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Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. Economic Demise of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This series of lesson plans and activities deals with the economic demise of the now-defunct Soviet Union. Each of the five lessons and six activities addresses identified standards and benchmarks from the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics. The lesson plans also address the National History Content Standards, in terms of both the…

  2. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  3. Soviet union.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    While Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was last week holding Star Wars talks with Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, nurses in the USSR have received large pay rises to combat recruitment problems. PMID:27319527

  4. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  5. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  6. Adult Education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rita L.; Goetz, Douglas N.

    The Soviet government has consistently relied upon the country's educational system, including adult education, to advance its ideological, social, and economic goals. In the Soviet Union, education has been used to promote Soviet identity, minimize the impact of religion, advance the status of women, and help increase worker productivity. Adult…

  7. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This guide was produced to provide K-12 teachers with basic materials on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, because U.S. textbooks frequently ignore this part of the world. These units about the Soviet Union include information on geography, education, lifestyles, government, the Communist Party, economics, and religion. Suggestions for…

  8. Social, Political, and Economic Variables Associated with Successful and Unsuccessful Educational Change Efforts: Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, David; And Others

    This paper, using five examples (Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union, and the United States), explores some patterns of interactions among social, political, and economic activity (SPEA) and seven influences affecting the character of national systems of education. The educational change and improvement efforts in the five countries are…

  9. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  10. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  11. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  12. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  13. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri

    2016-06-01

    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  14. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  15. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  16. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

  17. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

  18. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  19. Teaching about the Soviet Union. ERIC Digest No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citti, Lori A.

    Given the global significance of Soviet-U.S. relations, elementary and secondary school students should learn about the Soviet Union, but most students graduate from high school with little knowledge and many misconceptions about this country. It is important to teach about the Soviet Union because of: (1) its emphasis in the U.S. media; (2) its…

  20. Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullov, Marat

    1991-11-01

    The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

  1. The Soviet Union and Its People. Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    This third grade teaching unit on the USSR covers an introduction to the Soviet Union and its people, its government, daily lifestyles, folk culture, and geography. Skill goals deal with telling the difference between facts and opinions, comparing cultures, and integrating and applying information from various topics about the Soviet Union to…

  2. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  3. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  4. Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1991-12-01

    The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

  5. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  6. Environmental Management in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of literature focusing on the effects of the centrally planned Soviet economy on the environment. Twenty-six documents are classified in three categories: English-language sources, Russian-language sources, and Russian-language ecologically oriented newspapers, newsletters, and journals. (MDH)

  7. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  8. Soviet Cybernetics Technology: XII. Time-Sharing in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doncov, Boris

    The only operational Soviet time-sharing systems are incorporated in special-purpose, fixed-application installations, most of which are intended for industrial applications of process control or management information. Despite the peculiar suitability of time-sharing to the Soviet economic system, with its heavy reliance on centralized planning…

  9. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  10. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  11. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19 future…

  12. How Valuable are Scientific Exchanges with the Soviet Union?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Loren R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scope of present cooperation in science and technology between the United States and the Soviet Union. Also summarizes the most important results of the recent evaluations of the programs and suggests ways in which the programs can be made more effective. (HM)

  13. Penetration mechanics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, W. M.; Anderson, C. E.; Asay, J. R.; Bless, S. J.; Grady, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    Recently published papers by scientists from the former Soviet Union reveal to Western researchers a mature body of highly inventive and dedicated research. To analyze and assess this work, a group of six internationally recognized U.S. experts in the field of penetration mechanics and hypervelocity impact reviewed hundreds of unclassified documents. Five broad, sometimes overlapping, research areas were chosen for assessment: hypervelocity impact capabilities; penetration mechanics experiments at ordnance velocities; analytical penetration mechanics; material response to high-velocity impact and penetration; and numerical simulations of penetration physics. Both similarities and differences between Soviet and Western research were noted and characterized, with particular attention paid to potential breakthrough technologies. Leading Soviet scientists and their organizations were identified, as were areas of potentially fruitful collaboration between researchers from the former Soviet Union and the United States. Soviet breakthroughs in penetration mechanics technology that far out-distanced Western efforts were not found, though potential breakthroughs were noted in several areas, including penetration models of brittle materials (principally ceramics), superdeep penetration of particles, and very-high-velocity electromagnetic launchers.

  14. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  15. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  16. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  17. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  18. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  19. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  20. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  1. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding What industries are being de-nationalized What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R D affect non-defense S T funding How will reductions in military R D affect the long-term outlook for research How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R D community. How might improved international contacts affect S T What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible

  2. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry? How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled? What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms? What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels? What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding? What industries are being de-nationalized? What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research? To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R&D affect non-defense S&T funding? How will reductions in military R&D affect the long-term outlook for research? How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R&D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R&D community. How might improved international contacts affect S&T? What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible?

  3. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  4. Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. ); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

  5. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  6. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  7. Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. ); Vinogradova, O.V.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

  8. Updating Teaching Lessons on the Soviet Union: Entering the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Explains how social studies teachers can help students understand perestroika, glasnost, and other current events in the Soviet Union. Describes strategies that teach how to analyze periodical and newspaper articles dealing with the Soviet Union. Lists resource materials for updating information on the USSR. Outlines a sample lesson on the 1989…

  9. Getting Acquainted: Thinking about the Soviet Union. Elementary Teaching Activities: Days of Dialogue, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Charlotte; And Others

    This guide is designed to replace the ignorance, misinformation, and negative stereotypes that many students hold about the Soviet Union and its peoples with a reasoned and rational outlook based on critical thinking and class activities. The introduction to these activities provides background and a rationale for teaching about the Soviet Union.…

  10. Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

  11. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  12. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  13. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  14. [Analysis of patenting vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, N P; Dzagurov, S G; Korovkin, V I

    1976-11-01

    Patenting practice of vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union is not uniform. A compelx maintenance of the object, i.e. patenting of the preparation proper and the method of its production is of interest. PMID:1007724

  15. Student Video Stimulus and Changing Images of the Soviet Union: An Experimental Pilot Study of Video in Teaching International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, William J.

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment on the effects of video in teaching international relations, two classes were given video stimuli related to the Soviet Union and one class was given none. Findings indicate that exposure to video stimulus produced strong attitude change toward the Soviet Union and ability to understand and express Soviet perspectives. (Author/DB)

  16. Epidemic of tuberculosis in the former Soviet Union: social and biological reasons.

    PubMed

    Toungoussova, Olga S; Bjune, Gunnar; Caugant, Dominique A

    2006-01-01

    The tuberculosis epidemic was evidenced in the states of the former Soviet Union at the end of the 20th century. The increase of epidemiological indicators for tuberculosis was accelerated by socio-economic changes in the society. Laboratory analysis also revealed new biological properties of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the region, in particular the high level of resistance to antibiotics. Tuberculosis in Russia and the other newly independent states has been caused by M. tuberculosis strains of the W-Beijing family in recent years. These bacteria have rapidly developed resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, as a result of prolonged exposure of the patients to inappropriate treatment. The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis caused by the W-Beijing strains represents an important threat to the health of the populations in the newly independent states. It may also adversely affect the global trends in tuberculosis, as there is a clear risk that these drug-resistant strains can spread to other communities outside the former Soviet Union. PMID:16256436

  17. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

  18. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  19. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  20. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  1. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  2. Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr. )

    1993-01-04

    Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six republics were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union by the Red Army after the revolution. The Russians were considered colonial rulers by the inhabitants of these Muslim states, whereas the Azeris, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, etc., were often regarded as backward by the Russians and given little autonomy. The Soviets, while proclaiming their efforts to improve public health and protect nature, relentlessly degraded both.

  3. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day

    PubMed Central

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

  4. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  5. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  6. Higher Education Correspondence Study in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Alexander J.

    Soviet education is designed not only to produce specialists whose skills will be more useful to the State, but also to reshape the character of the person so that it is compatible with Communist ideology. The study attempts to investigate and describe the development of higher education correspondence study in the U.S.S.R. Subproblems…

  7. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  8. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  9. THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, EDMUND

    IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY WAS…

  10. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  11. Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

    2005-01-01

    A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

  12. CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

  13. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  14. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  15. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  16. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  17. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  18. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  19. Some Historical Aspects of Educational Change in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Oskar

    1992-01-01

    Reviews developments in the educational systems of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War. Contends that nationalism and religion have had an important impact on education. Asserts that former beliefs and structures of the old system will continue to influence education for many years. (CFR)

  20. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  1. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  2. Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: State of the Environment. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    This guide offers a guide to the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on the state of the environment in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the nations of Eastern Europe. Although only English-language sources are listed, references to other materials in other languages can also be traced by means of the subject…

  3. Library Education and Research in the Soviet Union Compared with Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaisen, Johan L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the philosophy of librarianship in the Soviet Union, where libraries are subordinate to the goals of the Communist party, and Scandinavia, where libraries maintain political neutrality. A brief history of library education in both countries is given and the current state of library education and research is described. (CLB)

  4. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    This supplement updates the 1985 "Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers," a guide to literature for middle and high school teachers. Each entry includes author, title, pages, a physical description, identifying numbers, imprint, price, and a brief evaluative summary. Section 1, "Reference Books," contains six items of a…

  5. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  6. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  7. From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Denise P.

    1998-01-01

    Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

  8. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  9. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  10. POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

  11. Understanding Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union through History and Literature, 50 Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Donald, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book provides 50 learning activities with background materials for teaching about tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet Union. Use of literature, history, geography, primary sources, various learning strategies are all included. The lessons provide study of 19th and 20th century events to Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika.…

  12. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  13. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  14. Emigrant physicians evaluate the health care system of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J H; Shuval, J T

    1994-02-01

    This study is a retrospective evaluation of the Soviet health care system by 1,100 Jewish physicians who immigrated to Israel in 1990, but were professionally active in the former Soviet Union before and during the Gorbachev era. Medical education and the process of specialization; gender differences within the medical profession; sources of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction; self-evaluations of professional behavior; and assessments of patient behavior are included in this empirical study. Although high levels of dissatisfaction were found regarding instrumental aspects of work, the physicians reported high levels of satisfaction with their relationships with colleagues and patients. The recent emigrants assessed their own role behavior and that of their patients more critically than did physicians who left the Soviet Union in 1972, and who answered identical questions in 1975. Among the recent emigrants, men, older physicians, and those with higher status within the profession tended to be more satisfied with their work and less critical about their own and their patients' behavior than their female, younger and lower status colleagues. The subjective perceptions of former "insiders," which complement the reports that have appeared in recent years in the medical literature, are discussed in terms of the impact of glasnost and perestroika on reporting behavior and on the real deterioration that occurred in the health care system of the former Soviet Union. PMID:8302106

  15. Recent trends of the population in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1990-10-01

    The author, who attended a UN seminar held in the USSR, reports on the recent trends of population dynamics in the host country, the 3rd most populous nation in the world. In 1989, the USSR's population was 286.72 million, up from 262.44 million in 1979. 51.4% of the population lives in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, an intriguing fact considering that there are a total of 15 republics in the USSR. Moreover, 3 republics (Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia) account for 73.2% of the country's total population. The author questions reports that the Ukraine is seeking independence, noting the similarity in ethnicity and language between the Ukrainians and Russians. However, the author acknowledges cultural differences between Russia and the Baltic republics (latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia). Differences also exist between republics concerning fertility rates. While Russia, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states have a total fertility of 2.1 (net replacement fertility), minority republics in the southern region have dramatically higher fertility rates: 5.5 for Tajik, 4.7 for Uzbek and Turkemia, and 4.1 in Kyrgyz. Another significant fact of the USSR's population dynamics is its stagnant, or even retarded, life expectancy. Between 1960-70, life expectancy was 64.4 for men and 73.4 for women. Between 1979-80, these figures dropped to 62.2 and 72.5, respectively. They somewhat recovered during 1985-86, increasing to 64.2 for men and 73.3 for women. Throughout the USSR, but especially in Russia, there is a wide disparity in the life expectancy between men and women (as high as 11.5 years in Russia from (1979-80). In his visit, the author found that Soviet demographers and statisticians spoke candidly and openly, reflecting the changes brought about by perestroika and glasnost. PMID:12316754

  16. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  17. Health Care Reform in the Former Soviet Union: Beyond the Transition

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Dina; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional household survey using multistage stratified random sampling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected using standardized questionnaires with subjects aged 18+ on demographic, socioeconomic, and health care access characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. Principal Findings Almost half of respondents who had a health problem in the previous month which they viewed as needing care had not sought care. Respondents significantly less likely to seek care included those living in Armenia, Georgia, or Ukraine, in rural areas, aged 35–49, with a poor household economic situation, and high alcohol consumption. Cost was most often cited as the reason for not seeking health care. Most respondents who did obtain care made out-of-pocket payments, with median amounts varying from $13 in Belarus to $100 in Azerbaijan. Conclusions Access to health care and within-country inequalities appear to have improved over the past decade. However, considerable problems remain, including out-of-pocket payments and unaffordability despite efforts to improve financial protection. PMID:22092004

  18. [Experiences with the vibro dilatator from the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Beckmann, K H; Schmidt, F; Lewinsohn, G

    1973-01-01

    The vibrodilatator, developed in the Sovet Union, works on the principle of transforming 50 Hz electric frequency to mechanical vibrations of 100 Hz with the aid of an electromagnetic vebrator. The end-piece has a vibration amplitude of 1.5-2 mm. Dilatation lasts about 10 seconds, depending on the rigidity of the uterus. Sound measurements of the uterus must be made before the procedure is stanted, since the dilatator is inserted deep (7-9 cm) into the uterus. There are 3 dilatator sizes. The complication rate is decidedly decreased with this method, since the risks of bleeding, cervix rupture, and perforation are minimal. The advantges for the patient are, in fact, so great, that the vibrodilatator method should replace every other dilatation procedure. PMID:4722977

  19. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  20. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  1. Four Goals of School Reform in the Soviet Union, 1984-1989: A Bumpy Journey for "Perestroika".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joan B.

    Examined is the progress of four major goals of school reform in the Soviet Union as an integral part of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's call for a monumental restructuring (perestroika) of society. With the adoption of Fundamental Directions of General Education and Vocational School Reform (1984), four important goals were set in motion;…

  2. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  3. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  4. Changes in the Former Soviet Union: Debating U.S. Aid. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit of study allows students and teachers to step back from the confusing media reports of the day-to-day turmoil in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and to examine it from a more thoughtful vantage point. The unit focuses on the most important instrument of U.S. policy toward the FSU--economic assistance. At the core of the unit are four…

  5. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  6. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

  7. Cooperation between health professionals from the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Conclusions from a trip to the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Storey, P B; Freymann, J G; Macfadyen, D M

    1990-12-01

    The United States has long made its academic medical resources available to foreign medical graduates. Conspicuously absent from the number of foreign nationals, however, have been physicians, scientists, and educators from the Soviet Union. Under the new conditions of perestroika, Soviet medical professionals are seeking ways in which to open up broad collaboration with their American counterparts. Agreements are being sought between national organizations, between academic medical institutions, and for the exchange of individual scholars. Cooperation in the area of medical education is one of the distinctive bridges on the path to mutual understanding that will represent a strong link in the public diplomacy of the two superpowers. We recently had the opportunity to discuss in Moscow some of the issues with the U.S.S.R. Minister of Health and with the Pro-rector for International Programs of the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Studies, as well as with faculty members, young medical scientists, and medical students of the Moscow Medical Institutes. We describe briefly many of the similarities and some of the dissonances between our two health systems and set forth ideas for an exchange program in medical education. PMID:2240902

  8. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

  9. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  10. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, James C.; Pearson, Andrew D.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; LeDuc, James W.; Hirschberg, David L.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  11. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  12. Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vitek, C. R.; Wharton, M.

    1998-01-01

    The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades. Factors contributing to the epidemic included a large population of susceptible adults; decreased childhood immunization, which compromised what had been a well-established childhood vaccination program; suboptimal socioeconomic conditions; and high population movement. The role of a change in the predominant circulating strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in this epidemic remains uncertain. Massive, well-coordinated international assistance and unprecedented efforts to vaccinate adults were needed to control the epidemic. PMID:9866730

  13. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  14. Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.

    1993-04-02

    This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

  15. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  16. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  17. Nuclear material control and accounting and physical protection cooperation with the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, K.; Cherry, R.; Kuzmycz, G. )

    1993-01-01

    The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during their 40-yr standoff. With the FSU more susceptible than ever to proliferation and terrorist threats, it is probable that countries that intend to develop nuclear weapons will attempt or may already have attempted to obtain nuclear material not only from dismantled weapons but from civilian nuclear programs as well. Numerous reports have emerged in the international media during the past year alone on FSU nuclear material being lost, stolen, or recovered following theft attempts. Under the US initiative for nuclear weapons safety, security and dismantlement (SSD), and the President's Nonproliferation Initiative, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are engaged in establishing bilateral technical assistance programs with FSU states in nuclear material safeguards. The overarching objective of US assistance is to help the FSU states improve their capabilities to effectively safeguard and protect nuclear material. The assistance will be carried out under bilateral agreements for cooperation and supported by funds authorized by Congress in the Soviet Nuclear Reduction Act of 1991 and successor legislation, such as the Freedom Support Act (1992).

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Acculturation for Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura A.; Sorokin, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time. PMID:22180661

  19. Update: diphtheria epidemic--New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, January 1995-March 1996.

    PubMed

    1996-08-16

    Epidemic diphtheria reemerged in the New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, beginning in the Russian Federation in 1990 and affecting all 15 NIS by the end of 1994. Approximately 90% of all diphtheria cases reported worldwide during 1990-1995 were reported from the NIS (World Health Organization [WHO], unpublished data, 1996). During 1993-1994, WHO, partner organizations, and national ministries of health developed a strategy to control the epidemic with a priority goal of achieving coverage of >90% among persons aged > or = 3 years with a single dose of diphtheria toxoid through mass vaccination campaigns and achieving coverage for routine childhood vaccination (i.e., four doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine by age 2 years) of >95%. This report summarizes data provided to WHO about the incidence of diphtheria and efforts to implement control measures in the NIS during 1995 and January-March 1996. PMID:8772204

  20. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  1. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants. PMID:26310209

  2. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  3. The Breakup of the Soviet Union and How It Will Affect U.S. Foreign Policy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tim

    This student booklet and teacher's guide examine the causes and the aftermath of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The first two sections of the student booklet briefly summarize the Cold War and describe the unfulfilled promises of Mikhail Gorachev's "perestroika," the rising discontent among the people, and the birth of nationalism within…

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

  5. Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

  6. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  7. Waste stabilisation ponds in extreme continental climates: a comparison of design methods from the USA, Canada, northern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Heaven, S; Lock, A C; Pak, L N; Rspaev, M K

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a brief review of the application of WSPs in extreme climates where ice formation occurs during winter. Design standards and methods are compared and different systems are described. Design equations developed by the US EPA and normative standards from the former Soviet Union are compared in a simple example using typical wastewater and performance characteristics. The results are similar except at low temperatures, where the Soviet method can give pond depths outside the prescribed limits. The paper examines construction and operational aspects of extreme climate WSPs, comparing North American, Northern European and Russian standards. It considers why WSP systems have not been widely adopted in Russia and the NIS, and looks at the advantages these systems may have in countries in economic transition. PMID:14510190

  8. The Soviet calculus of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

  9. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  10. Oral health in Finland and the Soviet Union. A joint study.

    PubMed

    Nyyssönen, V; Paunio, I; Borovsky, J

    1984-01-01

    To develop the functions of a health care system it is essential to compare and evaluate the systems of different countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the importance of collaborative studies in the field of epidemiology. In countries with similar social systems the basis for health care is usually the same. Comparison of health care in such countries is relatively easy because in most cases the criteria for functions, diagnosis, etc. are similar. Comparison of countries having different bases for health care and different philosophies of research is much more complicated and time-consuming. Soviet health care, including oral health care, is based on community responsibility and has complex prophylaxis as its main emphasis. In the USSR there are no private dentists. All dental services are available at polyclinics located either near the place of residence or at the work place. In Finland there are two separate systems for oral health care. Children up to the age of 18 and some special groups of the adult population (pregnant women, military recruits, and students) are treated in municipal polyclinics (called health centres in Finland). Otherwise, the adult population is treated mainly by private dentists. The study will be carried out in three towns in Finland and six towns in the USSR. The aim of this study is to describe the causal epidemiology of dental caries among children 6 to 7, 9 and 12 years old in Finland and the Soviet Union. In addition, certain measures and compounds for caries prevention will be tested during 3 years of follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6523092

  11. Bacterial acetone and butanol production by industrial fermentation in the Soviet Union: use of hydrolyzed agricultural waste for biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Zverlov, V V; Berezina, O; Velikodvorskaya, G A; Schwarz, W H

    2006-08-01

    Clostridial acetone-butanol fermentation from renewable carbohydrates used to be the largest biotechnological process second only to yeast ethanol fermentation and the largest process ever run under sterile conditions. With the rising prices for mineral oil, it has now the economical and technological potential to replace petrochemistry for the production of fuels from renewable resources. Various methods for using non-food biomass such as cellulose and hemicellulose in agricultural products and wastes have been developed at laboratory scale. To our knowledge, the AB plants in Russia were the only full-scale industrial plants which used hydrolyzates of lignocellosic waste for butanol fermentation. These plants were further developed into the 1980s, and the process was finally run in a continual mode different from plants in Western countries. A biorefinery concept for the use of all by-products has been elaborated and was partially put into practice. The experience gained in the Soviet Union forms a promising basis for the development of modern large-scale processes to replace a considerable fraction of the current chemical production of fuel for our future needs on a sustainable basis. PMID:16685494

  12. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  13. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. PMID:25581070

  14. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  15. Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

  16. Nuclear accidents in the former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The accidents occurred over the geographic area around Kyshtym and Chelyabinsk in the Urals between 1949 and 1967 and contaminated over half a million people. The first accident occurred in 1949-1951, the second on 29 September 1957, and the third in 1967, and involved the air transfer of irradiated sand particles. Although these accidents occurred between 25 and 43 years ago, the first official admission by the FSU was made in June 1989, and it was only during late November 1991 that the FSU declared a national disaster emergency concerning the affected area. The health ministries are now interested in data previously collected from these irradiated populations to examine health effects, including cancer, and genetic damage in humans. Data collected from these large populations and occupationally exposed workers offer a unique opportunity to quantify the adverse health effects of chronic exposure to fission products, reactor neutrons and environmental chemicals.

  17. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  18. All-cause and Cardiovascular mortality among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Becher, Heiko; Razum, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost 2 million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany. This study compares their overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality to that of Germany's general population. Because of high overall and CVD mortality in the FSU and low socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, we hypothesize that their mortality is higher. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study for 1990–2002 with data of 34,393 Aussiedler. We assessed vital status at population registries and causes of death at the state statistical office. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the whole cohort and substrata of covariables such as age, sex and family size. To assess multivariate effects, we used Poisson regression. Results 1657 cohort members died before December 31, 2002, and 680 deaths (41.03%) were due to CVD. The SMR for the whole cohort was 0.85 (95%-CI 0.81–0.89) for all causes of death and 0.79 (95%-CI 0.73–0.85) for CVD. SMRs were higher than one for younger Aussiedler and lower for older ones. There was no clear effect of duration of stay on SMRs. For 1990–93, SMRs were significantly lower than in subsequent years. In families comprising at least five members upon arrival in Germany, SMRs were significantly lower than in smaller families. Conclusion In contrast to our hypothesis on migrants' health, overall and CVD mortality among Aussiedler is lower than in Germany's general population. Possible explanations are a substantially better health status of Aussiedler in the FSU as compared to the local average, a higher perceived socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, or selection effects. SMR differences between substrata need further exploration, and risk factor data are needed. PMID:16438727

  19. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  20. Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

    2007-01-05

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet

  1. Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Emilio; Worsham, Patricia; Bearden, S.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lang, D.; Larimer, Frank W; Lindler, L.; Chain, Patrick S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

  2. Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S.

    1995-03-01

    To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  4. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  5. History of the unconscious in Soviet Russia: from its origins to the fall of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Russia accepted the notion of the unconscious and psychoanalysis before many Western countries. The first Russian Psychoanalytic Society was established in 1911. After World War I and the Russian Revolution, for a short happy period, the following psychoanalysts were active: Sabina Spielrein, Tatiana Rosenthal, Moshe Wulff, Nikolai Osipov and Ivan Ermakov. Scholars associated with Soviet ideas participated too, including Aleksandr Luria, Michail Rejsner and Pavel Blonskij. Lev Vygotskij himself dealt with the unconscious. A second psychoanalytical society was set up in Kazan. Unfortunately, at the end of the 1920s, repression dissolved the psychoanalytic movement. Even the word 'psychoanalysis' was banned for decades. Nonetheless, interest in the unconscious, as distinct from psychoanalytic theory, survived in the work of the Georgian leader D. Uznadze. His followers organized the 1979 International Symposium on the Unconscious, in Tbilisi, Georgia, which marked the breaking of an ideological barrier. Since then, many medical, psychological, philosophical and sociological scholars have taken an interest in the unconscious, a subject both feared, for its ideological implications, and desired. Since the 1980s, psychoanalytic ideas have been published in the scientific press and have spread in society. The fall of the USSR in 1991 liberalized the scientific and institutional development of psychoanalysis. PMID:18405289

  6. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

  7. Economic and Monetary Union: Issues Relating to Education for Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes some key issues in debates about the introduction of economic and monetary union within the European Union, including some educational considerations. Describes a method used to teach undergraduates in the United Kingdom about the European Union. Discusses these issues in relation to citizenship education. (SLD)

  8. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  9. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  10. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  11. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  12. [Psychological consequences of deportation into the Soviet Union on the base of self-reports by Sybiracs].

    PubMed

    Jackowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to find answers to the following questions: 1. What were the sources of the personal distress that the deportees to the Soviet Union experienced during the 5 years living in exile? 2. What psychological consequences of deportation did Sybiracs report? 3. Was a gender variable associated with intensity of post-traumatic symptoms? A total of 100 people born in 1928-34, who had been deported into the Soviet Union during the World War II were assessed with a semi-structured interview, PTSD Inventory and GDS (by Yesavage). The study pointed out that 65% participants felt symptoms following the exposure to traumatic stressors. They were: anxiety, increased arousal, low self-esteem, depression and others. The Siberian experience limited a possibility to get a higher level of education and more attractive job. It also modified the manner in which the marital and parental roles were fulfilled. The rate of anxiety and depressive symptoms was significantly higher in women in comparison with men. PMID:15771157

  13. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  14. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  15. CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

  16. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  17. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Ira

    Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

  18. An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

  19. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  20. The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, George V.

    Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines which of…

  1. Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

  2. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  3. Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

  4. Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferberg, Natalie

    A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as well as…

  5. Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

  6. Beyond a Cross-Cultural Definition of Child Maltreatment: Comparing Immigrants from the Caucasus and European Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Compared knowledge and attitudes regarding inappropriate parenting among immigrant parents from European and Caucasus countries of the former Soviet Union residing in Israel. Found that immigrants from the Caucasus related inappropriate parental behaviors to what is normative, whereas European immigrants were concerned with potential harm to the…

  7. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  8. Soviet Jews in the United States: an analysis of their linguistic and economic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1993-01-01

    "This article reviews the literature and analyzes 1980 Census data to study English language fluency and earnings among Soviet Jews [in the United States]. The literature review reveals: 1) the importance of employment and attaining premigration occupational status for self-esteem; 2) the difficulty of adjusting to the wide range of choices in the United States; 3) the greater difficulty and economic importance of learning English; and 4) the rapid linguistic and economic mobility. The multivariate analysis supports the latter two points. Soviet Jews have a difficult initial adjustment, but after five years in the United States they achieve parity in English fluency and earnings with other European immigrants, ceteris paribus." PMID:12318146

  9. The Epidemiologic Vocabulary of the West and the Former Soviet Union: Different Sides of the Same Science

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Anna; Clarke, Carmen; Zueva, Lyudmila; Chumachenko, Tetyana; Maes, Edmond F.; Smoak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this project was to develop an English-Russian Epidemiology Dictionary, which is needed for improved international collaboration in public health surveillance. Introduction As part of the US Department of Defense strategy to counter biological threats, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program is enhancing the capabilities of countries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) to detect, diagnose, and report endemic and epidemic, man-made or natural cases of especially dangerous pathogens. During these engagements, it was noted that Western-trained and Soviet-trained epidemiologists have difficulty, beyond that of simple translation, in exchanging ideas. The Soviet public health system and epidemiology developed independently of that of other nations. Whereas epidemiology in the West is thought of in terms of disease determinants in populations and relies on statistics to make inferences, classical Soviet epidemiology is founded on a more ecological view with the main focus on infectious diseases’ spread theory. Consequently many fundamental Soviet terms and concepts lack simple correlates in English and other languages outside the Soviet sphere; the same is true when attempting to translate from English to Russian and other languages of the FSU. Systematic review of the differences in FSU and Western epidemiologic concepts and terminology is therefore needed for strengthening understanding and collaboration in disease surveillance, pandemic preparedness, response to biological terrorism, etc. Methods Following an extensive search of the Russian and English literature by a working group of Western and FSU epidemiologists, we created a matrix containing English and Russian definitions of key epidemiologic terms found in FSU and Western epidemiology manuals and dictionaries, such as A Dictionary of Epidemiology (1), Epidemiology Manual (2) and many other sources. Particular emphasis was placed on terms

  10. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  11. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-02-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  12. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood. PMID:27066621

  13. Dynamics of soil carbon stocks due to large-scale land use changes across the former Soviet Union during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganova, Irina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Müller, Daniel; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is a major driver of land-atmosphere carbon (C) fluxes. The largest net C fluxes caused by LUC are attributed to the conversion of native unmanaged ecosystems to croplands and vice versa. Here, we present the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union from 1953-2012. Widespread and rapid conversion of native ecosystems to croplands occurred in the course of the Virgin Lands Campaign (VLC) between 1954 to 1963 in the Soviet Union, when more than 45 million hectares (Mha) were ploughed in south-eastern Russia and northern Kazakhstan in order to expand domestic food production. After 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union triggered the abandonment of around 75 Mha across the post-Soviet states. To assess SOC dynamics, we generated a static cropland mask for 2009 based on three global cropland maps. We used the cropland mask to spatially disaggregate annual sown area statistics at province level based on the suitability of each plot for crop production, which yielded land use maps for each year from 1954 to 2012 for all post-Soviet states. To estimate the SOC-dynamics due to the VLC and post-Soviet croplands abandonment, we used available experimental data, own field measurements, and soil maps. A bookkeeping approach was applied to assess the total changes in SOC-stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union. The massive croplands expansion during VLC resulted in a substantial loss of SOC - 611±47 Mt C and 241±11 Mt C for the upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation for Russia and Kazakhstan, respectively. These magnitudes are similar to C losses due to the plowing up of the prairies in USA in the mid-1930s. The total SOC sequestration due to post-Soviet croplands abandonment was estimated at 72.2±6.0 Mt C per year from 1991 to 2010. This amount of carbon equals about 40% of the current fossil fuel emission for this

  14. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  15. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  16. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

  17. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

  18. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1993-05-01

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

  19. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  20. When role reversal and brokering meet: filial responsibility among young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Yael; Kurman, Jenny; Roer-Strier, Dorit

    2012-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of role reversal and brokering (language and cultural in immigration), in which children assume culturally atypical adult responsibilities, have developed as different scholarly domains, despite their theoretical similarity. The purpose of the present article is to increase the integration between the two bodies of literature to achieve a better understanding of filial responsibilities children assume upon immigration and their differential correlates with adjustment. The structure of filial responsibility in immigration, interrelations between its distinct components, and the ability of the brokering roles to add significantly to the predicting of adjustment are studied. Young adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel (n = 220) completed the Comprehensive Filial Responsibilities Inventory (CFRI), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the self-efficacy inventory. Factor analysis identified six CFRI domains with satisfying psychometric properties. The factors are dominance in family, cultural brokering, language brokering, emotional support to parents, self-reliance, and money issues. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a contribution of the brokering roles to prediction of psychological distress above and beyond traditional roles. The results support the validity of the CFRI and contribute to the understanding of interrelations among the various filial responsibilities, including brokering roles. PMID:22962846

  1. Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jördis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Methods Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Results Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Conclusion Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin

  2. Going beyond triage in Tajikistan. Health reform in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Alidina, S; Annett, H

    2000-01-01

    Tajikistan is among the few countries where life expectancy diminished during the 1990's. To rebuild a health system fractured by economic collapse, political disintegration and civil war, the Essential Hospital Services Project was initiated to restore essential hospital services, encourage structural reform and build the health system's capacity to sustain itself. The article provides an overview of these reform efforts, outlines some of the challenges of health reform in Tajikistan and illustrates the benefits global partnerships can achieve when sharing creative new approaches to health reform. PMID:11214986

  3. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  4. Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, C L; McRee, D I; Peterson, N J; Tilson, H A; Shandala, M G; Rudnev, M I; Varetskii, V V; Navakatikyan, M I

    1989-01-01

    During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:2527152

  5. Improving Large-scale Biomass Burning Carbon Consumption and Emissions Estimates in the Former Soviet Union based on Fire Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E. I.; Kukavskaya, E.; de Groot, B.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating the amount of biomass burned during fire events is challenging, particularly in remote and diverse regions, like those of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Historically, we have typically assumed 25 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha) is emitted, however depending on the ecosystem and severity, biomass burning emissions can range from 2 to 75 tC/ha. Ecosystems in the FSU span from the tundra through the taiga to the forest-steppe, steppe and desserts and include the extensive West Siberian lowlands, permafrost-lain forests and agricultural lands. Excluding this landscape disparity results in inaccurate emissions estimates and incorrect assumptions in the transport of these emissions. In this work, we present emissions based on a hybrid ecosystem map and explicit estimates of fuel that consider the depth of burning based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Specifically, the ecosystem map is a fusion of satellite-based data, a detailed ecosystem map and Alexeyev and Birdsey carbon storage data, which is used to build carbon databases that include the forest overstory and understory, litter, peatlands and soil organic material for the FSU. We provide a range of potential carbon consumption estimates for low- to high-severity fires across the FSU that can be used with fire weather indices to more accurately estimate fire emissions. These data can be incorporated at ecoregion and administrative territory scales and are optimized for use in large-scale Chemical Transport Models. Additionally, paired with future climate scenarios and ecoregion cover, these carbon consumption data can be used to estimate potential emissions.

  6. Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.L.; McRee, D.I.; Peterson, N.J.; Tilson, H.A.; Shandala, M.G.; Rudnev, M.I.; Varetskii, V.V.; Navakatikyan, M.I. )

    1989-05-01

    During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary.

  7. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  8. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  9. Home Economics in the USSR: Some Tentative Hypotheses and a General Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Royston J.

    1976-01-01

    Two major hypotheses are considered in an attempt to account for the relative absence of home economics in the educational system of the Soviet Union: (1) strengthening of the family unit is not compatible with Soviet policy, and (2) Soviet commitment to economic growth negates home economics education. (Author/EC)

  10. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  11. Biosputniks: The use by the Soviet Union and Russia of dogs, monkeys and other animals in the exploration of space, 1949-93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    1993-10-01

    The Soviet Union used animals in the exploration of space from 1949 onwards. Russia has continued the use of animals in the exploration of space with the launch on 30 December 1992 of Bion-10 (Cosmos 2229). Animals in the space program is an important theme in the Soviet exploration of space. The use of animals in the exploration of space has four main phases: (1) Suborbital missions 1949-1959; (2) Preparation for man's first flight into space 1960-1; (3) Preparation for man's flight to the Moon 1968-1970; (4) The international biomedical program 1962- . Each is dealt with in turn. The use of animals or biological specimens on board manned orbital space stations is not discussed.

  12. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a

  13. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-07-14

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the

  14. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Design Multilevel analysis of cross‐sectional data. Setting 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Participants Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Mean outcome measures Poor self‐rated health. Results There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20‐fold difference). Ecologically, the age‐ and sex‐standardised prevalence of poor self‐rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = −0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country‐level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10‐point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Conclusion Societal measures of prosperity and corruption

  15. Anti-Soviet ideology, trade goals at odds on Russian pipeline deal

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1981-08-22

    US foreign policy opposes a Soviet-European natural gas pipeline that will increase European dependence on Soviet energy at the same time the US is approving the sale of Caterpillar pipelayers to the Soviet Union. The contradiction illustrates the complexities of using export controls to achieve foreign policy goals. Europeans do not share US concerns that the Soviet Union will compete for Persian Gulf oil if it sells its domestic gas or that Soviet energy supplies and economic ties will make Europe more vulnerable. Influencing the policy debate are hardliners who want to freeze East-West economic relations and moderates who argue that the US will only strain its relationships with Europe by opposing the Yamal pipeline. (DCK)

  16. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. PMID:25315487

  17. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  18. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  19. Socio-economic and scientific premises for forming the strategies against malaria in Russia under Soviet power.

    PubMed

    Tchesnova, L

    1998-06-01

    The rapid spread of malaria in the 1920s-early '30s in the USSR was a result of Stalin's social and demographic policy. The Soviet government needed to elaborate the special complex of organisational and applied scientific measures concerning the eradication of malaria. The Central Malaria Commission and a network of antimalaria stations were created. In the 1930s and '40s malaria studies were institutionalised. A system of Medical Research Institutes was set up in the Soviet Union. Antimalaria congresses and periodical special issues helped coordinate their activities. Russian parasitologists worked out new approaches and methods of the comprehensive control of malaria foci. During World War II (1941-1945), the epidemiological situation was aggravated and antimalaria measures reduced. In the years 1945-1960 Beklemishev with his scientific school worked out the concept of landscape malariology and of "vital scheme of the species". This concept formed the basis for realising the malaria eradication strategy. In 1961 the WHO Malaria Eradication Department ascertained the liquidation of all types of malaria in Russia as epidemics. PMID:9653737

  20. Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, I P

    1992-01-01

    On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

  1. Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, M.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes Soviet concerns about the possibility of such deployment, and explores likely Soviet countermoves before, immediately after and for an extended period following implementation of the NATO decision.

  2. Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.

    PubMed

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2012-03-01

    Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

  3. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  4. Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, C.D.

    1993-12-31

    The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

  5. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  6. SOVIET NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLLANDER, GAYLE DURHAM

    AS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTENSIVE RADIO AND TELEVISION NETWORK IN THE SOVIET UNION, MASS COMMUNICATIONS CONTINUED TO BE DOMINATED BY THE HEAVILY POLITICIZED NEWSPAPERS, WITH PRAVDA, THE PARTY DAILY, REMAINING THE MOST AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION AND INTERPRETATION. FOREIGN RADIO BROADCASTS TO THE SOVIET…

  7. Teaching in Transition: Examining School-Based Gender Inequities in Central/Southeastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Silova, Iveta

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, gender equity has become one of the most prominent issues in education reform efforts worldwide. Yet, questions of gender equity have received very little attention in the education reform efforts in the post-socialist countries during the transition period. Focusing on the political, economic, and social changes of the 1990s,…

  8. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  9. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  11. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  12. The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

  13. Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

    The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

  14. Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness to effect such changes, and what the implications of this indecision portend for both the East bloc and the West. Using primary source material in translation, he concentrates on the entire energy sector and not just on oil. His analysis covers contradictory Soviet fuel choices and personnel problems, the natural gas market in Europe, and the dispute between the US Defense Intelligence Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency on the degree of seriousness of the Soviet energy dilemma. The analysis concludes with positive recommendations on how the alliance can repair the discord of the pipeline controversy. The author raises questions about the institutional viability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet the Eastern bloc's energy challenges, and warns that a failure to thoroughly examine a number of other policy issues could imperil the future of the West. 184 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  16. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  18. Soviet phase conjugation research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.A.; Boyd, R.W.; Klein, M.B.; Kurnit, N.A.; Milonni, P.W.; Rockwell, D.A.; Yeh, P.

    1990-09-01

    Optical phase conjugation is a Soviet-discovered technique that applies nonlinear optical effects to automatically manipulate laser beams while automatically correcting for arbitrary distortions. Optical phase conjugation can aid in providing improved configurations for average-power and high-peak-power laser systems; it can provide nearly automatic pointing and tracking laser systems; and it can provide many other practical applications (both military and nonmilitary). Here it is important to note that 100- to 1000-watt systems are also of significant importance, not just ultra-high-energy or high-power lasers designed to do significant structural damage at significant distances. One class of phase conjugation techniques, namely, stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with its four-wave mixing counterpart, Brillioun-enhanced four-wave mixing, has been the hallmark of the Soviet effort -- with nearly all contributions (both theoretical and experimental) arising from the Soviet Union. Both stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-enhanced four-wave mixing arise from the same electrostrictive nonlinearity, where the presence of a gradient in the optical intensity produces a force on the fluid. Scientists in the United States started studying optical phase conjugation approximately five years after Soviet scientists, and initially concentrated on areas quite different from those of Soviet emphasis.

  19. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  20. USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

  1. Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and

  2. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  3. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  4. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  5. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  6. Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickiewicz, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

  7. Mutual Exchange in the Scientific Library and Technical Information Center Fields; A Report from the Special Libraries Association Delegation to the Soviet Union 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnington, John P., Ed.

    Articles included in this document are: (1) The Backgrounds of the Exchanges, by John P. Binnington, (2) Structure of the Soviet Scientific Information System, by Winifred Sewell, (3) Standards, Patents and Technical Reports, by Frank E. McKenna, (4) The Flow of Information to Users, by William S. Budington, (5) Research in Libraries and…

  8. Portrayal of Political Parties by the Television Broadcast Media in Single and Dual-Party Political Systems: Comparing the Soviet Union to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    A study examined the treatment and portrayal of political parties on Soviet and American television. The content of six newscasts of "World News Tonight" and "Vremya" during June of 1984 were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The overall results suggest that 15 stories (24% of the total allotted time) pertaining directly to political…

  9. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  10. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  11. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  12. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  13. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid

  14. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  15. The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellechi, M.

    1993-01-01

    A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear power and propulsion, radiation effects, remote sensing, optics, and lasers. The U.S. delegation was successful in identifying some capabilities that would be useful to the three organizations. Efforts to utilize some of the FSU capabilities viewed are being initiated. Concurrently, there will be a technical assessment performed on the information gained from this and other recent visits to the FSU relative to space research.

  16. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  17. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  18. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  19. The Soviet health care system: Glasnost, Perestroika, and health problems of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Moody, L E

    1992-03-01

    Worsening economic conditions and political turmoil in the Soviet Union have led to significant health care problems in the 90s. The Soviet people are calling for reforms of education and the health care system that extend beyond the unsuccessful program of glasnost and perestroika. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the health care system in the Soviet Union, (b) highlight health issues and concerns of the Soviet people, (c) describe the education of physicians and nurses, and (d) compare and contrast common and unique factors about Soviet health care with health care in the West. The data base for the article was collected from observational site visits, on-site focused interviews with key informants in Kiev and Moscow, and extensive computerized and manual literature searches. Data were also gathered from questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of 17 nurses in Moscow. Study results include demographic information and the state of nursing education and research, including availability and access to resources to conduct nursing research in Moscow. PMID:1293203

  20. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  1. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  2. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  3. [Rehabilitative physiotherapy in Soviet medicine].

    PubMed

    Solimene, U; Sirtori, P G; Balsamo, V; Miani, A; Pirola, V

    There are three different levels of rehabilitational physical therapy in heart diseases in the Soviet Union. Natural methods are used such as climate therapy, baths, sunshine and physiotherapy as well as artificial methods including laser, electric and mechanical energy, etc. Artificially produced mineral waters which are identical to natural ones are also applied. All these methods yield good results in myocardial infarction, cerebral ictus, coronary diseases, cerebral ischemia, hypothyroidism, etc. PMID:1837254

  4. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  5. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  6. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  7. A Soviet space odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1985-10-01

    A mission history and sensor telemetry evaluation is presented for the two Vega balloon/lander Venus probes that began their descent into the Venus atmosphere on June 10, 1985; attention is also given to the ground station monitoring functions fulfilled by the Soviet Academy of Sciences' Institute for Space Research. The sensor package carried by Vega encompassed a meteorology unit, an aerosol analyzer, gamma-ray, X-ray UV and mass spectrometers, a hygrometer, and a mass chromatograph. Balloon experiments conducted at altitudes of 31-34 miles employed temperature and pressure sensors, a nephelometer, a photometer, and VLBI tracking to determine the location and drift velocity of the balloon. The VLBI device is a joint development of the Soviet Union, the U.S., and France. After deployment, immersed in sulfuric acid clouds, the two Vega balloons drifted in 150 mph winds in an east-to-west direction over Venus' equatorial region. The Vega landers came to rest on soft soil, after a parachute descent.

  8. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  9. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  10. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  11. Soviet Children's Books: Expanding Children's Views of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that supports the premise that children should read literature written for children in other countries to increase their knowledge and understanding of other cultures. Includes a bibliography of Russian children's literature. (AEA)

  12. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared. PMID:24626208

  13. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  14. Soviet Rural-Urban Integration through Mass Media Use: A Dependency Model Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jo Ellen

    A review of policy statements made in the past 10 years in Soviet academic journals and Communist Party newspapers indicates that integrating rural and urban populations has become a concern of academics, government officials, and policymakers in the Soviet Union. One means by which the rural segment of Soviet society could be pushed or helped…

  15. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  16. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in U. S. foreign policy: The Middle East-Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    How Soviet leaders perceive U.S. intentions, capabilities, and actions plays an important role in the formulation of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and its relations with the United States. This book focuses on one such set of Soviet perceptions - how the oil factor and subsequent developments have influenced U.S. policy in the Middle East-Gulf region and what the implications of that policy are for the Soviet Union.

  17. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  18. Undoing the Legacy of the Soviet Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochocky, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in librarianship in the former Soviet Union. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of centralized planning, the reorganization of library systems in Russia and the Ukraine, the effects of democratization on organization and librarian attitudes, and the remnants of Russification in…

  19. For the State: Soviet Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Wayne M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes vocational education in the Soviet Union. Goals are accomplished by such methods as a standard national curriculum, including sophisticated polytechnical programs, by a system of school-supported youth programs that promote patriotism and group loyalty, and by a media campaign emphasizing the importance of the worker. (Author/JOW)

  20. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  1. Soviet free-electron laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

  2. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  4. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  5. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  6. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. The "New Russian Literature" and Soviet Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekic, Maria

    It is widely believed that poetry in the Soviet Union has lost its place to newspapers and periodicals that have robbed literature of its readers. Prior to glasnost, non-official literature in the Soviet Union was more than a literary event; it was often the only mode of political discourse available to the literate public. This paper suggests…

  8. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  9. Outlook for soviet oil.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T

    1982-07-23

    Public debate about Soviet oil has become more widespread in the past 5 years, but during this period Soviet petroleum exports have ceased to be made available by volume. Soviet oil consumption has usually been estimated by deducting exports from total production. This article takes the alternative approach, using Soviet statistics from a variety of sources, to build up a sectoral pattern of Soviet oil demand and to consider this in the broader context of total Comecon energy supply and demand. From this focus future prospects for the Comecon energy balance are analyzed. PMID:17791503

  10. "Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

  11. A Teacher's Impressions of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1987-01-01

    Reports the impressions of an 11th-grade world cultures teacher who visited European Russia and Uzbekistan in August, 1985. Ten major impressions are detailed, among them are (1) the poverty, (2) the sloppiness, (3) the pervasive presence of Lenin, and (4) the cultural importance of the Babushka, the Russian word for grandmother. (JDH)

  12. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  13. Soviet development of gyrotrons. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel

    1986-05-01

    This report surveys the development of high power cyclotron-resonance masers (CRM) and gyrotrons in the Soviet Union, based on Soviet open-source literature. It deals with the nature and history of relativistic CRM devices; provides a sequence of the most important issues of gyrotron research and develoment as perceived by Soviet authors; and discusses individual Soviet research groups, the basic organizational units responsible for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The study suggests, among other things, that high-power relativistic microwave electronics is one of the most successful areas of Soviet RandD. It has maintained a consistent record of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systemic weakness of the Soviet RandD system in being able to translate effectively the results of advanced research into production of practical equipment; and it has become the fastest growing area of application of pulsed-power technology, which itself has been for many years the subject of priority development in the USSR.

  14. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders. PMID:21847844

  15. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  16. Soviet design for roasting zinc concentrates in a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, M. S.; Hodov, N. V.; Serebrennikova, E. Ja.; Grinberg, A. E.; Khripin, V. D.; Doverman, A. I.

    1992-04-01

    Although many zinc plants attempt to increase a fluidized bed roaster's capacity by employing an oxygen-enriched air blast, work in the former Soviet Union shows the advantages of redesigning the roasting complex to optimize concentrate flow and process hydrodynamics. A redesigned furnace in operation for five years demonstrates, as compared to conventional Soviet furnaces, greater versatility, improved charge capacity, better heat recovery, ease of control, and operational stability.

  17. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

  18. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

  19. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  20. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  1. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  2. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  3. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. II. Some Important Weather Forecasts, 1942-45.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

    1988-07-01

    Short- to medium-range weather forecasts were prepared by Soviet meteorologists for the Battle of Stalingrad. These included forecasts for days suitable for massing troops and equipment and for starting the Soviet offensive in November 1942 that resulted in the encirclement of the German 6th Army. Another forecast was connected with the operation of artificial thickening of the ice cover of the Volga River in the Stalingrad area that made it possible to drive tanks from the cast bank to the west bank of the river (width: about 1 km).In January 1943 a German Panzer army had to be withdrawn from the Caucasus. To accelerate the retreat, light elements of that army crossed some 42 km of the ice cover of the Gulf of Taganrog (Sea of Azov). The crossing was authorized after a meteorologist proved his estimate of the ice-cover thickness by landing in a light plane on the ice.In January 1945 weather forecasts played an important role in the major Soviet (2 200 000 troops and 5 000 warplanes) Oder-Vistula offensive. Marshal Koney writes with appreciation of the correct weather forecasts.In the Appendix, considerations that led German meteorologists to formulate a forecast for a minimum of five days of fog or low clouds from the Ardennes to southern England are reviewed. This forecast was used by the German High Command for the start of the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.

  4. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 8, Germany's War on the Soviet Union, 1941-45. I. Long-range Weather Forecasts for 1941-42 and Climatological Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Flohn, H.

    1987-06-01

    A brief account is given of Baur's long-range weather forecast prepared in the autumn of 1941 for the 1941-42 winter in Eastern Europe. Baur's forecast called for a normal' or mild winter but the winter turned out to be one of the most severe winters on record. The cold, the icy winds and blizzards gravely hit the German armies and coincided with the first major Soviet counteroffensive of the war. A Soviet weather forecast for January 1942, also called for a mild month.A review of the climatological studies prepared for the war indicates that the occurrence of mud periods of considerable intensity in autumn was not considered. The autumn 1941 mud period immobilized most of the German armies for a month and caused the attempted final German assault on Moscow to take place in an early and severe winter.Hitter would not tolerate the mention of winter and still less the mention of the retreat of Napoleon's Grande Armée from Russia.The support given by Soviet meteorologists and hydrologists to the Red Army is sketched. For the 1941-42 winter the more-important short- to medium-range forecasts included a forecast for 7 November (anniversary of the October Revolution) at Moscow and a forecast for the start of Zhukov's counteroffensive in the Battle of Moscow in December 1941.

  5. [The demographic situation in the Russian Federation during the structural transition associated with perestroika and the subsequent economic stabilization].

    PubMed

    Antonova, O; Brui, B; Gorbunova, T; Nikitina, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the demographic situation in the Russian Federation in the period of perestroika and in the subsequent period of economic and social turmoil associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Topics covered include changes in population growth and decline, life expectancy, morbidity, health status, the health system, and age distribution. PMID:12348413

  6. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  7. Policy and Model Analysis: The Case of Soviet Immigrant Teacher Re-Training in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva-May, Iris

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates the largely successful retraining program for immigrant science teachers from the former Soviet Union to Israel in 1990-91 following the mass Soviet immigration. A list of policy recommendations is offered. The retraining considerations and models from this study might be applied in other countries experiencing major social changes. (SLD)

  8. News Media Use and Adolescents, Information about Nuclear Issues: A Soviet-American Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyenkov, Vladimir; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the extent of teenagers' news media exposure in the Soviet Union and America and its apparent impact on their information about nuclear issues. Finds that the Soviet teenagers were much more knowledgeable than American students about issues having to do with nuclear war. (MS)

  9. The Evolving Soviet Approach to Human Rights. Current Policy No. 929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Warren

    The Soviet Union (USSR) is a different place from what it was two years ago. The essential nature of these differences is, however, not obvious and the picture remains mixed. Recent developments involving political prisoners, freedom to travel and emigrate, broadcast jamming, and Czechoslovak relations seem to indicate that the Soviet society is…

  10. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  11. The U.S.-Soviet Relationship: Time to Come in from the Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Students are often served up a "simplistic stew" that reinforces news media and political pronouncements about the Soviet Union. It's time to remove the "enemy" label and build positively on American and Soviet shared humanity by providing accurate information about both countries. Includes one reference. (MLH)

  12. Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Brown, Christopher; Johnson-White, Julia; Moffitt, Louisa; Papp, Daniel

    This instructional guide is intended to be used with the six-part videotape "Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition." The guide comprises essays that provide critical background information needed to understand the issues and events under discussion, which are the new countries that have grown out of the former Soviet Union;…

  13. Physiological-behavioral coupling research in the Soviet science of higher nervous activity: a visitation report.

    PubMed

    Ray, R D

    1977-01-01

    Behavioral research paradigms presently used by Soviet scientists to explore relations between behavioral and physiological activities are discussed. Each laboratory represented was physically visited by the author during a six month exhange visit to the Soviet Union. Research ranging from central concommitants of language and meaning to biofeedback and peripheral autonomic functions are described. PMID:854371

  14. Toward a More Perfect Union: Basic Skills, Poor Families, and Our Economic Future. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon; Sum, Andrew

    In the 1980s and 1990s important demographic, economic, and social changes will affect the nation's schools, families, and workplaces. In anticipation of these developments, there is renewed interest in formal educational attainment and basic academic skills. A concerted national effort to address the current crisis in basic skills development…

  15. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

  16. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. French participation in the Soviet PHOBOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Bibring, J. P.

    1989-10-01

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July, 1988. It carries some 30 experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its vicinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the sun and the interplanetary medium. France, through its laboratories (participating in a number of experiments) and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse (participating in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations), is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are described (ISM, Auguste, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and Apex, and the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander DAS (cameras, Stenopee). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contributions to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  18. French participation in the Soviet Phobos mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Blamont, J. E.; Bonneau, F.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Hamelin, M.; Trotignon, J. G.

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July 88. It carries some thirty experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its viscinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the Sun and the Interplanetary Medium. France, through its laboratories participating in a number of experiments and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations, is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are discribed (ISM, AUGUSTE, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and APEX, the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander: DAS (cameras, STENOPEE). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contribution to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  19. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  20. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

  1. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  3. Glasnost and the Business Information Sector: Soviet Problems and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konn, Tania

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of glasnost on the availability of business information from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe highlights online services.These include general information sources, specialized business services, industry-specific services, new services, and forthcoming developments. Problems in dealing with the increased availability of…

  4. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards. PMID:27455606

  5. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  6. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  8. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries. PMID:27035746

  9. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  10. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  11. Soviet Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Marxist-Leninist ethics were related to Communist morality in practice by surveying Soviet students' values and perceptions of the influence of parents, schools, and mass media. The content of moral education, history, and social studies curricula, and the structure of youth organizations (Octobrists, Pioneers, and Komsomal) were examined.…

  12. The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

    1986-01-01

    The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

  13. Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

  14. U.S. assistance programs for economic and political reform and dismantling of weapons of mass destruction in the NIS. Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, March 3, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses United States Assistance Programs for Economic and Political reform and dismantling of weapons of mass destruction in the New Independent States (NIS) created after the disolution of the former Soviet Union. Witnesses described the conditions and needs in the NIS for assistance and the proposed budget. Statements of government and industry officials are provided along with documents submitted for the record.

  15. The Soviet maps of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. F.

    1990-02-01

    The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

  16. Tuberculosis treatment outcome in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of surveillance data from 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Karo, Basel; Hauer, Barbara; Hollo, Vahur; van der Werf, Marieke J; Fiebig, Lena; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the treatment outcome (TO) of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to identify potential barriers for TB control. The global target is to reach a treatment success rate (TSR) of at least 85%. We aimed to assess the TB TO in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2002 and 2011, and to identify factors associated with unsuccessful treatment. Only 18 countries reported information on TO for the whole observation period accounting for 250,854 new culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases. The 85% target of TSR was not reached in any year between 2002 and 2011 and was on average 78%. The TSR for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB cases at 24-month follow-up was 49%. In the multivariable regression model, unsuccessful treatment was significantly associated with increasing age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.02 per a one-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.02), MDR-TB (OR = 8.7, 95% CI: 5.09-14.97), male sex (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.28-1.52), and foreign origin (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). The data highlight that special efforts are required for patients with MDR-TB and the elderly aged ≥65 years, who have particularly low TSR. To allow for valid monitoring at EU level all countries should aim to report TO for all TB cases. PMID:26676247

  17. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  18. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  19. Teaching a Course on the Soviet Press: Some Pedagogical Applications and Recommendations for Increasing our Russian Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kevin J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes benefits of teaching a course on the Soviet press to Russian language students, including the opportunity to integrate practical considerations of reading and conversation skills with theoretical considerations of philosophy and principles of mass communication in the Soviet Union. (Author/BK)

  20. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  1. Socio-Economic Forces and the Rise of the World-Class Research University in the Post-Soviet Higher Education Space: The Case of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    Mixed data analysis from 14 national research universities in Ukraine provides insights into the challenges faced by higher education reformers, as they push academic science to a higher position in the emerging knowledge economy, but are halted by deeply entrenched economic and political legacies. This paper examines competing forces that…

  2. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  3. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  4. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  5. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison.

  6. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  7. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  8. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  9. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  10. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

  11. Soviet Anti-Poverty Policy 1955-1975. Discussion Papers 402-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    This paper assesses the nature and extent of poverty in the USSR in the post-Stalin period, primarily in the decade after 1958. The author describes Soviet anti-poverty policies and discusses their impact. He notes that the Soviet government's ability to influence economic welfare and income distribution lies in its control over wage and salary…

  12. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

  13. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  14. Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Alcaide Capilla, Teresa; Chenlo Alonso, Unai; Rubio-López, Nuria; Alegre-Martinez, Antoni; Morales Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-12-15

    Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union. PMID:26671105

  15. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  16. Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

  17. Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

  18. Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

    1992-01-01

    Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

  19. Soviet political objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany: instruments and assessments. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis examines apparent Soviet attempts to use its detente policy to exploit the Federal Republic of Germany's membership in NATO and thereby expand its influence in the FRG and Europe as a whole. It is hypothesized that the Soviet Union chooses to exploit the FRG's position in NATO by cultivating a special relationship with it and thereby accessing the U.S. and NATO as a whole, rather than making overt efforts to force a near-term split between West Germany and the U.S. The thesis focuses on the instruments the Soviet Union uses to maximize its influence in the FRG and the region. These instruments include West Germany's concerns regarding nuclear war in Europe, Ostpolitik and German-German relations.

  20. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  1. English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (With an Emphasis on Chemistry).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Gary

    The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that the scientific community keep aware of developments in the Soviet Union. To meet this need, a…

  2. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  3. A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

  4. Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

    Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

  5. From Brezhnev Doctrine to New Thinking: Soviet Reforms and European Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Witold J.

    Mikhail Gorbachev has drastically altered the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, and in so doing has also brought about a new international political reality for all of Europe. This paper contrasts Gorbachev's "New Thinking" in foreign policy with the Brezhnev Doctrine (an approach associated with former USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev that…

  6. National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

    This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

  7. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  8. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  9. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

  10. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  11. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  12. Notes on Soviet space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Soviet space programs intended for making astronomical observations are reviewed. The Cosmos, Intercosmos, and Prognoz satellites designed for astronomical measurements are identified, and unmanned lunar and planetary missions are discussed, including the Luna, Lunokhod, Mars, and Venera programs. The Salyut 4 space station is described in detail along with the following major astronomical instruments: the Orbiting Solar Telescope 1, the infrared telescope spectrometer, the two solar spectrometers, the light-nuclei mass spectrometer, and the Filin and RT-4 X-ray telescopes. The future of Soviet space astronomy is assessed, particularly the tasks of the Salyut 5 station and the scheduled launch of Salyut 6.

  13. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  14. Unionism and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    Organized labor in the United States has been divided in the types of economic solutions it has sought for the working class and in the type of support it has given education. In terms of education, rightwing unionism has tended to accept the basic structure of American education and the general ideology of equality of opportunity. Leftwing…

  15. Environmental management during economic transition: Ukraine--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kempen van, T.H.; Demydenko, A.O.

    1995-12-01

    After dissolution of Soviet Union, each new States had to confront the legacy of an unsustainable, and ultimately failed, economic and political system. Enormous environmental problems resulted from centrally planned economics, which promoted rapid growth through exploitation of the former Soviet Union`s (FSU) vast natural resources. Unconstrained by scarcity-based pricing, extractive and heavy industry ministries created huge, inefficient, and heavily polluting enterprises. The region also experienced extensive forest-cutting, steady deterioration of soils, and contaminated runoff and infiltration from over-excessive application of agrichemicals. The fate of the environment will depend largely on successful transition to a market-based economy. Funds for environmental protection will remain scarce, and poor technology combined with a degraded and overworked infrastructure will slow cleanup of contaminated regions. With failed economies, policy-makers and legislators will be forced to overlook sustainable development as they exploit natural resources in an effort to produce food and obtain hard currency. Ukraine, the second-most populous republic of the FSU, experienced possibly the world`s greatest single environment disaster--the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe. Today, heavy industry, with its resource-intensive and highly polluting technologies, contributes 61% of Ukraine`s GNP, in comparison with 34% in the European Union. Energy production is grossly inefficient. Environmental agencies in Ukraine are new, with limited legal or economic tools, financial resources, or technical skills. Yet the country has commenced environmental management initiatives that, when combined with economic reforms, will start to improve environmental conditions. This paper presents an overview of Ukraine`s environmental and economic conditions, steps already undertaken to manage the environment, and additional measures needed to improve the situation.

  16. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  17. Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first…

  18. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  19. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  20. Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1986-09-16

    The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

  1. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  2. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  3. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners. PMID:10216383

  4. Union for International Cancer Control International Session: healthcare economics: the significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases political declaration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Masui, Tohru; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Nogimori, Masafumi; Roh, Jae Kyung

    2013-06-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "Healthcare Economics: The Significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Political Declaration in Asia." The presenters and participants discussed the growing cost of cancer in the Asian region and the challenges that are faced by the countries of Asia, all of which face budgetary and other systemic constraints in tackling and controlling cancer in the region. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including cancer researchers and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. They discussed the significance of the UN Political Declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs (2011) as a means of boosting awareness of cancer in the Asian region and also addressed the ways in which stakeholders can cooperate to improve cancer control and treatment. Other issues that were covered included challenges relating to pharmaceutical trials in Asia and how to link knowledge and research outcomes. The session concluded with the recognition that with the onset of a super-aged society in most countries in Asia and an increasing focus on quality of life rather than quantity of life, it is more important than ever for all stakeholders to continue to share information and promote policy dialogue on cancer control and treatment. PMID:23701361

  5. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage. PMID:27123992

  6. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  7. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  8. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union. PMID:16005557

  9. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new

  10. Scientific and Technical Translation and the All-Union Translation Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchuk, Yuri Nikolaevich

    1984-01-01

    The investigation and use of machine translation as an adjunct to human translation at the Soviet Union's All-Union Translation Center, a centralized scientific and technical translation facility, is examined. The issues of error correction, the variety of translation types needed, and special lexical considerations are discussed. (MSE)

  11. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  12. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  13. Soviet Science in the Scientific World System: Was It Autarchic, Self-Reliant, Distinctive, Isolated, Peripheral, Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Examines the extent to which scientific research in the former Soviet Union was endogenous and the degree to which it was integrated into the scientific world system during the 1970s and 1980s. Autarchy, self-reliance, and distinctiveness in scientific traditions are discussed; the center-periphery concept is examined; and results of a survey of…

  14. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive

  15. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history. PMID:24032234

  16. U.S.-Soviet seismology research funds switched to air force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Department of Defense funding for seismology research has seen some changes in both amount and administration. While Congress increased the budget of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) by almost $1.4 billion this year, about 13% over last year (as reported October 30 in the Washington Post), it also rescinded DARPA's authority to manage funding of the Soviet Union program of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

  17. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    PubMed

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics. PMID:19233533

  18. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  19. Soviet radio telescopes and solar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Gel'Freikh, Georgii B.; Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Iliasov, Iurii P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.

    Soviet radio telescopes of different type and purpose are described, with particular emphasis on very long baseline interferometry. Soviet radio-astronomy studies of solar radio emission and the interplanetary medium are also discussed, with particular attention given to the investigation of the sun's supercorona and the interplanetary plasma.

  20. The Impact of "Perestroika" on Soviet Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Proponents of Perestroika" and "glasnost" are tirelessly seeking to remold Soviet teaching and learning. Innovations and "corrections" are being fed by numerous articles in professional journals and by pedagogical leaders in academies and universities. Teaching in Soviet classrooms remains a teacher-centered, one-way process. Curriculum revision…

  1. This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

  2. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  3. The joint Austro-Soviet space project AUSTROMIR-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.

    1993-03-01

    After more than 20 years of successful cooperation between Austria and the Soviet Union in the field of unmanned space research, an Austrian cosmonaut Franz Viehbock was launched on 2 October 1991 from Baikonur for a 1-week's stay at the Space Station Mir, thus highlighting this very efficient joint research work. For this flight, out of 34 scientific experiments 14 could be chosen to be performed by the cosmonaut, mainly in the field of life sciences, but also in physics, material science and remote sensing. All of them performed extremely well and the mission can be considered a full success. While final analysis is still underway, preliminary data to be reported in subsequent papers show very interesting results. The responsibility for this project was with the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research, Vienna, which entrusted the Joanneum Research, Graz, with the full operational and technical management, as far as the Austrian side was concerned. The cooperation with the Soviet scientists and engineers was an extremely cordial and efficient one, a fact which - along with the outstanding performance of the crew - contributed very much to the success of the mission.

  4. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  5. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  6. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  7. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  8. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  9. The current family planning debate in Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Watters, K

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037

  10. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  11. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  12. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  13. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  14. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  15. Soviet-American Dance Medicine. Proceedings of the Glasnost Dance Medicine Conference and Workshops (Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheli, Lyle, Ed.; And Others

    The information shared in this document represents a dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union on the discipline of dance medicine, which involves the care of injured dancers as well as prevention of injuries. An introduction including a preface, opening remarks, and an overview of dance medicine comprises section 1. The second…

  16. Soviet-American Relations: Cold War to New Thinking. Topic #5 in a Series of International Security and Conflict [Curricula] for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    This 12-day unit is designed for use in the social studies classroom for grades 9-12 and community college level. Students first learn about the ideological, political, and military rivalries of the United States and the Soviet Union that marked the Cold War. They are then introduced to the nuclear build-up, and they study its impact on matters of…

  17. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  18. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  19. Waning soviet threat: Implications for detente

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Soviet military has experienced unprecedented turmoil since Gorbachev entered office in March 1985. Indeed, it is fair to say that the High Command is facing its most profound institutional crisis in the 72 years of its existence. The indicators of this change are well known to any attentive reader of the newspaper. They include a shift to a more defensive orientation in the USSR's military doctrine; an end to the Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan; Gorbachev's announced unilateral cut of a half-million Soviet troops; associated moves to scale back weapons production and shift a sizeable portion of the defense industry to the civilian sector; and a general effort across a broad front to forge a more agreeable East-West relationship.

  20. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  1. Seismic Source Characteristics of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Kitov, I. O.; Barker, B. W.; Sultanov, D. D.

    - During the period 1965 to 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted over 120 peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) at locations widely dispersed throughout the territories of the FSU. These explosions sample a much wider range of source conditions than do the historical explosions at the known nuclear test sites and, therefore, seismic data recorded from these PNE tests provide a unique resource for use in deriving improved quantitative bounds on the ranges of seismic signal characteristics which may require consideration in global monitoring of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this paper we summarize the results of a detailed statistical analysis of broadband seismic data recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory from 21 of these PNE tests at regional distances extending from about 7 to 19 degrees, as well as the results of theoretical waveform simulation analyses of near-regional (Δ<25km) seismic data observed from a selected sample of nine of these PNE tests. The results of these analyses have been found to be consistent with those of previous teleseismic investigations in that they indicate that the seismic source coupling efficiencies are very similar for explosions in a wide variety of hardrock and water-saturated media, while explosions in water-saturated clay are observed to have significantly higher coupling efficiencies. Moreover, the scaling of the seismic source function with explosion yield and depth of burial inferred from these analyses of the Soviet PNE data are shown to be generally consistent with the predictions of the Mueller/Murphy source model. These results suggest that the Mueller/Murphy source model can provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected variation in regional phase spectral composition over a wide range of nuclear source conditions of potential interest in CTBT monitoring.

  2. Moscow in May 1963: Education and Cybernetics. An Interchange of Soviet and American Ideas Concerning Education, Programed Learning, Cybernetics, and the Human Mind. Bulletin, 1964, No. 38. OE-14106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Oliver J.; Graham, Loren R.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin chronicles the authors' visit to the Soviet Union, May 14-28, 1963, sponsored by the Ministry for Public Education of the R.S.F.S.R. and the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education of the U.S.S.R. The purposes of the visit were to renew earlier contacts with Soviet educators and scientists; to explore the possibility…

  3. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  4. Strategic minerals: Federal legislation may carve up wilderness lands in a race to keep up with the Soviets

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.

    1981-09-01

    Nevada Rep. Jim Santini believes the nation is currently engaged in combat with the Soviet Union over vital raw materials. He has introduced H.R. 3364, the National Minerals Security Act which calls for the creation of a new cabinet-level Minerals Council and a change in the tax laws to assist the mining industry. Of 36 key minerals which the United States imports, the Soviet Union is completely self-sufficient in 28. The US is 89 percent import-reliant for platinum and the two largest suppliers are South Africa and the Soviet Union. H.R. 3364 will not glide through the Congress. The Reagan Administration, however, supports the principal thrust of Santini's efforts: open up the public lands to development. The Wilderness Act of 1964 contained a 20-year grace period for the mining companies to stake new claims in wilderness areas. The mining surveys that Representaive Santini wants for all federal lands are currently conducted in proposed wilderness areas. Thus far, roughly 25 million acres of Forest Service lands have been surveyed for mineral potential. (DP)

  5. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  6. Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics Concerning Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the primary legislation implemented to initiate perestroika reforms in the Soviet Union's educational system. Includes legislation covering the entire spectrum of public education, from preschool through elementary and secondary levels, to vocational-technical education and higher education. Addresses the rights and responsibilities of…

  7. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

  8. Problems of Soviet Law and Socialist Legality in Legalistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoshchenko, I. S.

    1978-01-01

    Notes that Soviet youth must be educated about Soviet law and their obligations as citizens to work, respect labor discipline, and defend the motherland. Lists functions of Soviet law as (1) shaping, mediating for, and protecting the middle class, (2) reinforcing socialist principles and the emancipation of women, and (3) guaranteeing…

  9. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  10. Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

  11. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  12. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  13. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  14. Glasnost in Soviet Libraries: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmage, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Describes changes in Soviet research libraries as a possible indicator of the success of glasnost. Topics covered include open access to resources, improved library services, and the use of information technologies. A special report on the 1988 U.S.-U.S.S.R. library seminar is provided. (12 references) (CLB)

  15. "Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

  16. Squaring Soviet Theory with American Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Soviet scholar Lev Vygotsky identified the most common cause of miseducation: failure to convert the classroom into a community of discursive inquiry. The USSR's Academy of Pedagogical Science is collaborating with Montclair State College (New Jersey) to introduce "Philosophy for Children," an American critical thinking program compatible with…

  17. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  18. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  19. Soviet oil production begins to falter

    SciTech Connect

    Fueg, J.C

    1989-08-01

    Soviet industry managers are warning that a new oil production slump may be on the way, especially in the crucial West Siberian industry. The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. In the rest of Eastern Europe, Albania, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia all showed significant declines in oil production.

  20. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  1. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  2. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  3. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  4. Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.

    1993-04-01

    Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

  5. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  6. Professionalism vs. unionism: a dual loyalty dilemma.

    PubMed

    Schillinger, K E

    1988-01-01

    Present economic conditions are causing growing uncertainty surrounding employment. This is a concern in all fields, including the health care industry. Guarantees negotiated into union contracts address job security, wages and benefits, and present tantalizing solutions to employee problems. Consequently, serious questions are raised for the professional. Can unionization and professionalism be compatible? This paper attempts to examine several ethical dilemma facing the therapeutic recreation professional and all other health care professionals. PMID:10296862

  7. Users and Union Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  8. Hungary's experience: Soviet military leaves hazardous reminder in Central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, P.I.; Biczo, I.L.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, thousands of abandoned Soviet military installations, including troop bases and airfields, have been returned to their host countries. These installations present serious, widespread environmental problems for the governments of Central and Eastern Europe. In the West, where approximately 130 military installations also are being realigned from military to civilian uses, similar environmental contamination problems exist. Expertise gained by US and Western European engineering firms at such sites may be applied to the cleanup of contaminated sites in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 1,000 former Soviet military installations exist in eastern Germany alone, with additional sites in Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. These sites pose critical contamination problems that will require a variety of remedial activities, including engineering, consulting, design and environmental assessment services; instrumentation and laboratory capabilities; groundwater and surface water treatment technologies; leaking underground storage tank (UST) removal and replacement techniques; mobile incinerators; and bioremediation and soil desorption technologies.

  9. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  10. [Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].

    PubMed

    Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

  11. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  12. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  13. Soviet and American flight directors for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    These two men are flight directors for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission scheduled for July 1975. Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Yeliseyev (left) is the Soviet ASTP senior flight director; and M. P. Frank is the American ASTP senior flight director. They are seated beside a Docking Module training mock-up in bldg 35 at JSC. Cosmonaut Yeliseyev was head of a delegation of USSR flight controllers who were at JSC for two weeks of ASTP training.

  14. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    PubMed

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

  15. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  16. Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

  17. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  18. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  19. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  20. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  1. Soviet offensive ground doctrine since 1945. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, Soviet offensive concepts have evolved in consonance with technological changes and changing geopolitical relationships. While adjusting to inevitable change, the Soviets have repeatedly tapped as a source of inspiration and knowledge their rich World War II experiences. Thus, the Soviets have altered their operational and tactical concepts by blending the lessons of the past with the realities of the present. Only combat can prove the validity of these changes. However, it is worthwhile to review the salient features of evolving Soviet operational and tactical concepts, if only better to understand the capabilities and potentialities of our major foe.

  2. Soviet research on crystal channeling of charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an overview of Soviet research in charged particle beam channeling in crystals from 1972 to the present, and the resulting electromagnetic emission, including Soviet proposals for channeling emission lasers in the X-ray region of the spectrum. It analyzes Soviet attitudes toward crystal channeling of charged particles as a subject of research, describes performers of the research, and indicates the level of effort involved. It presents a brief history of crystal channeling research, the differences between channeling and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the definition of the main research issues, and estimates of the potential capabilities of channeling radiation, all based on the Soviet viewpoint. It then describes Soviet proposals for laser systems utilizing the channeling radiation mechanism, and analyzes Soviet experimental work involving the observation and measurement of channeling radiation. The author concludes that the outstanding feature of Soviet research in this area is the optimistic belief of Soviet specialists in the technological potential of this research, but finds that the role of the laser proposals in Soviet planning is ambiguous.

  3. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  4. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  5. [Unionization on Campus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter issue considers in separate articles: (1) unionization in 1981 among college faculty in the United States; (2) unionization at the California State University and College System (CSU) (by Lisa Flanzraich); (3) multi-year agreements; (4) contract size; (5) and, in "Yeshivawatch," developments pertaining to the National Labor…

  6. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  7. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  8. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  9. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  10. Unionism and Professionalism: Siblings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Alfred; Nielsen, Robert

    The controversy surrounding the meaning of professionalism on American campuses is approached by examining the subject from an historical and trade union perspective. It is contended that faculty unions are compatible with professional needs and desires of faculty. The roots of the American college and university system are examined in conjunction…

  11. 75 FR 73000 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... continue to face crucial decisions. For example, the ongoing effects of the financial crisis may force some... to parts 702, 703, 709, and 747). Final Rule, 75 FR 64786 (October 20, 2010) (September Rulemaking... during the economic crisis of the past several years. Some corporate credit unions made poor...

  12. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  13. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Underground Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the Soviet Government's handling of two samizdat (self-publication) publications, and suggests that dissent in Russia is handled selectively and that the Soviet authorities are not interested in eliminating all dissent, only the dissent that they find challenging to their rule. (JMF)

  14. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  15. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  16. Mutual Predators: An Examination of Russia's Oil, Gas, and Nuclear Sectors in the Post-Soviet Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, Adam

    Russia's energy sector has changed dramatically over the past three decades and this study examines this change within the oil, gas, and nuclear sectors. Having inherited a state capitalist system after the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia's bureaucracy now presides over an incredibly rich and deeply problematic energy economy. At its core, this is a study on institutionalized corruption and the behavior of corrupt elites. More specifically, it examines whether Russia can succeed within this context and what this may teach us on the nature of corrupt states and institutions.

  17. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  18. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  19. Petroleum geology and resources of the middle Caspian Basin, Former Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Middle Caspian basin occupies a large area between the Great Caucasus foldbelt and the southern edge of the Precambrian Russian craton. The basin also includes the central part of the Caspian Sea and the South Mangyshlak subbasin east of the sea. The basin was formed on the Hercynian accreted terrane during Late Permian?Triassic through Quaternary time. Structurally, the basin consists of the fold-and-thrust zone of the northern Caucasus foothills, the foredeep and foreland slope, the Stavropol-Prikumsk uplift and East Manych trough to the north of the slope, and the South Mangyshlak subbasin and slope of the Karabogaz arch east of the Caspian Sea. All these major structures extend offshore. Four total petroleum systems (TPS) have been identified in the basin. The South Mangyshlak TPS contains more than 40 discovered fields. The principal reserves are in Lower?Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in structural traps. Source rocks are poorly known, but geologic data indicate that they are in the Triassic taphrogenic sequence. Migration of oil and gas significantly postdated maturation of source rocks and was related to faulting and fracturing during middle Miocene to present time. A single assessment unit covers the entire TPS. Largest undiscovered resources of this assessment unit are expected in the largely undrilled offshore portion of the TPS, especially on the western plunge of the Mangyshlak meganticline. The Terek-Caspian TPS occupies the fold-and-thrust belt, foredeep, and adjoining foreland slope. About 50 hydrocarbon fields, primarily oil, have been discovered in the TPS. Almost all hydrocarbon reserves are in faulted structural traps related to thrusting of the foldbelt, and most traps are in frontal edges of the thrust sheets. The traps are further complicated by plastic deformation of Upper Jurassic salt and Maykop series (Oligocene? lower Miocene) shale. Principal reservoirs are fractured Upper Cretaceous carbonates and middle Miocene sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich shales in the lower part of the Maykop series. Source rocks may also be present in the Eocene, Upper Jurassic, and Middle Jurassic sections, but their contribution to discovered reserves is probably small. Three assessment units are delineated in the TPS. One of them encompasses the thrust-and-fold belt of northern Caucasus foothills. This assessment unit contains most of the undiscovered oil resources. The second assessment unit occupies the foredeep and largely undeformed foreland slope. Undiscovered resources of this unit are relatively small and primarily related to stratigraphic traps. The third unit is identified in almost untested subsalt Jurassic rocks occurring at great depths and is speculative. The unit may contain significant amounts of gas under the Upper Jurassic salt seal. The Stavropol-Prikumsk TPS lies north of the Terek-Caspian TPS and extends offshore into the central Caspian Sea where geologic data are scarce. More than one hundred oil and gas fields have been found onshore. Offshore, only one well was recently drilled, and this well discovered a large oil and gas field. Almost the entire sedimentary section of the TPS is productive; however, the principal oil reserves are in Lower Cretaceous clastic reservoirs in structural traps of the Prikumsk uplift. Most original gas reserves are in Paleogene reservoirs of the Stavropol arch and these reservoirs are largely depleted. At least three source rock formations, in the Lower Triassic, Middle Jurassic, and Oligocene?lower Miocene (Maykop series), are present in the TPS. Geochemical data are inadequate to correlate oils and gases in most reservoirs with particular source rocks, and widespread mixing of hydrocarbons apparently took place. Three assessment units encompassing the onshore area of the TPS, the offshore continuation of the Prikumsk uplift, and the central Caspian area, are identified. The

  20. Possible changes for mudflow and avalanche activity in former Soviet Union due to the global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Glazovskaya, T.G.; Sidorova, T.L.; Seliverstov, Y.G.

    1996-12-31

    Past research, as well as laboratory evidence have revealed a relationship between climate, mudflow, and avalanche activity. It is possible to predict changes in mudflow and avalanche activity by using climate models. In this study, the GFDL model was used which contained data on mean monthly air temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentrations.

  1. METHOD TO QUANTIFY THE CARBON CYCLE OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION (EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 which is predicted to cause the earth's temperatures to rise and accelerate rates of plant respiration and the decay of organic matter, disrupting the equilibrium of the terrestrial carbon ...

  2. Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

  3. Psychology and Education of the Learning Disabled Child in the Soviet Union. Research Report No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    The author surveys the status in the USSR of educational programing and psychological research with learning disabled children who are classified as temporarily retarded in psychological development (TRPD). Education and psychology in the USSR are said to be marked by the following major characteristics: a strong emphasis on the importance of…

  4. Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence and Corporal Punishment Among Former Soviet Union Immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Enosh, Guy; Leshem, Elazar; Buchbinder, Eli

    2016-10-01

    The study regards attitudes of Russian immigrants in Israel toward wife abuse and corporal punishment. The sample consisted of 1,028 participants, based on a multistage cluster sampling. The study used a questionnaire related to immigration, acculturation, and attitudinal issues. The findings indicate a dual-causal model, in which corporal punishment attitudes contribute to wife abuse attitudes and vice versa. However, the effect of attitudes supporting corporal punishment was stronger than the effect of wife abuse attitudes, indicating that the attitudinal system as a precursor of violent behavior is already merging the two types of violence. PMID:26834146

  5. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

    1999-11-15

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as atmospheric transport, could be considered under future-funded research efforts for impacts to Alaska. The ANWAP risk assessment does not address the following wastes, media, and receptors: radioactive sources in Alaska (except to add perspective for Russian source term); radioactive wastes associated with Russian naval military operations and decommissioning; Russian production reactor and spent-fuel reprocessing facilities nonaqueous source terms; atmospheric, terrestrial and nonaqueous pathways; and dose calculations for any circumpolar locality other than Alaska. These other, potentially serious sources of radioactivity to the Arctic environment, while outside the scope of the current ANWAP mandate, should be considered for future funding research efforts.

  6. US - Former Soviet Union environmental restoration and waste management activities, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy Agreement was signed between DOE and the Ministry of Atomic Energy for the Russian Federation and provides a mechanism for cooperation in research, development, and safe utilization of nuclear energy. Under the umbrella of this agreement, DOE and the former Ministry of Atomic Power and Industry signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management in September 1990. This document discusses the environmental situation, science and technology process, technical projects (separations, contaminant transport, waste treatment, environmental restoration), scientist exchanges, enhanced data transfer, the US-Russia industry partnership (conference, centers), and future actions.

  7. Verification of occupational doses at the first nuclear plant in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, A A; Regulla, D; Vasilenko, E K; Wieser, A; Drozhko, E G; Lyzlov, A F; Koshurnikova, N A; Shilnikova, N S; Panfilov, A P

    1996-01-01

    Mean annual occupational exposures are reported for radiation workers at the first Russian industrial nuclear facility 'Mayak', South Ural region, for the period 1948-1988. The underlying individual doses originate from the register of the in-plant radiation safety department and are based on local film dosimetry results. Differentiation is made between personnel working at reactor and radiochemical processing plants. Verification of summed film doses is performed by means of ESR dose reconstruction using extracted teeth from selected individuals. Explanations are given for observed discrepancies between the reconstructed individual doses and original integrated film dosimetry results. The research potential of combined dose information from specific tooth enamel and dentine are shown. PMID:9022184

  8. Community Health Nursing in a Former Soviet Union Republic: A Case Study of Change in Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Henrietta; And Others

    1995-01-01

    To combat extreme health conditions in Armenia, nurses and physicians were given pretraining in community health at home and additional training in the United States on change strategies and community-based practice. Unforeseen barriers to change hindered progress, but participants were committed to preventive community health care. (SK)

  9. Chemoprevention of oral and esophageal cancer in Uzbekistan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    PubMed

    Zaridze, D G; Kuvshinov, J P; Matiakin, E; Polakov, B I; Boyle, P; Blettner, M

    1985-12-01

    The results of a survey of a population with a high risk of oral and esophageal cancer and the outline of a chemoprevention scheme for persons found to have a precancerous condition of the mouth and esophagus are presented. Of a total of 1,569 men examined, 11% had preleukoplakia and leukoplakia of the mouth, and 60% of the 1,344 men in whom esophagogastroscopy was performed had chronic esophagitis. The relative risk of oral leukoplakia was highest (11.5) among men who smoke and use nass quid. The relative risk was also elevated for persons who only use nass quid (5.6) or who only smoke cigarettes (7.8). Nass use had no effect on the risk of esophagitis. A slight elevation of risk (1.9) of esophagitis was observed for current smokers and drinkers. Of the men from whom blood was drawn for analysis, 4%, 66%, and 86% had low levels of retinol, carotene, and riboflavin, respectively. The high prevalence of oral and esophageal precancerous conditions and low blood levels of riboflavin, carotene, and vitamin A observed in the surveyed population, as well as the existing evidence on the possible protective effect of these nutrients in carcinogenesis, provide an opportunity and a justification for the chemopreventive trial, with the regression of observed precancerous lesions as the end point of the study. PMID:2939349

  10. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics. PMID:21466003

  11. EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural processes in ocean and terrestrial ecosystems together with human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. It is predicted that an increase in the concentrations of CO2 will cause the Earth's temperatures to rise and will accel...

  12. New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Sakunov, Igor; Drapey, Sergey; Nations, Jim

    2009-01-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

  13. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities. PMID:26064871

  14. Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

    1999-08-31

    This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

  15. New types of dwellings for prospective construction after 1981. [in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butuzov, V.; Kapustyan, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Architectural considerations for the next stage of mass housing construction in the U.S.S.R. are explored. The architects are concerned with both the aesthetic and functional quality of the constructions, in terms of the prospective inhabitants as well as the environments in which they will be located. Experimental building designs emphasize: variety of appearance, environmental control, and the communal life.

  16. Directory of Palaeontologists of the World (Excl. Soviet Union & Continental China), 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, G. E. G.

    The three major parts of this directory are (1) the alphabetical list of palaeontologists, (2) the indices of specialization, and (3) the regional list of institutions employing paleontologists. Listed under Part 1 are name and business address, major and minor regional specializations, disciplinary specializations, and major and minor systematic…

  17. The Role of Language in the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, David F.

    A study examines the dynamics of cultural pluralism and language in the ethnic mobilization, and resulting dissolution, of the USSR. It first examines ethnic composition, dominant nationalities, language groups without separate nationalities, patterns of ethnic populations within nationalities, and the influence of this multiculturalism on…

  18. Technology and the Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Faculty union meetings will focus increasingly on the role of technology on college campuses, including adoption of new technologies, assuring support services, clarifying intellectual property issues, and preserving teacher-student contact as teleconferencing and network use grows. (MSE)

  19. The economics of academic health sciences libraries: cost recovery in the era of big science.

    PubMed

    Williams, T L; Lemkau, H L; Burrows, S

    1988-10-01

    With launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s, science and technology became a high priority in the United States. During the two decades since, health sciences libraries have experienced changes in almost all aspects of their operations. Additionally, recent developments in medical care and in medical education have had major influences on the mission of health science libraries. In the unending struggle to keep up with new technologies and services, libraries have had to support increasing demands while they receive a decreasing share of the health care dollar. This paper explores the economic challenges faced by academic health sciences libraries and suggests measures for augmenting traditional sources of funding. The development of marketing efforts, institutional memberships, and fee-based services by the Louis Calder Memorial Library, University of Miami School of Medicine, is presented as a case study. PMID:3224223

  20. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilin, K. A.

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  1. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

  3. Regional discrimination research and methodology implementation: Analyses of CDSN and Soviet IRIS data. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, T.J.; Scheimer, J.F.; Campanella, A.K.; Murphy, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the capability of regional stations in discrimination of underground nuclear explosions from earthquakes and non-nuclear explosions. Efforts during the first year of this program have focused on studies of regional data from the Chinese Digital Seismic Network(CDSN) and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology(IRIS) stations in the Soviet Union. A previous report described observations from the CDSN station at WMQ which indicated differences in relative spectral content of Lg versus regional P for explosions and earthquakes. In the current research we used different spectral analyses to study the signals from a larger event sample including 27 East Kazakh explosions and 32 regional earthquakes. Lg/P ratios for regional earthquakes were found to be enriched at high frequencies compared to similar explosions. In comparing explosions from Shagan River and Degelen Mountain areas it was found that regional P signals are relatively stronger from SR than from DM explosions with similar Lg signals. Analysis of East Kazakh explosion signals recorded at Soviet IRIS stations indicates that regional signals are observable down to very low magnitudes. Lg magnitude residuals from these stations have been used to derive effective Q values for these paths.

  4. Thirty years together: A chronology of U.S.-Soviet space cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1993-01-01

    The chronology covers 30 years of cooperation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States, of which the Russian Federation is the leading space power). It tracks successful cooperative projects and failed attempts at space cooperation. Included are the Dryden-Blagonravov talks; the UN Space Treaties; the Apollo Soyuz Test Project; COSPAS-SARSAT; the abortive Shuttle-Salyut discussions; widespread calls for joint manned and unmanned exploration of Mars; conjectural plans to use Energia and other Russian space hardware in ambitious future joint missions; and contemporary plans involving the U.S. Shuttle, Russian Mir, and Soyuz-TM. The chronology also includes events not directly related to space cooperation to provide context. A bibliography lists works and individuals consulted in compiling the chronology, plus works not used but relevant to the topic of space cooperation.

  5. NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL ALIENATION IN FORMER SOVIET IMMIGRANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2010-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44–80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the US fewer than 13 years. Participants resided in 65 census tracts in the Chicago area with varying concentrations of Russian-speaking and diverse immigrants. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that the effect of acculturation on alienation varies depending on neighborhood characteristics. The study also demonstrates the complexity of individual and contextual influences on immigrant adoption. Understanding these relationships is important for developing community-based and neighborhood-level interventions to enhance the mental health of immigrants. PMID:21127738

  6. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  7. Individual, family, social, and cultural predictors of depressed mood in former Soviet immigrant couples.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arlene M; Sorokin, Olga; Fogg, Louis

    2013-06-01

    Gender differences in predictors of depression for married couples from the former Soviet Union were examined in a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis. Data were collected during a longitudinal study of post-migration health and adaptation. The sample included 308 men and women (154 couples), ages 40-79, who had lived in the US for an average of 6 years. Generativity, marital satisfaction and communication, social support, immigration challenges, and alienation were independent predictors of depressed mood. A gender interaction was found for generativity, indicating that diminished opportunities to guide the next generation and be productive members of society may have been more depressing for women. Interventions should attend to gender differences in developmental needs, reduce immigration-related challenges, and strengthen family and social support. PMID:23408500

  8. [Treatment of the sputum with Soviet-produced chlorhexidine bigluconicum].

    PubMed

    Golyshevskaia, V I; Makarevich, N M

    1990-01-01

    Soviet chlorhexedin bigluconicum (CHBG) was used for sputum treatment. 129 sputum specimens were investigated. Among them 45 specimens were bacterioscopically negative. The rest contained low, moderate and high numbers of tubercle bacilli. The sputum was incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen and Finn-II media. Comparison of two treatment methods (with Na3PO4 and CHBG) showed that CHBG had a more sparing effect on tubercle bacilli. The most marked effect was observed with incubation of oligobacillar materials and materials containing low numbers of tubercle bacilli. The highest differences were revealed when the materials were incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen medium. It was shown that isolation of the cultures from oligobacillar materials increased by 4-14.3 per cent. The growth intensity and rate were higher. The majority of the cultures grew in 3-4 weeks whereas with using Na3PO4 part of the cultures grew during the period between the 6th and the 8th weeks. When the number of tubercle bacilli was high irrespective of the treatment procedure the number of the grown cultures was the same. The germination level was low and amounted to 3.9 per cent after treatment with Na3PO4 and to 2.3 per cent after treatment with CHBG. The method using CHBG is simple, economic and valuable in laboratory practice. PMID:2114642

  9. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  10. Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of −35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

  11. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  12. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  13. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development. PMID:17208715

  14. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  15. The Kopenhagen operation of the Soviet KGB. The Kopenahagen interview of Niels Bohr by a Soviet scientist and KGB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. B.; Yavelov, Boris E.

    The authors describes the Soveit KGB operation of interviewing Niels Bohr by soviet scientist Yakov. P. Terletskii(1912-1993) and KGB kolonel Lev Petrovich Vasilevskii (b. 1903) on 24 september 1945-20 november 1945 concerning the American Nuclear weapons (Manhattan project)undertaken under the project of the Soviet KGB Lieder Lavrentij P. Berija and supervised by Soviet KGB generals Pavel A. Sudoplatov (b. 1907) and Nikolay S. Sazykin (1910-1985) after the detailed magnetophone interview of Professor Ya. P. Terletskij before his die in Moscow.

  16. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  17. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  18. ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute Soviet Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanesian, Deran

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on Soviet Armenia and the Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI) located in this republic of the USSR. Also provides a description of chemical engineering programs and courses and faculty at the EPI. (JN)

  19. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  20. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.