will accompany the datasets. The database is supposed to be expanded with time in number of the stations (by 20) and available data series for each of them. It will be uploaded to the internet with open access to everyone interested in. Such a database allows one to test hydrological models and separate modules for their adequacy and workability in different conditions and can serve as a base for models comparison and evaluation. Special profit of the database will gain models that don't rely on calibration but on the adequate process representation and use of the observable parameters. One of such models, process-based Hydrograph model, will be tested against the data from every watershed from the developed database. The aim of the Hydrograph model application to the as many as possible number of research data-rich watersheds in different climatic zones is both amending the algorithms and creation and adjustment of the model parameters that allow using the model across the geographic spectrum.

Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

2013-04-01

424

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

425

Soviet debate on missile defense  

SciTech Connect

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

Parrott, B.

1987-04-01

426

GLOBAL TRANSFORMATIONS, LOCAL ACTIVISM: “NEW” UNIONISM’S ENGAGEMENT WITH ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CARE TRANSFORMATION IN URBAN CENTRAL APPALACHIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been argued that the organization of the U.S. health care system is shaped by the struggles between capital and labor, and this relationship is of increasing significance today. Transformations from an industrial to a service economy, rising insurance costs, neoliberal social policies, and decreased labor union power have increased the number of Americans with reduced access to

Rebecca Adkins Fletcher

2011-01-01

427

Portrayal of Political Parties by the Television Broadcast Media in Single and Dual-Party Political Systems: Comparing the Soviet Union to the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the treatment and portrayal of political parties on Soviet and American television. The content of six newscasts of "World News Tonight" and "Vremya" during June of 1984 were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The overall results suggest that 15 stories (24% of the total allotted time) pertaining directly to political…

Wicks, Robert H.

428

Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)|

Mickiewicz, Ellen

1983-01-01

429

Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Note examines the Soviet Union's successful campaign since the early 1960s to revive demography as a science and as a foundation for population policies. It traces the connections between expert discussions and policy decisions, and describes the tac...

M. Feshbach

1986-01-01

430

T2 Transfer of high technology from the united states to the soviet bloc: A public policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Soviet-bloc states are engaged in an extensive effort in the legal as well as illegal acquisition of United States high technology. This study examines the importance to the U. S. of such losses; the manner in which the Soviets acquire our high technology; benefits of such acquisitions to the Soviet Union; steps

William H. Smits Jr

1984-01-01

431

Soviet measurements of strategic balance and arms control. Sanitized. Technical report, 1 April 1984-30 September 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sanitized report concludes that, although the requirements and concerns of the Soviet military are not the only factors that influence the positions that the Soviet arms control negotiators offer, it is unlikely that the Soviet Union will agree to arms control provisions that measurably reduce the ability of the military forces of the Soviet Union to fulfill the requirements

J. K. Grange; J. Battilega; S. Bennett; M. Summers

1986-01-01

432

Who After Grechko: Soviet Military Succession Possibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leadership changes in the Communist hierarchy are expected with the approaching 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in February 1976. This paper examines the unique position of Marshal A. A. Grechko, Minister of Defense of the Soviet ...

D. L. Giddens

1976-01-01

433

The Changeable Soviet Image of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of America in Soviet society are very change able under the influence of domestic political developments, even if cultural traditions exert significant influence on them. In the 1970s, the image of the United States in the Soviet Union was strongly influenced by Russophile ideology, which held the upper hand over liberal ideology and which coalesced with the official ideology

Vladimir Shlapentokh

1988-01-01

434

Are the Soviets Winning the Propaganda War?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union is adept at exploiting her tech nological and other achievements to make news around the world. The general impression to be gained from the press over the last several years and at the present time is that the Soviets have been ahead in the propaganda war and, perhaps, in other matters as well. The question is of

George V. Allen

1961-01-01

435

Soviet Intervention in the Hungarian Revolution of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khrushchev's Secret Speech to the Twentieth Party Congress initiated a drastic campaign of destalinization throughout the Soviet bloc. With respect to foreign relations, destalinization led to a policy of detente and peaceful coexistence both with the West and the satellite states. According to Khrushchev, no longer would the Soviet Union be the violent puppeteer of Eastern Europe. This new policy

Sarah Streicker

436

Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

Semenov, A.

1978-01-01

437

The elderly people of post-Soviet Ukraine: medical, social, and economic challenges.  

PubMed

Over the past 14 years, since Ukraine became an independent nation, the country has made major strides toward achieving political and economic reforms, exemplified by the recent populist uprising for fair and free elections. Despite these successes, many challenges still lie ahead, particularly in the area of health care for older people. The average life expectancy in Ukraine is only 67 years, and those who achieve old age often live in poverty. Women are expected to retire from their professions at age 55 and men at 60. Pensions are so low that retirees are often forced to take laborious jobs on the streets. Because of deficiencies in medical education, deteriorating hospital facilities, a lack of modern medications and supplies, and inadequate physician payment mechanisms that breed corruption, many elderly people mistrust the medical system and often turn to folk medicines and Eastern medical practices to treat their illnesses. By understanding the expectations and former medical practices of elderly patients who have emigrated from Ukraine, Western physicians will be better able to meet their emotional and medical needs. PMID:16398912

Lipsitz, Lewis A

2005-12-01

438

[Public health statistics in the Soviet Union in the 1920s: international cooperation and national tradition in a post-revolutionary framework].  

PubMed

In October 1929, a two-man delegation (a social hygienist and a sanitary statistician) went to Paris to participate in the meeting of the International Institute of Statistics called to consider revisions of the Bertillon classification of the causes of illness and death. The Soviet delegates were demonstrably eager to be considered part of the international scene in public health statistics. But they came to Paris with a radical proposal to replace the locationist system of classification with one that gave clear primacy to the principle of social etiology. This paper examines the assumptions about public health statistics, about the international area, and about their own indigenous tradition in public health, that underlay the Soviet proposal. On the basis of this particular case, the paper raises questions about the factors that favor the adoption of one system of statistical classification as opposed to others and about the general problem of studying "internationalism" in public health. PMID:11619271

Gross Salomon, S

1996-01-01

439

The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City  

PubMed Central

Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and may help prevent increases in HIV/HCV prevalence from occurring within these communities.

2012-01-01

440

Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union\\u000a to undertake risk assessment and risk management. This legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions.\\u000a Operations ofthe nuclear production complex ofthe former Soviet Union resulted in the accumulation ofabout 500 million cubic\\u000a meters ofradioactive waste with an

Dennis C. Bley; James G. Droppo; Vitaly A. Eremenko

441

Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

Holland, Wade B.

442

Sino-Soviet Relations: A Chronology, January-June 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the first half of 1988, Sino-Soviet relations continued to improve, with notable encouragement from the Soviet Union. A key event was an exclusive Chinese interview with Mikhail Gorbachev published in Liaowanq (Beijing) in which the Soviet leader r...

M. R. Ristaino

1988-01-01

443

A comparative evaluation of spacially targeted economic revitalization programs in the European Union and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares and contrasts the United States federal Empowerment Zone and European Union Objective 2 programs that geographically target economic revitalization incentives. Since 1989, both programs have designated predominately industrial or urban areas as being distressed and worthy of government incentives in three separate rounds. The paper uses a probit econometric model to comparatively evaluate the characteristics of the

Daniele Bondonio; Robert T. Greenbaum

2003-01-01

444

Global economic restructuring and the world of labor in Brazil: the challenges to trade unions and social movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crisis and challenges faced by labor, including the trade unions and social movements have proportions not yet fully understood. The repercussions, owing to globalization, also reached Third World countries, especially intermediate countries that hold important industrial estates such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, etc. Brazil is part of an economic, social, political and cultural context which has universal traces of

Ricardo Antunes

2001-01-01

445

Modeling Economic, Social and Environmental Implications of a Free Trade Agreement Between the European Union and The Russian Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU-Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which entered into force in 1997 foresees the possible establishment of a free trade area (FTA) between the parties. The aim of our study is to evaluate the possible economic, social and environmental impact of such a free trade agreement between the European Union and Russia. The results of the analysis indicate that an

Maryla Maliszewska; Elena Jarocinska; Milan Scasny

2010-01-01

446

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs (Chernobyl Notebook By G. Medvedev, Published in Novy Mir, June 1989).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

G.U. Medvedev's Chernobyl Notebook is a competent and dispassionately truthful account of the tragedy that occurred more than 3 years ago and which is continuing to disturb millions of people. This is perhaps the first time we have such a complete first-h...

G. Medvedev

1989-01-01

447

Economic reform and mortality in the former Soviet Union: A study of the suicide epidemic in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male suicide rates in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic countries increased substantially in the early 1990s and are now the highest in the world. To what extent is this suicide epidemic explained by the macroeconomic instability experienced by these countries in that period? Fixed effects regressions across 22 transition economies indicate that male suicide rates are highly sensitive to

Elizabeth Brainerd

2001-01-01

448

On the economics of the performing arts in the Soviet Union and the USA: A comparison of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that we might gather a set of roughly compatible statistics for the costs and incomes of performing arts organiTations in the then USSR and the USA constituted an irresistible opportunity for a comparative study. While we did not achieve the degree of comparability we would have liked, we believe we still have something of interest to present. The

J. Rubinstein; William J. Baumol; Hilda Baumol

1992-01-01

449

Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

450

New Soviet Military District Formed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifteen military districts into which the Soviet Union is divided have recently been increased by the addition of one more-a sixteenth. This is the Central Asian Military District, the territory of which was taken from the extremely expansive Turkesta...

1970-01-01

451

Soviet Campaigns against Capitalist Ideological Subversives during the Cold War: The Latvian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the Soviet Union's use of propaganda warfare during the Cold War, focusing on the specific case of Soviet Latvia. Archival materials from recently opened archives in the former USSR show that the Soviet Union pursued a methodical ideological campaign against certain groups of U.S. citizens, including the post-World War II political refugees from Latvia. The main institution

Ieva Zake

2010-01-01

452

Effects of Consumer Goods Shortages on Fertility in Post-Soviet Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study makes two contributions to the study of family and economic issues. First, it investigates the effects of consumer-market\\u000a shortage on fertility. Second, it considers the effects on fertility of eliminating consumer-market shortage using a survey\\u000a of families from the Former Soviet Union. The estimated model of fertility showed that consumer goods shortage and fertility\\u000a were positively related. The

Manouchehr Mokhtari; Nader Asgary

2009-01-01

453

Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries.  

PubMed

In order to ensure the availability of resources for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV management and control, it is imperative that countries monitor and plan for co-infection in order to identify, treat and prevent TB-HIV co-infection, thereby reducing TB burden and increasing the years of healthy life of people living with HIV. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Data on the burden of HIV infection in TB patients and risk factors for TB-HIV co-infection in the EU/EEA were extracted from studies that collected information in 1996 and later, regardless of the year of initiation of data collection, and a narrative synthesis presented. The proportion of HIV-co-infected TB patients varied from 0 to 15%. Western and eastern countries had higher levels and increasing trends of infection over time compared with central EU/EEA countries. Groups at higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection were males, young adults, foreign-born persons, the homeless, injecting drug users and prisoners. Further research is needed into the burden and associated risk factors of co-infection in Europe, to help plan effective control measures. Increased HIV testing of TB patients and targeted and informed strategies for control and prevention could help curb the co-infection epidemic. PMID:21737549

Pimpin, L; Drumright, L N; Kruijshaar, M E; Abubakar, I; Rice, B; Delpech, V; Hollo, V; Amato-Gauci, A; Manissero, D; Ködmön, C

2011-07-07

454

American Diplomacy Before the Courts: Judicial Review of Soviet-American Relations, 1917-1942.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, the American government refused to grant de jure recognition to the Soviet regime. American courts likewise refuse to acknowledge the legal existence of the Soviet Union in matters concerning Russian property in th...

S. M. Millett

1977-01-01

455

USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys From Soviet Southern Republics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PRESS SURVEYS FROM SOVIET SOUTHERN REPUBLICS This report consists of editorial reports of articles found in the press of the southern republics of the Soviet Union which include the Transcaucasian republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; the Central ...

1984-01-01

456

Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

1992-07-01

457

Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill  

SciTech Connect

For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

Morrison, D.C. (National Journal, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-04-01

458

Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates. PMID:21457686

Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

2011-03-24

459

Trade Union Responses to the Contemporary Economic Problems in Western Europe: The Context of Current Debates and Policies in the Federal Republic of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unions in most advanced capitalist societies have faced new challenges as a consequence of the lasting economic crisis since the mid-1970s. This rather unsettling situation has called for a strategic and conceptual reorientation on the part of most organized labor movements, including the West German. Although still very much in the stage of general formulation, the unions are in the

Andrei S. Markovits; Christopher S. Allen

1981-01-01

460

The U.S.Soviet Strategic Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S.-Soviet strategic relationship is being trans formed by the revolutionary events in Europe—culminating in the end of the Cold War—and by dynamics internal to the Soviet Union. The relationship is, at present, asymmetrical: with the United States at the apex of its global influence and the USSR at its nadir, the superpowers remain equal only in their enduring capability

Ilana Kass

1991-01-01

461

Ecology and Economics: Controlling Pollution in the 70s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifteen leading authorities face vital issues and factors concerning pollution. Particular attention is given to possible cures and economical considerations involved. Examples of what is being done in this country and several other industrial countries comprising Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union are included. Case studies cover regions where…

Goldman, Marshall I.

462

EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Romania's integration in the European Union implies, apart the complex process of policy transfer, the learning of new modes to make policies characteristic to a multi-level governance and partnership culture. Of the different levels of governance of the European model, the regional level (\\

Dodescu Anca

2011-01-01

463

Assessing the Soviet Threat: The Early Cold War Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because more than 450 National Intelligence Estimates dealing with the Soviet Union and International Communism have been declassified since 1993, this volume features the current intelligence that went to the President in the Daily and Weekly Summaries. ...

1997-01-01

464

Social and Political Education in Soviet Schools: Some Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Significant developments of the last decade in the field of social and political education in the Soviet Union are discussed. Curriculum revision efforts which increase emphasis on social science education are described. (SM)|

Birkel, Lane F.

1973-01-01

465

Monetary unions, external shocks and economic performance: A Latin American perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years there has been a renewed analysis in currency unions as a form of monetary arrangement. This new\\u000a interest has been largely triggered by the Euro experience. Scholars and policy makers have asked about the optimal number\\u000a of currencies in the world economy. They have analyzed whether different countries satisfy the traditional “optimal currency\\u000a area” criteria.

Sebastian Edwards

2006-01-01

466

Confrontation analyses of United States-Soviet grain negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1976 until 1991, the government of the former Soviet Union bought wheat and coarse grains grown in the United States, from private grain companies, under the terms of Long Term Agreements (LTAs). The author conducted interviews with U.S. and Soviet government officials actively involved in the negotiations to establish the terms of those LTAs. Analyses of the negotiations were

Charles M. Benjamin

1994-01-01

467

Sea Control in the Arctic; a Soviet Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper exposes the ominous Soviet capability to outflank the US Maritime Strategy by exploiting sea control in the Arctic Ocean. This a recent development resulting from a long term effort by the Soviet Union to gain access to the immense natural reso...

D. M. Egan D. W. Orr

1987-01-01

468

The soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an historical review of the Soviet program to study and utilize industrial applications of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) in the Soviet Union over the period 1965 to 1988. This was a very active program that carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study some 13 applications. In all, 128 nuclear explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140

Mllo D. Nordyke

1998-01-01

469

Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet

1989-01-01

470

Soviet Sport and Transnational Mass Culture in the 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an international system of competitive, achievement-oriented sport developed into one of the interwar period's most potent carriers of transnational mass culture, the Soviet Union initially chose not to participate. Ideologically hostile toward capitalist internationalism and suspicious of international cultural influences, the Soviet regime instead attempted to create an alternative international system of `proletarian sport' that eschewed record-seeking and individualism.

Barbara Keys

2003-01-01

471

Soviet Inroads in the Middle East - A Historical Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper traces the Soviet Union's involvement in the Middle East from the end of World War II to the present. It includes a country by country assessment of Soviet presence and objectives in that part of the world, and concludes that conditions are con...

M. D. Collins

1982-01-01

472

Review of the Soviet oil industry in 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sharp decline in Soviet oil production was probably one of the most striking developments in the energy sphere in 1985. The Soviet Union relies on exports of crude oil and refined products for about 60% of its hard-currency revenue from the Western countries, and a decline in oil exports cut sharply into the hard-currency earnings in 1985. The continued

Shabad

1986-01-01

473

The American and Soviet Cold War Space Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Soviet Union met with initial success at the outset of the Cold War space race, it was the U.S. that achieved ultimate success over the course of the competition, as the U.S. matched and exceeded all Soviet space feats, possessed far more sophisticated applications satellites, and landed men on the moon numerous times in the face of a

Trevor Brown

2011-01-01

474

German and Soviet Military Doctrinal Innovation before World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lead-up to World War II, both Germany and the Soviet Union pursued important changes in military doctrine that proved crucial during the armed confrontation between the two countries in 19411945. Using a new book by the military historian Mary Habeck as a point of departure, this essay explains how the German and Soviet armed forces by the late

Cynthia Roberts

2004-01-01

475

About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw

MccGwire

1989-01-01

476

The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

477

Soviet satellite communications science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies are discussed. A panel of six U.S. scientists and engineers assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path, and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations such as Japan, Italy, and France. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions, using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although the published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. In response to decreased governmental support, the Soviet communications satellite industry is showing signs of some internal competition, is working on increasing communications satellite lifetime, and is also striving to develop joint ventures with Western firms.

Birch, J. N.; Campanella, S. J.; Gordon, G. S.; McElroy, D. R.; Pritchard, W. L.

1991-08-01

478

A Soviet space odyssey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mission history and sensor telemetry evaluation is presented for the two Vega balloon/lander Venus probes that began their descent into the Venus atmosphere on June 10, 1985; attention is also given to the ground station monitoring functions fulfilled by the Soviet Academy of Sciences' Institute for Space Research. The sensor package carried by Vega encompassed a meteorology unit, an aerosol analyzer, gamma-ray, X-ray UV and mass spectrometers, a hygrometer, and a mass chromatograph. Balloon experiments conducted at altitudes of 31-34 miles employed temperature and pressure sensors, a nephelometer, a photometer, and VLBI tracking to determine the location and drift velocity of the balloon. The VLBI device is a joint development of the Soviet Union, the U.S., and France. After deployment, immersed in sulfuric acid clouds, the two Vega balloons drifted in 150 mph winds in an east-to-west direction over Venus' equatorial region. The Vega landers came to rest on soft soil, after a parachute descent.

Beatty, J. K.

1985-10-01

479

Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of

J. Neumann; H. Flohn

1988-01-01

480

Throwing down the gauntlet: The Soviet challenge in the pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers growing Soviet efforts to undermine political, military, and economic connections between the United States and its friends and allies in the Pacific, and how naval forces could help counter Soviet policy.Basically, Gorbachev's speech at Vladivostok on 28 July 1986 represents an historic shift in Soviet attention from Western Europe and NATO towards the Asia?Pacific region. Of course,

Kenneth G. Weiss

1989-01-01

481

Missile Design Bureaux and Soviet Manned Space Policy: 1953-1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet manned space programme is one of the most impressive and mysterious legacies of the Soviet Union. Evidence that has come to light since 1989 throws considerable doubt on earlier Western understanding of the Soviet space effort. One of the more ...

W. P. Barry

1997-01-01

482

U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in…

Brown, Lester R.

483

The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

Melville, Keith; Landau, David

484

U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

Armacost, Michael H.

485

The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

Melville, Keith; Landau, David

486

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 2. Soviet Block and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. ISL mines in the former Soviet Union generally

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

487

Analysis of Digitized Seismograms from Russian Geophysical Survey Stations of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the permanent seismic stations of the Soviet Union recorded over 100 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) detonated within the Soviet Union. These records have not been analyzed using modern digital methods and remain in Russ...

K. G. Mackey

2008-01-01

488

Community Development Credit Union: An Alternative Financial Institution for Local Economic Development (A Case Study of the Citizen's Coalition Federal Credit Union).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The case study results from a national demonstration project conducted by the National Organization of Black County Officials and describes the creation and operation of the Citizens' Coalition Federal Credit Union of Pontiac, Michigan. It may be used as ...

H. Price

1986-01-01

489

OTA Predicts Growing Soviet Energy Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) takes a commercial perspective when it recommends that the administration cooperate with Europe and the Soviet Union on the Siberian natural-gas pipeline because there is no evidence that a trade boycott could succeed, although it could slow progress. The US can take other initiatives, such as building stockpiles or installing dual-fuel boilers, to help

Eliot Marshall

1981-01-01

490

Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

491

Economic Feasibility, General Economic Impact and Implications of a Free Trade Agreement Between the European Union and Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the feasibility, costs and benefits of a free trade agreement between the EU and Georgia was conducted from July 2007 to April 2008 under contrach with the European Commission. The first meeting in Brussels in September 2007 with staff members of Directorates-General for Trade, External Relations, Economic and Financial Affairs, Internal Market and Services, Competition, Enterprise and

David Dyker; Michael Emerson; Michael Gasiorek; Peter Holmes; Malgorzata Jakubiak; Andre Jungmittag; Vicki Korchagin; Alina Kudina; Giorgi Pertaia; Evgeny Polyakov; Andrei Roudoi; Michael Tokmazishvili

2008-01-01

492

Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

1994-01-01

493

Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

Bennett, Gary L.

494

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

495

The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change  

SciTech Connect

The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

1991-07-01

496

The Future of the Comparative Systems Course in the Undergraduate Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a survey of 32 colleges and universities on changes in undergraduate comparative economic programs since the collapse of the Soviet Union and centralized socialism. Finds that most institutions maintained the course with significant modifications in course content and approach. (CFR)|

Ross, Clark G.

1995-01-01

497

Financial Crisis, Economic Recovery, and Banking Development in Russia, Ukraine and Other FSU Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a unified analysis for the onset of the 1998 financial crisis and the strong economic recovery afterward in Russia and other former Soviet Union countries. Before the crisis a banking failure arose owing to the coexistence of a lemons credit market and high government borrowing. In a lemons credit market low credit risk firms switched from bank

Haizhou Huang; Dalia Marin; Chenggang Xu

2004-01-01

498

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Party, State Affairs, History, Philosophy, Social Issues, Regional Issues, Veterans, Death, Working Class, Administrative Problems, Learning, Migration Controls, National Groups, Voice Opinions.

1988-01-01

499

"Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

Pehowski, Marian

500

JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on political affairs in the USSR. Titles include: Belgorod Obkom Chief Ponomarev on Ways to Accelerate Restructuring; Involvement of Chernenko, Suslov in Journalistic Affairs R...

1988-01-01