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1

The Soviet Union in transition  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

Niiseki, K.

1987-01-01

2

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

E-print Network

Chernobyl This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl Patrick Hostert1 were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While

Radeloff, Volker C.

3

Civil Rights in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil rights in the Soviet Union are discussed against the back drop of changes occurring in the Soviet legal system. The Soviet Union is set on a course to create a law-based state. With the signing of the Vienna Conclud ing Document, the Soviet Union recognized the priority of international law over domestic Soviet law, with the consequence that efforts

Arkady I. Vaxberg

1989-01-01

4

Proliferation and the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

Not Available

1994-09-01

5

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

2011-10-01

6

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

The services for chronically handicapped people with psychiatric disorders in the Soviet Union are described. The system is based upon a network of community units, each of which includes a day centre, a follow-up clinic, and a sheltered workshop. British services could profitably learn from the experience of these units. The diagnostic system used by many Soviet psychiatrists is different from that incorporated in the International Classification of Diseases. In particular, the term “schizophrenia” is used to describe conditions which British psychiatrists would label in other ways. This clinical difference partly explains the different concept of “criminal responsibility,” but another large component of the difference is political rather than medical. There are also variations from British practice in certain juridical procedures. These differences together make Soviet psychiatric practice in the case of political dissenters unacceptable to most British psychiatrists. It is too soon to say that frank discussions of these matters could not lead to improvement. British and Soviet psychiatrists still have something to learn from each other. PMID:4856265

Wing, J. K.

1974-01-01

7

Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

Stevens, Robert E.

1987-01-01

8

Adult Mortality in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mortality in the Soviet Union improved rapidly in the years immediately following World War II, so that in the mid-1960s life\\u000a expectancies in countries such as Russia and Ukraine were similar to those of the United States. However, this improvement\\u000a was not sustained; levels of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union today are similar to those found 50 years

Michael Murphy

9

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

10

Medical education in the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

After World War I, medical education in the Soviet Union and medical education in the United States headed in strikingly divergent directions. In keeping with the recommendations of the Flexner report, medical education in the United States became a university-based academic discipline based in the natural sciences. In contrast, the Soviet Union created a series of free-standing medical institutes whose admission, curricular, and pedagogic policies were centrally controlled in strict conformity with political doctrine. Notable features of the Soviet system were narrowly defined professional education; early specialization, beginning in the first year of medical school; and emphasis on empirical clinical training at the expense of scientifically based education. Despite the historical differences between Soviet and American medical education, there are several issues that face present-day medical educators in both the United States and the Soviet successor states. These include an overabundance of specialists, the need to provide equitable professional opportunities for physicians of both sexes, and the need to provide access to medical education for qualified candidates from underrepresented social or ethnic groups or from geographically remote regions. PMID:8615926

Barr, D A; Schmid, R

1996-02-01

11

Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

Mohler, S R

1980-05-01

12

US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

NONE

1995-09-01

13

The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union countries  

E-print Network

The institutional transfer from the European Union member states to the former Soviet Union from European Union (EU) member states to the former Soviet Union countries (FSUC). Since 1991, ex such as the World Health Organisation (WHO), the World Bank or the European Union? Did countries like the United

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

Spearman, M. L.

1984-01-01

15

Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Rand Corporation examines issues with respect to the former Soviet Union. Cooperation and Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Migration, (available in .pdf format only) is "an outgrowth of an April 1996 conference at which policymakers and policy analysts from Soviet successor states, the United States, and a number of international organizations discussed specially prepared reports on migratory processes and policies in the former USSR in the context of current and emergent political, social, and economic changes in the region." It contains 10 papers, divided by region, as well as 4 papers on prospects for future cooperation and integration.

1996-01-01

16

International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon production, testing, and deterrence and now includes the environment, human and economic health, and the proliferation of weapons-of-mass destruction. For these reasons the fall of the Soviet Union provides a new imperative and opportunity for systematic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary international efforts to begin to solve these important environmental problems. The environmental degradation from nuclear contamination affecting states of the former Soviet Union is a large topic, and a full description is outside the scope of this paper. A comprehensive overview of environmental concerns and radioactive waste production, inventories, and impacted sites is provided by others. Portions of the summaries provided here are drawn from these works.

Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

2003-07-27

17

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL RABIES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which were similar to viruses from Alaska and Canada. Group B

Ivan V. Kuzmin; Alexandr D. Botvinkin; Lorraine M. McElhinney; Jean S. Smith; A. Orciari; Gareth J. Hughes; Anthony R. Fooks; Charles E. Rupprecht

18

How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

Winokur, Marshall

19

The United States Approach to Negotiating Arms Limitation Agreements with the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union differ from United States arms control negotiations with all other states for three reasons: (a) the Soviet Union is an expansionist nation, whereas most other countries accept the state system as it is; (b) the Soviet Union's policy of indefinite territorial expansion is backed by enormous and growing military forces—perhaps the largest in

Eugene V. Rostow; Mary Elizabeth Hoinkes

1983-01-01

20

Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

Lesperance, A.M.

1992-05-01

21

Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

Pryde, Philip R.

1985-03-01

22

Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

Spearman, M. L.

1983-01-01

23

American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on

W. A. Dorman; R. K. Manoff

1988-01-01

24

Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and Other Nations  

E-print Network

71(1) 39 Catches of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, by the Soviet Union and Other Nations of illegal whaling worldwide. We review Soviet catches of humpback whales, Meg- aptera novaeangliae assignable to area. In all, at least 72,542 humpback whales were killed by all operations (Soviet plus other

25

Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.  

PubMed

At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1 child can make substitutions between having more children and raising the quality of children already born. The question is what does the model predict will happen to fertility with economic development. The positive income effect will be limited as increased income is channelled into child quality and other superior goods rather than child quantity. The Urlanis-Strumilin model of labor supply assumes that the household allocates its time among market employment, household production. The model shows that the effect of children on female labor supply is not ambiguous. The presence of young children raises the value of home services and lowers long run market wages, thereby reducing female market labor supply. According to the model, the socialist state can manipulate labor supplies through several channels. It can reduce the value of home services by providing market substitutes. Soviet writers recognize the linkages between labor supply and fertility without formalizing the simultaneous relationship. The comparative statics of the Soviet model are essentially the same as those of the neoclassical model: an increase in "costs" of children will have, at best, a small positive impact on fertility. PMID:12265719

Gregory, P

1983-06-01

26

The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

Reikofski, Joyce

27

Education and Juvenile Delinquency in the Soviet Union: A Look at the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews accounts covering the last 20 years of the educational system in the Soviet Union and of the treatment of juvenile delinquency in that country. Similarities and differences between methods employed in the Soviet Union and in the Western democracies are noted. (Author)

Barth, J. L.

1978-01-01

28

International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10 TBq (6.4 x 10 m³) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex

D K Smith; R B Knapp; N D Rosenberg; A F B Tompson

2003-01-01

29

Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: Evidence from the previous decade.  

PubMed

In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end. PMID:25461871

Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

2015-01-01

30

Education and Juvenile Delinquency in the Soviet Union: A Look at the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews the literature for the last 20 years on juvenile delinquency and its treatment in the Soviet Union, and on their educational system as it relates to juvenile delinquency. (Author/DLS)

Barth, J. L.

1978-01-01

31

Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

1993-09-01

32

Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

Kreindler, Isabelle

1997-01-01

33

Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

1986-01-01

34

Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

Dunaway, R.L.

1995-11-01

35

Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day  

PubMed Central

Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

36

Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

Veale, Sarah

1987-01-01

37

Soviet Bloc Soviet Bloc  

E-print Network

and the Soviet Union and soon became irreconcilable. The Sino-Soviet rift also inspired Albania to leave the bloc and Albania, the indigenous Communist parties led by Josip Broz Tito and Enver Hoxha had obtained sufficient

Landweber, Laura

38

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

39

Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

Adushkin, V.C.

1995-11-11

40

Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

2005-01-01

41

Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

1975-01-01

42

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

43

Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

1976-01-01

44

POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

45

When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

46

Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

2012-01-01

47

Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

2014-01-01

48

Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

2004-01-01

49

CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

50

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

51

Nuclear material control and accounting and physical protection cooperation with the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during

K. Sanders; R. Cherry; G. Kuzmycz

1993-01-01

52

Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to provide middle school and high school teachers and others interested in Russia and the Soviet Union with a guide to printed materials, this booklet is divided into several sections. The first section, comprising the bulk of the publication, is devoted to reviews of 69 books that were written for classroom use or appear as if they might…

Talbot, Elizabeth, Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

53

A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used by the Soviet Union for many different types of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear effects tests. Taking our information principally from numerous books and papers in Russian published from 1988 to 2003, we describe the test site history and facilities, the early underwater tests, the many atmospheric tests from 1957 to 1962, and

VITALY I. KHALTURIN; TATYANA G. RAUTIAN; PAUL G. RICHARDS; WILLIAM S. LEITH

2005-01-01

54

VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

Papadopoulou, Demetra

2012-02-01

55

Food Consumption and Nutritional Labeling Among Immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs. PMID:23955168

Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

2013-08-17

56

Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

57

Invisible weapons of mass destruction: The Soviet Union's BW programme and its implications for contemporary arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union secretly pursued an offensive biological weapons programme which gave it overwhelming superiority with regard to these weapons of mass destruction over the United States and other Western countries. This article traces the origins of the Soviet BW effort and it is within this historical context that explanations are sought for the expansion

Anthony Rimmington

2000-01-01

58

Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)  

SciTech Connect

The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

Stafeev, V. I., E-mail: orion@orion-ir.ru [RD and P Center Orion State Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

59

The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the Former Soviet Union, Cuba and China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, this website offers digitized images of both famous and obscure political propaganda posters. The ninety-nine posters are presented on three pages, one each for the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Even users with high-bandwidth connections should be patient when accessing these pages, since thumbnails for all thirty-some images load at once. A general introduction heads each page, and artist, title and date are listed for the posters. Each thumbnail links to a larger image of the poster, along with publication and production information and a descriptive caption. Separate pages provide information on the collections and the designers of the posters. Date coverage varies: 1919 to 1938 for the Soviet Union, 1962 to 1968 for Cuba, and c.1950 to 1992 for China. Once ubiquitous, now rarely seen, these posters have found new life on the Web.

1997-01-01

60

Microfossils in conophyton from the soviet union and their bearing on precambrian biostratigraphy.  

PubMed

Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) "index fossil" Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian. PMID:17759251

Schopf, J W; Sovietov, Y K

1976-07-01

61

Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1)

Smallidge

1997-01-01

62

Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

Telen, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

63

Diversity of Bacillus anthracis Strains in Georgia and of Vaccine Strains from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Despite the increased number of anthrax outbreaks in Georgia and the other Caucasian republics of the former Soviet Union, no data are available on the diversity of the Bacillus anthracis strains involved. There is also little data available on strains from the former Soviet Union, including the strains previously used for vaccine preparation. In this study we used eight-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses to genotype 18 strains isolated from infected animals and humans at different sites across Georgia, where anthrax outbreaks have occurred in the last 10 years, and 5 strains widely used for preparation of human and veterinary vaccines in the former Soviet Union. Three different genotypes affiliated with the A3.a cluster were detected for the Georgian isolates. Two genotypes were previously shown to include Turkish isolates, indicating that there is a regional strain pattern in the South Caucasian-Turkish region. Four of the vaccine strains were polymorphic, exhibiting three different patterns of the cluster A1.a genotype and the cluster A3.b genotype. The genotype of vaccine strain 71/12, which is considered an attenuated strain in spite of the presence of both of the virulence pXO plasmids, appeared to be a novel genotype in the A1.a cluster. PMID:16885320

Merabishvili, Maya; Natidze, Merab; Rigvava, Sergo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Chanishvili, Nina; Tediashvili, Marina; Sharp, Richard; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Visca, Paolo; Daffonchio, Daniele

2006-01-01

64

The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

65

Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.  

PubMed

The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality assurance and increased food safety. Such choices may also determine the investment made by these countries in upgrading their State system, laboratories and veterinary education facilities. PMID:15200105

Schillhorn van Veen, T W

2004-04-01

66

Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race  

SciTech Connect

Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

Griffin, R.D.

1992-06-05

67

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-06-01

68

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

69

CIA Publication: At Cold War's End: US Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text gives an intelligence history of the last years of the Soviet Empire. In November, the Center for the Study of Intelligence (CIS) prepared this compendium for a conference on the end of the cold war held at the Texas A&M University campus. The text offers an historical narrative of the US perspective on the rapidly developing events in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union during this time, followed by an extensive online volume of intelligence documents created during the Soviet collapse. According to the preface, the declassification of such documents so soon after their initial composition is unusual and evidences the CIA's new policy of "greater openness."

70

Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

Smallidge, E.R.

1997-08-01

71

Beyond Russia, becoming local: Trajectories of adaption to the fall of the Soviet Union among ethnic Russians in the former Soviet Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Soviet Union began to unravel in the late 1980s, many observers expected that the 25 million ethnic Russians who lived in the non-Russian republics represented an important group of people who could be mobilized by ‘empire-savers’ to stem this process. Russians who would end up as minorities in new nationalizing states, had little if anything to gain from

Pål Kolstø

2011-01-01

72

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

Horak, Stephan M.

73

Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired in the Soviet Union. Report from a Study Tour to Moscow in 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document reports on a 10-day tour to study rehabilitation facilities for the visually handicapped in the Soviet Union. Briefly described are the programs of the following institutions that were visited: Helmholtz Institute of Opthalmology, Specialized School Number 5 for Partially Sighted Children, Scientific Research Institute of Defectology,…

Kullberg, Kjell; Lindstrom, Jan-Ingvar

74

How moving to world prices affects the terms of trade in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents the first documented estimates of how moving to international trade prices effects the terms of trade in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union. First, he decomposes the total impact of a change in the inter-republic and extra-republic terms of trade. The broad pattern, he estimates, is that exporters of raw material and energy (notably Kazakhstan, Russia,

David G. Tarr

1993-01-01

75

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS TO ASSESS THE CARBON BUDGET OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION  

EPA Science Inventory

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assess with two distinct approaches: 1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and 2) forest statistical data. he ecosystem/ ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with ...

76

Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

2010-01-01

77

Languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). Although the focus is on materials for the…

Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

78

Ethnic German Immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Germany: the Effects of Migrant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employed a widely accepted theoretical concept, the ‘theory of migrant networks’ to look at the recent immigration and absorption experience of ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in Germany. Consistent with network theory, the social background of the Aussiedler group became more representative of the sending communities as migrant networks expanded. The paper

Barbara Dietz

1999-01-01

79

Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National

N. A. Ermolenko; Yu. F. Kopnichev; V. G. Kunakov; O. K. Kunakova; M. Kh. Rakhmatullin; I. N. Sokolova; Zh. I. Vybornyy

1995-01-01

80

Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2005-01-01

81

Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

Thomas, Mark Andrew

82

Fiscal Policy Beyond the Budget : Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Energy Sectors of the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade into the transition, many successor states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) continue to use pervasive energy sector quasi-fiscal activities, especially low energy prices and the toleration of payment arrears, to provide large implicit and untargeted subsidies to households and enterprises. These quasi-fiscal activities disguise the size of the government, cause over-consumption and waste, and contribute to macroeconomic

MARTIN PETRI; GÜNTHER TAUBE

2003-01-01

83

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the Former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sink of CO2 and the C budget of forest biomes of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct methods: (1) ecosystem\\/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem\\/ecoregional method was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil\\/vegetation C data bases. The forest statistical approach was based on

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

84

Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebel, P.E. [BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

85

Pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The former Soviet Union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. It occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. An understanding of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the negative impacts of global climate change. The vegetation of the FSU includes the following principal types: forest, woodland, shrubland, grassland, tundra, desert, peatlands, and cultivated land. Arctic deserts and tundra formations are found in the northern part; deserts and semi-deserts are found in the southern part. The territory is represented by a variety of climate conditions. The major part of the FSU territory is in the temperate climatic zone which changes from arctic and subarctic in the North to subtropical and desert in the South. The carbon pools and fluxes for all the ecoregions were summed to arrive at an initial estimate of the pools and fluxes of biogenic carbon for 95% of the FSU. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.

1993-01-01

86

The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

Perminov, V. G.

1999-01-01

87

Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Bearden, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lindler, L. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2007-01-01

88

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abbott, D.T. [Kaiser Engineering, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

89

Educational Reform in the Soviet Union: Implications for Developing Countries. Staff Working Paper No. 288.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the history and present structure of Soviet education reveals a number of potential lessons for educational planners in developing countries, according to the authors. This report traces the course of Soviet educational reforms from the 1910s to the 1970s in four areas: general (elementary and some secondary) education, vocational…

Blumenthal, Irene; Benson, Charles

90

Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

Weigle, M.A.

1988-01-01

91

Educating the Soviet Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reshaping of man to the Soviet ideal through education is the context within which the author considers three recent books on Soviet education--Shiela Fitzpatrick's "The Commissariat of Enlightenment"; J. J. Tomiak's "The Soviet Union"; and Jean Pennar's "Modernization and Diversity in Soviet Education." (JH)

Brower, Daniel P.

1973-01-01

92

Analytic Reports Produced by the Directorate of Intelligence on the Former Soviet Union Declassified and Released for a March 2001 Conference at Princeton University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a sizable cross-section of the "Directorate of Intelligence's analyses of the Soviet Union's political, military, scientific, and economic structures during the period of the Cold War, 1947-1991." Unfortunately, these are accessible only via an unwieldy process involving two browser windows and a sometimes recalcitrant search engine. Instructions are provided at the first site listed. In test searches we had the most success entering either the document number or the title in the keyword search box. Users may also use a form to search by title, abstract, date created or released, and document number, but we had much less success with all of these options. The documents are presented as digitized page images.

2001-01-01

93

Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

Siddiqi, Asif A.

2000-01-01

94

Danish Referendum on Economic and Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in October 2000, this document from the United Kingdom's House of Commons provides the details of the Danish referendum in which the country voted against joining Europe's common currency. The paper focuses on the country's 1992 arrangement not to proceed with the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) until it had been approved by a national referendum, and includes attention to the political campaigns for and against the referendum, public opinion, and the implications of this vote. Just 24 pages in length, this research paper gives an excellent, easy-to-understand overview of the reasons why Denmark's citizens decided to vote against joining the EMU. For more information on the Danish rejection of the Euro, see the September 29, 2000 Scout Report.

95

Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.  

PubMed

The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. PMID:25011673

Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

2014-07-10

96

Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is

Tatyana P. Kolchugina; Ted S. Vinson

1993-01-01

97

Beyond a Cross-Cultural Definition of Child Maltreatment: Comparing Immigrants from the Caucasus and European Countries of the Former Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared knowledge and attitudes regarding inappropriate parenting among immigrant parents from European and Caucasus countries of the former Soviet Union residing in Israel. Found that immigrants from the Caucasus related inappropriate parental behaviors to what is normative, whereas European immigrants were concerned with potential harm to the…

Shor, Ron

1999-01-01

98

Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

1986-01-01

99

Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as well as…

Kupferberg, Natalie

100

Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

2012-01-01

101

Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

102

Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

1964-01-01

103

Evaluating Soviet ESP technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP manufacturing capacity in the world. Soviet ESPs offer some interesting features and are reported to have impressive running lives.

Pike, W.J. (World Oil, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB))

1991-05-01

104

Environmental mobilisation and organisations in post-socialist Europe and the former Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

How have environmental movements and organisations evolved in the two decades since the end of state socialism? Focusing upon how the impact of external forces, the core debates concern how changing political opportunities and access to resources as a consequence of European Union accession have impacted on environmental NGOs, as well as the effects more generally of contentious transnational assistance

JoAnn Carmin; Adam Fagan

2010-01-01

105

Economic and Monetary Union in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive account and analysis of the plan for European monetary union contained in the Maastricht Treaty. The provisions of the treaty itself are examined, showing how they evolved, what must be done to implement them, and some of the problems they will pose. Kenen goes far beyond the treaty, however, to survey and adapt recent research

Peter B. Kenen

1995-01-01

106

Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU) were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001). Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P ? .05) higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence. PMID:21197443

Rajanna, Chythanya; Revazishvili, Tamara; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Chubinidze, Svetlana; Bakanidze, Lela; Tsanava, Shota; Imnadze, Paata; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gibbons, Henry S.; Morris, J. Glenn; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

2010-01-01

107

A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder. PMID:24343028

Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

2014-03-01

108

Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-09-01

109

Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

1993-05-01

110

Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

Gilmore, A; McKee, M

2004-01-01

111

The Spatial Distribution of Economic Activities in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the spatial distribution of economic activities in the European Union. It has three main aims. (i) To describe the data that is available in the EU and give some idea of the rich spatial data sets that are fast becoming available at the national level. (ii) To present descriptive evidence on the location of aggregate activity and

Pierre-Philippe Combes; Henry G. Overman

2003-01-01

112

Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:22594739

Gilmore, Anna; Stickley, Andrew; Rotman, David; Prohoda, Vladimir; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

2012-01-01

113

Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

1995-06-01

114

Results of a United States and Soviet Union joint project on nervous system effects of microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a formal program of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning the biological effects of physical factors in the environment, it was concluded that duplicate projects should be initiated with the general goal of determining the most sensitive and valid test procedures for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system. This report details an initial step in this direction. Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed or sham exposed to 10 mW/cm2 continuous wave microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz for a period of 7 hr. Animals were subjected to behavioral, biochemical, or electrophysiological measurements during and/or immediately after exposure. Behavioral tests used were passive avoidance and activity in an open field. Biochemical measurements were ATPase (Na+, K+; Mg2+, Ca2+) and K+ alkaline phosphatase activities. Electrophysiological measurements consisted of EEG frequency analysis. Neither group observed a significant effect of microwave irradiation on open field activity. Both groups observed changes in variability of the data obtained using the passive avoidance procedure, but not in the same parameters. The U.S. group, but not the USSR group, found significantly less Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the microwave-exposed animals compared to the sham exposed animals. Both groups found incidences of statistically significant effects in the power spectral analysis of EEG frequency, but not at the same frequency. The failure of both groups to substantiate the results of the other reinforces our contention that such duplicate projects are important and necessary.

Mitchell, C.L.; McRee, D.I.; Peterson, N.J.; Tilson, H.A.; Shandala, M.G.; Rudnev, M.I.; Varetskii, V.V.; Navakatikyan, M.I. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-05-01

115

Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond  

PubMed Central

In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

2008-01-01

116

Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.  

PubMed

The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

2013-01-01

117

Anti-Soviet ideology, trade goals at odds on Russian pipeline deal  

SciTech Connect

US foreign policy opposes a Soviet-European natural gas pipeline that will increase European dependence on Soviet energy at the same time the US is approving the sale of Caterpillar pipelayers to the Soviet Union. The contradiction illustrates the complexities of using export controls to achieve foreign policy goals. Europeans do not share US concerns that the Soviet Union will compete for Persian Gulf oil if it sells its domestic gas or that Soviet energy supplies and economic ties will make Europe more vulnerable. Influencing the policy debate are hardliners who want to freeze East-West economic relations and moderates who argue that the US will only strain its relationships with Europe by opposing the Yamal pipeline. (DCK)

Madison, C.

1981-08-22

118

Problems of using digitized thematic maps on the territory of the former soviet union upon the creation of the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soviet and Russian pedologists, ecologists, geobotanists, geographers, and other specialists created a large set of maps on the territory of the former Soviet Union. In most cases, these maps were published; at present, they are available as hardcopies. Their digitization clearly shows various merits and demerits of thematic maps on the territory of the Soviet Union and Russia. A 20-year experience of the Laboratory of Soil Informatics at the Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute on the creation of digitized maps integrated into the "Soils of Russia" geographic information system (GIS) is discussed. The major stages of this work and the technology developed to solve the problems appearing during it are described. The reasons for certain difficulties in matching cartographic information contained on the maps of different and similar scales, the problems of georeferencing of the maps, and the problems related to the use of remote sensing materials and digital elevation models are discussed. The necessity of creating a unified cartographic base for thematic maps included in the GIS "Soils of Russia" [28] and the technology for its development are characterized. The distortions on the original topographic maps are corrected with the use of locally affine transformation functions realized in the GeoDraw-GeoGraph software package. The requirements for the quality of the maps—their suitability for georeferencing, topological correctness, and compatibility of different versions—are formulated. The problems of digital soil mapping upon the use of object-oriented GIS are elucidated. The Soil Map of the Russian Federation (1: 2.5 M scale) was initially digitized in 1997. Since that time, four digital versions of this map have been created to reduce the initial errors and inconsistencies. It is argued that the fifth and sixth versions of this map should be created with allowance for the accumulated experience.

Rukhovich, D. I.; Wagner, V. B.; Vil'Chevskaya, E. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

2011-09-01

119

IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY  

PubMed Central

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

Wayne, George J.

1960-01-01

120

The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the African-Caribbean-  

E-print Network

The Economic Partnership Agreements Between the European Union and the African-Caribbean- Pacific Partnership Agreement EU European Union EUR Euro FTA Free Trade Area GATT Generalized Agreement on Tariffs Organization #12;5 #12;6 ABSTRACT Since the adoption of the Lomé Convention, the European Union (EU) has been

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

121

The Soviet Academy of Sciences and Technological Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the impact of the Soviet Academy of Sciences on the development of technology in the Soviet Union, finding that the future of Soviet technology depends significantly on the Academy and that severe problems stemming from its nature and its relationship with Soviet industry encumber the Academy's ability to serve Soviet

Kassel, Simon; Campbell, Cathleen

122

Economic implications for Turkey of a Customs Union with the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a CGE model, we quantify the impact of the Customs Union between Turkey and the European Union (EU). Since the average tariff on non-agricultural imports will be less than 2 percent, the trade diversion costs of the Customs Union are quite small. Improved access to third country markets (through reciprocal preferential access agreements of the EU) results in the

Glenn W. Harrison; Thomas F. Rutherford; David G. Tarr

1997-01-01

123

Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.  

PubMed

On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

Pavlov, I P

1992-01-01

124

Soviet pipeline sanctions: the European perspective. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, September 22, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Three Europeans testified on how they perceived US trade sanctions against the natural-gas pipeline from Siberia to Western Europe. Committee Chairman Henry S. Reuss expressed his opinion that there was no clear legal or trade-policy basis for the Reagan refusal to participate in the pipeline, nor any criteria for lifting the sanctions. Andre Fontaine of Le Monde explored possible avenues of compromise to bring the US back into accord with the Western Alliance. Andrew Knight of The Economist argued that, while sanctions do have some leverage against the Soviet Union, the pipeline dispute offers an opportunity for Europeans to rethink their policy of easy trade and credit terms of the Eastern countries and that Europe and the US will be able to identify their common ground. Thierry de Montbrial of the French Institute for International Relations defended the pipeline and trade with the Soviet Union and urged more continuity in US foreign policy. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

125

Russian\\/Soviet History in Library Classifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major issues need to be addressed when classifying the Soviet Union's history. One is the geopolitical coverage: which regions and nations are to be included, since many of those which are now part of the Soviet Union were once independent or belonged to other countries. Another is historical periodization. Four systems of periodization can be identified: two pre-1917 and

Konstantin Gurevich

1991-01-01

126

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-print Network

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01

127

Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

2010-01-01

128

The ussr and total war : why didn't the soviet economy collapse in 1942?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany’s campaign in Russia was intended to be the decisive factor in creating a new German empire in central and eastern Europe, a living space that could be restructured racially and economically in German interests as Hitler had defined them in Mein Kampf. When he launched his armies against the Soviet Union in 1941 the world had two good reasons

Mark Harrison

2001-01-01

129

The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965  

E-print Network

"The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside ...

Smith, Jenny Leigh

2006-01-01

130

Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

O'Neill, Mark

2000-01-01

131

Regional Patterns of Industry Location in Transition Countries: Does Economic Integration with the European Union Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resmini L. (2007) Regional patterns of industry location in transition countries: does economic integration with the European Union matter?, Regional Studies41, 747–764. Recent developments in international trade theory predict that increased globalization will be associated with increased locational concentration of economic activities, and hence increased specialization of national and regional economies. Relatively little empirical evidence exists about whether these predictions

Laura Resmini

2007-01-01

132

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

133

Does Inclusion of Education and Marital Status Improve SCORE Performance in Central and Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union? Findings from MONICA and HAPIEE Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data). The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data). Results In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ?5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ?1% in women). Conclusion Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. PMID:24714549

Vikhireva, Olga; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Paj?k, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Skodova, Zdena; Simonova, Galina; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

2014-01-01

134

Trichinellosis in the European Union: Epidemiology, Ecology and Economic Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichinellosis, one of the most widespread helminthic zoonoses, is still endemic in most countries of the European Union. In the past few years, advanced biotechnology has been used to re-examine the taxonomy, epidemiology and life cycles of aetiological agents, providing additional information on the main factors contributing to the maintenance of these parasites in Nature. The old concept that pigs

E. Pozio

1998-01-01

135

Soviet debate on missile defense  

SciTech Connect

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

Parrott, B.

1987-04-01

136

Unions.  

PubMed

Dealing with a union is not complicated. If you are a member of the union, take that membership seriously and exercise your rights and responsibilities. Know what your contract says and live by it. If you disagree with what you are told to do by your supervisor, do it and grieve later. If you are a manager, know your contract and always keep it handy for reference. When you are unsure of the answer, get help from your labour relations advisor. Treat discipline as a process for helping an employee to perform the way you want them to perform. If you were a good manager before you became unionized, you can probably just continue on as you were before and you won't have any serious problems. For both management and non-management employees, remember that both of you have a job to do. Those jobs should be compatible. When you get to know your union, you will learn that they really are. PMID:10105432

Drane, D

1990-05-01

137

The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

2005-01-01

138

Soviet chemical propellant research and development  

SciTech Connect

In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union had a strong and continuing research effort devoted to understanding the behavior of chemical propellants suitable to support development of advanced propellants for practical applications. Recent Soviet work concentrated on solid propellants, though liquid propellants powered the largest and most advanced deployed Soviet rockets. This assessment summarizes the Soviet state of the art in chemical propellants in the late 1980s and projects the trends of that period into the next decade. It is based on a broad and deep review of Soviet literature published in 1985--1991 and is presented in an unclassified report. Speculation about or prediction of the effects of recent political and social events on chemical propellant research and development in the old Soviet Union is outside the scope of this assessment, though the effects are likely to be profound.

deButts, E.H.; Baum, K.; Beckstead, M.W.; Christe, K.O.; Hartman, K.O.; Jeffrey, W.A.

1991-12-01

139

War, Militarism and the Soviet State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

Holloway, David

140

Learning about the Soviets: Selected Teaching Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 120 resources for teaching secondary and postsecondary level students about the Soviet Union, most of which have been produced since 1980, are listed in this guide. A resource list focusing on "Ten Things Soviets Say You Should Read to Understand Them" precedes annotated citations of articles; books; curricula; organizations involved in…

Educators for Social Responsibility, Cambridge, MA.

141

US-Soviet arms control regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few would question that the arms control relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union changed significantly between the late 1960s and the collapse of the Soviet state in 1991. The less obvious, but more significant question is whether the change represents a dramatic evolution of an arms control regime, or as some might argue, a by-product of the

St. Clair

1992-01-01

142

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE House of Lords European Union Committee: EU Economic and Financial Affairs and  

E-print Network

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE 1 House of Lords European Union Committee: EU Economic of the burden that it will impose. INTRODUCTION 1. The European Commission is proposing to introduce a FTT. In 2010 we committed a total of £678 million to our charitable activities. 3. According to the European

Rambaut, Andrew

143

Liberalization, regional economic development and the geography of demand for air transport in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the liberalization of the airline industry in the European Union (EU) from the perspective that transport can be properly analysed only in the context of its wider political and socio-economic milieu. The central interest lies with the internal geography of demand for scheduled air transport within the EU. It is argued that significant tensions exist

Brian Graham

1998-01-01

144

Economic and Monetary Union: Critical Notes on the Maastricht Treaty Revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maastricht European Council clarified above all two features of the so-called stage II. (1) the duration of the stage for those participants who meet the requirements of convergence to qualify for full economic and monetary union (EMU); and (2) the need to focus on these issues, including the likely implications for the stability of the EMS and for the

Niels Thygesen

1992-01-01

145

Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

Mickiewicz, Ellen

1983-01-01

146

Soviet Military Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After the fall of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1991, thousands of items of Cold War paraphernalia found ready markets across the world, including the United States. High school and college students were now able to purchase the heavy wool jackets of Soviet and East German troops, and military buffs were able to acquire a number of patches, medals, and other items. The medals were often highly prized, and whether people understood the iconography and symbolism or not, they sought them out just the same. Fortunately for those interested in the wide world of Soviet military awards, there is this fine site which offers photographs and information about the various medals and their respective honors. With over 50 medals on the site, visitors can learn about the Order of October Revolution, the Pilot-Cosmonaut of USSR, and the rather curious Medal for Development of Virgin Lands, which commemorates the "young soviets" who relocated to Siberia, the Volga region, and northern Caucasus. For those whose interest is piqued by this material, there is also a newsletter that visitors can look through online.

147

Soviet Marxism and population policy.  

PubMed

American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

Vonfrank, A

1984-01-01

148

Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup  

SciTech Connect

NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

Not Available

1991-09-06

149

The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City  

PubMed Central

Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid-using FSU immigrants is warranted and may help prevent increases in HIV/HCV prevalence from occurring within these communities. PMID:22239997

2012-01-01

150

Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

1992-07-01

151

The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union and the post-soviet states  

E-print Network

1 The Russian-Baltic states boundary: a limit between peripheries or a link between European Union to understand East Baltic area. Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave lying by the Baltic Sea, strengthens the interest of the purpose. The approach is mainly through port and railway traffics for goods, and through

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Soviet satellite communications science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies are discussed. A panel of six U.S. scientists and engineers assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path, and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations such as Japan, Italy, and France. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions, using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although the published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. In response to decreased governmental support, the Soviet communications satellite industry is showing signs of some internal competition, is working on increasing communications satellite lifetime, and is also striving to develop joint ventures with Western firms.

Birch, J. N.; Campanella, S. J.; Gordon, G. S.; McElroy, D. R.; Pritchard, W. L.

1991-08-01

153

Throwing down the gauntlet: The Soviet challenge in the pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers growing Soviet efforts to undermine political, military, and economic connections between the United States and its friends and allies in the Pacific, and how naval forces could help counter Soviet policy.Basically, Gorbachev's speech at Vladivostok on 28 July 1986 represents an historic shift in Soviet attention from Western Europe and NATO towards the Asia?Pacific region. Of course,

Kenneth G. Weiss

1989-01-01

154

The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

155

Analysis of the 1957-1958 Soviet Nuclear Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of an extensive environmental contamination zone in Cheliabinsk Province of the Soviet Union, associated with an accident in the winter of 1957 to 1958 involving the atmospheric release of fission wastes, appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the Soviet radioecology literature. The contamination zone is estimated to contain 105 to 106 curies of strontium-90

John R. Trabalka; L. Dean Eyman; Stanley I. Auerbach

1980-01-01

156

Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe1 in a rain barrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Herbert Friedman; Luther B. Lockhart; Irving H. Blifford

1996-01-01

157

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

158

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

159

A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

160

Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

Bennett, Gary L.

1992-01-01

161

Soviet American Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a glossary of Russian and English terms related to building design and construction. It is intended for use by interpreters and specialists dealing with American and Soviet literature on buildings. The glossary consists of two parts: the Soviet-American section, which presents the Soviet terms written in Russian and the American equivalent…

General Services Administration, Washington, DC.

162

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

163

Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.  

PubMed

In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

2012-01-01

164

Bosnian and Soviet refugees' experiences with health care.  

PubMed

Studies of refugees in the United States rarely address health the first few years following resettlement in part because the refugees become subsumed under the foreign-born or immigrant category. A national study reaffirmed the so-called healthy immigrant effect, but fewer sick days and less physician use may actually reflect access problems, economic concerns, and health beliefs or practices that clash with American health care. Because statistics may mask differences in health and why people seek professional care, it is important to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. This study examined health, illness, and health care use patterns of refugees in Northern California using a database analysis, a medical record review, and an ethnographic study of the Bosnian and former Soviet Union refugee communities. This article describes some ethnographic findings from participant observation, semistructured interviews, and focus groups, with an emphasis on people's experiences with health care, health risk behaviors, and self-care. PMID:14596183

Lipson, Juliene G; Weinstein, Harvey M; Gladstone, Eleanor A; Sarnoff, Rhonda H

2003-11-01

165

Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates. PMID:21457686

Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

2011-01-01

166

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.  

PubMed

Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

2013-12-31

167

Kosmoljot - Soviet wings into space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible configurations for a Soviet Shuttle-style vehicle, called the Kosmoljot, are discussed, along with possible developmental lines for lifting body craft. The Kosmoljot is suggested to be a delta-wing vehicle with a 7.2 m wingspan and 10.6 m long, weighing 15,000 lb. The craft would be able to change course by using retrorockets to enter the fringes of the atmosphere, maneuver aerodynamically, then boost back into orbit. Similar tactics were investigated by Northrop in the mid-1960's and were called a synergetic plane change. Concomitant plans for reusable or even lifting-body boosters are discussed, with mention made of the Rogallo wing for the short flight back to base. Soviet statements are quoted as confirming the development of a piggy-back dual-delta wing Kosmoljot for a fully recoverable system, and the economic advantages of multiple use systems are stressed.

Borrowman, G. L.

1982-02-01

168

About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

MccGwire, M. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-11-01

169

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

170

Soviet attitudes toward regional security  

SciTech Connect

This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

Campbell, K.M.

1987-01-01

171

Economic Reform in the Newly Independent States of the Former USSR: Effects on Agricultural Production and Trade to 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's top importer of grain, with annual imports averaging 36 million tons. Since the economic reforms that began in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former USSR in 1992 have intended to transform the economies from centrally planned to market-oriented systems, they could substantially change the countries' production, consumption, and trade

David J. Sedik; William M. Liefert; Peter S. Liapis

1997-01-01

172

Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

2013-01-01

173

Learning from Each Other: A Meeting of U.S. and Soviet Children's Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a visit by American children's librarians to the Soviet Union for a formal colloquium on children's library services. The Soviet attitude toward children as reflected in the quality of facilities, services, and research is discussed, and the benefits of such cultural exchanges are stressed. (CLB)

Somerville, Mary

1990-01-01

174

News Media Use and Adolescents, Information about Nuclear Issues: A Soviet-American Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the extent of teenagers' news media exposure in the Soviet Union and America and its apparent impact on their information about nuclear issues. Finds that the Soviet teenagers were much more knowledgeable than American students about issues having to do with nuclear war. (MS)

Andreyenkov, Vladimir; And Others

1989-01-01

175

Nuclear negotiations: reassessing arms control coals in US-Soviet relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen leading authorities on arms control met at the University of Texas LBJ School of Public Affairs in February, 1982 to reassess arms-control goals in US-Soviet relations. This report on the conference covers their discussion of such key questions as: (1) how the US and the Soviet Union perceive the real and symbolic utility of strategic nuclear weapons, and how

Neidle

1982-01-01

176

America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future. Teacher's Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum project focuses on U.S.-Soviet relations and the choices that U.S. citizens face today in addressing the Soviet Union and the threat of nuclear war. This book is intended as a resource guide to accompany a 22-minute video presentation and student text that are part of the "Four Futures" curriculum. The resource book includes the…

Berger, Karl; And Others

177

Changing Turkish Other in Post-Soviet Armenian Discourse on National Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the definition of the Other in the discourse on Armenian national identity from 19th century onwards and, particularly, on its transformations after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It argues that with the collapse of the Soviet Union and establishment of Armenian statehood the image of the Turkey-Other or Turkey-Enemy of the Armenian nation, developed

KRISTINE BARSEGHYAN

2007-01-01

178

Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Friedman, H. [E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (United States); Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

1996-11-01

179

The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

Lynch, Allen

1991-01-01

180

Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

2007-01-01

181

A Case in Point: The Soviet Experience with Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Soviet Union's attempt to devise a national educational system which will both develop the 130 languages spoken by the peoples of the USSR and increase the use of the Russian language as the language of international communication. (Author/DB)

Desheriyev, Yunus; Mikhalchenko, Vita Youozovna

1976-01-01

182

Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

Yessis, Michael, Ed.

1974-01-01

183

Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.  

PubMed

Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some extent even now, also of Stalin), just as most current Soviet psychological experimentation in psychology proper is primarily a duplication of what Soviet psychophysiology could do as well, if not better. Moreover, there is the longstanding drastic ban on intelligence testing, psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, and other to-be-shunned "bourgeois-psychological" thought-and-practice systems, so that, in all, psychology proper is a much constricted and, per se, more ancilliary than basic discipline of Soviet empirical research-a state of affairs plainly reflected in the fact that the number of its research institutes and publications (as well as the number of psychologists proper) is but a small fraction of the number in psychophysiology. Yet, in evaluating our efforts in the area vis-à-vis those of the Soviets, we must, obviously, take full account of both disciplines, Soviet psychophysiology being in all respects a psychology in American terms (60). Indeed, it is Soviet psychophysiology, and not Soviet psychology proper, that is the homolog not only of American behavioristics but also, to a large extent, of all American experimental psychology. PMID:13592304

RAZRAN, G

1958-11-14

184

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

PubMed Central

Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships. PMID:25231098

Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

2014-01-01

185

New Market Designs and their Effect on Economic Performance in European Union's Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition in the field of gas transport and related commodity measures on economic performance in the form of natural gas prices, network tariffs, efficiency gains, and investments

Nadine Haase; Hans Bressers

2010-01-01

186

The Economic Value of Noise Within the European Union - A Review and Analysis of Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform cost-benefit analyses of action plans to be constructed under the new EU Environmental Noise Directive to reduce noise and maintain environmental noise quality where it is good, the EC and individual Member Countries need to establish interim economic values for noise from different transportation modes and industrial noise. The paper provides an updated overview and evaluation

S. Navrud

187

Economics and politics of advertising: evidence from the enlarging European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of economic and political factors on advertising industry in the enlarging EU. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employed random effect time series cross-section (TSCS) models and cross sectional regressions to investigate the impacts of these factors on advertising industry in the enlarging EU. Findings – It was found that

Nir Kshetri; Nicholas C. Williamson; Andreea Schiopu

2007-01-01

188

Soviet debate on missile defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic

Parrott

1987-01-01

189

The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security  

SciTech Connect

The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

1986-01-01

190

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

191

Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.  

PubMed

Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants. PMID:11374307

Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

2001-03-01

192

The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

2007-01-01

193

United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

McLain, Douglas, Jr.

194

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ÃÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

195

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Doug Downing, Kelly Vargas, Lawrence Penkar, James Investigation into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Technology and Society ­ APSC 261 is handled must be considered in detail. Nearly 48% of the total waste from the SUB is compostable

196

Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities  

SciTech Connect

Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

NONE

1993-12-31

197

US declaratory policy on Soviet SSBN security: 1970 to 1985. Final research memorandum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. defense officials have often said that the Soviet Union expects Western antisubmarine warfare (ASW) forces to attack its ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) and thus is prepared to defend them in war. These Soviet expectations may have been encouraged by U.S. declaratory policy on the subject--that is, the totality of official and other authoritative statements on strategic doctrine and policy,

Perse

1986-01-01

198

Impact of Eastern Europe on soviet policy toward Western Europe. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the ways in which Soviet control of Eastern Europe has both contributed to and detracted from the Soviet Union's pursuit of foreign policy goals in Western Europe. In successive sections, it (1) reviews the highlights of past USSR-East European-West European interactions and outlines general characteristics of the triangular relationship; (2) examines the impact of the Polish crisis; and (3) traces the East European foreign-policy activity related to NATO's 1983 decision to deploy intermediate-range nuclear forces and analyzes the emergence of a group of East European states--East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania--whose policies differed from those of the Soviets. The author suggests that, while Eastern Europe serves as a constraint on Soviet relations with Western Europe, Western Europe also acts as a constraint on Soviet policy toward Eastern Europe.

Johnson, A.R.

1986-03-01

199

Soviet attitudes toward regional security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political

1987-01-01

200

Soviet philosophy of biology today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biology has been one of the more sensitive areas for Soviet efforts to establish the ‘scientific’ character of dialectical materialism. Since Lysenko there has been indubitable progress. Dialectification of science has come to the fore as a major question, and much of the activity has been in the line of discussing genetics and dialectics. On the other hand, the Soviets

Anatoly Partashnikov

1974-01-01

201

Soviet military strategy in space  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

Johnson, N.L.

1987-01-01

202

Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy  

SciTech Connect

Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

Lynch, A.

1988-03-01

203

Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

Smith, Paul R., Jr.

1973-01-01

204

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

205

Changing role of the Soviet navy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sides of the US debate on the advisability of attacking Soviet ballistic-missile submarines may be wrong. Given changing Soviet priorities, such attacks might neither escalate a war nor force Moscow to back down. The Soviet Navy is structured for the contingency of world war. Contemporary Soviet developments derive largely from decisions reached in two periods. The first decision period,

MccGwire

1987-01-01

206

Recent Soviet microelectronics research on III-V compounds semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity in the Soviet Union on III-V compound semiconductor devices during the past five years is examined in the areas of materials, processes, radiation effects, and devices by a search of the translated technical journals. The majority of the work in III-V materials is concerned with gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the materials are certainly of the quality needed to make integrated circuits (ICs). However, the focus of Soviet growth and characterization studies appears to be basic materials properties, rather than development of capabilities and understanding for making integrated circuits. In processing, the Soviets appear to have very little effort on metaloorganic chemical vapor deposition on III-V compounds, while this is the process of choice in the West. There is, however, a substantial effort on X-ray lithography for silicon that could be extended to GaAs. High-quality work is also reported for ion beam, electron beam, optical projection, and laser processing silicon. Research on metallization (interconnection) and dielectric deposition processes for GaAs is absent. Soviet research on ion implantation and laser annealing in compound semiconductors is largely directed toward basic phenomena, such as defect information, rather than on electrical characteristics considered important for integrated circuit fabrication. Outstanding basic work is also being conducted on the radiation effects of electrons, protons, alpha, gamma, and X-rays on materials. These Soviet studies of radiation effects do not appear to be directed toward the fabrication of actual devices. Soviet GaAs device work appears to be generally of a theoretical nature, relying in part on device data obtained from Western articles. The most advanced involves the junction field effect transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistor, with little work reported on the fabrication of GaAs integrated circuits.

Sello, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

1988-08-01

207

U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

Chibucos, Pamela E.

208

Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic

Osipian, Ararat L.

2009-01-01

209

Close Up Special Focus: U.S.-Soviet Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to accompany a 4-part video series, this high school unit on U.S.-Soviet relations focuses on each nation's world view, political system, and ideologies. A student handbook and teacher's curriculum guide are included. The student handbook is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 examines the political and economic system of each country…

Hess, Jacqueline

210

Public Education in Soviet Azerbaijan: Appraisal of an Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive review of the public education system in Soviet Azerbaijan, this book traces the system's development since its establishment in 1920; it examines the system's context, goals, and organization, and analyzes its achievements and their economic effects. Two sections (four chapters each) cover the periods before and since the…

Avakov, R., Ed.; Atakishiev, A., Ed.

211

Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin: Soviet-Russian Foreign Relations with the United States from 1990 Through the Fall of 2008: A Strategic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold War Soviet foreign policy was driven by a strategic competition. A competition-detente cycle based on the superpower rivalry between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including the Warsaw Pact dependencies, and the United States of America and its respective alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) existed for over forty-five years. Following the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and

Terry W. Simmons

2008-01-01

212

The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

213

Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

214

Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

2009-01-01

215

Psychological and Acculturation Correlates of Work Status among Soviet Jewish Refugees in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the relationship of work status to acculturation and psychological adaption among refugees from the former Soviet Union, examining life satisfaction, alienation, and work status. Findings underscore the relevance of work status to refugees' life satisfaction and psychological adaptation and suggest the importance of seeking employment in…

Vinokurov, Andrey; Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison

2000-01-01

216

National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

217

Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

218

Soviet Approaches to Bilingual Education. Language and the Teacher: A Series in Applied Linguistics, Volume 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the Soviet Union's general, secondary, polytechnical schools which have been established recently to teach students to use one foreign language with fluency or near fluency. The author first discusses the long-range and immediate objectives of these special schools. Marxist-Leninist theory and its influence on contemporary…

Bartley, Diana E.

219

Declining Growth Status of Indigenous Siberian Children in Post-Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health status in Russia has declined sharply over the last decade. The massive social changes that have taken place since the fall of the Soviet Union have resulted in increasing morbidity and mortality rates. However, relatively little information is available on the changes in health and disease patterns of Russia’s many indigenous populations. The present study examines anthropometric indices

William R. Leonard; Gary J. Spencer; Victoria A. Galloway; Ludmilla Osipova

2011-01-01

220

The challenges to developing democratic policing in post?Soviet societies: the Russian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the nature of policing in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union, focusing on the major challenges the country continues to face in transforming the police from guardians of the former Communist Party to servants of the public. It concludes by offering an evaluation of the reforms undertaken to date, the prospects for a more democratic

Adrian Beck; Annette Robertson

2009-01-01

221

The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

Karp, Alexander

2007-01-01

222

This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy  

SciTech Connect

The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

Trifan, D.D.

1989-01-01

223

CIA's Analysis Of The Soviet Union, 1947-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001 the Central Intelligence Agency announced this important online release of intelligence documents. It is a compilation of declassified documents which collectively offer a retrospective on the CIA's analytical role during the Cold War. These are grouped in five chapters, each of which is prefaced by some brief comments.

2001-01-01

224

Optimization of the Teaching Process in the Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprising a translation of the forward and Chapter 3 of the manual Optimization of the Teaching Process by Iu. K. Babansky, this issue treats the reasons for and the prevention of failing performance among school children. (Author)

Babansky, Iu. K.

1973-01-01

225

Teaching about Russia and the Soviet Union in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests themes in Russian history that can be integrated into existing history, social studies, civics, or religion classes. Expounds on the following themes: agriculture and collectivization, police force and legality, Jews and dissidence, plurality and ideology, and the arms race. Provides bibliographic sources. (RW)

Adams, Bruce F.

1989-01-01

226

Awareness of American Brand Names in the Soviet Union.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the extent to which familiarity with American brand names had spread beyond the tourist centers of Moscow and Leningrad, in a population group most likely to have curiosity about American products. The subjects, 82 English-speaking college students ages 18-25, were all students at Kharkov State University in the…

Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

227

The degradation of natural resources in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of natural resources in the USSR is increasing. The authors attribute the increased costs to excessive exploitation of natural resources and the serious degradation of resource quality. 26 refs.

M. Cernicek; S. R. Pearse; R. L. Smith

1989-01-01

228

The degradation of natural resources in the Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The cost of natural resources in the USSR is increasing. The authors attribute the increased costs to excessive exploitation of natural resources and the serious degradation of resource quality. 26 refs.

Cernicek, M.; Pearse, S.R.; Smith, R.L.

1989-09-01

229

Data availability and data archeology from the former Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquisition of data on the ocean is believed to start in 1872, when the Royal Navy ship 'Challenger' performed oceanographic stations in its round-world voyage (1872-1876). The first oceanographic studies of the World Ocean refer to the 80s second half of the 19th century. During its round-world expedition 'Vityaz' (1886-1889) headed by S.O. Markov, performed hydrological measurements in the Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. According to information available the regular expedition observations (prototype of future complex international program on the ocean research) started in the second half of 80s last century under the auspice of Kiev commission for exploration of German Seas. Systematic hydrological observations were organized by Hydrographic Department of Russia in 1876-1879 according to the program similar to the Kiev one and observations were regularly made by ships of custom service over the Russian area of the Baltic Sea. The increasing demands in oceanographic data contributed to considerable progress in exploration of the World Ocean during current century whole tendency to increase and become more significant has been observed for the last 30-40 years. Most probably various expeditions which were carried out during International Geophysical Year in different regions of the World Ocean are to be reference point in performing intensive oceanographic observations of Marine environment. In the former USSR oceanographic observations are made by research and hydrographic vessels, commercial and fishery ships as well as oil production platforms, coastal hydrometeorological station and other observing platforms. Oceanographic observations data, available from main sources of information on the ocean-research vessels, are also considered in the report.

Sychev, Yuri; Mikhailov, Nickolai N.

1992-01-01

230

Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

231

390 American Scientist, Volume 96 The former Soviet Union's launch  

E-print Network

and transmit- ted radio signals that could be received on Earth. This success was followed by Sputnik 2 a month- servation was Vanguard 2, but technical problems meant that it collected little of the intended data on cloud cover. It was superseded by TIROS-1 in 1960, which produced the first television footage

Wallin, David O.

232

Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

Goure, L.

1986-09-16

233

State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport.  

PubMed

The former Soviet Union began participating in international sport after World War II and soon achieved a dominant position in the Olympic Games and other competitions. The success of Soviet athletic programs led to charges of unfair practices but, because of secrecy surrounding Soviet research in exercise biochemistry, it has been difficult to substantiate these charges. This article presents previously restricted information regarding the development and use of creatine supplements and blood doping in the USSR. Early work by Olexander Palladin established the role of creatine in muscle function. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists showed that oral creatine supplements improved athletic performance in short, intense activities such as sprints. Subsequent studies in the West substantiated these investigations and have led to the widespread acceptance and use of creatine supplements to enhance muscle function and athletic performance. In addition, however, the Soviet government supported the development of blood doping, which is banned by the International Olympic Committee. Blood doping was pervasive in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s, and was used by many Soviet athletes in the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games. Open publication and discussion may help to prevent the abuses that can come from secret scientific research. PMID:12878813

Kalinski, Michael I

2003-01-01

234

The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

1989-01-01

235

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~  

E-print Network

-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 397 August 26, 2014 891 1673 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Conducted for: AMS;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 3 CONTEXT

236

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~  

E-print Network

-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ GRS 497B November 01, 2013 282 1667 University-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC Vancouver~ 2 Conducted by: Emme Lee Email: Phone: Conducted for: November 2013 #12;Author: Emme Lee Scaling-Up On-Site Composting in the Student Union Building ~UBC

237

The European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has established itself as a leading text that provides readers from all disciplines with a sound understanding of the economics and policies of the EU. Its wealth of information, detail and analysis has ensured that previous editions have been read by a generation of students, researchers and policy makers. It covers all major EU policy areas as

Ali M. El-Agraa

1990-01-01

238

African Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As visitors enter this site, they will be presented with a collage of African nations coming together to form the entire continent, accompanied by the words âÂÂAfrica must unite.â It is a visually stimulating image, and one that sets the tone quite nicely for the content within. The site is the homepage of the African Union (AU), which was created in 1999 as part of a declaration from the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). While their mission is complex to say the least, their primary goal is to promote the âÂÂâ¦accelerated socio-economic integration of the continent, which will lead to greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples.â The site presents a cornucopia of material on their work, contained within sections titled âÂÂMember StatesâÂÂ, âÂÂConferences & EventsâÂÂ, and âÂÂDocumentsâÂÂ. One of the best places to start is the âÂÂNews and Eventsâ area, which contains a sampling of information on their recent work on gender equity, sustainable development, higher education systems, and so on. As might be expected, visitors can also browse through many of these materials in Arabic, French, and Portuguese.

239

Union Songs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forgotten the words to "Joe Hill," "Look for the Union Label," or "Do Re Mi?" Look no further than this site, created and maintained by Mark Gregory, a Web Development Project Officer at Macquarie University (Australia), which features the lyrics and many audio clips of approximately 100 classic and more recent union songs. Numerous lyrics pages also link to related sites. In addition, the site offers some book and CD reviews, a Union Discography, a bibliography, and song and union links. Joe Hill ain't never died.

240

information & research skills programme European Union Resources  

E-print Network

informED information & research skills programme European Union Resources © European Community and politics 4 The Budget - Financing the European Union 5 Economic and monetary policy 6 Single market. Culture 18 External Relations 19 Law EUROPA ­ Gateway to the European Union http

Hickman, Mark

241

Fact Sheets on the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

1997-01-01

242

Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

1998-01-01

243

Family resources, sitting at home and democratic choice: investigating determinants of educational attainment in post-Soviet Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, school enrolment, attendance and attainment rates fell across the region. In Tajikistan, there has been a decrease in average completion rates for basic, secondary and higher education, as well as a growing gender gap because girls are much less likely than boys to finish all levels of schooling. Past work on educational stratification

Christopher M. Whitsel

2009-01-01

244

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m\\/sub b\\/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The

L. R. Sykes; G. C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

245

Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most

Lynn R. Sykes; Graham C. Wiggins

1986-01-01

246

Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.  

PubMed

Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history. PMID:24032234

Grant, Susan

2014-01-01

247

A Finnish-Soviet acid rain game: Noncooperative equilibria, cost efficiency, and sulfur agreements  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes cost effectiveness in environmental cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union. It is assumed that the aim of both countries is to attain a given target deposition level at minimum possible sulfur abatement costs. Cost-effective cooperation is compared to noncooperative equilibrium and to the agreement on sulfur emissions between these two countries. It is shown that the agreement is not cost-effective, implies higher abatement costs than under noncooperation, and is strategically unstable. However, the cost differences and the incentives to cheat are small. The computations reveal that the main source of potential cooperation benefits is not asymmetrical emission transportation or differences in abatement costs but rather different target deposition levels for Finland and the Soviet Union. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Tahvonen, O. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); Kaitala, V. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Pohjola, M. (Institute of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland))

1993-01-01

248

National Taxpayers Union & National Taxpayers Union Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1969, both the National Taxpayers Union (NTU), along with its research arm, the National Taxpayers Union Foundation (NTUF), were designed to explore and research the various aspects of taxation, government spending, economics, and regulation. From their homepage, visitors can learn about their latest works and read about the organization's activities in the "About" section. For persons with policy interests, the "Research" section will be a place to spend some time in, as it contains commentaries, full research reports, and issue briefs. The site also has several special features, including their official blog and the NTU's own generated rankings of members of Congress. The site is rounded out by an area where visitors can sign up to receive news briefs and updates from the NTU.

249

US declaratory policy on Soviet SSBN security: 1970 to 1985. Final research memorandum report  

SciTech Connect

U.S. defense officials have often said that the Soviet Union expects Western antisubmarine warfare (ASW) forces to attack its ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) and thus is prepared to defend them in war. These Soviet expectations may have been encouraged by U.S. declaratory policy on the subject--that is, the totality of official and other authoritative statements on strategic doctrine and policy, ASW capabilities and tactics, and ASW technology and programs from which Soviet observers reach conclusions about U.S. intentions. This paper reviews U.S. declaratory policy between 1970 and 1985 to determine specifically what that policy has been and then to infer what it has probably meant to the Soviets. It concludes that throughout this period official U.S. declatory policy has implied an intent to engage in strategic ASW and that the Soviets have had strong reasons to believe that their SSBNs have been and will continue to be targets of U.S. ASW forces.

Perse, J.D.

1986-05-01

250

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua, Jordan Smith, Kelsey Zhu University Investigation Into Composting Food Waste at the New Student Union Building Peter Hua Jordan Smith Kelsey Zhu LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS GLOSSARY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 ROOFTOP COMPOSTING

251

ECONOMIC REFORM AND COMMUNIST REGIME SURVIVABILTY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  

E-print Network

While the collapse of communist rule and process of transitioning to democracy in the former-Soviet Union and its numerous satellite states certainly warrants the wealth of attention received, by no means does this signal that the history...

Nelson, John

2006-08-16

252

The Soviet ASTRON mission: legacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2013 marks the 30th anniversary since the launch of Soviet Spacecraft Astron that had been operated for 6 years as the largest ultraviolet telescope during its lifetime. The Astron orbital station was designed for the astrophysical observations. It was launched into orbit by Proton launch system on March 23, 1983. Astron had a 80 cm ultraviolet telescope with mass of 400 kg and a complex of X-ray spectrographs with mass of 300 kg on board as a payload. It's high apogee orbit (with apogee 200000 km and perigee 2000 km) permitted the influences of the Earth's umbra and radiation belts to be excluded from the measurements. The main astrophysical results are summarized in this paper.

Boyarchuk, Alexander; Savanov, Igor; Kanev, Evgeny; Shustov, Boris; Sachkov, Mikhail

2014-11-01

253

The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan  

SciTech Connect

A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I. [AN SSSR, Mosco

1990-01-01

254

Gulag: Soviet Forced Labor Camps and the Struggle for Freedom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Certain words that reference specific places or locales can have a chilling effect on their readers. One need only think about those places associated with the Holocaust to be reminded of this fact (such as Buchenwald or Dachau). Of course, there is the word "gulag", which for many brings to mind these rather well-known labor camps in the Soviet Union. Drawing on an innovative partnership between the Gulag Museum, the National Park Service, and the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, this exhibit tells the story of these places through both primary documents and short essays. The exhibit is divided into four parts, including those that deal with the growth of the gulag under Stalin and the human rights movement that attempted to redress the grievances of those forced to work and live in such places. The site is rounded out by an area that allows visitors to offer their own comments on the online exhibit.

2006-01-01

255

The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

Connolly, James P. (editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (editor)

1990-01-01

256

Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals  

SciTech Connect

For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

Weickhardt, G.C.

1987-09-01

257

This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

258

Soviet Pedagogical Science: Visions and Contradictions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paradigmatic assumptions and practices of Soviet pedagogical research are considered. How the social and philosophical commitments of dialectical materialism guide the conduct of research is discussed, and research approaches to pedagogical problems are examined. (RM)

Popkewitz, Thomas S.

1984-01-01

259

On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

Balockaite, Rasa

2014-01-01

260

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into A Grocery Store in the New Student Union Building  

E-print Network

locally grown. Plastic bags will be either charged a nominal fee or not be included in the purchase as an alternative to the ready-made, pre-packaged food currently available in the old Student Union Building. The Alma Mater Society is interested in an environmentally friendly, healthy alternative to the ready

261

Soviet-American Relations: Cold War to New Thinking. Topic #5 in a Series of International Security and Conflict [Curricula] for Grades 9-12 and Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 12-day unit is designed for use in the social studies classroom for grades 9-12 and community college level. Students first learn about the ideological, political, and military rivalries of the United States and the Soviet Union that marked the Cold War. They are then introduced to the nuclear build-up, and they study its impact on matters of…

Chan, Adrian

262

Soviet-American Dance Medicine. Proceedings of the Glasnost Dance Medicine Conference and Workshops (Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information shared in this document represents a dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union on the discipline of dance medicine, which involves the care of injured dancers as well as prevention of injuries. An introduction including a preface, opening remarks, and an overview of dance medicine comprises section 1. The second…

Micheli, Lyle, Ed.; And Others

263

European Union's Public Fishing Access Agreements in Developing Countries  

E-print Network

European Union's Public Fishing Access Agreements in Developing Countries Fre´de´ric Le Manach1 has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones C, Copeland D, Cury P, Gascuel D, et al. (2013) European Union's Public Fishing Access Agreements

Pauly, Daniel

264

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

265

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-07-24

266

Shamanism, Christianity, and Marxism: Comparisons and Contrasts Between the Impact of Soviet Teachers on Eskimos, Chukchis, and Koryaks in Northeastern Siberia, and the Impact of an Early Anglican Missionary on Baffin Island Inuit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts activities and experiences of the first Soviet teachers among Eskimos and Koryaks and the first Anglican missionaries among Inuit of Baffin Island. Concludes Soviets integrated natives into political, educational, economic structures of the USSR while missionaries concentrated on natives' spiritual life, not involvement in…

Bartels, Dennis

1985-01-01

267

THE POST-SOVIET CITY: IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to track both physical and social urbanization patterns of the post-Soviet city, and how a city's identity and type can shape community development needs and potential. Because the legacy of the Soviet period is a specter that continues to shape urbanity, I begin this paper with an exploration of the Soviet city in order

J. Robinson

268

Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

Ivie, Robert L.

269

Soviet naval forces and nuclear warfare: Weapons, employment, and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on formal content analysis of the writings of Admiral Sergei G. Gorshkov and past Soviet ministers of defense and heads of the Politburo, the author interprets what the Soviets say they will do in the event of nuclear war. He then constructs a hardware and exercise analysis of the strategic employment of the Soviet Navy in a nuclear war,

Tritten

1986-01-01

270

Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

Glantz, D.M.

1985-01-01

271

The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

272

Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

Merrill, Martha C.

1990-01-01

273

Listening to Children: Soviet and American Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide explains how and why the videotapes, "There's a Nuclear War Going On Inside Me" and "What Soviet Children Are Saying about Nuclear Weapons," were made and provides background information and activities that will aid in using the tapes. Chapters I and III contain interviews with producers of the videotapes. Topics are how children were…

Burt, Lucile; Snow, Roberta

274

Themes in Current Soviet Curriculum Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soviet educators are first of all "upbringers" whose prime task is the formation and maintenance of the socialist outlook. They base their teaching on dialectical materialism, assume there are law-like principles of teaching and learning, and are inexhaustibly optimistic. (Author)

Popkewitz, Thomas S.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

1982-01-01

275

Soviet oil production begins to falter  

SciTech Connect

Soviet industry managers are warning that a new oil production slump may be on the way, especially in the crucial West Siberian industry. The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. In the rest of Eastern Europe, Albania, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia all showed significant declines in oil production.

Fueg, J.C

1989-08-01

276

Translating queer texts in Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to recent scholarship on censorship and translation by exploring the phenomenon of productive censorship, or the artful evasion of censorship restrictions by authors and their readers, in the context of Soviet Russia. Specifically, the work of three homosexual-identified literary translators – Mikhail Kuzmin, Ivan Likhachev and Gennadii Shmakov – is examined in order to demonstrate how, under

Brian James Baer

2011-01-01

277

Soviet Research Priorities: Excercises in Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical and case-study approach to the process of Soviet science concludes that the priorities of research are decided by political leaders after consultation with scientific advisors. The resulting policy directives do provide reliable clues to future research endeavors. Warren Walsh is chairman of the History Department at Syracuse.

Warren B. Walsh

1964-01-01

278

Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

Holland, Wade B.

279

Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

Rogers, Carl R.

1987-01-01

280

Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.  

PubMed

This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

González Rey, Fernando L

2014-02-01

281

[Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].  

PubMed

The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

2013-01-01

282

Measuring sustainable governance in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of measuring sustainable governance in the European Union (EU-27) through the use of duality and the Slutsky equation. The proposed methodology is based on the application of a three-dimensional optimisation model, where the arguments of the objective (sustainable social welfare) function are economic goods that contribute to sustainable economic growth; environmental goods that provide for

Ivan Ivanov; Julia Dobreva

2011-01-01

283

Union formation in fragile families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union\\u000a formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate\\u000a the effects of economic, cultural\\/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship)\\u000a parents are romantically involved and living apart,

Marcia Carlson; Sara Mclanahan; Paula England

2004-01-01

284

Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc  

SciTech Connect

The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

Davey, W.G.

1982-03-01

285

[Schizophrenia concepts in Soviet and Russian psychiatry].  

PubMed

Concepts of schizophrenia of the Soviet Russian school are presented. They are historically based upon the broad concepts of schizophrenia by Kraepelin and Bleuler. The relationships to the German concept of "Einheitspsychose" (unitary psychosis) is emphasized. Along with the discussion of correspondence to and differences with Western diagnostic systems (DSM, ICD) it is pointed out that the old Soviet system of classification extends to psychotic and also non-psychotic forms which in ICD-10 are not attributed to schizophrenia, but to other categories. Differential-diagnostic criteria of sluggish schizophrenia and neurosis, such as positive psychopathological symptoms, thought disturbances and changes in personality, will be delineated. Furthermore, recent developments in Russian psychiatry and modifications in Russian schizophrenia concepts will be exemplified by the concept of "psychic diathesis." PMID:9565973

Piatnitski, N; Dech, H; Mundt, C

1998-03-01

286

Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, CA (United States); Helmberger, D.V. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Seismological Lab.

1994-08-01

287

Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

Welker, Jean Edward

1995-01-01

288

Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

Friedberg, Maurice

289

Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

Chaiko, Lev I.

1990-01-01

290

However, the European Union  

E-print Network

However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new willingness by Japan to compromise talks with the European Union, which has been supporting France's bid. As a result, the Yomiuri said, China and Russia backed France. However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new

291

Institutional Report: European Union  

E-print Network

Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester #12, Key Action 1, Contract no. QLK1-CT-2001-00291. Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud.trustinfood.org. This report presents data and analyses from studies at the European Union level. It belongs to a series

Boyer, Edmond

292

Union Membership (Annual)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirteen percent of all American waged and salaried workers, or 16.5 million workers, were members of unions in 1999, reports the BLS. Government workers are four times as likely to be union members, and those employed by local governments, such as fire fighters and police officers, the most unionized, have 42.9 percent rate of membership.

293

The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

Barr, D A

1996-01-01

294

China and the Dispatch of the Soviet Air Force: The Formation of the Chinese–Soviet–Korean Alliance in the Early Stage of the Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's entry into the Korean War, together with the involvement of the Soviet Air Force, constituted not only the base of Chinese and Soviet joint assistance to North Korea but also the formation of the Sino-Soviet–North Korean triangular alliance. Recently declassified Russian Defense Ministry archives show that Stalin wavered on dispatching the Soviet Air Force for fear of a direct

Zhihua Shen

2010-01-01

295

Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site;

R. E. Linnemann

1987-01-01

296

Special Tasks and Sacred Secrets on Soviet Atomic Espionage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful review of the depiction of Soviet atomic espionage provided in Pavel Sudoplatov's Special Tasks and Sacred Secrets by Jerrold and Leona Schecter demonstrates how faulty memories, Soviet intelligence agency disinformation, sloppy citations, misplaced trust in documents provided by unidentified sources under unexplained circumstances, and egregious lapses in logic and judgment can lead to conclusions unsupported by evidence. The

Harvey Klehr; John Earl Haynes

2011-01-01

297

Investigating soviet espionage and subversion: the case of Donald Maclean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay sets out the dimensions of investigating Soviet espionage and subversion, highlighting how Maclean's image as a Soviet agent has developed over the past 50 years. It will then consider to what extent new documents at the Public Record Office alter his image. Maclean's crime was treachery but what exactly is the intellectual challenge in investigating espionage? Just what

Sheila Kerr

2002-01-01

298

Union Retirees: Enriching Their Lives, Enhancing Their Contribution. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents five case studies which provide a comprehensive description of the programs and services available to union retirees in different communities. The five communities reflect a diversity of geographical locations, economic base, occupational structure, and unions represented. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Miami, Florida;…

Charner, Ivan; And Others

299

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-print Network

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

300

European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

301

Credit Unions vs. Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the debate between the banks and credit unions over the issues of membership. The nine resources discussed provide background information about the debate and the arguments from both sides of the issue. On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Credit Union Administration's policy of permitting federal credit unions to serve multiple unrelated groups was unlawful. As a result, the credit union lobby persuaded the House of Representatives to overwhelmingly pass HR 1151, the Credit Union Membership Access Act, by a vote of 411-8. HR 1151 will allow credit unions to form multiple common bonds with certain limitations. Similar legislation is now under consideration in the Senate.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

1998-01-01

302

Operational analysis of the Union Stockyards, San Antonio  

E-print Network

JANUARY 1957 NaJor Sub?iect: Agricultural Economics The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. John G. McNeely, professor, Department of Agricultural Economics and Sociology~ and Dr. Jarvis E. Miller~ assistant professor, Depart...+gljkge ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ LIST OF TABLES Annual salaMe reoeipts of Xivestodc by species at, Union Stoc)g%rds& San Antonio y 1944 55e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 36 ~son of livestock aarlMtings by speciesp Texas end Union Stoalgrards~ San Antonio, 1946...

Dietrich, Raymond Arthur

2012-06-07

303

The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)  

SciTech Connect

It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Garvey, G.T.

1989-01-01

304

Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential  

SciTech Connect

Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

Grace, J.D. (ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

305

Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

Fitzgerald, M.C.

1987-08-01

306

Getting to Know Europe: Local and Regional Communities and the European Union Hampton Roads  

E-print Network

Getting to Know Europe: Local and Regional Communities and the European Union Hampton Roads 2011 at ODU's Webb Center This conference is part of the European Union sponsored ACCESSEU Project at ODU, Ambassador of the European Union to the United States 0930­1030 The US-EU Partnership: Transatlantic Economic

307

Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras  

PubMed Central

We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of ?35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

2014-01-01

308

Aspects of Medical Care of Soviet Jewish Emigrés  

PubMed Central

Soviet Jewish emigrés are a recently arrived refugee group in San Francisco and in other cities in the United States. They have frequently been perceived as a demanding and complaining population, particularly the elderly, often chronically ill members. These behaviors can also be seen as positive survival mechanisms that have evolved in response to the Soviet health care system and cultural background. An understanding of that background and system, together with time, greatly improves the interaction between Soviet Jewish patients and American physicians. PMID:6666107

Wheat, Mary E.; Brownstein, Harold; Kvitash, Vadim

1983-01-01

309

Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data  

SciTech Connect

During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk explosions. Significant differences from average scaling were observed and may result from variations in emplacement conditions. The ChISS envelope data have been integrated into coda processing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by applying ChISS filter bands to modern, digital data from central Central Asia, for purposes of magnitude and yield calibration. In addition, we have compiled regional, direct phase measurements for ChISS recordings at Talgar, Garm, Zerenda, and Novosibirsk. The ChISS envelope data have been integrated into coda processing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by applying ChISS filter bands to modern, digital data from central and east Asia, for purposes of yield calibration. The difference in manual versus digital measurement methods are captured in site terms that are higher by up to 0.5 log10 units for ChISS data, relative to modern Talgar data due to the measurement of peak, rather than mean envelopes. After correction for site and path effects, ChISS amplitudes compare well to measurements from the Borovoye archive for events in common. Direct wave measurements have been used to construct spectra for Semipalatinsk explosions, and can be used to explore the behavior of regional phase amplitudes with shot point and emplacement condition.

Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

2006-04-12

310

Integrative Complexity of American and Soviet Foreign Policy Rhetoric: A Time-Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used the integrative complexity coding system to analyze official American and Soviet foreign policy statements issued between 1945 and 1983. Time series (ARIMA) and two-stage least squares analyses of the data revealed numerous significant trends. The integrative complexity of Soviet statements was a function of Soviet complexity levels in the past, American complexity levels in the present, Soviet

Philip E. Tetlock

1985-01-01

311

Sustainability in the Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

2012-01-01

312

Teacher Unions 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

Koppich, Julia E.

2012-01-01

313

Unions, Contractors and CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

Jarosz, Francesca

2006-01-01

314

Energy, economics, and security in central Asia: Russia and its rivals  

SciTech Connect

Five Central Asian states emerged out of the Soviet Union`s Central Asian republics in 1991. Although U.S. policy makers presumed that Iran would inevitably sweep them into its sphere of influence, this has not happened. Nor is it likely to occur. Instead there has developed a multistate competition for influence and even control of these new states. This competition involves Russia as the leading force in the area and Moscow`s main rivals are Turkey, Iran, Pakistan (and India), China, and the United States. This rivalry is particularly strong in the struggle among these states to gain positions of leverage over the energy economy, i.e. production, pipelines, and refining in Central Asia because this region is blessed with enormous energy deposits. These deposits are crucial to Central Asia`s integration with the world economy and economic progress. Indeed, energy exports may be the only way these governments can hope for any economic stability and progress in the future.

Blank, S.J.

1995-04-10

315

The Kopenhagen operation of the Soviet KGB. The Kopenahagen interview of Niels Bohr by a Soviet scientist and KGB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describes the Soveit KGB operation of interviewing Niels Bohr by soviet scientist Yakov. P. Terletskii(1912-1993) and KGB kolonel Lev Petrovich Vasilevskii (b. 1903) on 24 september 1945-20 november 1945 concerning the American Nuclear weapons (Manhattan project)undertaken under the project of the Soviet KGB Lieder Lavrentij P. Berija and supervised by Soviet KGB generals Pavel A. Sudoplatov (b. 1907) and Nikolay S. Sazykin (1910-1985) after the detailed magnetophone interview of Professor Ya. P. Terletskij before his die in Moscow.

Andreev, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. B.; Yavelov, Boris E.

316

Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

1999-08-31

317

New types of dwellings for prospective construction after 1981. [in the Soviet Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architectural considerations for the next stage of mass housing construction in the U.S.S.R. are explored. The architects are concerned with both the aesthetic and functional quality of the constructions, in terms of the prospective inhabitants as well as the environments in which they will be located. Experimental building designs emphasize: variety of appearance, environmental control, and the communal life.

Butuzov, V.; Kapustyan, Y.

1977-01-01

318

a threat transformed The collapse of the Soviet Union was a dramatic geopolitical shift  

E-print Network

, the nature of the nuclear threat has fundamentally changed, from large-scale attack to the use of one stockpiles--has thus become as high a priority as deterring major nuclear attacks. Unfortunately, the current States' ability to maintain a nuclear posture that deters attack. dual purpose In the past, U

Deutch, John

319

How Societies Remember: History and Memory in 20 th Century Europe and the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are major historical events experienced, understood, represented, and remembered by individuals, groups, and societies? How is our understanding of the past shaped by the books we read, the films we watch, the people we pass our time with, and the political, educational, and cultural institutions that shape our society? How does our understanding of past events influence our attitudes

Jill Massino

2007-01-01

320

Possible changes for mudflow and avalanche activity in former Soviet Union due to the global warming  

SciTech Connect

Past research, as well as laboratory evidence have revealed a relationship between climate, mudflow, and avalanche activity. It is possible to predict changes in mudflow and avalanche activity by using climate models. In this study, the GFDL model was used which contained data on mean monthly air temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentrations.

Glazovskaya, T.G.; Sidorova, T.L.; Seliverstov, Y.G. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Research Lab. of Snow Avalanches and Mudflows

1996-12-31

321

Imaging XUV spectroscopy of a Z-pinch plasma in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 a group of scientists from the Angara 5 pulsed power facility at the Kurchatov Institute in Troitsk, Russia had determined the thermal emission from an implosion of xenon gas onto an annular, molybdenum doped foam liner to be 30 TW/cm{sup 2}. This represents an extremely efficient conversion of energy into a high fluence radiation field. In order to verify this claim and better understand the process of producing radiation by means of a Z-pinch plasma device, a series of experiments were proposed through a collaboration from Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Due to previous experience with x-ray spectroscopic measurements in the XUV region, the team from Lawrence Livermore Lab took on the task of designing, constructing, and fielding the necessary diagnostic equipment to spatially and temporally resolve plasma temperatures throughout the implosion of the high Z foam target.

Bruns, H.C.; Springer, P.T.; Emig, J.A.; Lanier, N.E.; Hernandez, J.A.

1993-08-11

322

METHOD TO QUANTIFY THE CARBON CYCLE OF FOREST BIOMES IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION (EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activities have caused a measurable increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 which is predicted to cause the earth's temperatures to rise and accelerate rates of plant respiration and the decay of organic matter, disrupting the equilibrium of the terrestrial carbon ...

323

Corruption in Post-Communist Societies: Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Michael Johnston of Colgate University's Department of Political Science, this working bibliography lists print and electronic resources relevant to the study of corruption and development in post-communist societies. The modest bibliography, which focuses on English language materials published since 1989, is searchable by keyword. In addition, the site includes an Events section, which posts announcements for conferences, training courses, and other events related to the topic of the bibliography.

324

Petroleum geology and resources of the middle Caspian Basin, Former Soviet Union  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Caspian basin occupies a large area between the Great Caucasus foldbelt and the southern edge of the Precambrian Russian craton. The basin also includes the central part of the Caspian Sea and the South Mangyshlak subbasin east of the sea. The basin was formed on the Hercynian accreted terrane during Late Permian?Triassic through Quaternary time. Structurally, the basin consists of the fold-and-thrust zone of the northern Caucasus foothills, the foredeep and foreland slope, the Stavropol-Prikumsk uplift and East Manych trough to the north of the slope, and the South Mangyshlak subbasin and slope of the Karabogaz arch east of the Caspian Sea. All these major structures extend offshore. Four total petroleum systems (TPS) have been identified in the basin. The South Mangyshlak TPS contains more than 40 discovered fields. The principal reserves are in Lower?Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in structural traps. Source rocks are poorly known, but geologic data indicate that they are in the Triassic taphrogenic sequence. Migration of oil and gas significantly postdated maturation of source rocks and was related to faulting and fracturing during middle Miocene to present time. A single assessment unit covers the entire TPS. Largest undiscovered resources of this assessment unit are expected in the largely undrilled offshore portion of the TPS, especially on the western plunge of the Mangyshlak meganticline. The Terek-Caspian TPS occupies the fold-and-thrust belt, foredeep, and adjoining foreland slope. About 50 hydrocarbon fields, primarily oil, have been discovered in the TPS. Almost all hydrocarbon reserves are in faulted structural traps related to thrusting of the foldbelt, and most traps are in frontal edges of the thrust sheets. The traps are further complicated by plastic deformation of Upper Jurassic salt and Maykop series (Oligocene? lower Miocene) shale. Principal reservoirs are fractured Upper Cretaceous carbonates and middle Miocene sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich shales in the lower part of the Maykop series. Source rocks may also be present in the Eocene, Upper Jurassic, and Middle Jurassic sections, but their contribution to discovered reserves is probably small. Three assessment units are delineated in the TPS. One of them encompasses the thrust-and-fold belt of northern Caucasus foothills. This assessment unit contains most of the undiscovered oil resources. The second assessment unit occupies the foredeep and largely undeformed foreland slope. Undiscovered resources of this unit are relatively small and primarily related to stratigraphic traps. The third unit is identified in almost untested subsalt Jurassic rocks occurring at great depths and is speculative. The unit may contain significant amounts of gas under the Upper Jurassic salt seal. The Stavropol-Prikumsk TPS lies north of the Terek-Caspian TPS and extends offshore into the central Caspian Sea where geologic data are scarce. More than one hundred oil and gas fields have been found onshore. Offshore, only one well was recently drilled, and this well discovered a large oil and gas field. Almost the entire sedimentary section of the TPS is productive; however, the principal oil reserves are in Lower Cretaceous clastic reservoirs in structural traps of the Prikumsk uplift. Most original gas reserves are in Paleogene reservoirs of the Stavropol arch and these reservoirs are largely depleted. At least three source rock formations, in the Lower Triassic, Middle Jurassic, and Oligocene?lower Miocene (Maykop series), are present in the TPS. Geochemical data are inadequate to correlate oils and gases in most reservoirs with particular source rocks, and widespread mixing of hydrocarbons apparently took place. Three assessment units encompassing the onshore area of the TPS, the offshore continuation of the Prikumsk uplift, and the central Caspian area, are identified. The

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2001-01-01

325

Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

1985-01-01

326

New Rickettsiae in ticks collected in territories of the former soviet union.  

PubMed Central

Dermacentor nuttallii from Siberia, Rhipicephalus sanguineus from Crimea, and Rh. pumilio from the Astrakhan region were infected with Rickettsia sibirica (12%), R. conorii (8%), and the Astrakhan fever agent (3%), respectively. Three new Rickettsiae of the R. massiliae genogroup were identified in ticks by 16S rDNA, gltA, and ompA sequencing. PMID:10603217

Rydkina, E.; Roux, V.; Rudakov, N.; Gafarova, M.; Tarasevich, I.; Raoult, D.

1999-01-01

327

UNION BOARD History of the Union Board  

E-print Network

for the Miss Louisiana Pageant is chosen from an array of beautiful and talented young women. Spring Fling entertainment, concerts, the Miss Tech Pageant, Spring Fling, its annual Talent Show, comedians, dances Tech Pageant is also produced by the Union Board. On this special evening Tech's representative

Selmic, Sandra

328

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

Not Available

1989-09-01

329

The Use of AMS Maps in Teaching Soviet Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the use of Army Map Service (AMS) maps can enhance student understanding of Soviet geography on the college level. Topics discussed include map characteristics, division of content and map examples, and techniques for using the maps. (DB)

Erickson, Kenneth A.

1980-01-01

330

One of the Paths of Development of Soviet Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in Soviet learning theory are reviewed to provide information to educators as they work with didacticians and methodologists to improve the public education system along lines specified by the 25th Party Congress. (DB)

Talyzina, N. F.

1978-01-01

331

Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

Wightman, R.O.

1987-06-05

332

Moving and Union Dissolution  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other. Even so, no study to date has examined the possible impact of within-nation geographical mobility on union dissolution. We base our longitudinal analysis on retrospective event-history data from Austria. Our results show that couples who move frequently have a significantly higher risk of union dissolution, and we suggest a variety of mechanisms that may explain this. PMID:18390300

BOYLE, PAUL J.; KULU, HILL; COOKE, THOMAS; GAYLE, VERNON; MULDER, CLARAH.

2008-01-01

333

Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

Lumsden, C.A.

1990-06-01

334

Democracy and Economic ReformsDeveloping Underdeveloped Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1980s many African countries were compelled by bad economic circumstances and poor economic prospects to adopt structural adjustment programs dictated by their external creditors. By the late 1980s, it had become clear that these economic reform programs were failing to achieve their objectives. This factor as well as the effective disintegration of the Soviet empire enabled the

Ufo Okeke Uzodike

1996-01-01

335

Scaphoid Non-Union  

MedlinePLUS

... the prognosis for recovery and for pre-operative decision making. TREATMENT Treatment of a scaphoid non-union is dependent on several factors including the patient’s age, function, current symptoms (pain, ...

336

Soviet policy toward male homosexuality: its origins and historical roots.  

PubMed

Sodomy was a crime under tsarist criminal law. Having abrogated the tsarist legal codes in the name of socialist justice, the new Soviet regime did not at first impose criminal sanctions on sodomy. It was only in 1934, after Stalin had consolidated power, that an anti-sodomy statute was added to the Soviet criminal code. Although Russian radicals had never been friendly to variant sexual practices, which they viewed as the product of capitalist decadence, Soviet sexologists in the 1920s participated in the international movement for sexual reform and criminologists deplored the use of penal sanctions to censor private sexual conduct. The 1934 return to legal prosecution represented the recovery of two traditions: the radicals' disregard for issues of sexual freedom and tsarist legal custom. It was not, however, a clear reversal of the seemingly enlightened legal practice of the 1920s. This essay examines the trial of a group of homosexual men and the investigation of a lesbian couple, both from 1922, which show that Soviet courts tried to repress sexual variation even when homosexuality was not a crime. These cases and the status of homosexuality in general reflect on the murky status of the law and on the ambiguities of Soviet politics in the early years of the new regime. PMID:8666753

Englestein, L

1995-01-01

337

Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

Kojevnikov, Alexei

2011-03-01

338

Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive.

Not Available

1991-08-05

339

Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

Ahmed, Selina

1989-01-01

340

Consequences of the Ban of By-Products from Terrestrial Animals in Livestock Feeding in Germany and The European Union: Alternatives, Nutrient and Energy Cycles, Plant Production, and Economic Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as

M. Rodehutscord; H. J. Abel; W. Friedt; C. Wenk; G. Flachowsky; H.-J. Ahlgrimm; B. Johnke; R. Kühl; G. Breves

2002-01-01

341

World Economic Outlook: 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication has recently been made available by the International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook is a semi-annual report that provides "IMF staff economists' analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium term." It also surveys the creation of the European Monetary Union (EMU), exchange rate arrangements and economic performance in developing countries, and monetary policies in the transition economies. WEO contains a statistical appendix on various global macroeconomic variables.

1997-01-01

342

Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and climatic and socio-economic change in arid and semi-arid central Asia.

Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

2012-12-01

343

Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.  

PubMed

Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources. PMID:12389223

Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

2002-04-01

344

Researching the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the European Union's official and comprehensive guide for scholars and researchers studying its institutions. Users will find information on document access, treaties and institutions, legislation, and EU publishing operations. The site also provides overviews of official and related institutions and the legislative process in the Union. Researchers will be especially interested in the sections on Legislative Documents and Print Research Tools, Using Annual Reports and Informational Documents, and Bibliographic and Other Guides. The synoptic tables of basic documents, quick visual guides to the documents described on the site and their availability, are additional valuable tools.

1997-01-01

345

Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

2010-01-01

346

Background to the Soviet glaciological studies from the Salyut?6 Orbital Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In introducing the translated Russian article which follows, the author provides background information on the Soviet “Orbital Space Station Earth Observations Project,”; comparing it with the American “Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project.”; He also provides details on the cameras used by the Soviet cosmonauts, comparing them with American models. One of the major foci of the Soviet program is the

Richard S. Williams Jr

1987-01-01

347

Students' Union Richmond Building  

E-print Network

Victoria Rooms Students' Union Richmond Building Bristol Grammar School BBC Coa Royal Fort Gardens COLSTONAVENUE STMICHAEL'S HILL STMICHAEL'SHILL GE STREET GORDON ROAD ELTON ROAD ELMDALEROAD EARL ST D COTHAM Royal Fort Gardens YORK PLACE WOODLANDROAD WOODLANDROAD WHITSON ST UNIVERSITYWALK TANKARDS CLO SE

Subramanian, Sriram

348

Inter-Parliamentary Union = Union Interparlementaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inter-Parliamentary Union, a "world organization of parliaments of sovereign States" since 1889, provides this informational site, which is highlighted by two searchable databases, PARLINE and PARLIT. PARLINE contains information about parliaments in over 190 countries, including structure, leader, percentage of women, term, and other useful data which may include distribution by political group and sex, candidacy eligiblilty requirements, and background to the last election. A comparative search function allows qualitative and quantitative search variables and returns country parliaments that meet specifications. PARLIT contains bibliographic references to a subset of IPU's 37,000 item database. Items from 1992-present are currently available. Searches can be performed on seven variables, including country, parliamentary organization, periodical, and language. The IPU site also contains links to parliamentary web sites and other information about the organization.

1998-01-01

349

Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1991-12-01

350

Resources for Russian Education: Soviet Strategies in Historical Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines Soviet strategies for education during its first four decades as they may be deduced from the resources put at its disposal. Despite the political importance for education and for proletarian empowerment at the workplace ("vydvizhenie"), the total enrolment ratio was only one-third higher than in the Tsarist period, although…

Kaser, Michael

2006-01-01

351

Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

Sogrin, V. V.

2014-01-01

352

Ascaplots from Soviet stations for the year 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auroral observations for the year 1980, carried out using all-sky cameras at ten Soviet research stations in the Arctic and Antarctic, are reported. The corrected geomagnetic coordinates were calculated using the system of Gustaffson (1974). Auroral data are given in the form of ascaplots representing the frequency of auroral activity in three latitudinal intervals (north, south, zenith). Auroral activity in

L. N. Smirnova; L. N. Korobeinikova; N. F. Maltseva; O. V. Iushchenko

1984-01-01

353

Criticism and Revision of the Soviet School Mathematics Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1966 and 1975, the entire Soviet school mathematics program was redesigned by a reform commission. New textbooks were written for all grades. Set theory was widely adopted, along with infusions of more conceptual, abstract mathematics. The articles in this issue critique these reforms. (RM)

Soviet Education, 1983

1983-01-01

354

The impact of Soviet dialectical materialism on China through translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the study of Marxism-Leninism and its philosophy in China is still at its beginnings 1, there is no doubt about the importance for it of the Soviet philosophical works translated from Russian to Chinese following the Communist take-over in China. The present bibliography - a modest contribution to the field - will be published in four successive issues of

Wei-Shung Chang

1971-01-01

355

Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

356

Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

1991-01-01

357

Soviet pipeline construction lagging, but able to meet production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed discussion of present and projected Soviet gas, crude, and products pipeline projects covers estimates of the amount of pipeline construction necessary for maintaining and increasing supplies of natural gas from remote Siberian gasfields (at least one 5000 to 7000 km 56 in. line, with a capacity of about 2.9 billion cu ft\\/day, each year); the estimated cost of

Rigassi

1979-01-01

358

The Eradication of Illiteracy among Women in the Soviet East  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The solution to the problem of women's illiteracy in the Soviet East, where the religion was Islam and seclusion was traditional for women, was intimately linked with the struggle for women's liberation. Such obstacles as the lack of materials and teacher shortages, and the policies developed to overcome them, are described. (Author/AJ)

Kazakova, F. I.

1976-01-01

359

America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger project, "The U.S. and the USSR: Choices for the 21st Century," that is aimed at developing curricular materials for use at the secondary, undergraduate, and adult education levels, this book helps high school students to think through some of the complex issues surrounding U.S.-Soviet relations and the nuclear arms race as the…

Berger, Karl; And Others

360

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE SOVIET OIL/DEBRIS SKIMMER  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance evaluation of a Soviet oil skimmer was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank in 1979. The skimmer was provided by the Black Sea Central Planning and Designing Bureau, Odessa. The ...

361

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves.  

PubMed

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m(b)) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 +/- 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest U.S. underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in m(b) for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada. PMID:16593645

Sykes, L R; Wiggins, G C

1986-01-01

362

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

PubMed Central

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 ± 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest U.S. underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in mb for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada. PMID:16593645

Sykes, Lynn R.; Wiggins, Graham C.

1986-01-01

363

Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves  

SciTech Connect

Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 USSR underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (m/sub b/) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of warheads for major strategic systems that became operational in the late 1970s. The largest Soviet underground explosion is estimated to have a yield of 3500 +/- 600 kilotons, somewhat smaller than the yield of the largest US underground test. A preliminary estimation of the significance of tectonic release is made by measuring the amplitude of Love waves. The bias in m/sub b/ for Novaya Zemlya relative to the Nevada test site is about 0.35, nearly identical to that of the eastern Kazakhstan test site relative to Nevada.

Sykes, L.R.; Wiggins, G.C.

1986-01-01

364

Challenges for US national security: The Soviet approach to arms control; verification; problems and prospects; conclusions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In early 1980, the Trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace established an independent Panel on US Security and the Future of Arms Control. The Panel was created to assess the key security challenges of the 1980s and to explore what contribution, if any, arms control might make to US security. The Panel began by examining the international security context of the 1980s and exploring the first-order security issues and choices facing the United States, with particular emphasis on assessing the balance of forces between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the future of arms control. As with the three previous reports, the Panel established working groups, and the groups heard the views of experts in the national security and arms control fields. No policy recommendations are made or intended.

Not Available

1983-01-01

365

A comparison of the aims of public policy with women's views on declining fertility rates in post-Soviet Russia.  

PubMed

The article compares an analysis of Russian federal policy documents enacted to address the decline in population size (apparent since the collapse of the former Soviet Union), with interviews of women living in two provincial capitals, Pskov and Velikiye Novgorod. The analysis indicates that the values reflected in state policy documents regarding the definition of the problem, the stated goals of family policy and the methods designated to achieve those goals are not consistent with the views and understandings of women representative of those targeted by state family policy, on the nature of the problem, the goals that they think most important to achieve, and the most effective means to accomplish them. Policies to promote greater gender equality and to provide quality secondary education are perceived to be essential pre-conditions to reverse population declines. PMID:23353560

Araeva, Nyudlia; Nevalyonnaya, Anna; Buchanan, David

366

Bildung in der Europaischen Union: Daten und Kennzahlen = Education across the European Union: Statistics and Indicators = Education dans L'Union Europeennee Statistiques et Indicateurs, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides comparable statistics and indicators on education across the 15 member states of the European Union. The main source of data is the joint UOE (UNESCO, Organisation for Economic Development, Eurostat) revised questionnaire on education statistics introduced in 1995. Educational attainment information draws on data from the…

EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

367

A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

2010-10-01

368

Labor resources and the current economic development of the USSR.  

PubMed

The key task in creating balanced employment in the Soviet Union at the present time involves reducing the number of jobs to a level that corresponds to the actual potential for filling them. Such a step will serve as the basis for a more systematic organization of all aspects of the socialist expanded reproduction of labor power and of general social and economic progress. In the future, however, the mass release of workers from material production as a result of the scientific-technological revolution may create a manpower surplus. The labor shortage should be eliminated by the year 2000, and the working age population will have expanded, requiring expanded employment opportunities. The socialist system of employment must guarantee the systematic employment of the able-bodied population at any qualitative level of social production. The experience of other European socialist countries suggests several guidelines for employment policy. Bringing payroll costs closer to the actual cost of reproduction of labor power can be an important factor in the saving and release of workers in conjunction with the technical and organizational improvement of production. A special system must be formed in advance for the retraining, material support, and redistribution of released workers. Finally, cadres must by psychologically prepared for a much higher level of labor mobility. PMID:12341229

Kotliar, A

1987-04-01

369

GREENING FOR SURVIVAL: THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, URBAN GREENING, AND SUSTAINABILITY IN HAVANA, CUBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse ofthe Soviet Union in the early 1990.1' eliminated important markets and subsidies for the Cuban economy. throwing the country into a crisis. The Cuban government's response to the food and fuel shortage was to implement a unique national program to increase food production. A vital part of this program was the development of the Department of Urban Agriculture,

Elin Zurbrigg

370

Star wars: The economic fallout  

SciTech Connect

The authors present evidence on the proliferating network of contracts and corporate involvement, analyze the emerging market for strategic defense research, and examine how SDI will affect the labor pool of engineers, computer scientists, university professors, and other specialists. They also look at the possible benefits of SDI - will it bolster technological productivity. revitalize technology through commercial spinoffs. - and discuss the economics of potential Soviet responses to SDI.

Nimroody, R.; Warnke, P.C.

1987-01-01

371

Moving and union dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples.\\u000a Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits\\u000a one partner (usually the man) more than the other. Even so, no study to date has examined the possible impact of within-nation\\u000a geographical mobility

Paul J. Boyle; Hill. Kulu; Vernon. Gayle; Clara Helena. Mulder

2008-01-01

372

[On the improvement of the legal support of the food safety in the conditions of trade and economic integration of states-members of the Customs union and the Russian Federation's accession to the WTO].  

PubMed

In the article priority activities of The Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare on improvement of standard legal support of safety of foodstuff and control of compliance of foodstuff to legislation requirements are reported. The main documents directed on harmonization of the international requirements with national ones and requirements of the Customs union on safety of foodstuff are submitted. Work within a framework of Russian Federation's accession to the WTO is described. And data on control of quality and safety of foodstuff are provided also. PMID:23805684

Bragina, I V; Aksenova, O I; Bokit'ko, B G; Gorsky, A A

2013-01-01

373

Social Sector Reform in Latin America and the Role of Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the reaction of teachers` and doctors` unions to a series of social sector reforms in the region, including administrative decentralization, provider payment mechanisms, and the introduction of performance evaluation and private provision. It combines the literature of economics and political science to understand the conditions that shape different patterns of union behavior and their effect on policy

Daniel Maceira; Maria Victoria Murillo

2001-01-01

374

Teacher Unions, (Neo) Liberalism and the State: The Perth County Conspiracy of 1885  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1885, following a period of severe economic depression and social unrest in colonial Canada, state teachers in rural Perth County, Ontario met and formed the nucleus of what could clearly be described as a teachers' union. The idea spread quickly, and within six months the founding convention of a province-wide union was held in Toronto.…

Smaller, Harry

2004-01-01

375

In-Service Training of Teachers in the European Union and the EFTA/EEA Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study covers the 15 members of the European Union and the 2 EFTA/EEA countries that participate in EURYDICE (the Education Information Network in the European Union and the EFTA countries in the European Economic Area). An executive summary covers the main points of the study: (1) organization of inservice teacher training; (2) qualifying…

EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

376

Teacher Unions, (Neo)Liberalism and the State: The Perth County Conspiracy of 1885  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1885, following a period of severe economic depression and social unrest in colonial Canada, state teachers in rural Perth County, Ontario met and formed the nucleus of what could clearly be described as a teachers' union. The idea spread quickly, and within six months the founding convention of a province?wide union was held in Toronto. Understandably, state officials were

Harry Smaller

2004-01-01

377

Conflicting Loyalties: Changing Roles and Relations of Labor Unions in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

As labor unions in Vietnam become further divided from the political ideologies they arose from, it is important to examine how workers can become accurately represented in a system of changing markets, government and an economic movement towards the free-market system. As the role of the labor union changes and attempts to adapt into contemporary times, this study discusses and

Jan Slezak

2009-01-01

378

Crime in LithuaniaThe Impact of Accession to the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) has expanded its membership significantly in recent years to include Central and Eastern European countries. These countries are at significantly different levels of economic development than the other member states of the EU and are expected to undergo an economic adjustment to their new social, political, and economic reality. This paper investigates the effects on property

Martin A. Andresen

2009-01-01

379

The new regulation of public infrastructure services in the European Union. Challenges for territorial cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public infrastructure services (or Services of General Economic Interest, SGEI) in the European Union have undergone significant reform in the recent period, including privatization, liberalization and deregulation. These reforms, however, have led to concerns about the potential impact of pursuing economic profitability over service quality, affordability, accessibility and universality. Traditionally, because SGEI have been understood as playing a key economic,

Judith Clifton; Julio Revuelta

2011-01-01

380

CISC controls and the union/non-union wage ratio  

E-print Network

. The estimating equation specified, then, is of the following form: (1) lnWij= c o ClUij + c2U2ij + c 3 (%AU)ij + c4V j + c5R j + c6Mij + c7Bij + c8C +. . . + cnC + eij; where lnW - - natural og of union + non-union craft wages U - - percent unionized V...

Shulenburger, David E.; McLean, Robert A.; Rasch, Sara B.

1984-06-01

381

Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public policy spanning a broad range of contexts, ranging from the European Union, to states, cities and local communities around the globe, has turned to entrepreneurship to provide the engine for economic growth, competitiveness in globally linked markets, and jobs. This book explains why entrepreneurship has emerged as a bona fide instrument of growth policy. The knowledge spillover theory of

David B. Audretsch; Max C. Keilbach; Erik E. Lehmann

382

The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation  

E-print Network

We estimate the economic impacts on US airlines that may arise from the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small impact on US ...

Malina, Robert

383

The Zollverein and the Formation of a Customs Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zollverein, the German customs union of 1834, was the institutional centrepiece of Germany’s economic unification. A bargaining model is applied to analyze the structure of its negotiation process and accession sequence. The existence of negative coalition externalities, the effect of a coalition on non-participants, led Prussia to choose sequential over multilateral negotiations. The nature of these externalities within the

Florian Ploeckl

2010-01-01

384

The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate reference CO2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions

Laurent L. Viguier; Mustafa H. Babiker; John M. Reilly

2003-01-01

385

Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

2005-01-01

386

Effect of the U.S. embargo and economic decline on health in Cuba.  

PubMed

This article describes the ways in which economic crisis and the U.S. embargo have affected Cuba's health care system during the past 15 years. With the demise of subsidized trade, the absence of aid from the former Soviet Union, and the progressive tightening of U.S. sanctions, Cuba's model health care system has become threatened by serious shortages of medical supplies. Several public health catastrophes have occurred, including an epidemic of blindness that was partially attributed to a dramatic decrease in access to nutrients; an outbreak of the Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by lack of chlorination chemicals; and an epidemic of lye ingestion in toddlers due to severe shortages of soap. The policy of mandatory quarantine for HIV-infected Cubans has evolved into a less rigid system. Although the prevalence of HIV infection in Cuba is low compared with that in the United States and other Caribbean nations, it is threatened by prostitution, which has increased along with tourism. In general, economic sanctions may have an unintended but profound effect on the health and nutrition of vulnerable populations. PMID:10644277

Barry, M

2000-01-18

387

Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed--a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

The Rudnaya River valley in the Russian Far East contains a rich reserve of lead, zinc and boron and has been mined for nearly 100 years. Environmental contamination related to the area's mines and lead smelter was studied for over 30 years during the Soviet era, by members of the Pacific Geographic Institute (PGI). Due to government restrictions, much of the sampling focused on contamination of the river, the air, forests, vegetation, agricultural products and soil. Source-specific samples, such as stack emissions from the smelter, and blood lead levels from the residents and smelter workers could not be obtained or were classified as State secrets. However, the data do describe the extent and severity of the environmental contamination and related public health concerns. Water discharged from the smelter averages 2900 m(3)/day (containing 100 kg of lead (Pb) and 20 kg of arsenic (As)) and leachate from area mine dumps and other industrial processes contaminates the Rudnaya River. Annual air emissions include 85 tonnes of particulates (containing 50 tonnes of Pb and 0.5 tonnes of As) and 250000 m(3) of gases high in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Vegetative stress is severe and much of this area is denuded. Pb and other metals in agricultural products suggest local produce may be dangerous for human consumption, although it is a major food source for the community. Public and occupational health indicators of basophilic stippling, respiratory disease and hair lead levels further suggest the severity of the problem. Although, descriptions of complete methodologies and procedures are often lacking, these data describe how sampling was conducted during the Soviet era and document a site with severe heavy metals contamination, especially lead, and the likelihood of related public health problems. They are relevant today as investigators employ state-of-the-art-sampling techniques and explore cleanup options under a new governmental system and challenging economic times. In the post-Soviet era, a Russian/US team sampled area soils and dusts and confirmed the severity of the environmental problems using commonly employed sampling and analysis techniques. Lead concentrations in residential gardens (476-4310 mg/kg, Gx=1626 mg/kg) and in roadside soils (2020-22900 mg/kg, Gx=4420 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation. Preliminary biokinetic estimates of mean blood levels (average 13-27 microg/dl) suggest pre-school children are at significant risk of lead poisoning from soil/dust ingestion. Today, the PGI, in cooperation with the industrial owners and the local health and environmental authorities, is attempting to establish long-term monitoring and pollution abatement within the constraints of their difficult economic situation. PMID:12568770

Kachur, Anatoly N; Arzhanova, Valentina S; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H

2003-02-15

388

[Seventy years of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the development of Soviet pathology].  

PubMed

In reviewing briefly the changes that have taken place during the past decade (1977-86) in the theory and practice of pathology and, in the theory and practice of pathology and, more particularly, in the Pathology Service within the overall Soviet Health care system, it should be noted first of all that this period has been productive with regard to both the practical work of the pathology departments in hospitals and the research activities of scientific institutions. Pathology is gaining importance as a basic biomedical discipline. Considerable successes have been scored in fundamental research not only by the central scientific institutions but also by laboratories for morphologic research and departments of pathology at educational establishments in most of the Union Republics. Many of such laboratories and departments are well equipped and conduct work at a high technological and methodological level in areas of high priority. The number of interdisciplinary research projects has increased. A series of monographs has been published, devoted to various aspects of methodology on medicine, to the relationship between form and function, or to a critique of erroneous theories. Scientific cooperation with pathologists of other Socialist countries has been expanding, as has the participation of Soviet pathologists at international congresses, symposia, and other meetings. An important achievement has been the establishment of a network of pathology departments of hospitals and of pathologic service bureaus. There is little doubt that these bureaus which have so far been set up on a pilot basis, will become an important component of the Pathology Service on which this will rely for research progress and for keeping abreast of technological developments. They are also called upon to promote better services in rural areas. The construction of new buildings for hospital pathology departments has been expanded, but the rate and magnitude of this activity cannot yet be regarded as satisfactory. Over the past decade, pathology laboratories at hospitals have become important diagnostic centers indispensable for accurate diagnosis of many diseases through examination of biopsy specimens, and they are now better equipped than before, although the improvements have been less spectacular than expected. The quality of postmortem and clinicopathologic analysis has improved. A notable event was the session of the Collegium of the USSR Ministry of Health devoted to the Pathology Service development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2964229

Smol'iannikov, A V; Shtern, R D; Khmel'nitski?, O K; Paukov, V S; Perov, Iu L

1987-01-01

389

75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a...RIN 3133-AD40 Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union...

2010-12-28

390

The Rise of the Conglomerate Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses two cases, Germany and The Netherlands, whose systems of trade unionism have historically shared a number of characteristics, in particular a commitment to industrial unionism. In both countries a profound transformation of union organization is under way, affecting in particular the demarcation of union domains; the relationships between unions with respect to their division of representational territory

Wolfgang Streeck; Jelle Visser

1997-01-01

391

Towards further harmonisation? Migration policy in the European Union.  

PubMed

This paper considers the prospects for an extensive harmonization of migration policy in the European Union (EU), and the likelihood of a cohesive Union migration policy developing in the years ahead. It begins by reviewing the development of policy coordination and integration to date, and then considers divergent trends in specific issue areas and current patterns of multilateral cooperation, both within western Europe and throughout Europe as a whole. Migration policy in Europe is currently a complex mosaic of cooperative agreements between Union member states and third countries, as well as within the Union itself. Different spheres of cooperation seem to be emerging, with the greatest integration being achieved with respect to policies directly connected to the completion of the internal market and the eventual functioning of the European Economic Area (EEA), first within the Schengen grouping, second within the European Union, and third within the newly-established EEA. The integration of broader areas of immigration policy in the EU context will probably transpire more slowly and less comprehensively as member states move toward a general alignment of shared interests rather than any extensive harmonization. Cooperation with third countries is likely to remain flexible. Thus, even with the existing EU membership, it is unlikely that a fully cohesive Union migration policy will emerge, at least in the short to medium term. PMID:12288192

Collinson, S

1994-06-01

392

The Carmen-Suite: Maya Plisetskaya Challenging Soviet Culture and Policy  

E-print Network

the premiere, the ballet was banned by the Soviet Ministry of Culture and labeled overly erotic and culturally subversive. Ironically, today, Carmen-Suite is recognized as one of the most important Soviet contributions to the art of ballet. A ballet once... to dance the same roles within the established repertoire of Soviet ballet. Her choreographic empathy with an idea of Carmen, as an expressive freedom, creates a powerful and yet hardly attainable allegory for an artist within a society where culture...

Kalashnikova, Anna

2014-04-24

393

Soviet Mathematics and Dialectics in the Post-Stalin Era: New Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-Stalin period in Soviet history (1953–1991) was a time of weakening of official ideological interference with the professional activity of the Soviet scientific community. Many branches of mathematics—particularly cybernetics, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics—played an important role in the struggle against Stalinist ideological and philosophical dogmatism. The Soviet “constructivist” orientation in the foundations of mathematics expressed a

Alexander Vucinich

2002-01-01

394

Playing Cat-and-Mouse: Conflict and Third-Party Mediation in Post-Soviet Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the increase in the number of violent conflict at the global scale might be explained by the end of the bipolar power politics, the emergence of numerous ethnic\\/civil wars in the post-Soviet space is almost univocally explained by the dysfunctions or the collapse of the Soviet system. Despite the deceptive simplicity of post-Soviet conflicts in terms of similarity of

Kristine Barseghyan; Zainiddin Karaev

2004-01-01

395

Toward a More Perfect Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

Schachter, Ron

2010-01-01

396

Teacher Unionization in School Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

Jacoby, Dan

2011-01-01

397

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union  

E-print Network

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution. This brochure was printed at no cost to the taxpayers

Oklahoma, University of

398

Thermonuclear milestones: (2) Beginnings of the Soviet H-bomb program  

SciTech Connect

Early Soviet theoretical work on thermonuclear ignition was adied by espionage, but many important ideas were conceived and developed independently {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Goncharov, G.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center---All Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

1996-11-01

399

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

400

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

401

32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National...Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army installations is governed by AR...

2010-07-01

402

The American Ornithologists' Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) was established in 1883, making it "the oldest and largest organization in the New World devoted to the scientific study of birds." Although primarily "a professional organization, its membership of about 4,000 includes many amateurs dedicated to the advancement of ornithological science." The AOU website contains information about membership, upcoming meetings, awards, a variety of publications, and more. The site also offers access to a comprehensive checklist for birds of North America; a preliminary classification of the bird species of South America; and online copies of the Ornithological Societies of North America's _Ornithological Newsletter_. Notably, the AOU site links to an online job board featuring a range of ornithological opportunities including tenure-track faculty positions, research assistantships, and internships.

403

Komsomol participation in the Soviet First Five-Year Plan  

E-print Network

: History THE KOMSOMOL PARTICIPATION IN THE SOVIET FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN A Thesis by Ann Todd Approved as to style and content by: Chester . L. unning (GI ' EG i ) Arnold P. ammer (Member) ('- ~7 John D. Rober son s (Member) Bet M. Unterberger... made toward the successful completion of Stalin's First Five-Year Pla. n during the years 1928-1933. Although unprecedented disaster in the form of forced collectivization tainted most of the Plan, tremendous gains were achieved in the battle...

Todd, Ann

2012-06-07

404

High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

Lewin, Walter H. G. (editor); Clark, George W. (editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (editor); Abramson, David M. (editor)

1991-01-01

405

Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the post-Soviet context is not particularly well known to the majority of readers, the author uses this introduction to provide a general background against which developments in particular post-Soviet countries can be better understood. The author begins by placing these developments in the sociohistoric context of language policies of the…

Pavlenko, Aneta

2008-01-01

406

Soviet objectives in the INF negotiations and European security. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

On 12 December 1979, NATO officials announced the decision to deploy 108 Pershing II nuclear missiles and 464 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles. The NATO decision was met by a determined Soviet effort to prevent the deployment of the new missiles. The Soviet effort consisted of negotiations, diplomatic propaganda, and covert measures. When it was clear that the deployment was not going to be stopped, the Soviets agreed to formal INF arms-reduction talks. It is this author's opinion that the Soviet negotiation tactics, during the INF talks, supported the long-range goal of reducing the military effectiveness of NATO, and also supported the goal of reducing U.S. influence in Europe.

Baumgardner, H.J.

1987-12-01

407

What Should Teachers' Unions Do in a Time of Educational Crisis? An Essay Review of Lois Weiner's "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice" (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2012, 220 pp.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What roles can and should teachers' unions play in the deliberations, debates, and conflicts over school reform in a time when education sits at the center of so much of our economic, political, ideological, and cultural tensions? Lois Weiner's new book, "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice," speaks…

Apple, Michael W.

2013-01-01

408

Presidential State of Union Addresses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For Internauts interested in historical perspective, a selected archive of State of the Union messages of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, along with a complete archive of messages from 1913 is available at the Northwestern University Political Science site.

President., United S.

409

The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union  

E-print Network

The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union Student Leadership and Involvement Student Media Something New @ OSU #12;Access Diversity "Leadership/Citizenship" Community Connection Health & Wellness Housing & Dining Administrative Leadership #12;Student Leadership & Involvement SLI-Activities Program Club

Escher, Christine

410

The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

2008-01-01

411

Emergence and Development of the Government Debt Crisis in the European Monetary Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons, development and the effects of the crisis on the government debts in the European Monetary Union are analyzed in this article. The conclusion is justified, that a single currency for diverse economies does not result in economic convergence, but on the contrary – economic divergence. The macroeconomic criteria for a nominal convergence, that must be met by each

Yordanka Stateva

2011-01-01

412

How Unions Can Use the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest Internet guide from the Catherwood Library at Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations examines the ways in which unions and union members can utilize the Internet. The guide gives an introduction to unions on the Web, explains the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web, and offers online resources that would be of use to unions. A large section explaining the benefits of having a union Website, which includes examples of well-designed union Websites and guidelines for creating union sites, is included as is an article on the pitfalls of using company email to organize.

Joseph, Deborah.

413

‘Giving the Russians a Bloody Nose’:1 Operation Foot and Soviet Espionage in the United Kingdom, 1964–71  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 24 September 1971 the British government expelled 105 Soviet diplomats and trade delegation officials resident in the UK. This was a response to the expansion of Soviet espionage in Britain during the 1960s, and to Moscow's refusal to respond to London's protests on this issue. This article examines the impact of the espionage problem on Anglo-Soviet relations during this

Geraint Hughes

2006-01-01

414

Operational systems integration methodology for effective and sustainable MPC&A systems in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Ensuring all aspects of the continued operation of installed Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) systems is a critical measure of the successful establishment of improved safeguards and security for nuclear materials at Russian sites. The installed systems must eventually be operable solely by the Russian sites, or the desired control over the nuclear materials will not be permanently realized. Effective introduction and implementation of new technologies and procedures for the enhanced protection of nuclear material at Russian sites requires a focus on the operational work processes supported at those sites. A number of US/Russian joint teams are following an upgrades methodology that seeks first to understand these processes and then integrate effective technologies that will result in a sustainable system. Process identification leads to effective procedures that in turn drive resource usage analysis and training programs. Performance tests of the system result in data that are used for appropriate system modification. Following this methodology allows for effective MPC&A systems that continuously improve and allow for a US role in the Russian site to evolve from implementation of upgrades to problem solution and assurance of the protection and accounting operations. In educating the sites to assess and understand their MPC&A procedures, the associated operational costs, and the methods to improve operations, the US is preparing eventually to phase out of this support role as the site's ability to assume that burden materializes. This paper will define and describe the sustainability concept, outline the methodology for ensuring MPC&A sustainability at upgraded sites, describe some success stories from implementation at pilot Russian sites, and offer suggestions for embedding sustainability and operational infrastructure in MPC&A systems as they are upgraded.

Smith, H. A. (Hastings A.); Toth, W. J.; Key, L. S. (Larry S.); Nations, J. O. (Jim O.); Mikkelsen, K. R. (Ken R.); De Castro, K. L.; Fink, M. T. (Michael T.)

2001-01-01

415

Emigration, Generation, and Collective Memories: The Presence of the Past for Emigrants from the Former Soviet Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on memory of public events consistently reveals generational effects, where individuals remember best the events from their "critical years" of adolescence and early adulthood--a phenomenon attributed to privileged encoding or retrieval of memories due to primacy of experience. Prior research, however, has not decoupled the youthful…

Corning, Amy D.

2010-01-01

416

Hope, Hostility, and Interest: What Motivated Teachers to Teach about the Soviet Union after World War II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, the cold war was a watershed that separated two epochs: the time of abnormal, although compelled, partnership of two political systems and the period of peaceful coexistence with barely hidden hostility. The peacefulness of the latter, however elusive and vulnerable it was from time to time, has to be credited to the cold war, a…

Rapoport, Anatoli

2004-01-01

417

European Science Notes Information Bulletin: Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science. Acoustics Research in Europe and the Soviet Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This issue of European Science Notes Information Bulletin presents the view of European acoustics research developed by Dr. David Feit while serving as Liaison Scientist at the Office of Naval Research European Office (ONREUR) for the past 2 years. Dr. Feit is an internationally recognized expert in the field of structural acoustics and mechanics, and the coauthor with Miguel Junger of Sound, Structures and their Interaction. While at ONREUR, Dr. Feit has followed developments in structural acoustics, underwater acoustics, and physical acoustics. Activity in these specialties in Europe ranges from architectural applications, to active noise cancellation in automobiles and aircraft, to the areas of traditional naval interest in underwater sound propagation and signal processing. Working with other members of the ONREUR professional staff, Dr. Feit here presents a current perspective on the field. As in all ONREUR reporting, there is no claim to global coverage of the field--rather it is the appraisal drawn from selected professional visits during the past 2 years.

Feit, David; Orendorf, Connie R.

1990-12-01

418

European Union Scandal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

Osmond, Andrew.

419

Do Parent Co-Op Preschools Float on Kondratieff's Economic Waves?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain economic theories can help explain the rise to prominence of parent participation preschools in the 1950s and help to make predictions about their future. Specifically, the long-wave cycle of economic behavior and its explanation of social systems and innovations can be useful. One popular approach is that of the Soviet economist Nikolai…

Hewes, Dorothy W.

420

Regionalist Promises in State Social Identity Construction: The Rhetoric of a Single Economic Space Prepared for 6th Pan-European International Relations Conference, Torino, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivism and social identity theory provide a useful point of departure for the analysis of regionalist aspirations of the postcommunist countries of the former Soviet Union. In many cases, these aspirations remain in the realm of rhetorics. The coveted or presumed regional affiliation drives foreign policies and external branding of the state. It also importantly affects the state's identity. Identity

Mikhail A. Molchanov

421

[The 1989 all-Union population census].  

PubMed

Selected results of the 1989 Soviet census are presented concerning the Georgian, Azerbaijan, Lithuanian, Moldavian, and Latvian republics. Data are included on the population of each republic by ethnic group (nationality), first language, and other languages spoken. PMID:12178728

1991-01-01

422

[The 1989 all-Union population census].  

PubMed

Selected results from the 1989 Soviet census are presented. They concern the population of the USSR by nationality or ethnic group and language. These data are also provided separately for the Russian and Ukrainian republics. PMID:12178764

1990-01-01

423

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01

424

Identifying and estimating the distributional effects of unionization and the long-term consequences of military service  

E-print Network

This thesis is concerned with the economic consequences for individuals of two important U.S. labor market institutions: unionization and the military draft. The first chapter develops an econometric procedure for estimating ...

Frandsen, Brigham R

2010-01-01

425

Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

1995-01-01

426

Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

Spearman, M. L.

1979-01-01

427

PERFORMANCE OF EUROPEAN UNION TRADING BLOC: DID INTEGRATION HELP NATIONS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the effectiveness of the integration of Europe by evaluating economic and socioeconomic progress made by participating nations since the Maastricht Treaty. The Maastricht Treaty has been identified as the determining point because of its significance in transitioning Europe from a community into a union. The study compares the two periods: pre-Treaty 1984-1992 and post-Treaty 1993-2003. We find

D. K. Malhotra; Elizabeth Mariotz

428

75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit...

2010-04-05

429

Faculty of Business and Law SCHOOL OF ACCOUNTING, ECONOMICS AND FINANCE  

E-print Network

- Economic Series 2007 SWP 2007/01 UNIONS AND PROFITABILITY: A META-ANALYSIS HRISTOS DOUCOULIAGOS AND PATRICE manuscript, published in "Industrial Relations 48, 1 (2009) 146-184" #12; UNIONS AND PROFITABILITY: A META-ANALYSIS AND PROFITABILITY: A META-ANALYSIS Abstract The effect of unions on profits continues to be an unresolved empirical

Boyer, Edmond

430

The Gay Peoples Union Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the 1970s, The Gay Peoples Union was the most important gay and lesbian rights organization in Milwaukee. The Union started as a student group at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and they eventually took a key role in working for social change in the contentious arena of educating the general public about homosexuality. This extremely valuable digital collection was created by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections initiative, utilizing materials from the Division of Archives and Special Collections of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Visitors to the site can make their way through copies of the Gay Peoples Union newsletter and also listen to the radio program, Gay Perspective. Users are welcome to also browse the textual and audio materials at their leisure.

431

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for non-unions and delayed fracture healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the primary management of fractures is highly developed in Central Europe 1% of fractures develop a non-union. After successful pilot studies the Traumacenter Meidling started in December 1998 to treat non-unions regularly with shock wave therapy. From December 1998 to August 2004, 1153 patients with non-union and delayed healing fractures were treated. The results of 755 patients are available up to September 2004. The patients consisted of 250 (33%) female and 505 (67%) male. The mean age was 44.1 years (10; 90). The mean age of the non-union was 15.5 months. In 74 (10%) osteomyelitis was present before shockwave therapy. Out of 755 non-unions 593 (79%) achieved bony healing. As expected, the subgroup of 284 delayed unions (shockwave therapy 3-6 months after the trauma or the last surgery concerning the bone) showed the best results. 245 (86%) healed. Out of 471 non-unions being older than 6 months 348 (72%) achieved bony healing. Because of the efficacy and the lack of complications as well as the economic advantage in comparison to surgery, shockwave therapy is considered as therapy of first choice in the treatment of non-union and delayed healing fractures.

Schaden, Wolfgang; Fischer, Andreas; Sailler, Andreas; Karadas, Ender

2005-04-01

432

Virginia Tech - Union/Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allows users to select set sizes of from 8 to 20 nodes, and then perform union operations on them. The result on the disjoint set is shown. Steps are explained as the user makes the connections. Shows both the union/find physical array and the logical (tree) view. The message panel clearly explains each step. Shows results either with or without path compression. Changes in the trees shown with animation and color. Should be a good way to show students a data structure and algorithm that they often have trouble with. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

Shaffer, Cliff; Kania, Chris

433

Unions Matter How the Ability of Labour Unions to  

E-print Network

, there are more extensive social programs such as health care and pensions plans, and the incidence of poverty, income inequal- ity and regressive labour laws. The underlying causes of declining unionization rates shown that when there is political will, problems of inequality can be tack- led. During the period

Wolfe, Patrick J.

434

Sustainable development and comprehensive capital : The post-Soviet decline of Central Asia  

E-print Network

The general post-Soviet decline of the states of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) mirrors specific declines in the robustness of these states' stocks of financial, physical, ...

Sievers, Eric

2001-01-01

435

Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.  

PubMed

This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment. PMID:24947269

Bauer, Susanne

2014-09-01

436

Security Rights Violations in Context of Counterterrorism: Analysis of the Post-Soviet Nations  

E-print Network

document contains the author’s accepted manuscript. For the publisher’s version, see the link in the header of this document.] Security Rights Violations in Context of Counterterrorism: Analysis of the Post-Soviet Nations Mariya Y. Omelicheva... Paper citation: Omelicheva, Mariya Y. Security Rights Violations in the Context of Counterterrorism: Analysis of the Post-Soviet Nations. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(2): 166-188, 2010. Keywords: security rights violations...

Omelicheva, Mariya Y.

2010-01-01

437

The Paternity of the H-Bombs: Soviet-American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are major problems in the history of the American and Soviet hydrogen bombs. They are associated with the Teller-Ulam\\u000a and Teller-Oppenheimer controversies, and the question of whether the design of the Soviet H-bomb was an independent conception.\\u000a Because of the scarcity of documentary evidence, these problems have little chance of being settled if the histories of the\\u000a two are

Gennady Gorelik

2009-01-01

438

Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

1978-01-01

439

"Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

Cavanagh, Sean

2012-01-01

440

International Union for Quaternary Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) discusses quaternary scientists' investigations "to interpret the changing world of the glacial ages and their impact on our planet's surface environments.". Researchers can find out about INQUA-funded projects, meetings, scientific commissions, and INQUA's two publicaions, Quaternary International, and Quaternary Perspectives.

1969-12-31

441

Positive fast sealing union connections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Union connections are designed for connecting high pressure flexible hoses from gas storage manifolds to gas transport trailers. Connection uses O ring seals which can be quickly assembled and disassembled without use of wrenches, and which do not twist hose. Worn or damaged O rings are easily replaced.

Kleber, C. M.

1972-01-01

442

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT Canadian Union of  

E-print Network

UNIT 3 COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between and Canadian Union of Public Employees Local 3903 2008 are receiving financial assistance from or through the University and in connection with such assistance University who receive financial assistance from or through York University for research or academic

443

International Union Against Cancer (UICC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Union Against Cancer is devoted exclusively to all aspects of the worldwide fight against cancer. Its objectives are to advance scientific and medical knowledge in research, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer and to promote all other aspects of the campaign against cancer throughout the world. Particular emphasis is placed on professional and public education.

1997-01-01

444

Do Unions Affect Faculty Salaries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculates the union relative wage effect for a large sample of college faculty in the United States. The data used are from "The 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate" and cover 4,250 faculty members at 158 institutions of higher education. Faculty characteristics are found to be more important in influencing salaries in nonunion schools than…

Ashraf, Javed

1992-01-01

445

The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars  

SciTech Connect

Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)

2014-05-09

446

Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy  

SciTech Connect

In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

Romero, P.J.

1984-12-01

447

Marital status behaviour of women in the former Soviet Republics.  

PubMed

This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behavior of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a comparative analysis will no longer be possible due to the unavailability of statistical data, especially in some of the Asian states. The analysis shows that despite 70 years of influence by Soviet ideology and lifestyle, the institution of marriage was little subject to rapid change, and retained its traditions for each culture and its ethnic features. Marriage was a universal institution in the former USSR. The majority of the women in all of the former republics entered marriage at least once. The mean age at first marriage varies from 20.5 in Moldavia to 22.8 in Azerbaijan. The proportion of marriages that end in divorce differs from 16% in Georgia to 41% in Latvia. On average more than 30% of divorced women remarry in Latvia and Ukraine and less than 5% in Georgia. PMID:12158972

Darsky, L; Scherbov, S

1995-01-01

448

US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

Hines, John W. (editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (editor)

1994-01-01

449

The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

Westwick, Peter J.

2014-05-01

450

Euro Economic Sources and Economic Policies in the EMU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Focusing on online resources that examine the European Monetary Union and the Euro, this Website offers a comprehensive collection of research papers, readings, chronologies, news, and conferences. Created by Giancarlo Corsetti, professor of economics at Yale University, this site starts with a group of readings that cover basic information about the Euro and the European Union. A vast collection of research papers are organized alphabetically by author and also by topic ranging from "Electoral and political cycles" to "The implications of Kosovo for the euro." The site also links to official and government sites, and news and commentary sources.

451

12 CFR 704.19 - Wholesale corporate credit unions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Wholesale corporate credit unions. 704.19 Section 704.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.19 Wholesale...

2010-01-01

452

European Union enlargement A historic opportunity  

E-print Network

European Union enlargement A historic opportunity #12;"Enlargement is both a historical opportunity and an obligation for the European Union and therefore one of its highest priorities. My aim is to strike the right European Council 46 Table of contents European Union enlargement A historic opportunity TABLE OF CONTENTS

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

453

Science policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

Science policies in the European Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality might be made of the following information. A great deal of additional information on the European Union Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality A report prepared for the European

454

A Different Role for Teachers Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

Tucker, Marc

2012-01-01

455

Canadian Teacher Unions: A Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of teacher unionism in Canada, comparing it to the development of teacher unionism in the United States. Union membership was mandated, although teachers had (and still have) little power except that related to professional misconduct. Recently, structural changes have included the introduction of a provincially-legislated…

Smaller, Harry

1998-01-01

456

Overtime Pay, Overtime Hours, and Labor Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the effect of labor unions on overtime compensation and overtime hours. Estimates from May 1985 Current Population Survey data indicate that unionization increases the prevalence of premium pay for overtime and reduces the incidence and extent of overtime hours. Along with the finding of previous research that unionized workers are more susceptible to temporary layoffs, these results

Stephen J. Trejo

1993-01-01

457

Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED ______________________________________________________  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pick-up All orders are to be picked up at the Texas Union Hospitality Center desk in the south end West with the Texas Union Policies and Procedures. I understand that I will be held responsible for any debts incurred

Jefferys, William

458

ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

2000-01-01

459

Unions and wage inequality in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers empirical evidence on the impact of trade unions on wage inequality in Mexico. The results indicate that unions were a strongly equalizing force affecting the dispersion of wages in 1984, but were only half as effective at reducing wage inequality in 1996. Not only did the unionized percentage of the labor force fall considerably over the period,

David Fairris

2003-01-01

460

Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

Price, Mitch

2011-01-01

461

The First Attempts to Unionize the Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Faculty unionization is an important topic in modern higher education, but the history of the phenomenon has not yet been fully considered. This article brings together issues of professionalization and unionization and provides needed historical background to ongoing unionization efforts and debates. Purpose/Objective/Research…

Cain, Timothy Reese

2010-01-01

462

Labor Unions and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University librarians Suzanne Cohen and Deborah Joseph prepared this extensive guide to labor union information on the Internet as part of a Catherwood Library Labor/ Management Outreach Program. An eloquent introduction explains the importance of the Internet as a networking and research tool for labor organizations, and over 20 annotated webliographies guide users to online directories, statistics, company information, newsletters, and collective bargaining legal links, among other resources.

463

Regional economic dynamics and convergence in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper uses an alternative approach to convergence analysis, which, in our opinion, is richer than those traditionally\\u000a proposed. We believe that the evolution of the whole regional distribution is what matters, not that of an average or representative economy, implicit in the or convergence concepts. Moreover, when analyzing inequality among regional economies, geographic space acquires a preeminent\\u000a role.

Enrique López-Bazo; Esther Vayá; Antonio J. Mora; Jordi Suriñach

1999-01-01

464

Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

2007-01-01

465

Procedure for developing Union position  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Position statements will be restricted to those issues that fall within the guidelines approved by the Council. 2. Requests for position statements are referred immediately to the Public Affairs Committee. 3. If a request seems to fall within Union guidelines, the committee will recommend that the President of the Union appoint an independent panel charged with drafting a statement. The panel will include at least one member nominated by the Public Affairs Committee, the originator of the request, and one member of Council. 4. The Council and the membership will be informed that the panel is working on the issue and that comments are welcome. 5. The panel will prepare a statement for circulation to the Council of the Union. 6. Members of Council (or Executive Committee when timeliness is critical) will be asked to vote or to comment on the proposed statement. This vote is to be taken at regularly scheduled meetings except where timeliness is critical. Concurrence of two thirds is required for adoption. 7. All adopted position statements will be published in Eos as soon as possible. 8. Once a statement has been approved, the Public Affairs Committee will endeavor to apply its expertise to making advocacy of its contents as effective as possible.

466

Modelling economic and biophysical drivers of agricultural land-use change. Calibration and evaluation of the Nexus Land-Use model over 1961-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central role of land-use change in the Earth System and its implications for food security, biodiversity and climate has spurred the development of global models that combine economical and agro-ecological drivers and constraints. With such a development of integrated approaches, evaluating the performance of global models of land-use against observed historical changes recorded by agricultural data becomes increasingly challenging. The Nexus Land-Use model is an example of land-use model integrating both biophysical and economical processes and constraints. This paper is an attempt to evaluate its ability to simulate historical agricultural land-use changes over 12 large but economically coherent regions of the world since 1961. The evaluation focuses on the intensification vs. extensification response of crop and livestock production in response to changes of socio-economic drivers over time, such as fertiliser price, population and diet. We examine how well the Nexus model can reproduce annual observation-based estimates of cropland vs. pasture areas from 1961 to 2006. Food trade, consumption of fertilisers and food price are also evaluated against historical data. Over the 12 regions considered, the total relative error on simulated cropland area is 2% yr-1 over 1980-2006. During the period 1961-2006, the error is larger (4% yr-1) due to an overestimation of the cropland area in China and Former Soviet Union over 1961-1980. Food prices tend to be underestimated while the performances of the trade module vary widely among regions (net imports are underestimated in Western countries at the expense of Brazil and Asia). Finally, a sensitivity analysis over a sample of input datasets provides some insights on the robustness of this evaluation.

Souty, F.; Dorin, B.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Ciais, P.

2013-12-01

467

Moving around Europe--an overview of European Union nursing legislation.  

PubMed

Making sense of the European Union (EU) and its institutions rests largely on the understanding that essentially all its endeavours are an attempt to guarantee the four freedoms of movement--of goods, services, labour and capital--that are the pre-requisites for the creation of an economic area without internal frontiers and the establishment of economic and social union. With the ratification of the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) the EU also aims to assert its identity on the international scene; strengthen the protection of the rights and interests of the nationals of its Member States; develop close cooperation on justice and home affairs; and maintain in full the acquis communautaire (the evolving legacy of EU developed principles and laws). It is the four freedoms of movement, however, that remain the dynamo that drives EU thinking. To disregard this fundamental concept is to ensure that the EU will for ever remain a mystery. PMID:7804863

Pritchard, A P; Wallace, M J

1994-10-01

468

Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.  

PubMed

Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology. PMID:11568130

West, J B

2001-10-01

469

Soviet reactions to follow-on-to-Lance (FOTL). Study project  

SciTech Connect

One of the most controversial areas of US military planning for the 1990s is Battlefield Nuclear Weapons (BNW) modernization. The current dilemma has been created in part by Soviet 'public relations' activities in the area of troop reduction and arms control at a time when NATO must decide whether to modernize nuclear weapon systems currently deployed in Western Europe. This paper focuses on the FOTL, which will modernize the soon-to-be-obsolete Lance system. It identifies why NATO needs the new system, why the Soviets want to prevent its deployment, and how the political environment in Western Europe and the US will impact the decision for or against development. The paper also discusses the Soviet frame of reference for reacting to US/NATO initiatives ideology, insecurity, and the correlation of forces. It describes past Soviet reactions to nuclear weapons modernizations (Pershing IIs, Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, and Enhanced Radiation Weapons), and then postulates how the Soviets may respond politically and militarily to a FOTL deployment.

Wightman, R.O.

1989-03-26

470

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

471

Energy in transition: From the iron curtain to the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fall of communism left some of the most polluting and wasteful energy sectors of the World in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). After 15 years of restructuring, eight of these countries have joined the European Union (EU), closing an era of economic transitions. What progress has been made in these countries in the field of energy from the perspective

Diana Urge-Vorsatza

472

Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

Young, Mitchell

2012-01-01

473

European Union, Mediterranean region and energy issue Yal Kouzmine -PhD in geography  

E-print Network

European Union, Mediterranean region and energy issue Yaël Kouzmine - PhD in geography yael and Mediterranean countries is partly focused on the energy issue. On the one hand, European energy dependency is raising, on the other hand, most of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries are economically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

Mapping the Future, Mapping Education: An Analysis of the 2011 State of the Union Address  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a discourse analysis of President Barack Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address. Fredric Jameson's concepts of cognitive mapping, cultural revolution, and the unconscious are employed to examine the president's vision of educational and economic transformation. Ultimately, it is argued this vision evokes a world in which…

Collin, Ross

2012-01-01

475

Trade Unions, Political Parties and Governments in Bulgaria, 1989–92  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the unstable conditions of political change in Bulgaria there has been space for the trade?union confederations ? both that stemming from the communist period and those created since 1989 ? to operate in the political arena as driving forces for economic and political change. The most important institutional mechanism for this has been tripartite negotiations involving government, the employer

John Thirkell; Boyko Atanasov; Grigor Gradev

1993-01-01

476

Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

2002-11-01

477

UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol  

SciTech Connect

The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of carbon if a global system of emissions mitigation could be quickly and effectively implemented. But it could also exceed $250 per tonne of carbon if the US must meet its emissions limitations entirely through domestic actions, and if mitigation obligations are not adequately anticipated by decision-makers.

JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

2000-07-06

478

Union  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

14 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows partially-filled collapse pits on the eastern flank of Alba Patera, a large volcano in northern Tharsis. The three pits near the bottom (south) of the image have collapsed to the point of coalescence, while the northern-most pit remains largely a separate entity.

Location near: 38.5oN, 103.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

479

Soviet experiments aimed at investigating the influence of space flight factors on the physiology of animals and man.  

PubMed

Results are given of biological experiments on space ship-satellites II, III, IV and V, and of scientific investigations made during the flights of Cosmonauts Gagarin and Titov aboard space ships Vostok I and Vostok II. Physiological reactions to the action of the flight stress-factors are not of a pathological character. In the post-flight period no alterations in health conditions of either cosmonauts or animals were observed. At the same time some peculiarities which were revealed while analyzing physiological reactions and a number of biological indices require further investigations. The most important tasks remaining are to study the influence of protracted weightlessness, of the biological action of space radiation, of the action of acceleration stresses after prolonged stay under zero-gravity conditions and also to analyze the influence on the organism of the whole combination of spaceflight factors, including emotional strain. In the Soviet Union, a great number of biological experiments have been conducted with a view to elucidating the action of space flight factors on living organisms and the design of systems necessary to ensure healthy activity during flight aboard rocket space vehicles. The first flight experiments with animals were conducted by means of geophysical rockets. The next step in this direction was made by the launching of Sputnik II in 1957 and by experiments on space ship-satellites in 1960-61. The main purpose of flight and laboratory investigations was to obtain the objective scientific criteria essential for ensuring the safety of manned space flight. PMID:12056420

Parin, V V; Gazenko, O G

1963-01-01

480

Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*  

PubMed Central

This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

2013-01-01

481

Soviet-American relations in light of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

E-print Network

SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN LIGHT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT A Thesis by ERICK KEITH BECK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS... August 1993 Major Subject: History SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN LIGHT OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT A Thesis by ERICK KEITH BECK Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS...

Beck, Erick Keith

2012-06-07

482

Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

1981-01-01

483

Economic exploitation of non-renewable resources in a centrally planned economy: an investigation of the use of natural resources in the USSR  

SciTech Connect

The time pattern of extraction and consumption chosen in the centrally-planned Soviet economy is the result of decisions made at many levels of the economic hierarchy in response to a variety of signals. In this dissertation, the conditions for the optimal exploitation of nonrenewable resources first derived in Harol Hotelling's classic article are used as a standard against which to judge Soviet practices. The familiar Western theory is adapted to describe the decision-making process in the Soviet extractive branches in order to investigate the hypothesis that a number of features of the Soviet economy are likely to lead to a sub-optimal time pattern of extraction from the country's mineral endowment. The consequences of Soviet policies for the depth of extraction and the volume and allocation of exploration activity are also examined. Although the analysis yields no definite conclusions about the net effect of Soviet resource policies and practices on the time pattern of extraction, there are nonetheless strong reasons for believing that the Soviets have not carried out sufficient conservation. In addition, they appear not to have used their mineral deposits sufficiently intensively, nor to have carried out the right kinds of exploration.

McKinney, J.A.R.

1983-01-01

484

Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks and the Documentation of Soviet Intelligence Activities in the United States during the Stalin Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alexander Vassiliev's notebooks with 1,115 pages of handwritten transcriptions, excerpts, and summaries from Soviet Committee on State Security (KGB) archival files provide the most detailed documentation available of Soviet espionage in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s. This article discusses the provenance of the notebooks and how they fit with previously available Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files,

John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr

2009-01-01

485

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)  

SciTech Connect

This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

Not Available

1989-09-01

486

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

487

TREATY OF NICE AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION,  

E-print Network

TREATY OF NICE AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION, THE TREATIES ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN of the European Union to function in an enlarged Union, DETERMINED on this basis to press ahead with the accession in the Treaty on European Union, HAVE RESOLVED to amend the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

488

European Geosciences Union Open Access Publications of the  

E-print Network

European Geosciences Union Open Access Publications of the European Geosciences Union (EGU.rousseau@lmd.ens.fr) January 2014/Montpellier Geosciences 2001-2011 #12;European Geosciences Union The European Geosciences Union · Merger of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) and the European Union of Geosciences (EUG

Demouchy, Sylvie

489

Open Access Publishing at the European Geosciences Union  

E-print Network

Open Access Publishing at the European Geosciences Union Open Access Publishing at the European Discussion II. The European Geosciences UnionII. The European Geosciences Union V. Dissemination and ArchivesV. Dissemination and Archives The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is Europe's premier geo- sciences union

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

490

Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

Popiel, Kara

2013-01-01

491

Osterretch 2006 * Prasidentschaft der Europaischen Union Austria 2006 * Presidency of the European Union  

E-print Network

Osterretch 2006 * Prasidentschaft der Europaischen Union Austria 2006 * Presidency of the European by Ambassador Dorothee Auer?Austria? on behalf of the European Union {Check a.gainstdeliverp) 35-37 AV. I have the honour to take the floor on behalf of the European Union. The Acceding Countries Bulgaria

Sussex, University of

492

SONOMA STUDENT UNION CORPORATION Sonoma State University  

E-print Network

SONOMA STUDENT UNION CORPORATION Sonoma State University BYLAWS For the entirety of this document, the following acronyms and/or abbreviated references shall apply: SSU shall be understood as Sonoma State be understood as the Sonoma Student Union Corporation. Board shall be understood as Board of Directors ofthe

Ravikumar, B.

493

Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

494

International Union of Pure and Applied Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) was established in 1922. The aims of the Union are to stimulate and promote international cooperation in physics; to promote international agreements on other use of symbols, units, nomenclature and standards; to foster free circulation of scientists; and to encourage research and education.

2009-05-22

495

Why Union Activists Write Good Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

Worthen, Helena H.

2013-01-01

496

Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic Employees, Recife,…

Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

497

International Union of Pure and Applied Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) was established in 1922. The aims of the Union are to stimulate and promote international cooperation in physics; to promote international agreements on other use of symbols, units, nomenclature and standards; to foster free circulation of scientists; and to encourage research and education.

2003-10-10

498

Increasing Union Safety at Ole Miss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the inclusion of a police substation in the student union of the University of Mississippi and its positive impact on administrators and students. The importance of having visible security and how it was designed into the facility are discussed; and the desired goals, shared by Union staff and the university police, that drove the design…

Hodge, Eldrid; Elmore, David

1999-01-01

499

Soviet population transfers and interethnic relations in Tajikistan: assessing the concept of ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a key event in the recent history of Central Asia: the 1950s Soviet policy of forced transfers of highlanders down to cotton kolkhozes in the Ferghana Valley. From both a historical and sociological perspective, the article analyses how the displaced population was received in the areas of destination. It sheds light on the concept of ethnicity, in

Olivier Ferrando

2011-01-01

500

Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

2011-01-01