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1

JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from the Soviet Union regarding economic affairs. Titles include: Ozherelyev Advocates Private Property; Uzbek Decree Exempting Consumer Items from Five-Percent Tax; Estonia to...

1991-01-01

2

Soviet Union Republic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains open source material from the Soviet Union on a wide range of republic political, economic, military and social issues. Material on the Soviet Repurblic that was previously published in the JPRS reports on Soviet Union political affair...

1992-01-01

3

Soviet Union Republic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains open source material from the Soviet Union on a wide range of republic political, economic, military and social issues. Material on the Soviet Republic that was previously published in the JPRS reports on Soviet Union political affairs...

1991-01-01

4

The Economic Consequences of an Invasion of Poland by the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the economic situation and implications of a Soviet invasion of Poland. The analysis concerns the state of the Polish and Soviet economies and the possible economic effects of an invasion of the Soviet Union of Poland. The hypothesis ...

W. A. Weronko

1981-01-01

5

Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

Osipian, Ararat L.

2004-01-01

6

Economic Aid to the Former Soviet union: A Chance for Democracy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the Soviet Union places the United States and other Western countries in a dilemma with two alternatives. One, to stand by and observe events, only providing economic aid after events solidify and alternatives become clear. or two, provid...

R. H. Griffin

1992-01-01

7

The Soviet Union in transition  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

Niiseki, K.

1987-01-01

8

An Economic Analysis of Transboundary Air Pollution between Finland and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net benefits of bilateral cooperation between Finland and the former Soviet Union on reducing sulphur emissions are evaluated for both parties. The analysis is based on a sulphur transportation model and on estimated abatement cost functions. It is shown that efficient cooperation may entail financial transfers from Finland to the Soviet Union because it is cheaper to abate sulpher

Veijo Kaitala; Matti Pohjola; Olli Tahvonen

1992-01-01

9

The Economics of Agricultural Decollectivization in East Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The break-up of large-scale agricultural production units into individually operated farms differs considerably across East Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Large-scale successor organizations to the former state and collective farms still dominate in Slovakia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and in most states of the Former Soviet Union. In Albania, Armenia, and Latvia, a massive break-up of the collective

Erik Mathijs; Johan F. M. Swinnen

1998-01-01

10

Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program  

SciTech Connect

Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

NONE

1991-01-01

11

The Soviet Union: Political and military trends  

SciTech Connect

On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

1990-01-01

12

Nuclear proliferation from the former Soviet Union and the effects of US economic incentives. Research report  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the United States` role in stemming nuclear proliferation from the states of the Former Soviet Union. Proliferation from the FSU is a critical danger to the world. Because of the breakdown of many of the security structures within the FSU which formerly ensured the safety of their weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and related material, the danger is very real. The implementation of the START treaties has also generated a great deal of excess fissile material. Because of the economic conditions in the FSU, there is rising crime concerning the sale and distribution of this material. Finally, this paper examines the U.S. role in decreasing the danger of nuclear catastrophe caused by the lack of control. The primary force used in this effort is the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act (CTR) - better know as the Nunn-Lugar Program - which was initiated in 1991 immediately after the failed coup attempt in Moscow. The paper examines in broad scope the types of efforts that CTR supports and gives examples of how that money is being spent. The paper takes the position that the CTR is extremely important to the vital interests of the United States. Recommendations are then given to enhance this vital program.

Zimmerman, C.L.

1996-12-31

13

Proliferation and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

Not Available

1994-09-01

14

Corporate Governance in the Former Soviet Union: An Overview1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrin, Saul, and Wright, Mike—Corporate Governance in the Former Soviet Union: An Overview This paper seeks to identify whether the slow progress in transition experienced by the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) arises from weaknesses in implementing effective corporate governance or from weaknesses in the broader economic environment. An overview of progress in transition in the FSU is

Saul Estrin; Mike Wright

1999-01-01

15

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

The services for chronically handicapped people with psychiatric disorders in the Soviet Union are described. The system is based upon a network of community units, each of which includes a day centre, a follow-up clinic, and a sheltered workshop. British services could profitably learn from the experience of these units. The diagnostic system used by many Soviet psychiatrists is different from that incorporated in the International Classification of Diseases. In particular, the term “schizophrenia” is used to describe conditions which British psychiatrists would label in other ways. This clinical difference partly explains the different concept of “criminal responsibility,” but another large component of the difference is political rather than medical. There are also variations from British practice in certain juridical procedures. These differences together make Soviet psychiatric practice in the case of political dissenters unacceptable to most British psychiatrists. It is too soon to say that frank discussions of these matters could not lead to improvement. British and Soviet psychiatrists still have something to learn from each other.

Wing, J. K.

1974-01-01

16

Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns  

SciTech Connect

The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

Potter, W. [Monterey Institute of International Studies, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

17

The End of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

Hergesheimer, John

1992-01-01

18

Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

Not Available

1986-01-01

19

Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

Stevens, Robert E.

1987-01-01

20

Progress of Television in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress of tv broadcasting and tv technology in the Soviet Union are briefly reviewed. Soviet claims for early inventions related to tv techniques are laid. The central tv black-and-white broadcast program is transmitted from Moscow to 114 cities and...

P. V. Shmakov

1968-01-01

21

The Soviet Union and Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum considers Soviet policy toward the Southern African region as a whole. The author analyzes such issues as the objectives which the USSR seeks to achieve in the region; the instruments of policy which the Soviet Union employs; the degree of...

D. S. Papp

1980-01-01

22

Adult Mortality in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mortality in the Soviet Union improved rapidly in the years immediately following World War II, so that in the mid-1960s life\\u000a expectancies in countries such as Russia and Ukraine were similar to those of the United States. However, this improvement\\u000a was not sustained; levels of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union today are similar to those found 50 years

Michael Murphy

23

CIA Assessments of the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the aftermath of the political breakup of the Soviet Union, charges that CIA was oblivious to the deteriorating economy and corroding societal conditions that set the stage for the breakup have taken on the aura of conventional wisdom. The New York Tim...

D. J. MacEachin

1997-01-01

24

Encephalitis Lethargica in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although encephalitis lethargica (EL) appeared in epidemic form in the Soviet Union during the 1920s as it did in most of the world, the Western literature, particularly English, contains little information about the manifestations of the disease there. Here we summarize articles by prominent Russian neurologists who wrote about the disease as they viewed it during the epidemic period. As

Joel A. Vilensky; Ravil Z. Mukhamedzyanov; Sid Gilman

2008-01-01

25

Authoritarianism in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relevance of the authoritarian personality in the Soviet Union. In a 1991 Moscow quota sample, authoritarianism strongly predicted support for reactionary leaders and military actions and opposition to democratic and non-Russian leaders and to democratic activities. The positive correlation between authoritarianism and support for Marxist—Leninist ideology was significant but lower than in 1989. Consistent with the

Sam G. McFarland; Vladimir S. Ageyev; Marina A. Abalakina-Paap

1992-01-01

26

Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

Winokur, Marshall

1981-01-01

27

Computers and Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent decades in the Soviet Union have witnessed a prolific growth of technology. The school system has been under pressure to become more systematic and to supply more qualified candidates to meet the demand of industry. Computer technology has been introduced in order to facilitate more detailed attention to educational objectives.…

Zender, Bryce F., Ed.

28

The Soviet Union and the Middle East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia has been interested in the Middle East intermittently for centuries, but in the past this interest has focused on security considerations. Since the emergence of the Soviet Union as a great power, and particularly since the beginnings of normal Sov...

R. D. McLaurin M. Mughisuddin

1974-01-01

29

Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

NONE

1991-04-01

30

Cloudiness variations over the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former Soviet Union (FUSSR), low-level cloud cover has significantly decreased over the period 1936-1990. This change has an opposite sign to that of the total cloud cover. Analysis of the occurrences of cloud types suggests that the decrease in low-level cloud cover was primarily due to the decrease in stratiform clouds. The presence of stratiform clouds is generally

Bomin Sun; Pavel Ya. Groisman

2000-01-01

31

US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

NONE

1995-09-01

32

Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

Khabibullov, Marat

1991-11-01

33

The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: A report from the ‘post-war’ zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in ‘peace time.’ In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was ‘war time,’ although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result

Mark G. Field

1995-01-01

34

Soviet Union and Nuclear Proliferation: Policy at a Crossroads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area ...

R. L. Rigby

1988-01-01

35

The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction

Parrott

1987-01-01

36

The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense  

SciTech Connect

In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

Parrott, B.

1987-01-01

37

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

Spearman, M. L.

1984-01-01

38

Economic Factors and Soviet Arms Control Policy. The Economic Burden of the Soviet Defense Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soviet defense expenditures, 1950-1965 Difficulties and complications The official defense budget The 'real' defense budget The cost of military manpower Trends in Soviet defense spending The economic impact of the Soviet defense effort Defense ...

F. Ermarth

1964-01-01

39

Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Rand Corporation examines issues with respect to the former Soviet Union. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration, (available in .pdf format only) is "an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." It contains 10 papers, divided by region, as well as 4 papers on prospects for future cooperation and integration.

1996-01-01

40

Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

Leonard, R. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

41

Human Rights Problems in the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet human rights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)

Graubert, Judah L.

1972-01-01

42

Introductory Guide to Joint Ventures in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introductory guide to joint ventures in the Soviet Union; Get to know the market; Success requires clearly defined goals; Soviet goals for joint ventures with the West; Finding a joint venture partner (Who can enter into a joint venture, Other S...

S. M. H. Lewenz

1990-01-01

43

Regional aspects of energy trade in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with energy trade in the Soviet Union. Regional aspects are discussed and conclusions are as follow: Soviet resources potential is very large; receantly the potential of the USSR to further build up its energy production for exports is lim...

K. Jaanimaegi

1990-01-01

44

Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent.

McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J. [eds.] [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Abarbanel, H.D.I. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Abraham, N.B. [Bryn Mawr Coll., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fraser, A.M. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States); Moon, F.C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Novikov, E.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Inst. of Nonlinear Science; Pecora, L.M. [US Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Shlesinger, M.F. [Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-08-01

45

Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

1992-03-01

46

Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

1992-03-01

47

Birds of the Soviet Union, Vol. vi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is a critical compendium of information applying to the taxonomy, geographical distribution, biology, and practical importance of Soviet representatives of the following passerine families: Laniidae, Campephagidae, Bombycillidae, Pycnonotidae, ...

G. P. Dementev N. A. Gladkov

1968-01-01

48

International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon production, testing, and deterrence and now includes the environment, human and economic health, and the proliferation of weapons-of-mass destruction. For these reasons the fall of the Soviet Union provides a new imperative and opportunity for systematic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary international efforts to begin to solve these important environmental problems. The environmental degradation from nuclear contamination affecting states of the former Soviet Union is a large topic, and a full description is outside the scope of this paper. A comprehensive overview of environmental concerns and radioactive waste production, inventories, and impacted sites is provided by others. Portions of the summaries provided here are drawn from these works.

Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

2003-07-27

49

Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties  

SciTech Connect

A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

1991-12-01

50

The slow growth of foreign direct investment in the Soviet Union successor states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This note reviews,the statistical evidence,on foreign direct investment,(FDI) in the countries,of the former,Soviet Union taking,into account,data from,both,host countries,and,countries,of origin. The main,characteristics of this FDI and,its variation,among,the successor,states of the Soviet Union,are established. The contribution,of FDI to economic,transition is so far limited to some sectors and regions, and unlikely to accelerate in the near future. JEL classification: F21, F23, P31.

Klaus E. Meyer; Christina Pind

51

OECD trade barriers faced by the successor states of the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a comprehensive World Bank - UNCTAD data base on tariff barriers NTBs), the authors examine the incidence of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) trade barriers to exports of the former Soviet Union (FSU). OECD markets have grown steadily in importance in the past decade and now receive more than half of FSU exports. And additional trade could

Bartlomiej Kaminski; Alexander Yeats

1993-01-01

52

Military Spending in the United States, Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military expenditures of the United States, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are examined from two perspectives: (1) a modification of the traditional Richardson arms race formulation and (2) the notion that the military budget is used by decision makers, in part, to respond to the domestic political and economic environment. These competing formulations are juxtaposed in

Thomas R. Cusack; Michael Don Ward

1981-01-01

53

Watching the Bear: Essays on CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Contributors to this Volume; Introduction and Overview of the Conference Papers; Origins of CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Union; CIA's Analysis of the Soviet Economy; Analyzing Soviet Politics and Foreign Policy; CIA's Analysis of Sovie...

G. A. Haines R. E. Leggett

2003-01-01

54

Reconstruction of the Unified Soviet National Economic Balance Tables, 1970 - 1983: A Replication and Evaluation of Steinberg's Reconstruction Methodology. Volume 1: Technical.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes DSA's replication and evaluation of the Dmitri Steinberg methodology for reconstructing the unified National Economic Balance (NEB) tables of the Soviet Union--which are used by Soviet economic planners to provide an integrated stat...

M. W. Zelina G. E. Pugh

1987-01-01

55

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Party, State Affairs, History, Philosophy, Religion, Culture, Social Issues, Regional Issues, Address, Ideological, Representatives, Pact, Contemporary Culture Conference, AIDS Research, Environmental, Natural resource, New Union, Radioa...

1988-01-01

56

Environmental Management in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of literature focusing on the effects of the centrally planned Soviet economy on the environment. Twenty-six documents are classified in three categories: English-language sources, Russian-language sources, and Russian-language ecologically oriented newspapers, newsletters, and journals. (MDH)

Hagan, Andrea

1992-01-01

57

The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: a report from the 'post-war' zone.  

PubMed

Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come. PMID:8607037

Field, M G

1995-12-01

58

Deep Seismic Sounding with Nuclear Explosives in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large geophysical program of exploration that uses deep seismic sounding has been under way in the Soviet Union for decades. Underground nuclear explosives have been used as strong seismic sources since 1971. The wide spacing between these seismic sources--for example, 500 kilometers--has permitted seismic exploration of inaccessible areas in traverses up to 3000 kilometers in length. During the same

J. F. Scheimer; I. Y. Borg

1984-01-01

59

Deep seismic sounding with nuclear explosives in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large geophysical program of exploration that uses deep seismic sounding has been under way in the Soviet Union for decades. Underground nuclear explosives have been used as strong seismic sources since 1971. The wide spacing between these seismic sources-for example, 500 kilometers-has permitted seismic exploration of inaccessible areas in traverses up to 3000 kilometers in length. During the same

J. F. Scheimer; I. Y. Borg

1984-01-01

60

Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

Erkkila, B. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

61

Course of the Former Soviet Union's Astronavigational Development (I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, the western press has revealed a great deal behind the scenes of the development of astronavigational technology in the former Soviet Union. Recently, they have also begun to carry out a new evaluation with regard to the course of astrona...

1996-01-01

62

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL RABIES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which were similar to viruses from Alaska and Canada. Group B

Ivan V. Kuzmin; Alexandr D. Botvinkin; Lorraine M. McElhinney; Jean S. Smith; A. Orciari; Gareth J. Hughes; Anthony R. Fooks; Charles E. Rupprecht

63

Cybernetics and Its Development in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an introduction to the subject of cybernetics, with special reference to its origins and ramifications in the United States and its subsequent development in the Soviet Union. As a survey document only, it was prepared to provide a non-scien...

R. Levien

1964-01-01

64

Attitude Change of American Tourists in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre- and post-travel questionnaires mailed to American tourists visiting the Soviet Union record attitude change and serve as the basis for this eight-chapter research project report. Most of the report considers the relation of various factors to attitude change, including education, level of information, language ability, sex, age, occupation,…

Grothe, Peter

65

Physical Education and Sport in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents perceptions of the world of sport and physical education gained during a study-tour of the Soviet Union in 1977. This broad overview of individual and governmental involvement in physical activities includes the following--a survey of physical education and public participation in sport in tsarist Russia, governmental policy…

Maetozo, Matthew G.

66

Soviet Union: eastern deposits continue to be developed  

SciTech Connect

Although national production has declined slightly, new mines and plentiful reserves make the coal industry capable of bouncing back. The factor of long distance transportation of coal enters in a significant manner into the equation that governs the question of supplying the Soviet Union with energy. It is now necessary to rely increasingly on resources that are far away from the consumers. Soviet coal reserves are estimated at 8,500,000,000,000 tons. An output rate of 2,000,000,000 tons per year should not be difficult to reach, maintain, and surpass. However, 90 percent of that coal lies in the Soviet Far East and Siberia. Soviet economists see this coal as a major factor in foreign trade by the end of this century. Such coal is already sold to Belgium, Finland, and Greece. Japan is a likely customer for future purchases. Within the Soviet Union, economists also consider the development of Siberian mining as being of paramount importance. The Eleventh Five Year Plan anticipates not only that 800,000,000 tons will be produced in 1985 but that mining will shift toward Siberian resources. Still, to reach the level of 800,000,000 tons by 1985 requires an annual growth rate of 1.5 percent. The emphasis of the current Five Year Plan is on the development of large-scale technology for surface mines while keeping overall production steady by modernizing the underground mines.

Not Available

1981-11-01

67

Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

Lesperance, A.M.

1992-05-01

68

After Gorbachev: Science in the Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pace of change in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been overwhelming. Vast regions of territory and many formerly closed cities have been opened to foreigners, and once-classified research institutes are now open to visitors. The Soviet Academy of Sciences has become the Russian Academy and separate academies are being established in the other independent republics. A Russian Ministry of Science, Higher Education, and Technology, as well as a Russian Ministry of Defense, have been established, while the much-heralded “Commonwealth of Independent States” has never really materialized.

Roederer, Juan G.

69

Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

Not Available

1990-01-01

70

JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports....

1989-01-01

71

JPRS Report Soviet Union International Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers (1) Worldwide Topics; (2) East-West Relations; (3) General Economic Affairs; (4) United States, Canada; (5) West Europe; (6) East Europe; (7) Latin America; (8) China, East Asia; and (9) Near East and South Asia issues.

1989-01-01

72

Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former senior scientist (mensuration) for the Soviet Committee on Forests, now a scholar at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, has provided abundant contributions from the data available to him and from his experience. Forest stand carbon is concentrated in the Russian Far East (i.e. Primorski Kray), Central-Southern Siberia and European Russia But, soil carbon can be 10 times forest stand C. Our efforts in mapping the area and changes in area (as well as the internal structure) of forests have made major contributions to our joint understanding of the scale and status of these forests. To realize the importance of this contribution one needs only to recognize that any large scale Soviet-era maps of the area did not include latitude and longitude. Even today, there is great reluctance to provide these data, the basis of any GIS.

Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

1997-01-01

73

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The JPRS Report: Part 3; Contains subject information on Political Affairs and Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, in the Soviet Union. Soviet books and journal articles displaying a copyright notice are reproduced and sold by NTIS with permission...

1988-01-01

74

The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

Not Available

1990-03-01

75

The Observance of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that the Soviet state is under the total control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is widely known. Party control over the Soviet state has not received legal elaboration full enough to be considered a match to what is effectuated in pra...

V. Chalidze

1980-01-01

76

An Analysis of Mathematics Education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status of mathematics education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reported. The perceptions of Davis and Romberg reflect their own observations and discussions with Soviet educators. Kantowski and Rachlin give their impressions resulting from reading reports on Soviet research techniques and findings. Davis and Romberg…

Davis, Robert B.; And Others

77

Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

Khartukov, E.M. (International Business School, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Vinogradova, O.V.

1993-08-01

78

The Limits of Superpower: The United States and the Soviet Union since World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpowers are of critical importance in the regulation of global affairs. Since World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union imposed a bipolar order that had worldwide repercussions. Now that the Cold War has ended and the Soviet Union has disintegrated, the eyes of the world are on the U.S., as the sole remaining superpower and on its role

Jan Nijman

1992-01-01

79

Design Evolution and Performance of the Soviet Union's Large Polar Icebreakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1985 the Soviet Union operated approximately 70 icebreakers of many types and 14 specialized icebreaking cargo ships of the SA-15 class. However, within this fleet only 16 vessels can be considered true polar icebreakers - large, powerful ships capable of independent operations in multi-year ice. These polar icebreakers, all built since 1959, are the mainstay of the Soviet Union's

L. Brigham; Kara Strait; Kara Seas

1986-01-01

80

Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

81

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Nov...

M. E. Mount M. K. Sheaffer D. T. Abbott

1993-01-01

82

Intraplate Earthquakes and State of Stress in the former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on intraplate earthquakes in the Former Soviet Union and adjacent regions is collected from historical and instrumental records. Since most of the territory of the Russian Republic is intraplate in its tectonic character, intraplate earthquake...

L. R. Sykes S. Yunga T. Rautian

1998-01-01

83

JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: National Economy, Planning, Plan Implementation, Investment, Prices, Budget, Finance, Industrial Development, Performance, Regional Development, Agriculture, Energy, Human Resources, Machine building, Transportation.

1988-01-01

84

The Approach of Immigrant Families from the Former Soviet Union Towards Child Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

*This research was supported by the Varburg foundation.In recent years there has been a large wave of emigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To acquire knowledge about how Soviet immigrant families perceive and approach situations of child maltreatment a study has been conducted in Israel. A semi structured questionnaire, which included 14 vignettes of abuse and neglect situations, was

Ron Shor

1997-01-01

85

The Development of Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology for the Treatment of Former Soviet Union Research Reactor Fuel  

SciTech Connect

On-site application of the MMD process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union (FSU) High Enriched Uranium (HEU) research reactor fuel to a safe and secure Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) ingot. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active equipment deployment in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the FSU.

Adams, T.

2003-10-09

86

Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events indicate that the Soviet Union has parted from the original intent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and of the International Atomic Energy Association nuclear safeguards and has begun assisting nations that are not participants of the non-proliferation regime. While not specifically calling for a revision of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, the Soviet Union has unilaterally assisted in the spread of nuclear technology to nations that have refused to become members of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This assistance is examined in the context of the overall Soviet nuclear nonproliferation policy or simply placing political goals above that of international agreements is examined. The paper concludes that the Soviet Union will use nuclear technology as a tool to further its strategic goals.

Rigby, R.L.

1988-04-02

87

Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

1993-09-01

88

Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

Williams, J.D.

1995-07-01

89

Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

Dunaway, R.L.

1995-11-01

90

Acoustics Research in Europe and the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations are provided on recent European and Soviet developments in the fields of structural acoustics, underwater acoustics and physical acoustics. European activity in these specialties range from architectural applications, to active noise cancella...

1990-01-01

91

Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted.

Not Available

1991-08-12

92

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day.  

PubMed

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

93

Efficiency and Growth in Agriculture: A Comparative Study of the Soviet Union, United States, Canada, and Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth in the agricultural sector of the Soviet Union has been slow and a constant cause of concern for the Soviet leadership. Western economists have long argued that the Soviet system lacks the efficiency in production that market forces provide in the ...

R. B. Koopman

1989-01-01

94

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union (June 17, 2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of ...

A. F. Woolf

2004-01-01

95

Soviet Union and the Strategic Defense Initiative: preliminary findings and impressions. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This note provides a background against which to evaluate possible Soviet alternatives for dealing with the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in the decade ahead. Without speculating about what the Soviets will ultimately do in response to SDI, the note (1) examines Moscow's statements on SDI to date, (2) reviews the highlights of Soviet doctrine and programs related to strategic defense, (3) considers the real concerns that may underline the Kremlin's public posturing on SDI, and (4) outlines the key political and strategic factors that will constrain the Soviets' eventual response. The author suggests that, assuming SDI does lead to a deployable U.S. ballistic missile defense, the Soviets will be driven to counter that threat within the limits of their economic and technical resources. Forecasting the technical details of their response at this time, however, is complicated by uncertainty not only about Soviet concerns, motivations, and intentions, but also about what the United States will eventually do with SDI.

Lambeth, B.S.

1986-06-01

96

Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

Chernyak, Yuri

2005-03-01

97

Research on sensory interaction in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet research on sensory interaction is reviewed under the headings of changes in sensory response under accessory stimulation; some conditions affecting sensory interaction; some theory of sensory interaction (discussion of contiguity, neural excitation, leveling and accentuation, intracentral mediation, ionic balance, autonomic nervous system, green receptors, modification of primary conditions, and conditioning). It is concluded that the 24 years of research

Ivan D. London

1954-01-01

98

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

99

Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

2005-01-01

100

Disiccation of the Aral Sea: A Water Management Disaster in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea in the Soviet Union, formerly the world's fourth largest lake in area, is disappearing. Between 1960 and 1987, its level dropped nearly 13 meters, and its area decreased by 40 percent. Recession has resulted from reduced inflow caused primarily by withdrawals of water for irrigation. Severe environmental problems have resulted. The sea could dry to a residual

Philip P. Micklin

1988-01-01

101

A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used by the Soviet Union for many different types of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear effects tests. Taking our information principally from numerous books and papers in Russian published from 1988 to 2003, we describe the test site history and facilities, the early underwater tests, the many atmospheric tests from 1957 to 1962, and

VITALY I. KHALTURIN; TATYANA G. RAUTIAN; PAUL G. RICHARDS; WILLIAM S. LEITH

2005-01-01

102

CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

103

MANAGING MILITARY URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)-the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons-are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the

Matthew Bunn; John P. Holdren

1997-01-01

104

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

105

A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

106

Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

2014-01-01

107

The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

2012-01-01

108

Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

2002-01-01

109

Autopsy on an Empire: Understanding Mortality in Russia and the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male life expectancy at birth fell by over six years in Russia between 1989 and 1994. Many other countries of the former Soviet Union saw similar declines, and female life expectancy fell as well. Using cross-country and Russian household survey data, we assess six possible explanations for this upsurge in mortality. Most find little support in the data: the deterioration

Elizabeth Brainerd; David M. Cutler

2005-01-01

110

Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that many peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon

M. S. Botch; K. I. Kobak; T. S. Vinson; T. P. Kolchugina

1995-01-01

111

Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

2004-01-01

112

Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

1975-01-01

113

Challenges of Tengiz oil field and other FSU joint ventures. [Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Chevron has been operating a joint venture for the past year to develop supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. This article contains impressions on doing business in the former Soviet Union, details of some of the unique challenges of working on that part of the world, an update of the Tengiz project, and discussion of the Caspian region pipeline situation.

Matzke, R.H. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

1994-07-04

114

The trade in people in and from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the trafficking and smuggling of human beings from and through the former Soviet Union. It explores the reasons for the rise in the illegal movement of people; the groups which facilitate it; the demographics of the people who are moved and the business side, including the profits, the disposition of profits and the use of corruption

LOUISE SHELLEY

2003-01-01

115

Socio-Political Use of Physical Activity in the United States, The Soviet Union and China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from this comparative investigation of the Soviet Union, China, and the United States shows that different countries attach their own political meaning and ideology to physical activity in order to stabilize and strengthen themselves, and thus, better promote their respective ideology in the international marketplace of political power.…

Clark, Mark W.

116

Structural Fire Safety Regulations in Finland and in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The joint meeting in Moscow in December 1983 decided to produce a publication on fire safety regulations which would focus on building materials and construction in Finland and in the Soviet Union. The Finnish experts prepared seven papers on the theme wh...

P. Kallioniemi

1985-01-01

117

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

118

Rising Grain Exports by the Former Soviet Union Region. Causes and Outlook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three major grain-producing countries of the former Soviet Union--Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan--have become a large grain-exporting region. During 2006-11, grain exports by the three countries together averaged 41 million metric tons a year, about ...

E. Luebehusen O. Liefert W. Liefert

2013-01-01

119

Understanding Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union through History and Literature, 50 Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book provides 50 learning activities with background materials for teaching about tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet Union. Use of literature, history, geography, primary sources, various learning strategies are all included. The lessons provide study of 19th and 20th century events to Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika.…

Schwartz, Donald, Ed.; And Others

120

Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

Adushkin, V.C.

1995-11-11

121

American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

1988-01-01

122

Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

123

Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

Gomez, Leo S.

1999-06-04

124

Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

125

The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the Former Soviet Union, Cuba and China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, this website offers digitized images of both famous and obscure political propaganda posters. The ninety-nine posters are presented on three pages, one each for the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Even users with high-bandwidth connections should be patient when accessing these pages, since thumbnails for all thirty-some images load at once. A general introduction heads each page, and artist, title and date are listed for the posters. Each thumbnail links to a larger image of the poster, along with publication and production information and a descriptive caption. Separate pages provide information on the collections and the designers of the posters. Date coverage varies: 1919 to 1938 for the Soviet Union, 1962 to 1968 for Cuba, and c.1950 to 1992 for China. Once ubiquitous, now rarely seen, these posters have found new life on the Web.

1997-01-01

126

Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their use of complementary and alternative medicine.  

PubMed

The population of older immigrants in the United States is growing and they bring their health beliefs and practices with them. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies which includes in part: 1) foods to which medicinal properties are attributed, 2) herbs, 3) external treatments, and 4) pharmaceuticals manufactured in the former Soviet Union and available over-the-counter. These remedies vary in their efficacy and are often used in combination with or in lieu of prescribed allopathic (Western) medications. Health beliefs regarding medicine in the United States has led older Slavic immigrant to distrust their US health care providers and system. Nurses are in a key position to inquire and work with older Slavic immigrants to safely use their CAM and provide more information about prescribed allopathic medications and the harmful effects of combining remedies without consultation. PMID:24702720

Van Son, Catherine R; Stasyuk, Oksana

2014-01-01

127

Balances of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed sulfur and nitrogen emission inventories have recently been constructed for the former Soviet Union (FSU) territory, with 1 × 1 degree resolution (Ryaboshapko et al., 1996, Report CM-89, International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University). In this study, observations of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and in precipitation during 1980-1990 were compiled and deposition fluxes calculated. A three-dimensional (3D) global tracer transport model (MOGUNTIA) of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen was used to check the consistency between the observations and the emission data and to calculate the balances of these species for the FSU area. Distributions of the wet deposition fluxes of these species are presented and compared with observations. Important gaps in knowledge are identified and recommendations are made to improve the monitoring network for the former Soviet Union.

Ryaboshapko, Alexey; Gallardo, Laura; Kjellstro¨m, Erik; Gromov, Sergey; Paramonov, Sergey; Afinogenova, Olga; Rodhe, Henning

128

Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)  

SciTech Connect

The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

Stafeev, V. I., E-mail: orion@orion-ir.ru [RD and P Center Orion State Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

129

Four Goals of School Reform in the Soviet Union, 1984-1989: A Bumpy Journey for "Perestroika".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined is the progress of four major goals of school reform in the Soviet Union as an integral part of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's call for a monumental restructuring (perestroika) of society. With the adoption of Fundamental Directions of General Education and Vocational School Reform (1984), four important goals were set in motion;…

Wilson, Joan B.

130

Prospects for technical communications in the emerging countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The reorganization of communication flow within and to the former USSR, from the imposed bottleneck through Moscow during the communist era, to the relatively free flow of international scientific information, deserves consideration and analysis. Of the many newly formed independent states resulting from the break up of the Soviet Union, this paper focuses particularly on those in Central Asia. For the most part this is suggestive research that outlines a broad framework for future technical communications in Central Asia.

Noel, R.E.

1992-06-16

131

Changes in the Former Soviet Union: Debating U.S. Aid. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of study allows students and teachers to step back from the confusing media reports of the day-to-day turmoil in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and to examine it from a more thoughtful vantage point. The unit focuses on the most important instrument of U.S. policy toward the FSU--economic assistance. At the core of the unit are four…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

132

National laboratory technical exchanges with institutions and laboratories in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In March, 1992, the Department of Energy and the State Department established guidelines to encourage and direct laboratory-to-laboratory (lab-to-lab) cooperation with institutes in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. As a nonproliferation effort, the cooperative activities focus on the need to prevent emigration of weapons scientists to potentially proliferant states and organizations. The objective is to encourage joint projects/contracts in non-weapons-related areas in order to provide meaningful work, commensurate with scientific capabilities, that will reduce economic pressures for emigration and assist in the development of a market economy. In addition, by encouraging Western science's philosophy of openness, peer reviews and publishing, the cooperative projects improve the transparency of weapons laboratories in the former Soviet Union. Technical collaborations are rapidly increasing in number and are fostering US industrial participation. Since the initial technical exchanges in October of 1992, lab-to-lab interactions resulted in more than 200 contracts, totaling more than $5 million, and involving more than 40 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus.

Preszler, A.M.

1994-07-01

133

The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

134

Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race  

SciTech Connect

Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

Griffin, R.D.

1992-06-05

135

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-06-01

136

Spatial variations in energy accessibility in the Soviet Union, 1960-1975. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The emphasis in coal, oil, and natural gas production in the Soviet Union shifted dramatically eastward after 1960, but spatial patterns of energy accessibility remained fairly stable from 1960 to 1975. Utilizing annual coal, oil, and natural gas production data expressed in terms of standard fuel units and distances measured along railroad and pipeline routes, an energy potential model permitted the computation of energy potential indices based on distance and distance modified by generalized transport costs for 129 major administrative and industrial centers for 1960, 1970, and 1975. A general purpose contouring program mapped relative energy potential indices, and these maps showed that the areas with the highest energy accessibility were also among the most important industrial areas. A correlation analysis between energy accessibility and urban population growth revealed that changes in energy accessibility have had a modest influence on urban population growth rates. Soviet industrial location and urban population growth have been relatively unrestrained by the location of energy resources.

Olson, R.V. Jr.

1980-06-19

137

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

White, P.C.

1995-12-31

138

Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1990-05-01

139

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

140

Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

2013-01-01

141

Climate research in the former Soviet Union. Fasac technical assessment report  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.

1993-09-01

142

CIA Publication: At Cold War's End: US Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text gives an intelligence history of the last years of the Soviet Empire. In November, the Center for the Study of Intelligence (CIS) prepared this compendium for a conference on the end of the cold war held at the Texas A&M University campus. The text offers an historical narrative of the US perspective on the rapidly developing events in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union during this time, followed by an extensive online volume of intelligence documents created during the Soviet collapse. According to the preface, the declassification of such documents so soon after their initial composition is unusual and evidences the CIA's new policy of "greater openness."

143

Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

Smallidge, E.R.

1997-08-01

144

Spent fuel management in the former Soviet Union and the eastern European countries  

SciTech Connect

There is a total of 66 nuclear power plant units in the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries, with a generating capacity of more than 44,000 MWe. Changes in politics and trading relationships are affecting spent fuel management policies. This paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle adopting in these countries and reports data on the amount of spent fuel discharged from the nuclear power reactors with a summary table. Various types of interim storage capacities for the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. The Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section in the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for organizing work concerning the management of spent fuel from power plants and research reactors, providing a forum to exchange and disseminate information on the storage of spent fuel from research and test reactors. An account is given of IAEA programs and recent publications.

Takats, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1995-04-01

145

Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

Brown, Lester R.

1982-01-01

146

Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

Miro, R.

1993-04-02

147

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

Horak, Stephan M.

148

Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

2008-01-01

149

Educational Experiences of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of an Ethnic School in Toronto  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the academic and psychosocial outcomes of immigrant students from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in an ethnic school in Toronto. Based on interviews with the principal, teachers, students and parents, together with questionnaire responses, the paper describes school programmes and practices that contribute to FSU immigrant…

Asanova, Jazira

2005-01-01

150

Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

2010-01-01

151

Fairness in a tradeable-permit treaty for carbon emissions reductions in Europe and the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the distributional implications of alternative permit allocations in a tradeable permit regime for carbon emissions reductions (20% below baseline) in 2010 for a region consisting of Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Participation in such a regime is expected to hinge on the “fairness” of the distributional consequences. We find that initial permit

Peter Bohm; Bjorn Larsen

1994-01-01

152

Current situation and control strategies for resurgence of diphtheria in newly independent states of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, an epidemic of diphtheria has spread throughout the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and by 1995 a total of 47 808 cases were reported. During the early stages of the epidemic, adequate control measures were not taken and vaccine was in short supply; possible contributing factors to the spread of the epidemic are the presence

I. R. B. Hardy; R. W. Sutter; S. Dittmann

1996-01-01

153

Ethnic German Immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Germany: the Effects of Migrant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employed a widely accepted theoretical concept, the ‘theory of migrant networks’ to look at the recent immigration and absorption experience of ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in Germany. Consistent with network theory, the social background of the Aussiedler group became more representative of the sending communities as migrant networks expanded. The paper

Barbara Dietz

1999-01-01

154

Psychological and mental illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The study examined the cultural context of psychological illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Kleinman's (1980) explanatory model of illness and Leininger's theory of culture care (1997) provided the conceptual framework for the study. Participant Observations were conducted in an Adult Day Care Center and Senior Housing. Twenty-three key informants and 10 general informants participated. The social and historical context of the FSU influenced the meaning, attitudes, expressions, and coping strategies toward psychological and mental illness. Cultural stigma influenced the attribution of cause, somatic expression of symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Psychological illness was unrecognized, whereas mental illness was viewed as lack of dusha (inner strength and moral character). Group differences were evident with ethnicity as a significant influence in symptom recognition, expression, and attitude toward seeking professional help. PMID:16410435

Polyakova, Svetlana A; Pacquiao, Dula F

2006-01-01

155

Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites.

Elo, Irma T.

2012-01-01

156

Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2005-01-01

157

Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about

1987-01-01

158

Soviet Defense Spending: The Spartan Analogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note attempts to provide the means for evaluating the frequently made comparison between the Soviet Union and ancient Sparta as states where politics takes precedence over economics. It marshals and explicates both the ancient evidence and modern sch...

A. H. Bernstein

1989-01-01

159

The Soviet calculus of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

1986-01-01

160

The Soviet calculus of nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East

R. Kolkowicz; E. P. Mickiewicz

1986-01-01

161

Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. PMID:23545269

Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

2013-09-01

162

Nationhood and the national question in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Eurasia: An institutionalist account  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet nationality regime, with its distinctive and pervasive manner of institutionalizing nationhood and nationality, has transmitted to the successor states a set of deeply structured, and powerfully conflicting,expectations of belonging. Successor state elites, with their deeply institutionalized sense of political ownership and entitlement, see the polities that bear the names of their nation — above all the territory and

Rogers Brubaker

1994-01-01

163

Ideology and economic analysis: The case of soviet civil defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the polar views of the U.S. politico?security community on the effectiveness of Soviet civil emergency preparedness programs and adduces the philosophical underpinning of the wide disparity in the estimates. Factors are identified which must be considered, and if possible, measured, to support an accurate estimate of the real effectiveness of the Soviet programs. These considerations include the

Richard B. Foster; Francis P. Hoeber

1979-01-01

164

Redefinition du statut des langues en Union Sovietique (Redefinition of the Status of Languages in the Soviet Union).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language-related constitutional changes made in 10 of the former Soviet republics and in the central Soviet government since 1988 are analyzed from 3 perspectives: unilingualism vs. bilingualism; the relationship between economy and language; and immigration and territoriality as concerns language. Special attention is given to language of…

Maurais, Jacques

1992-01-01

165

Soviet Union and the Strategic Defense Initiative: preliminary findings and impressions. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note provides a background against which to evaluate possible Soviet alternatives for dealing with the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in the decade ahead. Without speculating about what the Soviets will ultimately do in response to SDI, the note (1) examines Moscow's statements on SDI to date, (2) reviews the highlights of Soviet doctrine and programs related to strategic defense,

Lambeth

1986-01-01

166

Innovations and Experiments in Uses of Health Manpower--A Study of Selected Programs and Problems in the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neither the United Kingdom nor the Soviet Union provide programmatic or regulatory models that could be applied directly to solve the problems of developing and using intermediate health professionals and high-level medical auxiliaries in the United State...

E. H. Forgotson J. H. Forgotson

1969-01-01

167

Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and

Yulia Blomstedt; Sven-Erik Johansson; Jan Sundquist

2007-01-01

168

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sink of CO2 and the C budget of forest biomes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct methods: (1) ecosystem\\/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem\\/ecoregional method was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil\\/vegetation C data bases. The forest statistical approach was based on

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

169

Last Glacial Maximum climate of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved concept of the best analogues method was used to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate from a set\\u000a of botanical records from the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. Terrestrial pollen and macrofossil taxa were grouped into\\u000a broad classes – plant functional types (PFTs), defined by the ecological and climatic parameters used in the BIOME1 model.\\u000a PFT scores

P. E. Tarasov; O. Peyron; J. Guiot; S. Brewer; V. S. Volkova; L. G. Bezusko; N. I. Dorofeyuk; E. V. Kvavadze; I. M. Osipova; N. K. Panova

1999-01-01

170

Research on the electrochemistry of oxygen ion conductors in the former Soviet Union. II. Perovskite-related oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review is devoted to the analysis of experimental results on electrochemical and physicochemical properties of the perovskite-related\\u000a oxide phases obtained at scientific centers of the former Soviet Union. The main attention is focused on oxides with high\\u000a electronic conductivity, which are potentially useful as electrodes for high-temperature electrochemical cells with oxygen-ion\\u000a conducting solid electrolytes and interconnectors of solid oxide

Vladislav V. Kharton; Aleksey A. Yaremchenko; Evgeny N. Naumovich

1999-01-01

171

A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

A marked increase in the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases entirely related to patients born in the Former Soviet Union was observed in France in the last two years. Very few cases were clustered, suggesting it is a consequence of recent immigration of patients already infected in their country of origin. This major increase challenges the existing structures for management of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). PMID:23968874

Bernard, C; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Veziris, N; Frechet-Jachym, M; Metivier, N; Renvoisé, A; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

2013-01-01

172

Self-selection and earnings assimilation: Immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings\\u000a assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968–2000. Because\\u000a the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled\\u000a to

Yinon. Cohen; Yitchak. Haberfeld

2007-01-01

173

Health information networking via the Internet with the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed Central

Because of the severe financial hardships associated with the transition to a market economy in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, the Internet has become a major link to health care resources for many health care workers. In 1992, the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences (UIC LHS) initiated a special support project with goals of enhancing access to international biomedical information and facilitating international professional networking for interested NIS organizations and individuals. Project objectives included an information needs assessment, development of culturally sensitive Internet training applications, information and referral services, and follow-up e-mail consultations for NIS participants. This paper reviews the historical context of the health care partnerships between the United States and the NIS, and of the UIC LHS International Health Information Networking Project. In the context of UIC, international networking cross-cultural observations, teaching techniques, a Russian training experience, and the development of a Web-based course are reported. Images

Teplitskaia, H

1997-01-01

174

Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

Weiss, Shoshana

2008-01-01

175

Behind the nuclear curtain: Radioactive waste management in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Behind the Nuclear Curtain paints a striking picture of the USSR and now FSU nuclear waste management activities, tracing the evolution of what is likely the world`s largest nuclear waste management problem. It draws on information from hundreds of literature sources as well as the author`s first-hand knowledge of nuclear waste related events in Russia. It represents the largest compilation ever on nuclear waste management practices, past and present, in the former Soviet Union. It covers uranium mining, milling, and enrichment as well as reprocessing and disposal. Separate chapters are devoted to naval waste management and contamination of oceans and seas, as well as the conditions in the FSU and the Baltic countries and the weapons test sites. Separate chapters are devoted to Chernobyl and the three processing centers: Mayak, Tomsk, and Krasnoyark. The appendices contain information on operating and decommissioned reactors, as well as on comparative worldwide releases of radioactive into the environment, nuclear accidents, and nuclear weapons tests. Behind the Nuclear Curtain reveals some of the truths behind decades of nuclear neglect in that part of the world. The message of the book is clear: one can learn from the Russians` nuclear waste management problems; understanding their problems and helping them deal with them can provide valuable solutions to cleaning up US nuclear waste sites.

Payson, D.R. [ed.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bradley, D.J.

1997-12-31

176

The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.  

PubMed

This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals' labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region. PMID:23292272

Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

177

Postnatal and prenatal diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Diagnosis and prevention of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is based on the interaction of various local counselling units with the Department of Inherited Metabolic Diseases (DIMD) at the Research Center of Medical Genetics (RAMS). Work began in 1982 using standard, as well as newly developed biochemical techniques. 25 different LSD were diagnosed in 445 patients from 404 families. 106 pregnancies in families at risk were monitored prenatally, and 25 affected fetuses were diagnosed and aborted. The clinical spectrum of diagnosed lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) was surprisingly heterogeneous. Besides classical forms of LSD numerous atypical forms were discovered. They included juvenile and adult forms of some sphingolipidoses manifesting as progressive dystonia, spinocerebellar degeneration and hebephrenic schizophrenia, as well as an atypical form of mucolipidosis III in which the clinical phenotype bore an obvious resemblance to that of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI. The incidence of MPS was much higher than that of other LSD. It was evaluated as 1:15000 for two regions of the FSU. This investigation revealed some peculiarities of the ethnic distribution of MPS in populations of the FSU and supported the high prevalence of the gene for Tay-Sachs disease gene in Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:9060146

Krasnopolskaya, X D; Mirenburg, T V; Akhunov, V S; Voskoboeva, E Y

1997-02-14

178

Renal Biopsy Research in the Former Soviet Union: Prevention of a Negligent Custom  

PubMed Central

Insufficient international coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in repetition of research already performed in other countries. Renal biopsy was broadly used for research in the former Soviet Union. It was performed, sometimes without sufficient clinical indications, in patients with amyloidosis, renovascular hypertension (from both kidneys: on the side of the renal artery stenosis and the contralateral one), chronic alcoholism, and acute and chronic pyelonephritis (intraoperative wedge and core biopsies). In chronic alcoholism, biopsies were taken from kidneys, pancreas, salivary glands, stomach, lung, skin, and liver, sometimes repeatedly. The classification of glomerulonephritis was different from those used internationally, for example, it did not include IgA nephropathy as a separate entity. Several examples of studies based on renal biopsies are discussed in this paper. A conclusion is however optimistic: the upturn in economy enables today to modernize equipment and introduce new methods, while broadening international cooperation facilitates the flow of foreign experience into the country. The purpose of this paper was to prevent inadequate use of renal biopsy in future.

Jargin, Sergei V.

2013-01-01

179

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

180

Soviet defense spending: The Spartan analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay was prompted by the comparison between the Soviet Union and ancient Sparta recently made by economists and Sovietologists. Amid growing dissatisfaction with recent efforts to model the Soviet economy and its defense sector, Sparta is invoked as a model of a state in which politics takes precedence over economics, in a manner not dissimilar to the way in

Alvin H. Bernstein

1990-01-01

181

T/sup 2/ high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem  

SciTech Connect

Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in their high-technology transfer (T/sup 2/) program. This study examines the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states in terms of the following: (1) significance of this problem to the US; (2) how the Soviets acquire American high technology; (3) how acquisition of American high technology assists the Soviet Union; (4) what the US government is doing to reduce Soviet T/sup 2/ efforts; and (5) the author's recommendations to enhance the US program to control high-technology transfer. The author offers several suggests to deal with this problem, including: establishment of ad hoc matrix organization, with representatives from both the public and private sectors; privatization of government tasks connected with the T/sup 2/ issue, e.g., the conduct by the private sector of background investigations on individuals working on classified military contracts; evaluation of the current Coordinating Committee (COCOM) agreement to treaty status; reduction of the number of items on American export control lists; and the reduction of Soviet diplomatic representation in the United States.

Smits, W.H. Jr.

1986-01-01

182

Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Methods Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. Results The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. Conclusions The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

2013-01-01

183

The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

Perminov, V. G.

1999-01-01

184

Overview of holography in Russia and other FSU (former Soviet Union) states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently we have had our Class reunion (Physics Department of the renown St. Petersburg University, Russia). Amidst all the warm greetings, embraces, and gasps of surprise at the view of receding hair, bulging waistlines and other signs of relentlessly encroaching middle age we swapped the tales and had come to a rather unsurprising conclusion: if you are still in science, it means you are working abroad, if you are still in Russia, it means you are not in science. Indeed, in the wake of rapid changes that swept over the former Soviet Union following its disintegration in 1991 millions of people who formerly had positions in the vast scientific and technical establishment have found themselves adrift without any conceivable means of support. Many have been forced to abandon science for good and to seek opportunities in the burgeoning private sector and quite a few have achieved spectacular successes in their new business endeavors. Their names are well known and their future appears to be bright. This article though is not about them. It is about those stubborn individuals who despite overwhelming odds have kept their faith and commitment to science, who went on and persevered. It is a tribute to those who remained fully engaged in research and upheld the traditions of Russian school, who have faced and overcome all the innumerable obstacles such as delays in salary payment, aging physical plant, accident-prone electrical, water and heating systems, dearth of funding, etc. It now seems, that thanks to the selfless effort of these remarkable individuals Russian science is finally turning the corner and that things are indeed getting better. This article is homage to all the scientists in the FSU whose inquisitive minds and boundless thirst for knowledge have preserved and strengthened the glorious traditions of Russian science through all these years of troubles.

Reingand, Nadya

2005-04-01

185

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abbott, D.T. [Kaiser Engineering, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

186

Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Bearden, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lindler, L. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2007-01-01

187

Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

2007-01-05

188

Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring  

SciTech Connect

A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

Not Available

1993-11-29

189

Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agenci...

L. S. Gomez

1999-01-01

190

Analytic Reports Produced by the Directorate of Intelligence on the Former Soviet Union Declassified and Released for a March 2001 Conference at Princeton University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a sizable cross-section of the "Directorate of Intelligence's analyses of the Soviet Union's political, military, scientific, and economic structures during the period of the Cold War, 1947-1991." Unfortunately, these are accessible only via an unwieldy process involving two browser windows and a sometimes recalcitrant search engine. Instructions are provided at the first site listed. In test searches we had the most success entering either the document number or the title in the keyword search box. Users may also use a form to search by title, abstract, date created or released, and document number, but we had much less success with all of these options. The documents are presented as digitized page images.

2001-01-01

191

Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

Siddiqi, Asif A.

2000-01-01

192

LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals for the complete PDE, EDR, CMT, ISC and selected regional catalogs. In addition to an overview of selected datasets and individual research products, they present an overview of their visualization, integration, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRKB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 1.5 TB) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. Products contained and organized within the LLNL SRKB are grouped in 5 major categories: (1) Reference contextual information and lookup tables; (2) Ground truth and regionalization data; (3) Event location products; (4) Event identification products; and (5) Visualization and data manipulation processes.

O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

2000-07-14

193

SPETSNAZ (Spetsial'noye Naznacheniye): The Soviet Union's Special Operations Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soviet special operations forces or SPETSNAZ (spetsial'noye naznacheniye) are often misidentified, commonly attributed with performing 'super-human' endeavors, and are usually referred to in exaggerated numbers. Many of their political activities, which c...

S. S. Beitler

1985-01-01

194

Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume 2, Part 3. Pinnipeds and Toothed Whales: Pinnipedia and Odontoceti.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The order of pinnipeds or seals (Pinnipedia) is described in this volume. The cohort of ungulates and carnivores represented in our (Soviet) funa by orders of artiodactyls and perissodactyls, sirenian, carnivores, and pinnipeds thus comes to an end and th...

K. K. Chapskii V. A. Arsen'ev V. E. Sokolov V. G. Heptner

1996-01-01

195

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

SciTech Connect

In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

NONE

1994-12-31

196

Educating the Soviet Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reshaping of man to the Soviet ideal through education is the context within which the author considers three recent books on Soviet education--Shiela Fitzpatrick's "The Commissariat of Enlightenment"; J. J. Tomiak's "The Soviet Union"; and Jean Pennar's "Modernization and Diversity in Soviet Education." (JH)

Brower, Daniel P.

1973-01-01

197

Soviet strategic defense technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was

Stubbs

1987-01-01

198

The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines which of…

Boyle, George V.

199

Paying for Lenin's illusions: The economic dimension of Soviet foreign policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental viewpoint of Western Sovietology is that the structure and operation of the Soviet bureaucracy are the major obstacles to reforms in economics and politics. This article argues that, while the bureaucracy is certainly a major obstacle, the failure of Gorbachev's government to reform the economy through mid?1990 is as much a failure of policy as it is of

Stephen Blank

1991-01-01

200

CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

201

An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

Gilder, Eric

202

ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

203

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

204

Mathematics and Politics in the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the influence of politics on the life of Soviet mathematicians in Stalin's era 1928–1953, years that witnessed the full unfolding of the dictator's power. A few years following Stalin's death are also covered. Various publications, private manuscripts, and recollections of my own experiences at the University of Leningrad served as sources. Leading themes include the administrative talent

George G. Lorentz

2002-01-01

205

Popular Attitudes toward Free Markets: The Soviet Union and the United States Compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random samples of the Moscow and New York populations were compared in their attitudes towards free markets by administering identical telephone interviews in the two countries in May 1990. Although the Soviet respondents were somewhat less likely to accept exchange of money as a solution to personal problems and although their attitudes toward business were less warm, the authors found

Robert J Shiller; Maxim Boycko; Vladimir Korobov

1991-01-01

206

The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

207

The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys’ Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943–1954  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys’ schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that separating boys from girls exacerbated the problems of coeducational schools while

E. Thomas Ewing

2006-01-01

208

Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartm...

A. A. Siddiqi

2000-01-01

209

Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as well as…

Kupferberg, Natalie

210

Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing

Jördis J Ott; Ari M Paltiel; Volker Winkler; Heiko Becher

2008-01-01

211

Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

1986-01-01

212

Variations of mean cold season temperature, precipitation and snow depths during the last 100 years in the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of temperature, precipitation and snow depths during the last 50-100 years, up to 1984, are investigated for mean cold season values (November to April) for 110 locations in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Following quality checking, statistical analyses are performed on the data. There is cold season warming after 1953 or after 1966 over almost all the FSU apart

JEAN-MICHEL FALLOT; ROGER G. BARRY; DAVID HOOGSTRATE

1997-01-01

213

Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

2012-01-01

214

Unmet Need for Contraception in the Developing World And the Former Soviet Union: An Updated Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: In the developing world, an estimated 105.2 million married women have an unmet need. Unmarried women add 8.4 million, and the former Soviet republics add 9.1 million (of all marital statuses), for a total of 122.7 mil- lion. The proportion of married women in the developing world with an unmet need is 17%, lower than previously esti- mated because

John A. Ross

215

Skobeltsyn and the early years of cosmic particle physics in the Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D.V. Skobeltsyn was the first physicist to put a Wilson cloud chamber in a magnetic field and to show that cosmic rays are high energy particles. Also he observed the multiple particle generation by a cosmic particle for the first time. He initiated the cosmic ray research in Leningrad and Moscow and he has brought up a pleiad of distinguished cosmic ray physicists. He is the acknowledged founder of the Soviet, and Russian cosmic ray investigations.

Bazilevskaya, G. A.

2014-01-01

216

Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report  

SciTech Connect

Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.

Morgan, D.E.

1987-04-01

217

The Spatial Distribution of Economic Activities in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the spatial distribution of economic activities in the European Union. It has three main aims. (i) To describe the data that is available in the EU and give some idea of the rich spatial data sets that are fast becoming available at the national level. (ii) To present descriptive evidence on the location of aggregate activity and

Pierre-Philippe Combes; Henry G. Overman

2003-01-01

218

Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures  

SciTech Connect

Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

Churkin, M. Jr.

1991-08-01

219

4-D Soviet Style: Defense, Development, Diplomacy, and Disengagement in Afghanistan During the Soviet Period. Part III: Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third part in a series in the Journal of Slavic Military Studies on the Soviet experience in Afghanistan. In this instalment, the authors highlight the importance of the economy to the political stability of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA). They maintain that the DRA was not defeated by Islamic insurgents on the battlefield. Rather, the

Anton Minkov; Gregory Smolynec

2010-01-01

220

Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness

1983-01-01

221

Mathematics, religion, and Marxism in the Soviet Union in the 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematicians and traditional pure mathematics in the U.S.S.R. came under attack in the 1930s from the platforms of religion and nationalism in attempts to establish dialectical materialist mathematics. These platforms came to light at the 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party in 1930. A leader of the attacks was the mathematically inclined Marxist\\/Stalinist ideolog Ernst Kolman (1892–1979), in whose

Eugene Seneta

2004-01-01

222

Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

2013-12-01

223

Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.  

PubMed

Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities. PMID:23506911

Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

224

The Political Economy of the European Economic and Monetary Union: Political Sources of an Economic Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMU would be an economic liability. A single currency would cause at most small trade and investment gains but would raise average cyclical unemployment and would probably raise inflation, perpetuate structural unemployment, and increase the risk of protectionism. EMU is nevertheless being pursued in order to create a political union. Fundamental disagreements among member states about economic policies, foreign and

Martin Feldstein

1998-01-01

225

Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Methods Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Results Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Conclusion Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin in migrants and call attention to the link between communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Ott, Jordis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

2008-01-01

226

JPRS report, arms control, protocol to the treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests  

SciTech Connect

The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, confirming the provisions of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective verification of compliance with the Treaty. Contents of the Treaty are enclosed.

NONE

1990-08-01

227

Paradoxes in antiretroviral treatment for injecting drug users: access, adherence and structural barriers in Asia and the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Offered proper support, injection drug users (IDUs) can achieve the same levels of adherence to and clinical benefit from antiretroviral treatment (ARV) as other patients with HIV. Nonetheless, in countries of Asia and the former Soviet Union where IDUs represent the largest share of HIV cases, IDUs have been disproportionately less likely to receive ARV. While analysis of adherence amongst IDUs has focused on individual patient ability to adhere to medical regimens, HIV treatment systems themselves are in need of examination. Structural impediments to provision of ARV for IDUs include competing, vertical systems of care; compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation services that often offer neither ARV nor effective treatment for chemical dependence; lack of opiate substitution treatments demonstrated to increase adherence to ARV; and policies that explicitly or implicitly discourage ARV delivery to active IDUs. Labeling active drug users as socially untrustworthy or unproductive, health systems can create a series of paradoxes that ensure confirmation of these stereotypes. Needed reforms include professional education and public campaigns that emphasize IDU capacity for health protection and responsible choice; recognition that the chronic nature of injecting drug use and its links to HIV infection require development of ARV treatment delivery that includes active drug users; and integrated treatment that strengthens links between health providers and builds on, rather than seeks to bypass, IDU social networks and organizations. PMID:17689372

Wolfe, Daniel

2007-08-01

228

Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr. [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Dutz, M.

1996-12-31

229

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

1993-05-01

230

Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-09-01

231

Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU) were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001). Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P ? .05) higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence.

Rajanna, Chythanya; Revazishvili, Tamara; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Chubinidze, Svetlana; Bakanidze, Lela; Tsanava, Shota; Imnadze, Paata; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gibbons, Henry S.; Morris, J. Glenn; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

2010-01-01

232

Adaptation of immigrant psychiatrists from the former Soviet Union in the Department of Mental Health of the Israel Defense Forces.  

PubMed

Psychiatrists from the former Soviet Union serve in the Department of Mental Health of the Israel Defense Forces. The new immigrant psychiatrists confront a wide range of difficulties during the process of integration to the military system and adaptation to the specifically military aspects of psychiatry. These include unfamiliarity with the military system, cultural clashes with the different groups of soldiers representing the various subgroups of the absorbing society, the psychopathology of soldiers, which is different from that seen in civil psychiatry, and the change in focus in the military mental health service, which emphasizes the importance of evaluating ego strength. Arbitrarily, one can describe four stages of adaptation that the immigrant psychiatrist has to pass through before recruitment and during service until adaptation and integration in the new role take place. Individual and group supervision are the main means by which the assimilation process is eased. The military service smooth the acculturation process and has an important role in helping the immigrant's adaptation to Israeli society and in building his or her professional identity. PMID:10870368

Teitelbaum, A; Durst, R; Abramowitz, M; Knobler, H Y; Zislin, J; Fluk, A; Mark, M

2000-06-01

233

Evaluating Soviet ESP technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP manufacturing capacity in the world. Soviet ESPs offer some interesting features and are reported to have impressive running lives.

Pike, W.J. (World Oil, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB))

1991-05-01

234

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union--part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

235

Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups.

Gilmore, Anna; Stickley, Andrew; Rotman, David; Prohoda, Vladimir; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

2012-01-01

236

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

237

Improving Large-scale Biomass Burning Carbon Consumption and Emissions Estimates in the Former Soviet Union based on Fire Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the amount of biomass burned during fire events is challenging, particularly in remote and diverse regions, like those of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Historically, we have typically assumed 25 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha) is emitted, however depending on the ecosystem and severity, biomass burning emissions can range from 2 to 75 tC/ha. Ecosystems in the FSU span from the tundra through the taiga to the forest-steppe, steppe and desserts and include the extensive West Siberian lowlands, permafrost-lain forests and agricultural lands. Excluding this landscape disparity results in inaccurate emissions estimates and incorrect assumptions in the transport of these emissions. In this work, we present emissions based on a hybrid ecosystem map and explicit estimates of fuel that consider the depth of burning based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Specifically, the ecosystem map is a fusion of satellite-based data, a detailed ecosystem map and Alexeyev and Birdsey carbon storage data, which is used to build carbon databases that include the forest overstory and understory, litter, peatlands and soil organic material for the FSU. We provide a range of potential carbon consumption estimates for low- to high-severity fires across the FSU that can be used with fire weather indices to more accurately estimate fire emissions. These data can be incorporated at ecoregion and administrative territory scales and are optimized for use in large-scale Chemical Transport Models. Additionally, paired with future climate scenarios and ecoregion cover, these carbon consumption data can be used to estimate potential emissions.

Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E. I.; Kukavskaya, E.; de Groot, B.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

2012-12-01

238

Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

1995-06-01

239

Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

240

Soviet Threat: Is It Declining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soviet General Secretary and President Mikhail S. Gorbachev has captivated world attention with proposals for world peace and for sweeping systemic changes within the Soviet Union. It is the purpose of this paper to first examine what is occurring within ...

W. H. Campbell

1989-01-01

241

Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS) of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS) is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis) and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis). The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

Wuhib, Tadesse; Chorba, Terence L; Davidiants, Vladimir; Mac Kenzie, William R; McNabb, Scott JN

2002-01-01

242

Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond  

PubMed Central

In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching.

Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

2008-01-01

243

Biosputniks: The use by the Soviet Union and Russia of dogs, monkeys and other animals in the exploration of space, 1949-93  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soviet Union used animals in the exploration of space from 1949 onwards. Russia has continued the use of animals in the exploration of space with the launch on 30 December 1992 of Bion-10 (Cosmos 2229). Animals in the space program is an important theme in the Soviet exploration of space. The use of animals in the exploration of space has four main phases: (1) Suborbital missions 1949-1959; (2) Preparation for man's first flight into space 1960-1; (3) Preparation for man's flight to the Moon 1968-1970; (4) The international biomedical program 1962- . Each is dealt with in turn. The use of animals or biological specimens on board manned orbital space stations is not discussed.

Harvey, B.

1993-10-01

244

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union--part I: establishing cigarette imports  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Design: Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Results: Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. Conclusions: BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact.

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

245

Intermittent hypoxia research in the former soviet union and the commonwealth of independent States: history and review of the concept and selected applications.  

PubMed

This review aims to summarize the basic research in the field of intermittent hypoxia in the Soviet Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) that scientists in other Western countries may not be familiar with, since Soviet scientists were essentially cut off from the global scientific community for about 60 years. In the 1930s the concept of repeated hypoxic training was developed and the following induction methods were utilized: repeated stays at high-mountain camps for several weeks, regular high altitude flights by plane, training in altitude chambers, and training by inhalation of low-oxygen-gas mixtures. To the present day, intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) has been used extensively for altitude preacclimatization; for the treatment of a variety of clinical disorders, including chronic lung diseases, bronchial asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, emotional disorders, and radiation toxicity, in prophylaxis of certain occupational diseases; and in sports. The basic mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of IHT are mainly in three areas: regulation of respiration, free-radical production, and mitochondrial respiration. It was found that IHT induces increased ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia, as well as other hypoxia-related physiological changes, such as increased hematopoiesis, alveolar ventilation and lung diffusion capacity, and alterations in the autonomic nervous system. Due to IHT, antioxidant defense mechanisms are stimulated, cellular membranes become more stable, Ca(2+) elimination from the cytoplasm is increased, and O(2) transport in tissues is improved. IHT induces changes within mitochondria, involving NAD-dependent metabolism, that increase the efficiency of oxygen utilization in ATP production. These effects are mediated partly by NO-dependent reactions. The marked individual variability both in animals and humans in the response to, and tolerance of, hypoxia is described. Studies from the Soviet Union and the CIS significantly contributed to the understanding of intermittent hypoxia and its possible beneficial effects and should stimulate further research in this direction in other countries. PMID:12162864

Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V

2002-01-01

246

Problems of using digitized thematic maps on the territory of the former soviet union upon the creation of the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soviet and Russian pedologists, ecologists, geobotanists, geographers, and other specialists created a large set of maps on the territory of the former Soviet Union. In most cases, these maps were published; at present, they are available as hardcopies. Their digitization clearly shows various merits and demerits of thematic maps on the territory of the Soviet Union and Russia. A 20-year experience of the Laboratory of Soil Informatics at the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute on the creation of digitized maps integrated into the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system (GIS) is discussed. The major stages of this work and the technology developed to solve the problems appearing during it are described. The reasons for certain difficulties in matching cartographic information contained on the maps of different and similar scales, the problems of georeferencing of the maps, and the problems related to the use of remote sensing materials and digital elevation models are discussed. The necessity of creating a unified cartographic base for thematic maps included in the GIS "Soils of Russia" [28] and the technology for its development are characterized. The distortions on the original topographic maps are corrected with the use of locally affine transformation functions realized in the GeoDraw-GeoGraph software package. The requirements for the quality of the maps—their suitability for georeferencing, topological correctness, and compatibility of different versions—are formulated. The problems of digital soil mapping upon the use of object-oriented GIS are elucidated. The Soil Map of the Russian Federation (1: 2.5 M scale) was initially digitized in 1997. Since that time, four digital versions of this map have been created to reduce the initial errors and inconsistencies. It is argued that the fifth and sixth versions of this map should be created with allowance for the accumulated experience.

Rukhovich, D. I.; Wagner, V. B.; Vil'Chevskaya, E. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

2011-09-01

247

Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

248

LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)  

SciTech Connect

Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.

Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

2000-07-14

249

Soviet ventures require careful structuring  

SciTech Connect

When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

Burt, J.A. (Arnold and Porter, Washington, DC (US))

1991-06-03

250

A Model of Identity and Language Orientations: The Case of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical model featuring the relationship between identity and language orientations within the broader constellation of variables impacting immigration and acculturation processes was proposed within the framework of the current study and its applicability was tested with regards to 152 immigrant university students from the Former Soviet

Golan-Cook, Pnina; Olshtain, Elite

2011-01-01

251

Soviet atmospheric acoustics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of low observable air vehicles by the U.S. coupled with the historic propensity of the Soviet Union toward the defense of its border raises the possibility of Soviet development of acoustic systems for detection and tracking of air vehicles as part of such defenses. Soviet research in atmospheric acoustics are reviewed and assessed. Topics considered relevant were aircraft noise, background acoustic noise, propagation, meteorological remote sensing, microphone technology, processing of acoustic signals, and acoustic-gravity waves and ionospheric detection. An indication is provided of the maturity of the Soviet technology base required for the development of potential acoustic detection and tracking systems.

Bass, H. E.; Lacoss, R. T.; Landers, T. E.; Powell, A.; Raspet, R.; Revell, J. D.

1990-08-01

252

High Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Results of a Community-Based Screening Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Inadequate sterilization and reuse of medical equipment likely contributed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Although New York leads the nation in the number of immigrants from the FSU, the epidemiology of HCV infection has not been evaluated in this population. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of and risk

Steven Batash; Inessa Khaykis; Robert F. Raicht; Edmund J. Bini

2008-01-01

253

Agriculture and European Union Enlargement. An Economic Research Service Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential accession of a number of eastern and central European countries into the European Union (EU) seems destined to lead to further reforms of the common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The financial costs of absorbing these countries may be extreme. This...

D. Kelch P. Liapis S. Tangermann T. Josling

1998-01-01

254

Soviet Interests in Afghanistan and Implications upon Withdrawal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study discusses the geo-strategic importance of Afghanistan in the context of overall Soviet strategy in Southwest Asia. Afghanistan sprang to the limelight in 1979 following the Soviet invasion. After nearly a decade of occupation, the Soviet Union ...

K. N. Khan

1990-01-01

255

We'll Take the High Road: Unions and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention and creation of jobs is vital for the economic health of the nation. Union action, especially at the state and local level, can push policymakers toward high-road development strategies. (JOW)

Friedman, Sheldon

1997-01-01

256

Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was originally intended as a simple portrait of Soviet international financial practice: what kinds of international financial transactions the Soviet Union undertakes and who the counterparties to these transactions are. Since work began on t...

C. R. Neu

1991-01-01

257

JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 12, December 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations of selected articles in the Russian-language monthly journal SSHA: EKONOMIKA, POLITIKA, lDEOLOGlYA published in Moscow by the Institute of U.S. and Canadian Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Titles include: Role of...

1990-01-01

258

IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY  

PubMed Central

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life.

Wayne, George J.

1960-01-01

259

Soviet uranium supply capability  

SciTech Connect

For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

NONE

1990-02-01

260

The Soviet Academy of Sciences and Technological Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the impact of the Soviet Academy of Sciences on the development of technology in the Soviet Union, finding that the future of Soviet technology depends significantly on the Academy and that severe problems stemming from its nature and its relationship with Soviet industry encumber the Academy's ability to serve Soviet

Kassel, Simon; Campbell, Cathleen

261

Communities Around the World. Soviet Communities: Urban and Rural. Teacher's Resource Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies resource guide for grade 4 outlines one of four units on the theme Communities Around the World with emphasis on a comparative analysis of economic systems. Specific objectives for this unit on the Soviet Union are described in these areas: 1) economic, geographic, and sociological concepts; 2) understandings and…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

262

The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

263

The Political Economy of the European Economic and Monetary Union: Political  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMU would be an economic liability. A single currency would cause, at most, small trade and investment gains but would raise average cyclical unemployment and possibly raise inflation, perpetuate structural unemployment, and increase the risk of protectionism. EMU is nevertheless being pursued in order to create a political union. Fundamental disagreements among member states about economic policies, foreign and military

Martin Feldstein

1997-01-01

264

Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes Soviet concerns about the possibility of such deployment, and explores likely Soviet countermoves before, immediately after and for an extended period following implementation of the NATO decision.

Rothenberg, M.

1982-04-01

265

Soviet atmospheric acoustics research  

SciTech Connect

The development of low observable air vehicles by the United States coupled with the historic propensity of the Soviet Union toward the defense of its borders raises the possibility of Soviet development of acoustic systems for detection and tracking of air vehicles as part of such defense. This report reviews and assesses Soviet research in atmospheric acoustics. Topics considered relevant were aircraft noise, background acoustic noise, propagation, meteorological remote sensing, microphone technology, processing of acoustic signals, and acoustic-gravity waves and ionospheric detection. This study should provide an indication of the maturity of the Soviet technology base required for the development of potential acoustic detection and tracking systems. Overall, the Soviet technology base in areas required for acoustic aircraft detection and tracking is at least comparable to that in the United States, and, in some areas, more advanced.

McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. (eds.); Bass, H.E.; Lacoss, R.T.; Landers, T.E.; Powell, A.; Raspet, R.; Revell, J.D.

1990-08-01

266

Soviets looking beyond Phobos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A senior Soviet space scientist revealed details of the U.S.S.R.'s ambitious Mars program at a conference last week, shedding light on that country's 20-year plan to send a manned mission to the planet.Vasilij Moroz of the Soviet Space Research Institute in Moscow spoke August 4 at the International Astronomical Union meeting in Baltimore about the two-spacecraft Phobos mission, now en route to Mars' larger moon after separate launches on July 7 and 12. He also provided new details about a revamped Soviet strategy for unmanned exploration of Mars. A 1992 mission has been scrapped in favor of a large, complex 1994 mission involving rovers, probes, and satellites the Soviets plan to launch on a single rocket. Moroz also gave his own views about priorities in the Soviet space program.

Maggs, William Ward

267

Soviet ionospheric modification research  

SciTech Connect

Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial ionization processes and oblique high-power radio propagation and practical system applications and operational limitations addressed by this research. The assessment indicates that the Soviet Union sustains high-quality theoretical and experimental research programs in ionospheric modification, with a breadth and level of effort greatly exceeding comparable Western programs. Soviet theoretical research tends to be analytical and intuitive, as compared to the Western emphasis on numerical simulation techniques. The Soviet experimental approach is less exploratory, designed principally to confirm theoretical predictions. Although limited by inferior diagnostic capabilities, Soviet experimental facilities are more numerous, operate on a more regular basis, and transmit radio wave powers exceeding those os Western facilities. Because of its broad scope of activity, the Soviet Union is better poised to quickly exploit new technologies and system applications as they are developed. This panel has identified several key areas of Soviet research activity and emerging technology that may offer long-term opportunities for remote-sensing and telecommunications advantages. However, we have found no results that suggest imminent breakthrough discoveries in these fields.

Duncan, L.M.; Carlson, H.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Fejer, J.A.; Gerson, N.C.; Hagfors, T.; Newman, D.B. Jr.; Showen, R.L.

1988-07-01

268

Soviet strategic defense technology  

SciTech Connect

The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Stubbs, E.

1987-04-01

269

The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

2005-01-01

270

The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear

M. Pellechi

1993-01-01

271

Privatisation and Economic Development Strategy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development in Russia has dominated discussions on economic strategies world wide. In the unipolar scenario, it has attracted a greater attention than the economic strategies formulated by the erstwhile Soviet Union. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, led to the emergence of a new development paradigm consisting of new economic policy, collectivisation movement, electricity everywhere and electricity for all, resolving

Ram Kumar Mishra

272

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

PubMed

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy. PMID:22767433

Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2013-05-01

273

The impact of duration of residence on cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and Germany.  

PubMed

A cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel (N=528,848) and in Germany (N=34,393) was conducted. The impact of length of residence on cause-specific mortality was investigated using Poisson regression and differences between the migrant groups were assessed. In both migrant cohorts, all cause mortality in males but not in females significantly decreased with increasing duration of residence (RR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 for 9+years of residence compared to 0-3 years), specifically in Israel for infectious diseases, cancer and CVD. For male and female migrants in Israel there was a large reduction in external cause mortality. The cancer risk in male migrants declined from 1 to 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69-0.83) and in female migrants to 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78-0.93) after nine and more years of stay. Adjusting for several covariables, there were differences between migrants in the cause of death patterns in the two host countries, which may be associated with differences in their initial conditions or with effects of the destination country. The study highlights the need for migrant-specific prevention approaches. PMID:19758834

Ott, J J; Paltiel, A M; Winkler, V; Becher, H

2010-01-01

274

The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

Brandist, Craig

2003-01-01

275

Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.  

PubMed

This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population. PMID:22549155

Vespa, Jonathan

2012-08-01

276

Liberalization, regional economic development and the geography of demand for air transport in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the liberalization of the airline industry in the European Union (EU) from the perspective that transport can be properly analysed only in the context of its wider political and socio-economic milieu. The central interest lies with the internal geography of demand for scheduled air transport within the EU. It is argued that significant tensions exist

Brian Graham

1998-01-01

277

Asymmetric bargaining and development trade-offs in the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 October 2008, CARIFORUM became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the

Tony Heron

2010-01-01

278

Asymmetric bargaining and development trade-offs in the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 October 2008, CARIFORUM became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the

Tony Heron

2011-01-01

279

Union-Driven Economic Development Initiatives and Community Solidarity in Western New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical Management Studies (CMS) uncovers organizational alternatives effaced by management knowledge and practice and gives attention to concepts often ignored by management scholars. Solidarity is one of these concepts. This article focuses on solidarity as it relates to economic development initiatives pursued by labor union leaders residing in Buffalo and other parts of the western region of New York. The

Charles J. Whalen

280

Soviet Studies Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International education is one of Minnesota's education priorities. This resource guide to materials dealing with the Soviet Union is intended to provide teachers with materials and guidance for preparing students for leadership and active citizenship in an increasingly international society. The introductory section provides statements by various…

Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

281

Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

Not Available

1991-12-16

282

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

283

A review of Soviet plasma engine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

Barnett, John W.

1990-01-01

284

Soviet Climatology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report surveys Soviet developments in climatology and climate modification during the period from mid=1972 through November 1973. The selections were chosen primarily from regular Soviet scientific journals; several popular science sources were also s...

S. G. Hibben

1974-01-01

285

USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

286

'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data  

PubMed Central

Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union) show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239) of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse <7%). We stratified the prevalence of smoking among resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers) by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total) persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%). In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%). Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after migration. The observed convergence of the smoking habits with increasing duration of stay is in line with the hypothesis of migration as 'health transition'. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

2010-01-01

287

Suez, A Future Sarajevo. The Significance of the Reopening of the Suez Canal to the Soviet Union and the Atlantic Alliance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the reopening of the Suez Canal and its future influence on the political situation in the Middle East in the light of growing Soviet naval power and presence east of Suez together with western alternatives.

T. N. Bentley

1974-01-01

288

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief introduction into the history of psychiatry in Russia, the author discusses the special features of the development of this branch of medicine in Russia. Present levels of medical care, research, and training as well as the aims through 1975...

T. Degenhardt

1973-01-01

289

The Linguistic and Economic Adjustment of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in the United States, 2000: A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and

Barry R. Chiswick; Michael Wenz

2004-01-01

290

Soviet debate on missile defense  

SciTech Connect

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

Parrott, B.

1987-04-01

291

Soviet delays raise prices  

SciTech Connect

The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

Young, I.

1992-01-15

292

Do Elections Matter for Economic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mature democracies, elections discipline leaders to deliver good economic performance. Since the fall of the Soviet Union most developing countries also hold elections, but these are often marred by illicit tactics. Using a new global data set, this paper investigates whether these illicit tactics are merely blemishes or substantially undermine the economic efficacy of elections. We show that illicit

Paul Collier; Anke Hoeffler

2010-01-01

293

Threat and opportunity: the Soviet view of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) during the period March 1983 through November 1985 provided indications of their view of the program both as a threat and as an opportunity to weaken NATO. The SDI is seen not only as a threat to the physical security of the Soviet Union but as part of an effort by the United States to seize the strategic initiative by neutralizing the military component of Soviet strategy. A major objective of that strategy is the political separation of Western Europe from the United States, which the Soviets sought to facilitate by aggravating allied concern over the SDI's potential implications for European security and economic interests.

Uchrinscko, K.W.

1986-12-01

294

8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under...who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or...

2009-01-01

295

8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under...who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or...

2009-01-01

296

8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under...who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or...

2010-01-01

297

8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under... Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under...who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or...

2010-01-01

298

Tax Systems in Transition Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of taxation in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. The governments of transitional economies have been implementingsimultaneous reforms of legal, political, and economic institutions, reforms which are dependent upon the ability of the emerging tax systems to efficiently enforce the tax system. As the transitional process continues, we

Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Robert McNab

1997-01-01

299

Soviet Feldsher as a Physician's Assistant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medical institutions and schools in the Soviet Union have become increasingly concerned with health service delivery and medical education. Problems are related to insufficient personnel and resources, inefficient organization of both, and suboptimal perf...

P. B. Storey

1972-01-01

300

The Role of Soviet Trade Unions in the Lifelong Education of Workers. Adult Education in Europe. Studies and Documents No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the U.S.S.R., the trade unions see the continuous growth of the general educational, cultural and technical level of all workers as one of the conditions of social and scientific progress in the interests of the working class. The role of the unions in the lifelong education of the population is determined by their status in the political…

Yazykova, V. S.

301

War, Militarism and the Soviet State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

Holloway, David

302

Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

Semenov, A.

1978-01-01

303

T2 Transfer of high technology from the united states to the soviet bloc: A public policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Soviet-bloc states are engaged in an extensive effort in the legal as well as illegal acquisition of United States high technology. This study examines the importance to the U. S. of such losses; the manner in which the Soviets acquire our high technology; benefits of such acquisitions to the Soviet Union; steps

William H. Smits Jr

1984-01-01

304

Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

Holland, Wade B.

305

The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear power and propulsion, radiation effects, remote sensing, optics, and lasers. The U.S. delegation was successful in identifying some capabilities that would be useful to the three organizations. Efforts to utilize some of the FSU capabilities viewed are being initiated. Concurrently, there will be a technical assessment performed on the information gained from this and other recent visits to the FSU relative to space research.

Pellechi, M.

1993-01-01

306

The Soviet Market for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military market places display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but that of the Soviet Union was unusual for its degree of monopoly and exclusive relationships between buyer and seller. This presented a particular problem for the quality of weapons. The present chapter analyses the problem of quality in terms of an issue that is well-known in market economies, the hold-up

Mark Harrison; Andrei Markevich

307

Assessing opportunities in the Soviet petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

Western interest and activity in the Soviet Union's petroleum industry is surging ahead currently with the support of the Soviet government and related hydrocarbon entities. Western companies recently have negotiated protocol agreements, distribution accords and joint venture pacts. The scope of these agreements takes in the service/supply industry, drilling contractors, and major and independent producers. This paper attempts to assess today's climate in the Soviet Union and the most probable chances for Western participation in that country's petroleum industry during the coming years.

Pike, W.J.

1991-06-01

308

Economic reform and mortality in the former Soviet Union: A study of the suicide epidemic in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male suicide rates in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic countries increased substantially in the early 1990s and are now the highest in the world. To what extent is this suicide epidemic explained by the macroeconomic instability experienced by these countries in that period? Fixed effects regressions across 22 transition economies indicate that male suicide rates are highly sensitive to

Elizabeth Brainerd

2001-01-01

309

Military objectives in Soviet foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union's military developments and the size of its armed forces strongly influence Western assumptions about Soviet foreign policy. The author shows how the need to plan for the contingency of world war has shaped Soviet policy, resulting in a force structure often perceived as far in excess of legitimate defense needs. In this book the motivations underlying Soviet policy are investigated as thoroughly as the military posture is examined. According to the author, a doctrinal decision in late 1966 about the likely nature of a world war resulted in a basic change in Soviet strategic objectives. Corresponding changes occurred in operational concepts, the approach to arms control, and policy in the third world. The necessary restructuring of Soviet forces took place during the 1970s and 1980s. This book identifies the old and new hierarchies of strategic objectives, analyzes the implications of the shift, and deduces the Soviet operational plan for waging world war, should it prove inescapable. This plan explains the structure of Soviet strategic forces and their military posture in Euro-Atlantic, Asian-Pacific, and Indo-Arabian regions. Decisions taken in the 1967-68 and 1976-77 periods explain much of current Soviet policy. However, Soviet-American relations sharply deteriorated between 1978 and 1983. The author also considers the kind of decisions that the Soviets may have taken in recent years in response to these developments.

McGwire, M.

1987-01-01

310

Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

311

New Soviet Legislative Apparatus: A Reference Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large organization chart describes the structure and gives the names of key leaders in the Soviet legislative apparatus. Brief descriptions are given of the makeup of the Council of the Union, the four commissions of the Council of the Union, the Congre...

1989-01-01

312

Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup  

SciTech Connect

NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

Not Available

1991-09-06

313

Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

1992-07-01

314

USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys From Soviet Southern Republics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PRESS SURVEYS FROM SOVIET SOUTHERN REPUBLICS This report consists of editorial reports of articles found in the press of the southern republics of the Soviet Union which include the Transcaucasian republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; the Central ...

1984-01-01

315

Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Exped...

P. G. Richards

2006-01-01

316

Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill  

SciTech Connect

For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

Morrison, D.C. (National Journal, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-04-01

317

Soviet psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticizes S. Faraone's description of politically motivated psychiatric abuses in the USSR. The authors contend that the US itself is not completely innocent of abuses of professional power against mental patients and point out that Faraone did not offer a Soviet response to the accusations made by dissident and Amnesty International sources. (6 ref)

Ceceli Pollack

1983-01-01

318

Proceedings of the United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.-U.S.S.R.) Joint Seminar on External Utility Systems for Populated Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papers discuss wastewater treatment and sludge processing, economic engineering solutions to problems related to purification of sewer water, drinking water treatment processes, electric power distribution systems, energy efficiency, and energy conservati...

1983-01-01

319

The Shift in Soviet National Priorities to Military Forces, 1958-85  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the shift in Soviet national economic priorities from civilian uses, primarily consumption, to support of the Soviet military establishment since the late 1950s. It treats certain methodological issues involved in international comparisons, outlines the methodology used to estimate Soviet defense expenditures from published Soviet economic data, and compares the results with the CIA's estimates before and after

W. T. Lee

1981-01-01

320

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

321

An international carbon tax to combat global warming: An economic and political analysis of the European union proposal  

SciTech Connect

An international carbon tax has been the subject of considerable recent discussion as an economic incentive instrument to combat the perceived threat of global warming resulting, primarily, from the use of the carbon-emitting fossils - coal, oil, and natural gas - in the production of energy. During 1991, the European Union proposed the adoption of such a tax to be imposed by each member nation. The economic merits as well as the problems associated with the proposed European carbon tax are discussed along with the political prospects for its adoption. It is concluded that even though early adoption of the tax is unlikely, the economic merits of this tax instrument for the alleviation of global warming accompanied by changing political parameters may lead to its adoption in the long run.

Herber, B.P. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Raga, J.T. [Universidad San Pable CEU, Madrid (Spain)

1995-07-01

322

Studies in Deferrence. Xiii. Pattern and Level of Risk in Soviet Foreign Policy-Making, 1945-1963.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soviet behavior in risk situations is analyzed for 29 crises from 1945 to 1963. The inherent risk for the Soviet Union in each crisis situation is scaled according to: The countries involved; The stakes; Geographical location; Developmental factors; Relat...

J. F. Triska

1966-01-01

323

Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet

1989-01-01

324

Sea Control in the Arctic; a Soviet Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper exposes the ominous Soviet capability to outflank the US Maritime Strategy by exploiting sea control in the Arctic Ocean. This a recent development resulting from a long term effort by the Soviet Union to gain access to the immense natural reso...

D. M. Egan D. W. Orr

1987-01-01

325

New Perspectives of "old" Data Sources: the Dataset of Long-Term Research Watersheds in the Former Soviet Union for the Task of Hydrological Models Development, Verification and Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of detailed process-oriented observational data is often claimed as one of the major obstacle for further advance of hydrological process understanding and development of deterministic models that do not rely on calibration. New sources of hydrological information (satellites, radars etc.) have the perspectives for the future but can not completely replace conventional and experimental observations at the moment. Long-term data-rich research catchments remain valuable if not the only source of information for development, verification, regionalization and comparison of different hydrological and environmental models. There existed the set of more than 20 such basins that were operated according to single observational program from the 1930-1950th to 1990th in the former Soviet Union. Research basins, so called water-balance stations, covered all main climatic and landscape zones such as taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, desert, mountains and permafrost regions. Each station conducted broad range of standard, special and experimental hydrometeorological field studies including spatially distributed meteorological observations, soil and snow variable states, measurements of the groundwater levels, hydrochemistry, evapotranspiration, discharges in several, often nested, slope- and small-scale watersheds, etc. The data were accompanied by the descriptions of observational techniques and landscapes allowing linking natural conditions with dominant hydrological processes. Each station is representative for larger area and the results of local studies could be transferred to other basins in similar conditions. Till recently the data existed only in hard copies in Russian language therefore they are not enough explored yet. We are currently digitizing main part of the observational and supportive materials and make it available for any scientific purpose via website http://hydrograph-model.ru/. We propose to hydrological community to use the data for comprehensive intercomparison studies of our models and their modules to reject inadequate algorithms and advance our process understanding and modeling efforts in different environments.

Lebedeva, L.; Semenova, O.

2013-12-01

326

Supreme Soviet and Soviet Defense Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the potential role of the Supreme Soviet and its Committee for Questions of Defense and State Security (KOGB) in the formation of Soviet defense policy. Important events leading to the creation of the new Supreme Soviet and opening-se...

T. A. Fries

1991-01-01

327

Soviet oil trade from 1950 to 1976 in the context of the regime perspective  

SciTech Connect

Application of insights from international political economy (IPE) to the study of the Soviet Union and other communist countries should be useful both to students of IPE and to students of those countries. This study applies an IPE perspective, regime theory, to the Soviet oil trade. The subject area was chosen both because it is an area important to the Soviet Union and because a strong regime has been identified in this area by theorists. The focus is the interaction of the Soviet Union with a regime which had been established, and was controlled by, Western actors. The study asks how the Soviet Union related to the regime and how, if at all, it attempted to pursue its alternative vision of trade, as well as at how the regime, in turn, affected the Soviet Union in its day-to-day trading relations and in its trade policy. The study concludes that application of regime theory to the examination of the Soviet oil trade is valuable both to IPE and to Soviet studies. Viewing Soviet activities in the regime context helped explain both overall Soviet trade policy and day-to-day Soviet trade decisions such as pricing and choice of trade partners.

Quinn, K.M.

1988-01-01

328

Cohabiting couples’ economic circumstances and union transitions: a re-examination using multiple imputation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how sample attrition and missing partner data influence studies of cohabitors’ union transitions. We rely on data from both waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). Cohabitors with missing partner information or who were lost-to-follow-up have significantly fewer years of schooling and lower yearly earnings than cohabitors with complete data. Multiple imputation techniques are

Sharon Sassler; James McNally

2003-01-01

329

Missile Design Bureaux and Soviet Manned Space Policy: 1953-1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet manned space programme is one of the most impressive and mysterious legacies of the Soviet Union. Evidence that has come to light since 1989 throws considerable doubt on earlier Western understanding of the Soviet space effort. One of the more ...

W. P. Barry

1997-01-01

330

Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

2012-01-01

331

The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case study of increasing…

Melville, Keith; Landau, David

332

U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

Brown, Lester R.

333

The Soviet Semester: An Historical Interdisciplinary Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines and evaluates a one semester interdisciplinary program in which students at California State College, Stanislaus, were taught Soviet economics, literature, geography, government, and foreign policy. (Author/DB)

Oppenheim, Samuel A.

1977-01-01

334

For the State: Soviet Vocational Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes vocational education in the Soviet Union. Goals are accomplished by such methods as a standard national curriculum, including sophisticated polytechnical programs, by a system of school-supported youth programs that promote patriotism and group loyalty, and by a media campaign emphasizing the importance of the worker. (Author/JOW)

Carroll, Wayne M.

1981-01-01

335

Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

336

Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the evolution of Baltic dissent and nationalism in the 1970s and early 1980s, focusing on their determinants, significance, and potential for generating political instability in this important region of the Soviet Union. This is the re...

A. R. Alexiev

1983-01-01

337

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 2. Soviet Block and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. ISL mines in the former Soviet Union generally

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

338

Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

Tarasenko, M.V.

1994-08-01

339

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

340

Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

Bennett, Gary L.

1992-01-01

341

A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

342

The bear's view: Soviet environmentalism  

SciTech Connect

This article points out that the world added a new word to its growing vocabulary of environmental disasters: Chernobyl. The Soviet Union's handling of that crisis reflected its conflicting values concerning the environmental effects of large-scale projects. In the months following the accident, they reported its causes and environmental results far more openly than they had in many previous situations. Yet the accident has not stopped the Soviets from finishing an even larger nuclear plant with the same design 300 miles away. While the nation did decide last year to halt another potentially disastrous technological project - a 2,500-kilometer river-diversion plan - the country continues to pursue schemes that the author believes could cause major environmental problems. This article describes those projects.

Ziegler, C.E.

1987-04-01

343

Soviet crisis relocation program. Final report 1 May 82-Jun 83  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source materials, Soviet civil defense concepts, plans, organization, priorities, training programs, and capabilities pertaining to crisis relocation of residents of high-risk urban areas and workers of significant economic installations. Soviet sources indicate not only that crisis relocation continues to be an important element of the Soviet civil defense program,

Goure

1983-01-01

344

The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change  

SciTech Connect

The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

1991-07-01

345

Inégalités de revenu, pauvreté et protection sociale en Union soviétique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] The dramatic political and institutional changes now occurring in the Soviet Union are likely to have profound consequences on income distribution amongst households, as well as amongst Republics. Even before the onset of the current reform wave had been initiated by M. Gorbatchev, the mechanisms determining income distribution in the Soviet Union were generating substantial inequalities, in spite of

Sandrine Cazes; Jacques Le Cacheux

1991-01-01

346

Social Studies: Life in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This world studies elective quinmester course for grades seven through nine focuses on the national life style of Russia, emphasizing its varied cultural background, and, through an analysis of cultural characteristics, examining the influence a totalitarian government has on the nation's institutions. The student will: 1) evaluate the environment…

Ham, Pamela S.

347

"Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

Pehowski, Marian

348

Childhood Education in the Soviet Union Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information contained in this report about education in the U.S.S.R. was gathered from interviews and observations made in Russia in 1972. The formal set-up of the school system is described, along with observations on work and play activities, corporal punishment, scheduling, and day-to-day classroom operations. The report also contains a…

Rumstein, Regina

349

Soviet Union Republic Affairs, October 25, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Russian Federation Draft Constitution; (Section One. Fundamentals of the Constitutional System of the Russian Federation; Section Two. Basic Rights, Liberties, and Duties of Man and Citizen; Section Three. The Civil Society; Section Four. Federa...

1991-01-01

350

Gazprom outlines long term Soviet gas plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S.S.R.'s Gazprom Konstern has drawn up a comprehensive, long term plan for the Soviet natural gas industry, Eastern Bloc Energy (EBE) reports. EBE is a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, England. Gazprom, responsible for more than 90% of Soviet gas production, predicts Soviet gas production will continue to increase beyond 2030 and expects the resource base ultimately will total more than 330 trillion cu m, EBE the. Soviet Central Asia will begin to decline as a major source of gas during the early years of the next century, but western Siberian production will continue to grow after 2030. The continental shelf, mainly the Barents Sea, will eventually become a very large supplier of gas, EBE reported. Gazprom the development potential of the Soviet gas industry is not constrained by geological factors, only by economic and technical problems.

Not Available

1991-09-30

351

Essays on economic policy and foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

All but one of the nineteen essays in these pages were previously published as op-ed articles--sometimes in a slightly abbreviated form--in The Wall Street Journal, The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Newsweek, during the three years between November 1981 and November 19084. The essays are grouped into two sections dealing, respectively, with economic policy (Section I), and with foreign policy (Section II). Sometimes this division is arbitrary: for example, the discussion of international debt (which is in Section I) bears on foreign policy, and the discussion of Western lending to the Soviet Union (which is in Section II) bears on economic policy. The single essay that was not previously published (Another Look Through the Pipeline) deals with the Soviet Union's gas pipeline to Western Europe.

Wolf, C.

1985-03-01

352

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

353

Soviet Conceptions of 'Security'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum explores how Soviet leaders perceive their country's 'security.' The author contends that the dominant Soviet image of security requirements is not markedly different from perceptions that US leaders have of America's security requirements...

R. H. Donaldson

1980-01-01

354

Soviet Future War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the following topics: The Methodology of Foresight and Forecasting in Soviet Military Affairs; Impact of the Dialectical Process: Periods of Military Development; The Future Development of the Soviet Army: Weaponry, Military Doctrin...

1987-01-01

355

To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of United States Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a quantitative reexamination of the behavior of the Founding Fathers during the creation of the United States' Constitution. It employs cliometric analysis, formal economic analysis, and modern statistical techniques, to explain the choices the founders made during the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. These include: What form of government did the founders intend for the Constitution? What

Robert A. McGuire

356

Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

Crandon, Christopher

2004-12-01

357

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

358

Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

2013-01-01

359

FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

1986-01-01

360

Soviet Economic Reform: Socialism and Property. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stanley Foundation annually assembles a panel of experts from the public and private sectors to assess specific foreign policy issues and to recommend future direction. The participants in the round-table discussion summarized in this report agreed that the Soviets are moving from a Marxist-Leninist version of socialism to a broader version,…

Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

361

About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

MccGwire, M. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-11-01

362

Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

2002-01-01

363

Soviet military thinking and nuclear weapons issues. Report for Period July 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the Soviet Unions's changing outlook on nuclear weapons and the role they play. To assess these changes, this paper first surveys and analyzes the Soviet open-source literature dedicated to security issues, paying particular attention to the treatment of nuclear weapons issues. The notions of changing military doctrine, strategic parity and stability, sufficiency, arms control, and the use of nuclear weapons are all addressed. The second half of the paper makes a speculative assessment of what today's changes taking place in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union might mean for future thinking about nuclear weapons issues. Finally, the impact of future Soviet defense spending and the Soviet political leadership are examined as factors that will also influence Soviet security policy.

Clark, S.L.; Laird, R.F.

1990-05-01

364

Soviet MIR Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper was to determine if the Soviet MIR space station represents a significant advance when compared to the Soviets preceding Salyut 7 space station. A description and comparison of the physical features of Salyut 7 and MIR are presen...

T. E. Snook

1988-01-01

365

Soviet Small Arms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This historical sketch shows the development of Soviet small arms from Czarist times to the post-WWII era. From the adoption of V. G. Fedorov's 6.5 mm automatic rifle in 1918, the author traces the developments and improvements in Soviet small arms to the...

F. V. Tokarev

1968-01-01

366

Soviet strategic defense programs  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the Soviet approach; defensive forces; ballistic missile defense; advanced technologies for defense against ballistic missiles; laser weapons, particle beam weapons, radio frequency weapons, kinetic-energy weapons, computer and sensor technology, antisatellite developments; air defense; passive defenses; Soviet statements on the US Strategic Defense Initiative; annex: offensive forces.

Not Available

1985-10-01

367

Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet Union's agonizing decade-long struggle against a fiercely determined Mujahldeen resistance in Afghanistan offers a compelling illustration of the perils which can await a modern power that commits conventional forces against an unconventional f...

R. F. Baumann

1993-01-01

368

Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition. An Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide is intended to be used with the six-part videotape "Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition." The guide comprises essays that provide critical background information needed to understand the issues and events under discussion, which are the new countries that have grown out of the former Soviet Union;…

Blankenship, Glen; Brown, Christopher; Johnson-White, Julia; Moffitt, Louisa; Papp, Daniel

369

Fostering the Next Generation of Socialists: Patronirovanie in the Fledgling Soviet State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay traces foster care policies in the SovietUnion, concentrating on the first half of Soviet rule when, due to chaos in the wake of wars, revolutions, and famine, Bolshevikle aders retreated from their original commitment to rearing orphans in public institutions. Although the Bolsheviks considered Russian peasants unsuited for raising socialist citizens, they wound up farming out parentless children

Laurie Bernstein

2001-01-01

370

Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality…

Belousa, Inga

2008-01-01

371

Astronauts from ASTP office at JSC with Soviet hosts after reception in USSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of Astronauts from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) office at JSC are photographed with their Soviet hosts after attending a reception at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow. They are standing on the front steps of the scientific institution. The Americans were in the Soviet Union to take part in ASTP familiarization training at the Cosmonaut Training Center near Moscow.

1974-01-01

372

America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future. Teacher's Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum project focuses on U.S.-Soviet relations and the choices that U.S. citizens face today in addressing the Soviet Union and the threat of nuclear war. This book is intended as a resource guide to accompany a 22-minute video presentation and student text that are part of the "Four Futures" curriculum. The resource book includes the…

Berger, Karl; And Others

373

Threat and opportunity: the Soviet view of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) during the period March 1983 through November 1985 provided indications of their view of the program both as a threat and as an opportunity to weaken NATO. The SDI is seen not only as a threat to the physical security of the Soviet Union but as part of an effort by

Uchrinscko

1986-01-01

374

Soviet military thinking and nuclear weapons issues. Report for Period July 1989May 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the Soviet Unions's changing outlook on nuclear weapons and the role they play. To assess these changes, this paper first surveys and analyzes the Soviet open-source literature dedicated to security issues, paying particular attention to the treatment of nuclear weapons issues. The notions of changing military doctrine, strategic parity and stability, sufficiency, arms control, and the use

S. L. Clark; R. F. Laird

1990-01-01

375

Families Around the World. The Soviet Family in Moscow. Teacher's Resource Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide outlines one of a series of units for grade 2. Information on Soviet culture is included for the teacher, describing the urban site, the home, social structure of the family, role relationships in the family, functions of the family in the Soviet Union, and the socialization process. Major concepts related to culture, social…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

376

Rethinking the role of Soviet military power. Report for June 1990-June 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the changing role of the Soviet military and the military instrument in the Soviet system. It begins by identifying traditional Soviet foreign policy objectives and how they have changed under Gorbachev. In turn, these foreign policy shifts have played a part in redefining the role of the Soviet military. Changes in the General Staff's agenda are then examined, followed by an overview of the implications of the nationalities problem for the Soviet military. As the Soviet system faces a challenging time of change, the military must determine how it will participate in this change. This paper offers several alternative futures for the Soviet Union, with particular attention focused on the resultant alternative roles for Soviet foreign and security policy. This paper also argues that the security debates in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe will all affect each other. Within the Soviet Union, the most important debate is the one between the Union and the Republics. The challenges for the West is to develop new approaches to our involvement in these security debates.

Laird, R.F.; Clark, S.L.

1991-06-01

377

Soviet attitudes toward regional security  

SciTech Connect

This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

Campbell, K.M.

1987-01-01

378

Dynamics of Soviet National Income (1950-1967).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The goals and significance of studying national income dynamics; Certain notions on the methods of examining the dynamics of economic indicators; Characteristics of the statistical series of Soviet national income dynamics; The dynamics of the t...

A. L. Vainshtein

1970-01-01

379

Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan as Post-Soviet Rentier States: Resource Incomes and Autocracy as a Double ‘Curse’in Post-Soviet Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an analysis of two post-Soviet states, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, which can be identified as post-Soviet rentier states. Both countries are characterised economically by enormous national resources of gas and oil and low economic diversification as well as politically by strong autocratic presidentialism with neopatrimonial structures. These two factors, combined with further post-Soviet legacies such as a low

Anja Franke; Andrea Gawrich; Gurban Alakbarov

2009-01-01

380

For the Further Development of Soviet French Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

>p>The Soviet Union's trade with France is of long standing. Even before the First World War there was extensive demand in France for such Russian goods as grain, manganese ore, oil products, flax, and furs. Russia bought French machinery, equipment, ferrous and nonferrous metals, wool and other items. Russian-French trade was fostered by the fact that their export items were

R. Tarzimanov

1960-01-01

381

Japan-Soviet Fishery Agreements, 1985-91.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japanese fishermen have operated extensively off the Soviet Union's coast since Japan energetically began expanding its fishing industry following the Second World War. The U.S.S.R., however, in 1977 implemented a 200-mile fishery zone and officials of bo...

T. Schneider P. Niemeir M. Wildman

1991-01-01

382

Radon - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and...

W. C. Horak A. Reisman E. E. Purvis

1997-01-01

383

Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Friedman, H. [E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (United States); Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

1996-11-01

384

Technology Transfer and the Early Development of Soviet Computers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the early development of computers in the Soviet Union, as well as the part that technology transfer from the West has played in that development. It outlines the conditions under which the first computers evolved, in both the East and...

D. L. Burghart

1988-01-01

385

Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

Yessis, Michael, Ed.

1974-01-01

386

Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

2007-01-01

387

Chronology of US-Soviet-CIS nuclear relations  

SciTech Connect

Since the signing of the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a number of important events related to nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union have taken place. A chronology of key developments over the past three years is discussed.

NONE

1994-06-01

388

Potential for Soviet Penetration of the Pacific Islands: An Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study in vulnerability. It is a review of the potential for external influence to be introduced into the South Pacific region. As such, the capacity for mischief cannot be limited merely to the Soviet Union or any of its potential surrogates pit...

R. C. Kiste R. A. Herr

1984-01-01

389

Soviet Teachers and the Politics of Identity, 1931-1939.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical review describes the expansion of elementary and secondary education in the Soviet Union during the decade of the 1930's under the Stalinist regime. This study explores how teachers participated in shaping the relationship between education and Stalinist political culture by examining how teachers made sense of their position in…

Ewing, E. Thomas

390

A Clash of Civilizations, or Differences in Economic Modernization? Examining Liberal-Democratic Values in Turkey and the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real and perceived political and cultural differences between Turkey and the European Union (EU) have undermined Turkey's EU application. The EU has rebuffed this predominantly Muslim, relatively poor country for failing to live up to the values of democracy, rule of law, and respect for and protection of human and minority rights. As part of the Copenhagen Criteria (1993), these

Jeffrey C. Dixon

391

Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research  

SciTech Connect

Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

1991-01-01

392

The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security  

SciTech Connect

The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

1986-01-01

393

The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

2013-12-01

394

Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985  

SciTech Connect

This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

Not Available

1985-06-05

395

The Evil Empire Revisited: New York Times Coverage of the Soviet Intervention in and Withdrawal from Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the New York Times coverage of the Soviet intervention and withdrawal from Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989. Changes in coverage are examined in the context of easing tensions between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union. Findings indicate that the treatment of major story elements was consistent with Herman and Chomsky's propaganda framework. However, changes in the

Jothik Krishnaiah; Nancy Signorielli; Douglas M. McLeod

1993-01-01

396

United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

McLain, Douglas, Jr.

397

The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

2007-01-01

398

Proceedings of the United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.-U.S.S.R.) Joint Seminar on External Utility Systems for Populated Areas (Russian Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Papers discuss wastewater treatment and sludge processing, economic engineering solutions to problems related to purification of sewer water, drinking water treatment processes, electric power distribution systems, energy efficiency, and energy conservati...

1983-01-01

399

Education for Trade Union Officials and Militants in the USSR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes labor education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The course system consists of three levels of courses, including (1) local short-term trade union courses, (2) regional permanent courses that last up to a month, and (3) seminars at the Trade Unionist Upgrading Institute. (CH)

Baglay, M. V.

1987-01-01

400

Soviet debate on missile defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic

Parrott

1987-01-01

401

Modeling Soviet Defense Decisionmaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

My goal in this paper is to set out a simple model of decisionmaking in Soviet defense to help clarify the subject, but also to draw out disagreements and perhaps resolve misunderstandings by offering a structured, abstracted description. In this modeling...

A. J. Alexander

1980-01-01

402

Soviet meteor satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the cooperative efforts of several agencies, Soviet Meteor satellite visual and infrared (IR) imagery is now being received and processed outside the U.S.S.R. borders. Observations have been made on the data receipt, processing, and subsequent picture quality of the Meteor/APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) system as received by the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility.

Diesen, B. C., III; Reinke, D. L.

1978-01-01

403

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

404

Soviet measurements of strategic balance and arms control. Sanitized. Technical report, 1 April 1984-30 September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This sanitized report concludes that, although the requirements and concerns of the Soviet military are not the only factors that influence the positions that the Soviet arms control negotiators offer, it is unlikely that the Soviet Union will agree to arms control provisions that measurably reduce the ability of the military forces of the Soviet Union to fulfill the requirements for military capability that are formally levied through military doctrine. Topics include: Elements of the Soviet view of the strategic balance -- The Soviet framework for assessing military adequacy, Strategic missions of the Soviet armed forces, Measurements of the correlation of forces, and Assessment of mission adequacy; Some implications of the Soviet assessment methods for arms control -- Limiting the rate of change of the threat, Prevent introduction of new kinds of systems, Maintain freedom to determine mix of delivery systems, Strive to define the framework for the negotiations consistent with the Soviet planning framework, Try to get and increase in the warning of enemy actions, and Minimize the intrusiveness of verification methods; Some major changes in the threat that impact Soviet assessments -- The principal changes since 1982, Pershing II and GLCM deployments, Long-range ALCM, ICBM modernization, and The Militarization of Space.

Grange, J.K.; Battilega, J.; Bennett, S.; Summers, M.

1986-04-21

405

World mineral exploration trends and economic issues  

SciTech Connect

The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.

Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (USA))

1988-01-01

406

Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities  

SciTech Connect

Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

NONE

1993-12-31

407

Soviet Neurological Science Today  

PubMed Central

Neurological sciences in the U.S.S.R. are healthy but have middle-age spread, as judged from an intensive personal tour of facilities as a guest of the Soviet Academy of Sciences during the autumn of 1963. Many of the recent Western enthusiasms in ultrastructure, cytogenetics and molecular genetics appear not to have inflamed many imaginations. However, Soviet neurologists are contributing to the same types of electrophysiological research as are current in the West. The full realization of the talents of many well-trained young investigators is hindered by the strong emphasis on Pavlovian theory and technique, the rigid multi-layered structure of research institutes, and the relative isolation from undergraduate medical schools of most research.

Basmajian, J. V.

1964-01-01

408

Magnitudes of Soviet tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To augment my article “Soviet Test Yields” (Eos, November 28, p. 1524) I would like to make available additional mb (Lg) magnitudes from NORSAR, the Norwegian Seismic Array, for four of the events listed in Table 1 (with permission from Frode Ringdal and Roger A. Hansen, from their paper “NORSAR Yield Estimation Studies” presented to the DARPA/AFTAC Seismic Research Symposium held November 28-29 at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida).

Vergino, Eileen S.

409

Misreading the Soviet threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noel E. Firth and James H. Noren, Soviet Defense Spending: A History of CIA Estimates, 1950–1990,College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998. Pp.xix + 291, appendices, notes, references, index. $49.95. ISBN 0–89096–805–5Anne Hessing Cahn, Killing Detente: The Right Attacks the CIA,University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Pp.viii + 232, appendix, glossary, bibliog., index. $24.50. ISBN 0–271–01791–0Robert M. Gates, From

Walter C. Uhler

2001-01-01

410

Soviet oil and security interests in the Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The various political, economic, and military problems that could arise if the USSR, Norway, or other western nations begin exploring and producing oil in the Barents Sea are examined. The development of the Soviet oil industry, the foreign trade factor, energy consumption in the USSR, Soviet investment policy, and alternative areas of future oil production are reviewed. The technology and hardware that the Soviets have been using to explore the Barents Sea, dating back to 1971, are examined. The military implications (Soviet Northern Fleet) of this development are considered at some length. The authors present and examine two options (the ruble track and the hard-currency strategy) for developing oil production in this region.

Bergesen, H.O.; Moe, A.; Ostreng, W.

1987-01-01

411

Union Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forgotten the words to "Joe Hill," "Look for the Union Label," or "Do Re Mi?" Look no further than this site, created and maintained by Mark Gregory, a Web Development Project Officer at Macquarie University (Australia), which features the lyrics and many audio clips of approximately 100 classic and more recent union songs. Numerous lyrics pages also link to related sites. In addition, the site offers some book and CD reviews, a Union Discography, a bibliography, and song and union links. Joe Hill ain't never died.

412

Economic Impacts of Adopting the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: A CGE Approach to the Case of Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates potential economic impacts of incorporating Romania into EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. A CGE model of Romania is employed to model likely changes in trade, production and welfare patterns with a focus on fifteen local agro-food activities. Three main findings emerge. First, the adoption of the CAP expands agro-food output and trade, promotes higher farm incomes, and increases

S. Serban Scrieciu

2007-01-01

413

Yields of US and Soviet nuclear tests  

SciTech Connect

Failure to account properly for geological and seismological differences between the US and Soviet test sites has led to overestimates of the yields of Soviet tests and to incorrect claims of Soviet cheating on the treaty limit of 150 kilotons.

Evernden, J.F.; Marsh, G.E.

1987-08-01

414

Union Agitators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

Honawar, Vaishali

2006-01-01

415

The New Scientific-Methodological Concept of the Soviet School Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Soviet geography curriculum comprised of: Introduction to Physical Geography; Geography of the Continents and Oceans; Geography of the USSR; Geography of the USSR II; and Economic and Social Geography of the World. Discusses the program's scientific content and describes the trends of geography instruction in Soviet classrooms.…

Maksakovsky, Vladimir

1989-01-01

416

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the Soviet defense burden. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviets' response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) must be understood within the context of their deteriorating economic situation and need to modernize their economy. This Note evaluates the defense burden to the Soviets of both an offsetting and an emulation response to the U.S. SDI effort. The analysis is conducted within the context of General Secretary Gorbachev's modernization

1988-01-01

417

Soviet military strategy in space  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

Johnson, N.L.

1987-01-01

418

Soviet crisis relocation program. Final report 1 May 82-Jun 83  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source materials, Soviet civil defense concepts, plans, organization, priorities, training programs, and capabilities pertaining to crisis relocation of residents of high-risk urban areas and workers of significant economic installations. Soviet sources indicate not only that crisis relocation continues to be an important element of the Soviet civil defense program, but also that there is a requirement for the relocation of leadership elements, essential workers, and urban civil defense forces regardless of the availability of shelters in the cities. Soviet civil defense has well developed, comprehensive plans for implementing a rapid relocation of the urban population of exurban areas in a highly organized and strictly controlled manner. While small-scale evacuation exercises are conducted throughout the USSR, it is uncertain how well Soviet plans, organization, and procedures will perform in an actual large-scale relocation.

Goure, L.

1983-05-01

419

Recent Soviet microelectronics research on III-V compounds semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity in the Soviet Union on III-V compound semiconductor devices during the past five years is examined in the areas of materials, processes, radiation effects, and devices by a search of the translated technical journals. The majority of the work in III-V materials is concerned with gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the materials are certainly of the quality needed to make integrated circuits (ICs). However, the focus of Soviet growth and characterization studies appears to be basic materials properties, rather than development of capabilities and understanding for making integrated circuits. In processing, the Soviets appear to have very little effort on metaloorganic chemical vapor deposition on III-V compounds, while this is the process of choice in the West. There is, however, a substantial effort on X-ray lithography for silicon that could be extended to GaAs. High-quality work is also reported for ion beam, electron beam, optical projection, and laser processing silicon. Research on metallization (interconnection) and dielectric deposition processes for GaAs is absent. Soviet research on ion implantation and laser annealing in compound semiconductors is largely directed toward basic phenomena, such as defect information, rather than on electrical characteristics considered important for integrated circuit fabrication. Outstanding basic work is also being conducted on the radiation effects of electrons, protons, alpha, gamma, and X-rays on materials. These Soviet studies of radiation effects do not appear to be directed toward the fabrication of actual devices. Soviet GaAs device work appears to be generally of a theoretical nature, relying in part on device data obtained from Western articles. The most advanced involves the junction field effect transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistor, with little work reported on the fabrication of GaAs integrated circuits.

Sello, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

1988-08-01

420

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

421

Close Up Special Focus: U.S.-Soviet Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to accompany a 4-part video series, this high school unit on U.S.-Soviet relations focuses on each nation's world view, political system, and ideologies. A student handbook and teacher's curriculum guide are included. The student handbook is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 examines the political and economic system of each country…

Hess, Jacqueline

422

Fluctuations in Soviet Defense SpendingA Research Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite our efforts to understand the dynamics of the arms race, we know little about the causes of short-term fluctuations in USSR military spending. This article attempts to shed new light on the domestic causes of these fluctuations, with special emphasis on Soviet economic conditions. It is found that annual shifts in military budgets are responsive to the magnitude of

Miroslav Nincic

1983-01-01

423

Soviet Exploitation of the 'Nuclear Winter' Hypothesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called ''Nuclear Winter'' hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have...

L. Goure

1985-01-01

424

National Dissent in the Soviet Union: The Crimean Tatar Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Return to the Homeland Movement' of one of the Crimean Tatars, is the principal subject of this article. Whereas Western observers have generally focused their attention on Russian and Jewish dissidents in the Moscow area, they have given somewhat le...

D. Kowalewski

1977-01-01

425

Carcinogens in rubber production in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

In a preliminary phase of a broad research project on cancer among workers in a rubber footwear plant in Moscow, exposure to several known or potential carcinogens was assessed. There were high dust contents bearing both toxic substances and carcinogens. The highest concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (500-14,400 micrograms) were found on the soot used as a filler, and the maximum N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) level was measured in thiram (150-23,868 micrograms.kg-1). Air samples from the vulcanization process and the pressing of rubber goods showed BaP levels of up to 1.43 micrograms.m-3. In the work area where polyvinyl chloride was used, the mean vinyl chloride concentration was 0.21 (SE 0.06) mg.m-3. The mean value of the acrylonitrile concentrations in the workroom area was 0.19 (SE 0.07) mg.m-3. Very high levels of DMNA and N-diethylnitrosamine were measured in the preparatory shop in the winter. PMID:1604272

Solionova, L G; Smulevich, V B; Turbin, E V; Krivosheyeva, L V; Plotnikov, J V

1992-04-01

426

Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

427

Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical high-pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd1-xZnxTe (0.04

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B James; A. J Antolak; D. H Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E Schlesinger

1999-01-01

428

Monitoring Earthquake and Explosion Sources in the Soviet Union.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of five research projects conducted at Weston Observatory under Contract No. F19628-90-K-0035. The research conducted under this contract covers a range of topics related to seismology in general and to nuclear test monit...

A. L. Kafka J. I. Blaney A. K. Bowers S. E. D'Annolfo M. R. Jacobson-Carroll

1993-01-01

429

CIA's Analysis Of The Soviet Union, 1947-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a compilation of declassified documents which collectively offer a retrospective on the CIA's analytical role during the Cold War. These are grouped in five chapters, each of which is prefaced by some brief comments.

2001-01-01

430

Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (0.04 < x < 0.24) detector crystals grown in the Ukraine and Russia have been evaluated and compared to US-grown materials. Various analytical techniques were used to study the materials for trace impurities, precipitates, crystallinity, and electrical transport properties. Relatively high concentrations of carbon and trace impurities such as Se, Nd and Si have been detected in the crystals. In most cases, the crystals showed lower resistivity than US-grown CZT. However, recent crystals grown in Russia exhibited better detector performance than those grown in prior years, and good response to an {sup 241}Am radioactive source was found. Electron lifetimes below 1 {micro}s were measured in crystals having significant numbers of micro-defects, compared to lifetimes of 5--15 {micro}s found in spectrometer grade materials produced in the US. Furthermore, the zinc composition along the growth axis showed better homogeneity in comparison with the US material.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; A. J. Antolak; D. H. Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S. Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E. Schlesinger

1998-01-26

431

Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

1992-01-01

432

Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

Nguyen, H.P.

1989-11-01

433

Economics of the Soviet Fishing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The fishing industry in the national economy; Main stages in the development of the fishing industry; Management and planning in the fishing industry; The system of fishery kolkhozes, its importance and specific feagures; The raw material basis ...

N. P. Sysoev

1974-01-01

434

Soviet political objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany: instruments and assessments. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines apparent Soviet attempts to use its detente policy to exploit the Federal Republic of Germany's membership in NATO and thereby expand its influence in the FRG and Europe as a whole. It is hypothesized that the Soviet Union chooses to exploit the FRG's position in NATO by cultivating a special relationship with it and thereby accessing the U.S. and NATO as a whole, rather than making overt efforts to force a near-term split between West Germany and the U.S. The thesis focuses on the instruments the Soviet Union uses to maximize its influence in the FRG and the region. These instruments include West Germany's concerns regarding nuclear war in Europe, Ostpolitik and German-German relations.

Goebel, S.E.

1988-06-01

435

English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (With an Emphasis on Chemistry).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that the scientific community keep aware of developments in the Soviet Union. To meet this need, a…

Wiggins, Gary

436

Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

437

The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

438

Future of Containment: America's Options for Depending Its Interests on the Soviet Periphery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the U.S. strategy for defending our interests in the security of countries on the periphery of the Soviet Union. Since World War II, the protection of those U.S. interests have been the primary motivation for this country's national ...

1988-01-01

439

Navigating Identity Reformation, Marginalization, and "Soft" Colonization in Former Soviet Immigrant Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study examines post-immigration reformed identity struggles among high school students from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Specifically, Belarusian, Kazakh, and Russian students in one U.S. public school district recognized and internalized "Russian" and inferior identities given to them by their U.S. teachers and peers,…

Goulah, Jason

2009-01-01

440

Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

2009-01-01

441

Authenticity, Autonomy, and Authority: Feminist Jewish Learning among Post-Soviet Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This articles explores how a group of women in the Former Soviet Union grapple with questions of Jewish identity and Jewish "authenticity" as they participate in adult Jewish learning program that employs methods of feminist pedagogy and transformative learning. The study reflects on areas of dissonance between the transformational learning…

Grant, Lisa D.

2008-01-01

442

“RADON”-the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union established a system of specialized, regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of

W. C. Horak; A. Reisman

1997-01-01

443

A precarious position of power: Soviet school directors in the 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that ‘single person rule’ (edinonachalie) should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental changes in the distribution of power in society. During

E. Thomas Ewing

2009-01-01

444

A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2009-01-01

445

Conflict and cooperation in American?Soviet relations: What have we learned from quantitative research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews quantitative (primarily events data) research on the interaction between the United States and the Soviet Union. Cooperative actions appear to be primarily a reaction to the rival's behavior while conflic?tual actions appear to be primarily a continuation of each nation's own past behavior. The principle of reciprocity appears to generally govern interactions but there are significant deviations

Martin Patchen

1991-01-01

446

Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

Manheim, Frank T.

1966-01-01

447

The gift of health: Socialist medical practice and shifting material and moral economies in post-Soviet Cuba.  

PubMed

Drawing on ethnographic data collected over 13 months of fieldwork in family doctor clinics in Havana from 2004 to 2005, I examine the shifting moral and material economies of Cuban socialist medical practice. In both official ideology and in daily practice, the moral economy of ideal socialist medicine is based on an ethos of reciprocal social exchange-that is, the gift-that informs not only doctors' relationships with the Cuban state and with individual patients but also the state's policies of international medical service to developing nations. The social and economic upheavals after the fall of t Soviet Union, however, have compelled both the state and individual doctors to operate in a new local and global economy. The gift remains the central metaphor of Cuban medical practice. Nonetheless, as ideologies and practices of gifting and reciprocity encounter an emerging market economy, gifts--whether on the level of the state policies of international humanism or in patient-doctor relations--are open to new significations that highlight the shifting material and moral economies of post-Soviet Cuba. PMID:20092049

Andaya, Elise

2009-12-01

448

The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions  

SciTech Connect

During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

Nordyke, M.D.

2000-07-26

449

Soviet nuclear powered satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Soviet space nuclear reactors, particularly for the Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATS) is traced. The reactors have a fission core to which thermoelectric elements are exposed. The earliest, 1964 version had only cooling fins and produced 500 kWe for up to 15,000 hr. The Topaz version on the RORSATS employs thermoionic conversion, i.e., hot- and cold-shoes, and yields 5-10 kWe. The Topaz reactor also features a positive temperature coefficient of reactivity, meaning that the hotter it becomes, the more it reacts, etc.; this implies that the reaction could become uncontrollable. RORSATS in orbit in the 1980s have a design life of 130-140 days, double that of previous versions. End of life leads to a satellite break-up and consequent boosting of the reactor to a higher orbit. Several problems have occurred in all flight phases. It is noted that usage of the satellite radar may have made the presence of submarines down to several hundred feet depth evident by the differences in surface waves.

Reese, R. T.; Vick, C. P.

1983-10-01

450

Scientific and Technical Translation and the All-Union Translation Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation and use of machine translation as an adjunct to human translation at the Soviet Union's All-Union Translation Center, a centralized scientific and technical translation facility, is examined. The issues of error correction, the variety of translation types needed, and special lexical considerations are discussed. (MSE)

Marchuk, Yuri Nikolaevich

1984-01-01

451

Soviet threat perceptions of NATO's Eurostrategic missiles  

SciTech Connect

The problem investigated here is how Soviet perceptions of particular military threats, in this case from NATO's new INF missiles, affect their arms control negotiating policy. This study most closely examines Soviet writings in the 1979-83 period and relies on extensive interviewing, sponsored by IREX, at the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institutes. It attempts to distinguish between Soviet portrayals and real perceptions of the military and political threats from the 1983 INF deployments. It explores how such Soviet assessments interrelate with Soviet military doctrine and broader foreign policy strategies, and how perceptions might differ among Soviet analysts and officials. It is divided into six chapters: (1) Historical Perspectives; (2) Soviet Threat Portrayals; (3) Evaluating Soviet Threat Portrayals; (4) Soviet Military Doctrine and the INF Threat; (5) Soviet Political-Military Interests at the INF Negotiations; (6) The Soviet Net Assessment. The study finds that Soviet threat portrayals are loosely consistent with Soviet perceptions of the potential threat, especially from an extended-range Pershing missile against their National Command Authorities.

Garner, W.V.

1985-01-01

452

Political risk in transition economies and the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with political risk, its definition, assessment and measuring. In the theoretical part different approaches to the definition of political risk are discussed and methodical approaches to its measuring and assessment are explained. The practical part is focused on the analysis of political risk assessment in transition countries of Europe and in countries of former Soviet Union compared

Milan Žák

2005-01-01

453

Public Investment in R&D: Does public investment in R&D in lagging regions of the European Union have an impact on Innovation and GDP growth? If so, is it the most efficient mechanism to foster economic growth in these regions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relevance of technological development regarded as the engine of economic growth has recently been reinforced as the European Union (EU) under the special summit of Lisbon (March, 2000) declared that \\

Beñat Bilbao Osorio

454

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

455

This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

456

Current Debate Over Soviet Defense Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gorbachev's new political thinking on national security issues poses a profound challenge to the Soviet military. He has encouraged civilian intellectuals to actively participate in the formulation of Soviet defense policy, and, in so doing, has threatene...

J. J. Bonan

1989-01-01

457

New light on early Soviet bomb secrets  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet nuclear program and the history of the US{endash}Soviet nuclear arms race can now be studied in quite a new way, thanks to information from Russian archives and from participants in the program itself.

Holloway, D. [Center for International Security and Arms Control, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

1996-11-01

458

Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan: Never Again.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 26 and 27, the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) brought together Soviet and American experts on the war in Afghanistan to discuss the lessons of the war, its effect on Soviet society, and its impact on Soviet policy in the Third World. The ses...

J. Voas

1990-01-01

459

The ESR-Soviet Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cooperative Educators for Social Responsibility Project to develop materials enabling American and Soviet teachers to teach about each others' countries and U.S.-Soviet relations in a realistic manner. Some major challenges are differing vocabularies and concepts, lack of Soviet educators' experience with critical or independent…

Shapiro, Alan; Alexander, Susan

1989-01-01

460

Soviet leadership on nuclear war. Professional paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the last decade, the Soviet politico-military leadership has provided startling evidence of a new Soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Leading Soviet military thinkers have themselves traced the origin of this phenomenon to evolving technological developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. In his 1982 book--Always in Readiness to Defend the Fatherland, Ogarkov used provocative language to describe recent developments

1987-01-01

461

Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

Spearman, M. Leroy

2006-01-01

462

Conversion of Soviet Defense Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soviet leaders for the past 25 years have attempted to seize a small part of the defense industry success and bestow it on civilian industry through the transfer of defense managers and methods. Unfortunately, none of the magic has been captured in these ...

A. J. Alexander

1990-01-01

463

The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

1989-01-01

464

Union participation in foreign aid programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the initiation of the Marshall Plan, an arrangement was instituted whereby trade union representatives would function as staff members of the American economic assistance administration for the purpose of aiding free labor organizations in the countries in the program. How effective has this rather unique administrative arrangement been in promoting the aims of our policy of aiding unions abroad?

David Heaps

1955-01-01

465

Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

Tchobanian, R.

1975-01-01

466

Legal enforcement of union security in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Union security is usually thought to be an issue of major political importance only in those situations where the labor movement is weak, politically as well as economically, and where encouragement of collective bargaining is not a major tenet of public policy. Australia, as is well known, does not correspond to this picture: unions are comparatively well-established and numerically strong;

Ross M. Martin

1960-01-01

467

Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. Slavic women\\u000a have been trafficked to the sex markets of Western Europe, Asia, and North America. The surge in human trafficking is the\\u000a result of numerous factors, including the dramatic fall of the economic system and complete deterioration of the social safety\\u000a net.

Yuliya V. Tverdova

468

Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

Levine, R. M.; Bond, A. R.

1998-01-01

469

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m\\/sub b\\/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The

L. R. Sykes; G. C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

470

Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most

Lynn R. Sykes; Graham C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

471

Will physician unions improve health system performance?  

PubMed

In the public debate over the extension of collective bargaining rights to independent physicians, union proponents' primary argument has been that patients would benefit from allowing physicians to bargain collectively with health plans. This article examines the likely effects of physician unions on the U.S. health care system. Specifically considered are likely effects on economic efficiency, quality, access, and cost. Under none of these criteria are physician unions likely to improve health system performance, particularly when compared with available alternative strategies for dealing with problems identified by union proponents. PMID:12374290

Brewbaker, William S

2002-08-01

472

Soviet National Middle Atmosphere Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soviet national MAP program comprises seven projects: lower thermosphere (structure and dynamics); high latitude energetic sources and their effect on the structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere under conditions of the polar night; climate of the stratosphere and mesosphere (effects of various energetic sources on its formation); winter variability in the lower ionosphere; noctilucent clouds (climatology, dynamics, nature, and genesis); wave processes and structure and dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; and dynamics of the ozone layer.

Danilov, A. D.

1982-01-01

473

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

474

Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

Dewberry, David R.

2005-01-01

475

U.S.-Soviet seismology research funds switched to air force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Department of Defense funding for seismology research has seen some changes in both amount and administration. While Congress increased the budget of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) by almost $1.4 billion this year, about 13% over last year (as reported October 30 in the Washington Post), it also rescinded DARPA's authority to manage funding of the Soviet Union program of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

Simarski, Lynn Teo

476

Dead Men Walking: Soviet Elite Cemeteries and Social Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the Soviet elite cemeteries and their structure and questions the impact of the communist ideology on the Soviet society. Contrary to the Soviet law that proclaimed principles of equality, the Soviet state rigidly maintained social hierarchies. This social stratification remained the rule even beyond the grave. Soviet elite cemeteries, a replica of the society of the living,

Katya Vladimirov

477

Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

478

Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as

Seavey

1988-01-01

479

Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

Catudal, H.M.

1989-01-01

480

Soviet Satellite Geodesy. Basis and Status of Soviet Laser Geodesy and Long-Base Line Interferometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a survey of Soviet developments in satellite geodesy, presented in the following sections: survey of Soviet literature; observation and tracking stations; space triangulation networks; cameras used for satellite geodesy; laser geodesy; and l...

S. G. Hibben E. M. Rowell

1974-01-01

481

Determination of the Venus flyby orbits of the Soviet Vega probes using VLBI techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In December 1984, the Soviet Union launched two identical Vega spacecraft with the dual objective of exploring Venus and continuing to rendezvous with the comet Halley. The two Vega spacecraft encountered Venus in mid-June 1985 and successfully deployed entry probes and wind-measuring balloons into the Venus atmosphere. An objective of the Venus Balloon experiment was to measure the Venus winds using differential VLBI from the balloon and the flyby bus. NASA's Deep Space 64 meter subnet was part of a world wide network organized to collect data from the Vega probes and balloons. A critical element of this experiment was an accurate determination of the Venus relative flyby orbits of the Vega spacecraft during the 46 hour balloon lifetime. Venus flyby solutions were independently determined by the Soviets using two-way range and Doppler from Soviet stations and by JPL using one-way Doppler and VLBI data collected from the DSN. The Vega flyby solutions determined by the Soviets using a sparse two-way tracking strategy with JPL solutions using the DSN VLBI data to complement the Soviet data and with solutions using only one-way data collected by the DSN were compared.

Ellis, J.; Mcelrath, Timothy P.

1988-01-01

482

The soviet proposal for European security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the ratification of the intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) Treaty the Bulletin invited Dmitri Yazon, the Soviet Defense Minister, to describe current Soviet current views about, European security. Yazov agreed, and this is his first article written for a U.S.-based publication. He proceeds to put in perspective the much too dangerous European situation, as well as the Soviet views in

Yazov

1988-01-01

483

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

484

Soviet conduct of war. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This draft study, which addresses the issue of a conventional Soviet offensive against the NATO central region, presents its findings in the form of in-depth responses to a set of explicit and implicit subtaskings, including the necessity to postulate Soviet offensive theory, to identify Soviet intent, means, and priorities, and to propose broad categories of countermeasures necessary to defeat or disrupt a Soviet offensive. It also offers a sample scenario of a Soviet offensive against a partially prepared defense. The study first surveys the evolution of contemporary Soviet offensive theory. The Soviets over the last two decades have evolved to a dual-track conventional/nuclear outlook, which accepts the fact that a modern war could well be fought on conventional terms, but recognizes the possibility that it could become nuclear at any time. Hence, Soviet theory now stresses the importance of conducting modern conventional operations in a nuclear-scared posture. The study posits three variants of a Soviet conventional offensive against western Europe.

Not Available

1987-03-30

485

State of the Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

Blair, Julie

2004-01-01

486

Strategic targeting by Soviet SSBNS (Soviet ballistic-missile nuclear-powered submarines). Final report, December 1987-May 1988  

SciTech Connect

Declaratory targeting by Soviet Navy strategic missiles carried aboard submarines on forward deployment and in bastions is examined. The role of the Soviet Navy in strategic nuclear reserve is discussed. Soviet acceptance of mutual assured destruction (MAD) is assessed.

Tritten, J.J.

1988-05-16

487

Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

Soviet Education, 1981

1981-01-01

488

Arms control and Soviet grand strategy  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents therelationship between Soviet approaches to arms control and their security policy and military stragety. Soviet objectives are discussed for the post World War II period, lthe SALT I and II periods, and the most recent period of INF and START proposals.

Pilat, J.F.

1988-02-01

489

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from

Sloss

1990-01-01

490

Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion

J. E. Leiss; R. H. Abrams; K. W. Ehlers; J. A. Farrell; G. H. Gillespie; R. A. Jameson; D. Keefe; R. K. Parker

1988-01-01

491

The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan  

SciTech Connect

A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I. [AN SSSR, Mosco

1990-01-01

492

The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

Connolly, James P. (editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (editor)

1990-01-01

493

Gulag: Soviet Forced Labor Camps and the Struggle for Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Certain words that reference specific places or locales can have a chilling effect on their readers. One need only think about those places associated with the Holocaust to be reminded of this fact (such as Buchenwald or Dachau). Of course, there is the word "gulag", which for many brings to mind these rather well-known labor camps in the Soviet Union. Drawing on an innovative partnership between the Gulag Museum, the National Park Service, and the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, this exhibit tells the story of these places through both primary documents and short essays. The