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Sample records for sp brasil iii

  1. Anthranil: An Aminating Reagent Leading to Bifunctionality for Both C(sp(3) )-H and C(sp(2) )-H under Rhodium(III) Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songjie; Tang, Guodong; Li, Yingzi; Zhou, Xukai; Lan, Yu; Li, Xingwei

    2016-07-18

    Previous direct C-H nitrogenation suffered from simple amidation/amination with limited atom-economy and is mostly limited to C(sp(2) )-H substrates. In this work, anthranil was designed as a novel bifunctional aminating reagent for both C(sp(2) )-H and C(sp(3) )-H bonds under rhodium(III) catalysis, thus affording a nucleophilic aniline tethered to an electrophilic carbonyl. A tridendate rhodium(III) complex has been isolated as the resting state of the catalyst, and DFT studies established the intermediacy of a nitrene species. PMID:27121133

  2. Cp*Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Alkyltrifluoroborate with α-Diazomalonates for C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin-Suo; Yu, Wing-Yiu

    2016-03-18

    A Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkyltrifluoroborate with α-diazomalonates was developed; the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond coupled products were formed in up to 97% yields. The reaction tolerates some useful functional groups, including ketone, ester, amide, ether, sulfonyl, and thiophene. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis revealed the formation of a distinct molecular species corresponding to σ-alkylrhodium(III) complexes. The successful diazo coupling reaction may be attributed to coordination of the amide group that promotes stability of the alkylrhodium(III) complex through the formation of a five-membered metallacycle. PMID:26926387

  3. Biosorption of Arsenic(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Modified Fungal Biomass of Paecilomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Rodríguez, Ismael; Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M.; Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Moctezuma-Zárate, María de Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The biosorption of As(III) on iron-coated fungal biomass of Paecilomyces sp. was studied in this work. It was found that the biomass was very efficient removing the metal in solution, using Atomic Absorption, reaching the next percentage of removals: 64.5%. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 6.0, at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation, with 1 mg/L of modified fungal biomass. PMID:24235911

  4. Cp*Co(III) -Catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H Bond Amidation of 8-Methylquinoline.

    PubMed

    Barsu, Nagaraju; Rahman, Md Atiur; Sen, Malay; Sundararaju, Basker

    2016-06-27

    An efficient and external oxidant-free, Cp*Co(III) -catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H bond amidation of 8-methylquinoline, using oxazolone as an efficient amidating agent, is reported for the first time under mild conditions. The reaction is selective and tolerates a variety of functional groups. Based on previous reports and experimental results, the deprotonation pathway proceeds through an external base-assisted concerted metalation and deprotonation process. PMID:27168249

  5. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. PMID:26896316

  6. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed alkylation of primary C(sp(3))-H bonds with α-diazocarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Yang, Yaxi; Wu, Yunxiang; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-08-11

    Rh(iii)-catalyzed intermolecular chelation-assisted insertion of carbenes derived from α-diazocarbonyl compounds into non-acidic primary sp(3) C-H bonds, for the first time, is reported under mild reaction conditions, thus affording a good complement to previous metal-carbenoid-induced primary C(sp(3))-H insertion reactions. We believe that this method will open up a new avenue for primary sp(3) C-H functionalization with α-diazocarbonyl compounds. PMID:27400766

  7. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative Annulation Leading to Substituted Indolizines by Cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bingxue; Li, Bin; Wang, Baiquan

    2016-06-17

    Rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative annulation reactions of pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate salts with alkynes leading to substituted indolizines by cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H bonds are developed. The starting materials are readily available, and the reactions have a broad substrate scope. This reaction overcomes some drawbacks of the previous indolizine synthetic methods and provides a new efficient route to indolizine derivatives. PMID:27267054

  8. Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov., a novel dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Slobodkin, A I; Tourova, T P; Kuznetsov, B B; Kostrikina, N A; Chernyh, N A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A

    1999-10-01

    A thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated strain SR4T, was isolated from sediment of newly formed hydrothermal vents in the area of the eruption of Karymsky volcano on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of strain SR4T were straight-to-curved, peritrichous rods, 0.4-0.6 micron in diameter and 3.5-9.0 microns in length, and exhibited a slight tumbling motility. Strain SR4T formed round, refractile, heat-resistant endospores in terminally swollen sporangia. The temperature range for growth was 39-78 degrees C, with an optimum at 69-71 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 4.8-8.2, with an optimum at 6.3-6.5. Strain SR4T grew anaerobically with peptone as carbon source. Amorphous iron(III) oxide present in the medium stimulated the growth of strain SR4T; cell numbers increased with the concomitant accumulation of Fe(II). In the presence of Fe(III), strain SR4T grew on H2/CO2 and utilized molecular hydrogen. Strain SR4T reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and MnO2. Strain SR4T did not reduce nitrate or sulfate and was not capable of growth with O2. The fermentation products from glucose were ethanol, lactate, H2 and CO2. The G + C content of DNA was 32 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Thermoanaerobacter. On the basis of physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain SR4T (= DSM 12299T) should be assigned to a new species, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus sp. nov. PMID:10555328

  9. Geobacter soli sp. nov., a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shungui; Yang, Guiqin; Lu, Qin; Wu, Min

    2014-11-01

    A novel Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated GSS01(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample using a liquid medium containing acetate and ferrihydrite as electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively. Cells of strain GSS01(T) were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and slightly curved rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 16-40 °C and optimally at 30 °C. The DNA G+C content was 60.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/C(16:1)ω6c. Strain GSS01(T) was able to grow with ferrihydrite, Fe(III) citrate, Mn(IV), sulfur, nitrate or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, but not with fumarate, as sole electron acceptor when acetate was the sole electron donor. The isolate was able to utilize acetate, ethanol, glucose, lactate, butyrate, pyruvate, benzoate, benzaldehyde, m-cresol and phenol but not toluene, p-cresol, propionate, malate or succinate as sole electron donor when ferrihydrite was the sole electron acceptor. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GSS01(T) was most closely related to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98.3% sequence similarity) and exhibited low similarities (94.9-91.8%) to the type strains of other species of the genus Geobacter. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GSS01(T) and G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) was 41.4 ± 1.1%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characterization and physiological tests, strain GSS01(T) is believed to represent a novel species of the genus Geobacter, and the name Geobacter soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS01(T) ( =KCTC 4545(T) =MCCC 1K00269(T)). PMID:25139417

  10. Alkaline iron(III) reduction by a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant, Bacillus sp. isolated from salt flat sediments of Soap Lake.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Jarrod; Weber, Karrie A; Lack, Joe; Achenbach, Laurie A; Mormile, Melanie R; Coates, John D

    2007-12-01

    A halotolerant, alkaliphilic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, strain SFB, was isolated from salt flat sediments collected from Soap Lake, WA. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence analysis identified strain SFB as a novel Bacillus sp. most similar to Bacillus agaradhaerens (96.7% similarity). Strain SFB, a fermentative, facultative anaerobe, fermented various hexoses including glucose and fructose. The fructose fermentation products were lactate, acetate, and formate. Under fructose-fermenting conditions in a medium amended with Fe(III), Fe(II) accumulated concomitant with a stoichiometric decrease in lactate and an increase in acetate and CO(2). Strain SFB was also capable of respiratory Fe(III) reduction with some unidentified component(s) of Luria broth as an electron donor. In addition to Fe(III), strain SFB could also utilize nitrate, fumarate, or O(2) as alternative electron acceptors. Optimum growth was observed at 30 degrees C and pH 9. Although the optimal salinity for growth was 0%, strain SFB could grow in a medium with up to 15% NaCl by mass. These studies describe a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant organism capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction under extreme conditions and demonstrate that Bacillus species can contribute to the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in environments at elevated pH and salinity, such as soda lakes. PMID:17943280

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Micrococcus sp. Strain MS-AsIII-49, an Arsenate-Reducing Isolate from Tropical Metal-Rich Sediment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia S; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Silva, Bruno S O; Thompson, Fabiano; Reis, Mariana P; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2015-01-01

    Micrococcus sp. strain MS-AsIII-49, which was isolated from a tropical metal-polluted stream sediment in Brazil, has the ability to reduce AsV to AsIII. Analysis of its draft genome revealed 186 contigs with a total size of 2,440,924 bp encoding several metal resistance genes. PMID:25883272

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Micrococcus sp. Strain MS-AsIII-49, an Arsenate-Reducing Isolate from Tropical Metal-Rich Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Patrícia S.; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Silva, Bruno S. O.; Thompson, Fabiano; Reis, Mariana P.; Chartone-Souza, Edmar

    2015-01-01

    Micrococcus sp. strain MS-AsIII-49, which was isolated from a tropical metal-polluted stream sediment in Brazil, has the ability to reduce AsV to AsIII. Analysis of its draft genome revealed 186 contigs with a total size of 2,440,924 bp encoding several metal resistance genes. PMID:25883272

  13. Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium, Shewanella sp. Strain PV-4

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, Yul; Gao, Haichun; Vali, Hojatollah; Kennedy, David W.; Yang, Zamin; Gao, Weimin; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stapleton, Raymond D.; Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, T. J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2006-05-01

    A marine psychrotolerant, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Shewanella sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron biomineralization. The strain is able to reduce metals such as Fe(III), Co(III), Cr(VI), Mn(IV), and U(VI) as electron acceptors while using lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen as an electron donor. Growth during iron reduction occurred over the pH range of 7.0 to 8.9, a sodium chloride range of 0.05 to 5%, and a temperature range of 0 to 37°C, with an optimum growth temperature of 18°C. Unlike mesophilic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, which produce mostly superparamagnetic magnetite (<35 nm), this psychrotolerant bacterium produces well-formed single-domain magnetite (>35 nm) at temperatures from 18 to 37°C. The genome size of this strain is about 4.5 Mb. Strain PV-4 is sensitive to a variety of commonly used antibiotics except ampicillin and can acquire exogenous DNA (plasmid pCM157) through conjugation.

  14. Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium, Shewanella sp. Strain PV-4

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, Yul; Gao, Haichun; Vali, Hojatollah; Kennedy, David W.; Yang, Zamin; Gao, Weimin; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stapleton, Raymond D.; Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2006-09-01

    A marine psychrotolerant, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Shewanella sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron biomineralization. The strain is able to reduce metals such as Fe(III), Co(III), Cr(VI), Mn(IV), and U(VI) as electron acceptors while using lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen as an electron donor. Growth during iron reduction occurred over the pH range of 7.0 to 8.9, a sodium chloride range of 0.05 to 5%, and a temperature range of 0 to 37 C, with an optimum growth temperature of 18 C. Unlike mesophilic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, which produce mostly superparamagnetic magnetite (<35 nm), this psychrotolerant bacterium produces well-formed single-domain magnetite (>35 nm) at temperatures from 18 to 37 C. The genome size of this strain is about 4.5 Mb. Strain PV-4 is sensitive to a variety of commonly used antibiotics except ampicillin and can acquire exogenous DNA (plasmid pCM157) through conjugation.

  15. [Anaerobic reduction of humus/Fe (III) and electron transport mechanism of Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen; Yang, Gui-qin; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shun-gui

    2014-09-01

    Humus and Fe(III) respiration are important extracellular respiration metabolism. Electron transport pathway is the key issue of extracellular respiration. To understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of a novel Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Fontibacter sp. SgZ-2, capacities of anaerobic humus/Fe(III) reduction and electron transport mechanisms with four electron acceptors were investigated in this study. The results of anaerobic batch experiments indicated that strain SgZ-2 had the ability to reduce humus analog [ 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS)], humic acids (HA), soluble Fe(III) (Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate) and Fe(III) oxides [hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)]. Fermentative sugars (glucose and sucrose) were the most effective electron donors in the humus/Fe(III) reduction by strain SgZ-2. Additionally, differences of electron carrier participating in the process of electron transport with different electron acceptors (i. e. , oxygen, AQS, Fe-EDTA and HFO) were investigated using respiratory inhibitors. The results suggested that similar respiratory chain components were involved in the reducing process of oxygen and Fe-EDTA, including dehydrogenase, quinones and cytochromes b-c. In comparison, only dehydrogenase was found to participate in the reduction of AQS and HFO. In conclusion, different electron transport pathways may be employed by strain SgZ-2 between insoluble and soluble electron acceptors or among soluble electron acceptors. Preliminary models of electron transport pathway with four electron acceptors were proposed for strain SgZ-2, and the study of electron transport mechanism was explored to the genus Fontibacter. All the results from this study are expected to help understand the electron transport properties and the environmental behavior of the genus Fontibacter. PMID:25518675

  16. Fe(III) Reduction and U(VI) Immobilization by Paenibacillus sp. Strain 300A, Isolated from Hanford 300A Subsurface Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bulbul; Cao, Bin; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Ica, Tuba; Dohnalkova, Alice; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Paksoy, Akin; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-01-01

    A facultative iron-reducing [Fe(III)-reducing] Paenibacillus sp. strain was isolated from Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms that was capable of reducing soluble Fe(III) complexes [Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid and Fe(III)-citrate] but unable to reduce poorly crystalline ferrihydrite (Fh). However, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of reducing Fh in the presence of low concentrations (2 μM) of either of the electron transfer mediators (ETMs) flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Maximum initial Fh reduction rates were observed at catalytic concentrations (<10 μM) of either FMN or AQDS. Higher FMN concentrations inhibited Fh reduction, while increased AQDS concentrations did not. We also found that Paenibacillus sp. 300A could reduce Fh in the presence of natural ETMs from Hanford 300A subsurface sediments. In the absence of ETMs, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of immobilizing U(VI) through both reduction and adsorption. The relative contributions of adsorption and microbial reduction to U(VI) removal from the aqueous phase were ∼7:3 in PIPES [piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)] and ∼1:4 in bicarbonate buffer. Our study demonstrated that Paenibacillus sp. 300A catalyzes Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization and that these reactions benefit from externally added or naturally existing ETMs in 300A subsurface sediments. PMID:22961903

  17. Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization by Paenibacillus sp. strain 300A, isolated from Hanford 300A subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bulbul; Cao, Bin; McLean, Jeffrey S; Ica, Tuba; Dohnalkova, Alice; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Paksoy, Akin; Fredrickson, Jim K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-11-01

    A facultative iron-reducing [Fe(III)-reducing] Paenibacillus sp. strain was isolated from Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms that was capable of reducing soluble Fe(III) complexes [Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid and Fe(III)-citrate] but unable to reduce poorly crystalline ferrihydrite (Fh). However, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of reducing Fh in the presence of low concentrations (2 μM) of either of the electron transfer mediators (ETMs) flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Maximum initial Fh reduction rates were observed at catalytic concentrations (<10 μM) of either FMN or AQDS. Higher FMN concentrations inhibited Fh reduction, while increased AQDS concentrations did not. We also found that Paenibacillus sp. 300A could reduce Fh in the presence of natural ETMs from Hanford 300A subsurface sediments. In the absence of ETMs, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of immobilizing U(VI) through both reduction and adsorption. The relative contributions of adsorption and microbial reduction to U(VI) removal from the aqueous phase were ∼7:3 in PIPES [piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)] and ∼1:4 in bicarbonate buffer. Our study demonstrated that Paenibacillus sp. 300A catalyzes Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization and that these reactions benefit from externally added or naturally existing ETMs in 300A subsurface sediments. PMID:22961903

  18. Fe(III) Reduction and U(VI) Immobilization by Paenibacillus sp. Strain 300A, Isolated from Hanford 300A Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, B.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Ica, Tuba; Dohnalkova, Alice; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Paksoy, Akin; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-11-07

    A facultative iron-reducing (Fe(III)-reducing) Paenibacillus sp. strain was isolated from Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms that was capable of reducing soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe(III)-NTA and Fe(III)-citrate) but unable to reduce poorly crystalline ferrihydrite (Fh). However, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of reducing Fh in the presence of low concentrations (2 µM) of either of electron transfer mediators (ETMs) flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Maximum initial Fh reduction rates were observed at catalytic concentrations (<10 µM) of either FMN or AQDS. Higher FMN concentrations inhibited Fh reduction, while increased AQDS concentrations did not. We found that Paenibacillus sp. 300A also could reduce Fh in the presence of natural ETMs from Hanford 300A subsurface sediments. In the absence of ETMs, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of immobilizing U(VI) through both reduction and adsorption. The relative contributions of adsorption and microbial reduction to U(VI) removal from the aqueous phase were ~7:3 in PIPES and ~1:4 in bicarbonate buffer. Our study demonstrated that Paenibacillus sp. 300A catalyzes Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization and that these reactions benefit from externally added or naturally existing ETMs in 300A subsurface sediments.

  19. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slobodkin, A; Reysenbach, A L; Strutz, N; Dreier, M; Wiegel, J

    1997-04-01

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7T; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 microns, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74 degrees C with an optimum at 65 degrees C. The pH range for growth at 65 degrees C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO2, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H2 was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO2, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G + C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type-positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum. PMID:9103646

  20. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodkin, A.; Wiegel, J.; Reysenbach, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7{sup T}; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 {mu}m, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74{degrees}C with an optimum at 65{degrees}C. The pH range for growth at 65{degrees}C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO{sub 2}, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H{sub 2} was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO{sub 2}, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G+C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum.

  1. Physiological Studies of Glutamine Synthetases I and III from Synechococcus sp. WH7803 Reveal Differential Regulation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 6.3.1.2), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation. PMID:27446010

  2. Navicula sp. Sulfated Polysaccharide Gels Induced by Fe(III): Rheology and Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Fimbres-Olivarría, Diana; López-Elías, José Antonio; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Márquez-Escalante, Jorge Alberto; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Enríquez-Ocaña, Fernando; Valdéz-Holguín, José Eduardo; Brown-Bojórquez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Navicula sp. presented a yield of 4.4 (% w/w dry biomass basis). Analysis of the polysaccharide using gas chromatography showed that this polysaccharide contained glucose (29%), galactose (21%), rhamnose (10%), xylose (5%) and mannose (4%). This polysaccharide presented an average molecular weight of 107 kDa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the lyophilized Navicula sp. polysaccharide is an amorphous solid with particles of irregular shapes and sharp angles. The polysaccharide at 1% (w/v) solution in water formed gels in the presence of 0.4% (w/v) FeCl₃, showing elastic and viscous moduli of 1 and 0.7 Pa, respectively. SEM analysis performed on the lyophilized gel showed a compact pore structure, with a pore size of approximately 150 nm. Very few studies on the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides using trivalent ions exist in the literature, and, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Navicula sp. PMID:27483255

  3. Navicula sp. Sulfated Polysaccharide Gels Induced by Fe(III): Rheology and Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Fimbres-Olivarría, Diana; López-Elías, José Antonio; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Márquez-Escalante, Jorge Alberto; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Enríquez-Ocaña, Fernando; Valdéz-Holguín, José Eduardo; Brown-Bojórquez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Navicula sp. presented a yield of 4.4 (% w/w dry biomass basis). Analysis of the polysaccharide using gas chromatography showed that this polysaccharide contained glucose (29%), galactose (21%), rhamnose (10%), xylose (5%) and mannose (4%). This polysaccharide presented an average molecular weight of 107 kDa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the lyophilized Navicula sp. polysaccharide is an amorphous solid with particles of irregular shapes and sharp angles. The polysaccharide at 1% (w/v) solution in water formed gels in the presence of 0.4% (w/v) FeCl3, showing elastic and viscous moduli of 1 and 0.7 Pa, respectively. SEM analysis performed on the lyophilized gel showed a compact pore structure, with a pore size of approximately 150 nm. Very few studies on the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides using trivalent ions exist in the literature, and, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the gelation of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Navicula sp. PMID:27483255

  4. Physiological Studies of Glutamine Synthetases I and III from Synechococcus sp. WH7803 Reveal Differential Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 6.3.1.2), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation. PMID:27446010

  5. Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slepova, Tatiana V; Sokolova, Tatyana G; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Tourova, Tatyana P; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-02-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing, CO-utilizing bacterium, strain 1315(T), was isolated from a hot spring of Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Cells of the new isolate were Gram-positive, short rods. Growth was observed at 52-70 degrees C, with an optimum at 65 degrees C, and at pH 5.5-8.5, with an optimum at pH 6.5-7.2. In the presence of Fe(III) or 9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), the bacterium was capable of growth with CO and yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)); during growth under these conditions, strain 1315(T) produced H(2) and CO(2) and Fe(II) or AQDSH(2), respectively. Strain 1315(T) also grew by oxidation of yeast extract, glucose, xylose or lactate under a N(2) atmosphere, reducing Fe(III) or AQDS. Yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)) was required for growth. Isolate 1315(T) grew exclusively with Fe(III) or AQDS as an electron acceptor. The generation time under optimal conditions with CO as growth substrate was 9.3 h. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.5+/-0.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Carboxydothermus (97.8 % similarity with the closest relative). On the basis of physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain 1315(T) should be assigned to a novel species, Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., with the type strain 1315(T) (=VKPM 9905B(T) =VKM B-2474(T) =DSM 21278(T)). PMID:19196756

  6. Microbial community profiling of the Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") hot spring in Beppu, Japan: isolation and characterization of Fe(III)-reducing Sulfolobus sp. strain GA1.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yusei; Tsutsumi, Katsutoshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Okibe, Naoko

    2016-09-01

    Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") is located in the hot spring town of Beppu on the southern island of Kyushu in Japan, and is the site of a red-colored acidic geothermal pond. This study aimed to investigate the microbial population composition in this extremely acidic environment and to isolate/characterize acidophilic microorganism with metal-reducing ability. Initially, PCR (using bacteria- and archaea-specific primers) of environmental DNA samples detected the presence of bacteria, but not archaea. This was followed by random sequencing analysis, confirming the presence of wide bacterial diversity at the site (123 clones derived from 18 bacterial and 1 archaeal genera), including those closely related to known autotrophic and heterotrophic acidophiles (Acidithiobacillus sp., Sulfobacillus sp., Alicyclobacillus sp.). Nevertheless, successive culture enrichment with Fe(III) under micro-aerobic conditions led to isolation of an unknown archaeal organism, Sulfolobus sp. GA1 (with 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Sulfolobus shibatae). Unlike many other known Sulfolobus spp., strain GA1 was shown to lack sulfur oxidation ability. Strain GA1 possessed only minor Fe(II) oxidation ability, but readily reduced Fe(III) during heterotrophic growth under micro-aerobic conditions. Strain GA1 was capable of reducing highly toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic/soluble Cr(III), demonstrating its potential utility in bioremediation of toxic metal species. PMID:27208660

  7. Pyrobaculum ferrireducens sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic Fe(III)-, selenate- and arsenate-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slobodkina, G B; Lebedinsky, A V; Chernyh, N A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A; Slobodkin, A I

    2015-03-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, archaeon was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring at Uzon Caldera, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russia. The isolate, strain 1860(T), grew optimally at 90-95 °C and pH 6.0-7.0. The cells were non-motile straight rods, 1.5-5.0 µm in length, covered with surface-layer lattice. Strain 1860(T) utilized complex proteinaceous compounds as electron donors and ferrihydrite, Fe(III) citrate, nitrate, thiosulfate, selenite, selenate and arsenate as electron acceptors for growth. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain 1860(T) had 97.9-98.7 % similarity with those of members of the genus Pyrobaculum. On the basis of its physiological properties and phylogenetic analyses including in silico genome to genome hybridization, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Pyrobaculum ferrireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1860(T) ( = DSM 28942(T) = VKM B-2856(T)). PMID:25510975

  8. Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming): gene cloning, characterization and conservation among other Nonomuraea species.

    PubMed

    Pudjiraharti, Sri; Ohtani, Midori; Takano, Nanami; Abe, Ayumi; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo

    2014-02-01

    The inulin fructotransferase (DFA III-forming)(EC 4.2.2.18) gene in Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 was amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 1326-bp gene, designated as Nsp-ift, encodes a protein composed of a putative 37-amino-acid signal peptide and 404-amino-acid mature protein. A putative ribosomal binding sequence was identified 12 bases upstream from the start codon. However, a typical bacterial promoter could not be found by in silico analysis. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the enzyme was most similar to that of inulin fructotransferase (DFA I-forming) in Frankia sp. EAN1pec. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences indicated that Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 and Frankia sp. EAN1pec inulin fructotransferases formed a distinct clade from those from Arthrobacter sp. H65-7, A. globiformis and Bacillus sp. snu-7 that showed 57, 56 and 56% identity to that of Nsp-ift, respectively. The Nsp-ift without a putative signal peptide was successfully expressed in E. coli and partially purified using His-tag affinity chromatography. The recombinant enzyme displayed optimum temperature between 65 and 70 °C, optimum pH between 5.5 and 6.0 and remained stable up to 70 °C. The properties were identical to those of the original enzyme. Of 10 Nonomuraea species tested by Southern hybridization, enzyme activity measurements and PCR, only Nonomuraea sp. ID06-A0189 has the Nsp-ift gene, suggesting that Nsp-ift is not highly conserved in this genus. PMID:24129686

  9. DNA–DNA hybridization study of strains of Chryseobacterium, Elizabethkingia and Empedobacter and of other usually indole-producing non-fermenters of CDC groups IIc, IIe, IIh and IIi, mostly from human clinical sources, and proposals of Chryseobacterium bernardetii sp. nov., Chryseobacterium carnis sp. nov., Chryseobacterium lactis sp. nov., Chryseobacterium nakagawai sp. nov. and Chryseobacterium taklimakanense comb. nov

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, B.; Steigerwalt, A. G.; Nicholson, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic classification of 182 phenotypically similar isolates was evaluated using DNA–DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These bacterial isolates were mainly derived from clinical sources; all were Gram-negative non-fermenters and most were indoleproducing. Phenotypically, they resembled species from the genera Chryseobacterium, Elizabethkingia or Empedobacter or belonged to CDC groups IIc, IIe, IIh and IIi. Based on these analyses, four novel species are described: Chryseobacterium bernardetii sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13530T=CCUG 60564T=CDC G229T), Chryseobacterium carnis sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13525T=CCUG 60559T=CDC G81T), Chryseobacterium lactis sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 11390T=CCUG 60566T=CDC KC1864T) and Chryseobacterium nakagawai sp. nov. (type strain NCTC 13529T=CCUG 60563T=CDC G41T). The new combination Chryseobacterium taklimakanense comb. nov. (type strain NCTC 13490T=X-65T=CCTCC AB 208154T=NRRL B-51322T) is also proposed to accommodate the reclassified Planobacterium taklimakanense. PMID:23934253

  10. Anabaena sp. mediated bio-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in synthetic arsenic (III) solution: Process optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jana, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Majumdar, Swachchha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2015-11-01

    Blue green algae Anabaena sp. was cultivated in synthetic arsenite solution to investigate its bio-oxidation potential for arsenic species. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed based on a 3-level full factorial design considering four factors, viz. initial arsenic (III) concentration, algal dose, temperature and time. Bio-oxidation (%) of arsenic (III) was considered as response for the design. The study revealed that about 100% conversion of As (III) to As (V) was obtained for initial As (III) concentration of 2.5-7.5 mg/L at 30 °C for 72 h of exposure using 3 g/L of algal dose signifying a unique bio-oxidation potential of Anabaena sp. The dissolved CO2 (DCO2) and oxygen (DO) concentration in solution was monitored during the process and based on the data, a probable mechanism was proposed wherein algal cell acts like a catalytic membrane surface and expedites the bio-oxidation process. Bioaccumulation of arsenic, as well as, surface adsorption on algal cell was found considerably low. Lipid content of algal biomass grown in arsenite solution was found slightly lower than that of algae grown in synthetic media. Toxicity effects on algal cells due to arsenic exposure were evaluated in terms of comet assay and chlorophyll a content which indicated DNA damage to some extent along with very little decrease in chlorophyll a content. In summary, the present study explored the potential application of Anabaena sp. as an ecofriendly and sustainable option for detoxification of arsenic contaminated natural water with value-added product generation. PMID:26247411

  11. Heteroarene-Directed Oxidative sp(2) C-H Bond Allylation with Aliphatic Alkenes Catalyzed by an (Electron-Deficient η(5)-Cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Yuji; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-06-17

    It has been established that the oxidative sp(2) C-H bond allylation with aliphatic alkenes proceeds under mild conditions by using heteroarenes as directing groups and an (electron-deficient η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) complex, [Cp(E)RhCl2]2, as a precatalyst. In sharp contrast, the use of [Cp*RhCl2]2 instead of [Cp(E)RhCl2]2 led to a complex mixture of products under the same reaction conditions. PMID:27227320

  12. Use of Fe(III) as an electron acceptor to recover previously uncultured hyperthermophiles: isolation and characterization of Geothermobacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kashefi, Kazem; Holmes, Dawn E; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Lovley, Derek R

    2002-04-01

    It has recently been recognized that the ability to use Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor is a highly conserved characteristic in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. This suggests that it may be possible to recover as-yet-uncultured hyperthermophiles in pure culture if Fe(III) is used as an electron acceptor. As part of a study of the microbial diversity of the Obsidian Pool area in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., hot sediment samples were used as the inoculum for enrichment cultures in media containing hydrogen as the sole electron donor and poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor. A pure culture was recovered on solidified, Fe(III) oxide medium. The isolate, designated FW-1a, is a hyperthermophilic anaerobe that grows exclusively by coupling hydrogen oxidation to the reduction of poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide. Organic carbon is not required for growth. Magnetite is the end product of Fe(III) oxide reduction under the culture conditions evaluated. The cells are rod shaped, about 0.5 microm by 1.0 to 1.2 microm, and motile and have a single flagellum. Strain FW-1a grows at circumneutral pH, at freshwater salinities, and at temperatures of between 65 and 100 degrees C with an optimum of 85 to 90 degrees C. To our knowledge this is the highest temperature optimum of any organism in the Bacteria. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of strain FW-1a places it within the Bacteria, most closely related to abundant but uncultured microorganisms whose 16S rDNA sequences have been previously recovered from Obsidian Pool and a terrestrial hot spring in Iceland. While previous studies inferred that the uncultured microorganisms with these 16S rDNA sequences were sulfate-reducing organisms, the physiology of the strain FW-1a, which does not reduce sulfate, indicates that these organisms are just as likely to be Fe(III) reducers. These results further demonstrate that Fe(III) may be helpful for recovering as-yet-uncultured microorganisms

  13. Use of Fe(III) as an Electron Acceptor To Recover Previously Uncultured Hyperthermophiles: Isolation and Characterization of Geothermobacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Kazem; Holmes, Dawn E.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Lovley, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that the ability to use Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor is a highly conserved characteristic in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. This suggests that it may be possible to recover as-yet-uncultured hyperthermophiles in pure culture if Fe(III) is used as an electron acceptor. As part of a study of the microbial diversity of the Obsidian Pool area in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., hot sediment samples were used as the inoculum for enrichment cultures in media containing hydrogen as the sole electron donor and poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor. A pure culture was recovered on solidified, Fe(III) oxide medium. The isolate, designated FW-1a, is a hyperthermophilic anaerobe that grows exclusively by coupling hydrogen oxidation to the reduction of poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide. Organic carbon is not required for growth. Magnetite is the end product of Fe(III) oxide reduction under the culture conditions evaluated. The cells are rod shaped, about 0.5 μm by 1.0 to 1.2 μm, and motile and have a single flagellum. Strain FW-1a grows at circumneutral pH, at freshwater salinities, and at temperatures of between 65 and 100°C with an optimum of 85 to 90°C. To our knowledge this is the highest temperature optimum of any organism in the Bacteria. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of strain FW-1a places it within the Bacteria, most closely related to abundant but uncultured microorganisms whose 16S rDNA sequences have been previously recovered from Obsidian Pool and a terrestrial hot spring in Iceland. While previous studies inferred that the uncultured microorganisms with these 16S rDNA sequences were sulfate-reducing organisms, the physiology of the strain FW-1a, which does not reduce sulfate, indicates that these organisms are just as likely to be Fe(III) reducers. These results further demonstrate that Fe(III) may be helpful for recovering as-yet-uncultured microorganisms from hydrothermal

  14. Probing the Role of Two Critical Residues in Inulin Fructotransferase (DFA III-Producing) Thermostability from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuhuai; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-08-10

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) is an important enzyme that produces di-d-fructofuranose 1,2':2,3' dianhydride (DAF III), which is beneficial for human health. Present investigations mainly focus on screening and characterizing IFTase, including catalytic efficiency and thermostability, which are two important factors for enzymatic industrial applications. However, few reports aimed to improve these two characteristics based on the structure of IFTase. In this work, a structural model of IFTase (DFA III-producing) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 was constructed through homology modeling. Analysis of this model reveals that two residues, Ser-309 and Ser-333, may play key roles in the structural stability. Therefore, the functions of the two residues were probed by site-directed mutagenesis combined with the Nano-DSC method and assays for residual activity. In contrast to other mutations, single mutation of serine 309 (or serine 333) to threonine did not decrease the enzymatic stability, whereas double mutation (serine 309 and serine 333 to threonine) can enhance thermostability (by approximately 5 °C). The probable mechanisms for this enhancement were investigated. PMID:27440442

  15. Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) immobilization by Acinetobacter sp. HK-1 with the assistance of a novel quinone/graphene oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Kun; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Sui, Meng

    2014-11-01

    Cr(VI) biotreatment has attracted a substantial amount of interest due to its cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. However, the slow Cr(VI) bioreduction rate and the formed organo-Cr(III) in solution are bottlenecks for biotechnology application. In this study, a novel strain, Acinetobacter sp. HK-1, capable of reducing Cr(VI) and immobilizing Cr(III) was isolated. Under optimal conditions, the Cr(VI) reduction rate could reach 3.82 mg h(-1) g cell(-1). To improve the Cr(VI) reduction rate, two quinone/graphene oxide composites (Q-GOs) were first prepared via a one-step covalent chemical reaction. The results showed that 2-amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone-GO (NQ-GO) exhibited a better catalytic performance in Cr(VI) reduction compared to 2-aminoanthraquinone-GO. Specifically, in the presence of 50 mg L(-1) NQ-GO, a Cr(VI) removal rate of 190 mg h(-1) g cell(-1), which was the highest rate obtained, was achieved. The increased Cr(VI) reduction rate is mainly the result of NQ-GO significantly increasing the Cr(VI) reduction activity of cell membrane proteins containing dominant Cr(VI) reductases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to insoluble Cr(III), which was immobilized by glycolipids secreted by strain HK-1. These findings indicate that the application of strain HK-1 and NQ-GO is a promising strategy for enhancing the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater. PMID:25296002

  16. Iridium(iii)-catalyzed regioselective direct arylation of sp(2) C-H bonds with diaryliodonium salts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pan; Liu, Li; Shi, Zhuangzhi; Yuan, Yu

    2016-08-01

    A regioselective direct arylation of arenes and olefins at the ortho position is reported. The key to the high selectivity is the appropriate choice of diaryliodonium salts as the arylating reagent in the presence of a cationic iridium(iii) catalyst. The coordination of the metal with an oxygen atom or a nitrogen atom and subsequent C-H activation allows for direct arylation with coupling partners. This reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and with a high tolerance of various functional groups including many halide functional groups. PMID:27381238

  17. Isolation of Novel Afipia septicemium and Identification of Previously Unknown Bacteria Bradyrhizobium sp. OHSU_III from Blood of Patients with Poorly Defined Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shyh-Ching; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Li, Bingjie; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Zhang, Jing; Tsai, Shien; Bryant, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cultures previously set up for isolation of mycoplasmal agents from blood of patients with poorly-defined illnesses, although not yielding positive results, were cryopreserved because of suspicion of having low numbers of unknown microbes living in an inactive state in the broth. We re-initiated a set of 3 cultures for analysis of the "uncultivable" or poorly-grown microbes using NGS technology. Broth of cultures from 3 blood samples, submitted from OHSU between 2000 and 2004, were inoculated into culture flasks containing fresh modified SP4 medium and kept at room temperature (RT), 30°C and 35°C. The cultures showing evidence of microbial growth were expanded and subjected to DNA analysis by genomic sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Two of the 3 re-initiated blood cultures kept at RT after 7–8 weeks showed evidence of microbial growth that gradually reached into a cell density with detectable turbidity. The microbes in the broth when streaked on SP4 agar plates produced microscopic colonies in ∼ 2 weeks. Genomic studies revealed that the microbes isolated from the 2 blood cultures were a novel Afipia species, tentatively named Afipia septicemium. Microbes in the 3rd culture (OHSU_III) kept at RT had a limited level of growth and could not reach a plateau with high cell density. Genomic sequencing identified the microbe in the culture as a previously unknown species of Bradyrhizobium bacteria. This study reports on the isolation of novel Afipia and Bradyrhizobium species. Isolation of Bradyrhizobium species bacteria has never been reported in humans. The study also reveals a previously unrecognized nature of hematogenous infections by the 2 unique groups of Bradyrhizobiaceae. Our studies show that improvement of culture system plus effective use of NGS technology can facilitate findings of infections by unusual microbes in patients having poorly-defined, sometimes mysterious illnesses. PMID:24155888

  18. Calculibacillus koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic Fe(III)-reducing bacterium isolated from sediment of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Min, Ui-Gi; Kim, So-Jeong; Hong, Heeji; Kim, Song-Gun; Gwak, Joo-Han; Jung, Man-Young; Kim, Jong-Geol; Na, Jeong-Geol; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2016-06-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain B5(T), was isolated from sediment of an abandoned coal mine in Taebaek, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain B5(T) were non-spore-forming, straight, Gram-positive rods. The optimum pH and temperature for growth were pH 7.0 and 30°C, respectively, while the strain was able to grow within pH and temperature ranges of 5.5-7.5 and 25-45°C, respectively. Growth of strain B5(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0 to 6.0% (w/v) with an optimum at 3.0-4.0% (w/v). The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown polar lipids. Strain B5(T) grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate, nitrite, ferric-citrate, ferric-nitrilotriacetate, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and anthraquinone-2-sulfonate in the presence of proteinaceous compounds, organic acids, and carbohydrates as electron donors. The isolate was not able to grow by fermentation. Strain B5(T) did not grow under aerobic or microaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B5(T) is most closely related to the genus Tepidibacillus (T. fermentans STGH(T); 96.3%) and Vulcanibacillus (V. modesticaldus BR(T); 94.6%). The genomic DNA G+C content (36.9 mol%) of strain B5(T) was higher than those of T. fermentans STGH(T) (34.8 mol%) and V. modesticaldus BR(T) (34.5 mol%). Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties, we describe a new species of a novel genus Calculibacillus, represented by strain B5(T) (=KCTC 15397(T) =JCM 19989(T)), for which we propose the name Calculibacillus koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:27225457

  19. Biocatalytic role of potato starch synthase III for α-glucan biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Li, Li; Perris, Shayani D N; Spalding, Martin H; Han, Sang Yun; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-11-01

    A potato starch synthase III (PSSIII) was expressed in the Synechocystis mutants deficient in either glycogen synthase I (M1) or II (M2) to replenish α-(1,4) linkage synthesizing activity, resulting in new mutants, PM1 and PM2, respectively. These mutants were applied to study the role of exogenous plant starch synthase for starch/glycogen biosynthesis mechanism established in the cyanobacteria. The remaining glycogen synthase genes in PM1 and PM2 were further disrupted to make the mutants PM12 and PM21 which contained PSSIII as the sole glycogen/starch synthase. Among wild type and mutants, there were no significant differences in the amount of α-glucan produced. All the mutants harboring active PSSIII produced α-glucans with relatively much shorter and less longer α-1,4 chains than wild-type glycogen, which was exactly in accordance with the increase in glycogen branching enzyme activity. In fact, α-glucan structure of PM1 was very similar to those of PM12 and PM21, and PM2 had more intermediate chains than M2. This result suggests PSSIII may have distributive elongation property during α-glucan synthesis. In conclusion, the Synechocystis as an expression model system of plant enzymes can be applied to determine the role of starch synthesizing enzymes and their association during α-glucan synthesis. PMID:26358554

  20. Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, D Katharine; Foustoukos, Dionysis I

    2016-02-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Palaeochori Bay off the coast of the island of Milos, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose, short rods, approximately 1.0 μm long and 0.5 μm wide. Strain MAG-PB1T grew at 30-70 °C (optimum 60 °C), 0-50 g NaCl l- 1 (optimum 15-20 g l- 1) and pH 5.5-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 h. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, sucrose, yeast extract, d-fructose, α-d-glucose and ( - )-d-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, the first species of a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species, for which the name Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MAG-PB1T ( = JCM 30394T = DSM 29363T). PMID:26610851

  1. Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, Dolly K.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Paleochori Bay off the coast of Milos Island, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose short rods approximately 1.0 μm in length and 0.5 μm in width. Strain MAG-PB1T grew between 30 and 70°C (optimum 60°C), 0 and 50 g NaCl l-1 (optimum 15-20 g l-1) and pH 5.5 and 8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 hours. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, dextrose, sucrose, yeast extract, D-fructose, α-D-glucose and D-(-)-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species for which the name Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Deferrisoma paleochoriense is MAG-PB1T (=JCM 30394 T; = DSM 29363T).

  2. Deferrisoma paleochoriense sp. nov., a thermophilic, iron(III)-reducing bacterium from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Rodriguez, Ileana M.; Rawls, Matthew; Coykendall, Dolly K.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, mixotrophic bacterium, designated strain MAG-PB1T, was isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in Palaeochori Bay off the coast of the island of Milos, Greece. The cells were Gram-negative, rugose, short rods, approximately 1.0 μm long and 0.5 μm wide. Strain MAG-PB1T grew at 30–70 °C (optimum 60 °C), 0–50 g NaCl l− 1 (optimum 15–20 g l− 1) and pH 5.5–8.0 (optimum pH 6.0). Generation time under optimal conditions was 2.5 h. Optimal growth occurred under chemolithoautotrophic conditions with H2 as the energy source and CO2 as the carbon source. Fe(III), Mn(IV), arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors. Peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, sucrose, yeast extract, d-fructose, α-d-glucose and ( − )-d-arabinose also served as electron donors. No growth occurred in the presence of lactate or formate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this organism is closely related to Deferrisoma camini, the first species of a recently described genus in the Deltaproteobacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and on physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics, the strain was found to represent a novel species, for which the name Deferrisoma palaeochoriense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MAG-PB1T ( = JCM 30394T = DSM 29363T). 

  3. Desulfuromonas carbonis sp. nov., an Fe(III)-, S0- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterium isolated from an active coalbed methane gas well.

    PubMed

    An, Thuy T; Picardal, Flynn W

    2015-05-01

    A novel, mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, acetate-oxidizing, dissimilatory iron-, sulfur-, and manganese-reducing bacterium, designated strain ICBM(T), was obtained from an active, coalbed methane gas well in Indiana, USA. Strain ICBM(T) was a Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium that was rich in c-type cytochromes and formed red colonies in solid medium. Strain ICBM(T) conserved energy to support growth from the oxidation of acetate, propionate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, succinate and dl-lactate, concomitant with dissimilatory iron reduction. Strain ICBM(T) fermented fumarate yielding succinate and acetate. Strain ICBM(T) was able to grow in the temperature range of 10 °C to 37 °C, NaCl concentration range of 0 to 1.2 M, and pH range of 6.5 to 8.0. The physiological characteristics of strain ICBM(T) indicated that it belongs to the Desulfuromonas cluster. The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 61.2 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (39.3%), C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (36.6%). The closest cultured phylogenetic relative of strain ICBM(T) was Desulfuromonas michiganensis BB1(T) with only 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This confirmed that strain ICBM(T) is affiliated with the genus Desulfuromonas . On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain ICBM(T) and other taxa of the genus Desulfuromonas , strain ICBM(T) represents a novel species for which the name Desulfuromonas carbonis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain ICBM(T) = DSM 29759(T) = JCM 30471(T)). Strain ICBM(T) is the first Fe(III)-, S(0)-, and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterium that was isolated from a coal bed. PMID:25736408

  4. Molecular-level modes of As binding to Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides precipitated by the anaerobic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Claudia; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Brown, Gordon E.; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    Sorption of contaminants such as arsenic (As) to natural Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides is very common and has been demonstrated to occur during abiotic and biotic Fe(II) oxidation. The molecular mechanism of adsorption- and co-precipitation of As has been studied extensively for synthetic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals but is less documented for biogenic ones. In the present study, we used Fe and As K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, and TEM in order to investigate the interactions of As(V) and As(III) with biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals formed by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1. The present results show the As immobilization potential of strain BoFeN1 as well as the influence of As(III) and As(V) on biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide formation. In the absence of As, and at low As loading (As:Fe ≤ 0.008 mol/mol), goethite (Gt) formed exclusively. In contrast, at higher As/Fe ratios (As:Fe = 0.020-0.067), a ferrihydrite (Fh) phase also formed, and its relative amount systematically increased with increasing As:Fe ratio, this effect being stronger for As(V) than for As(III). Therefore, we conclude that the presence of As influences the type of biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals formed during microbial Fe(II) oxidation. Arsenic-K-edge EXAFS analysis of biogenic As-Fe-mineral co-precipitates indicates that both As(V) and As(III) form inner-sphere surface complexes at the surface of the biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. Differences observed between As-surface complexes in BoFeN1-produced Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide samples and in abiotic model compounds suggest that associated organic exopolymers in our biogenic samples may compete with As oxoanions for sorption on Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides surfaces. In addition HRTEM-EDXS analysis suggests that As(V) preferentially binds to poorly crystalline phases, such as

  5. Shewanella gelidimarina sp. nov. and Shewanella frigidimarina sp. nov., novel Antarctic species with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and grow anaerobically by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J P; McCammon, S A; Nichols, D S; Skerratt, J H; Rea, S M; Nichols, P D; McMeekin, T A

    1997-10-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from Antarctic sea ice. The strains were isolated from samples of congelated (land-fast) sea ice, grease ice, and ice algal biomass collected from the coastal areas of the Vestfold Hills in eastern Antarctica (68 degrees S 78 degrees E). The strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile, and rod shaped, were capable of anaerobic growth either by fermentation of carbohydrates or by anaerobic respiration, and utilized a variety of electron acceptors, including nitrate, ferric compounds, and trimethylamine N-oxide. A phylogenetic analysis performed with 16S rRNA sequences showed that the isolates formed two groups representing novel lineages in the genus Shewanella. The first novel group included seawater-requiring, psychrophilic, chitinolytic strains which had DNA G + C contents of 48 mol%. The members of the second strain group were psychrotrophic and did not require seawater but could tolerate up to 9% NaCl. The strains of this group were also unable to degrade polysaccharides but could utilize a number of monosaccharides and disaccharides and had G + C contents of 40 to 43 mol%. The whole-cell-derived fatty acid profiles of the sea ice isolates were found to be similar to the profiles obtained for other Shewanella species. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 omega 3) was detected in all of the sea ice isolates at levels ranging from 2 to 16% of the total fatty acids. EPA was also found at high levels in Shewanella hanedai (19 to 22%) and Shewanella benthica (16 to 18%) but was absent in Shewanella alga and Shewanella putrefaciens. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, the Antarctic iron-reducing strains are placed in two new species, Shewanella frigidimarina sp. nov. (type strain, ACAM 591) and Shewanella gelidimarina sp. nov. (type strain, ACAM 456). PMID:9336903

  6. Draft genome sequence of Psychrobacter sp. ENNN9_III, a strain isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jaqueline Conceição Meireles; Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina de; Veras, Adonney Allan de Oliveira; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Henriques, Isabel; Correia, António; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    The genus Psychrobacter includes Gram-negative coccobacilli that are non-pigmented, oxidase-positive, non-motile, psychrophilic or psychrotolerant, and halotolerant. Psychrobacter strain ENNN9_III was isolated from water in a polluted temperate estuarine system, contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The genome has a G + C content of 42.7%, 2618 open reading frames (ORFs), three copies of the rRNAs operon, and 29 tRNA genes. Twenty-five sequences related to the degradation of aromatic compounds were predicted, as well as numerous genes related to resistance to metals or metal(loid)s. The genome sequence of Psychrobacter strain ENNN9_III provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms of metal resistance and aromatic compounds degradation. Future studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of this strain for bioremediation proposes. PMID:27114904

  7. NopB, a type III secreted protein of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, is associated with pilus-like surface appendages.

    PubMed

    Saad, Maged M; Kobayashi, Hajime; Marie, Corinne; Brown, Ian R; Mansfield, John W; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J

    2005-02-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 possesses a functional type three secretion system (TTSS), through which a number of proteins, called nodulation outer proteins (Nops), are delivered to the outside of the cell. A major constraint to the identification of Nops is their low abundance in the supernatants of NGR234 strains grown in culture. To overcome this limitation, a more sensitive proteomics-based strategy was developed. Secreted proteins from wild-type NGR234 were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the gel was compared to similar gels containing the proteins from a TTSS mutant (NGROmegarhcN). To identify the proteins, spots unique to the NGR234 gels were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and the data were compared to the sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of NGR234. A nonpolar mutant of one of these proteins was generated called NopB. NopB is required for Nop secretion but inhibits the interaction with Pachyrhizus tuberosus and augments nodulation of Tephrosia vogelii. Flavonoids and a functional TTSS are required for the formation of some surface appendages on NGR234. In situ immunogold labeling and isolation of these pili showed that they contain NopB. PMID:15659692

  8. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PUPCCC 62: a potential candidate for biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the presence of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Shahnaz; Khattar, J I S; Singh, D P

    2015-07-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp., an isolate from polluted water of Satluj river, India, was found resistant to chromium(VI) up to 200 nmol mL(-1). In this study, it has been demonstrated that this organism takes up Cr(VI) through a phosphate transporter. The organism removed 250 nmol Cr(VI), 210 nmol phosphate and 180 nmol sulphate mg(-1) protein from a buffer solution in 8 h. Cr(VI) uptake by the organism decreased to 135 nmol Cr(VI) removed per milligram protein in the presence of 200 nmol phosphate mL(-1), but the same concentration of sulphate did not affect the Cr(VI) uptake. Similarly, the presence of Cr(VI) in the solution affected the phosphate uptake but not sulphate uptake by the test organism. The kinetic studies on Cr(VI) uptake in the presence of phosphate revealed that phosphate and Cr(VI) acted as competitive inhibitors for one another. Phosphate-starved cells of the organism removed more amount of Cr(VI) than the basal medium-grown cells. The uptake of Cr(VI) as well as phosphate by the organism was observed to be a light-dependent process. Cinnamic acid, a phosphate transporter inhibitor, inhibited Cr(VI) uptake by the organism. Results clearly demonstrated that the test organism takes up chromate ions by phosphate transporter and not by the sulphate transporter. This organism is thus a potential candidate for the bioremediation of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) and sulphate-laden water. PMID:25752632

  9. nolO and noeI (HsnIII) of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 are involved in 3-O-carbamoylation and 2-O-methylation of Nod factors.

    PubMed

    Jabbouri, S; Relić, B; Hanin, M; Kamalaprija, P; Burger, U; Promé, D; Promé, J C; Broughton, W J

    1998-05-15

    Loci unique to specific rhizobia direct the adjunction of special groups to the core lipo-oligosaccharide Nod factors. Host-specificity of nodulation (Hsn) genes are thus essential for interaction with certain legumes. Rhizobium sp. NGR234, which can nodulate >110 genera of legumes, possesses three hsn loci and secretes a large family of Nod factors carrying specific substituents. Among them are 3-O (or 4-O)- and 6-O-carbamoyl groups, an N-methyl group, and a 2-O-methylfucose residue which may bear either 3-O-sulfate or 4-O (and 3-O)-acetyl substituents. The hsnIII locus comprises a nod box promoter followed by the genes nodABCIJnolOnoeI. Complementation and mutation analyses show that the disruption of any one of nodIJ, nolO, or noeI has no effect on nodulation. Conjugation of nolO into Rhizobium fredii extends the host range of the recipient to the non-hosts Calopogonium caeruleum and Lablab purpureus, however. Chemical analyses of the Nod factors produced by the NodI, NolO, and NoeI mutants show that the nolO and noeI gene products are required for 3 (or 4)-O-carbamoylation of the nonreducing terminus and for 2-O-methylation of the fucosyl group, respectively. Confirmation that NolO is a carbamoyltransferase was obtained from analysis of the Nod factors produced by R. fredii containing nolO; all are carbamoylated at O-3 (or O-4) on the nonreducing terminus. Since mutation of both nolO and nodU fails to completely abolish production of monocarbamoylated NodNGR factors, it is clear that a third carbamoyltransferase must exist. Nevertheless, the specificities of the two known enzymes are clearly different. NodU is only able to transfer carbamate to O-6 while NolO is specific for O-3 (or O-4) of NodNGR factors. PMID:9575146

  10. ACRIM III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM III Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... the ACRIMSAT spacecraft on December 20, 1999. ACRIM III data are reprocessed every 90 days to utilize instrument recalibration.   ... ACRIM III Instrument Team Page ACRIM II Data Sets SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  11. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  12. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  13. LANDVIEW III

    EPA Science Inventory

    LandView III is a desktop mapping system that includes database extracts from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of the Census, The U.S. Geological Survey, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, and the Federal Emergency Management Agenc...

  14. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  15. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) With Halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Takenaka, Y.; Ohnuki, T.; Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halophiles live in high ionic strength brine. The mechanisms of metal association with these microorganisms are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the distribution of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on halophiles, Halomonas sp. (WIPP1A) which was isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in Carlsbad, US., Halomonas elongata (ATCC33173), Halobacterium salinarum (ATCC19700), and Halobacterium halobium (ATCC43214) and examined the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The cells of Halomonas sp. and H. elongata were grown in media containing 10 - 15 w/v% and 3.5 - 30 w/v% NaCl, respectively. Halobacterium salinarum and H. halobium were grown in media containing 25 w/v% NaCl. The logarithmic distribution coefficient (log Kd) was measured by using the cells at the late exponential phase. After washing the cells with the same concentrations of NaCl, the cells were mixed with 1x10-6 mol dm-3 Eu(III) and 1x10-8 mol dm-3 Cm(III) at pH 5 in the same concentrations of NaCl and log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) was determined. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd was determined as a function of NaCl concentrations. The coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells was estimated by TRLFS. For TRLFS measurements, samples were prepared by adding cells to a solution of 1x10-3 mol dm-3 Eu(III) with the same concentrations of NaCl as the culture media. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd of Cm(III) was apparently larger than that of Eu(III) at all the NaCl concentrations examined. On the other hand, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for H. salinarum and H. halobium was almost identical. Our previous study demonstrated that non-halophiles, Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens show no preferences between these elements. Chemical properties of Eu(III) and Cm(III) are almost identical. Our findings suggest that the difference in log Kd

  16. Dual gold photoredox C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross couplings - development and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Gauchot, Vincent; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2016-08-01

    A dual visible light photoredox and gold-catalysed C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) cross coupling is described. The success of this mild, oxidant- and base-free cross coupling is highly dependent on the amount of water added. Mechanistic studies show two distinct pathways depending on the gold catalyst employed: transmetallation of the arylboronic acid with gold(i) occurs prior to oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) using cationic gold(i) catalysts, whereas oxidation of gold(i) to gold(iii) precedes transmetallation using neutral gold(i) catalysts. PMID:27461567

  17. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  18. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  19. Induction of Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation by Fe(II) in Dechloromonas sp. Strain UWNR4 and Acidovorax sp. Strain 2AN

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the inducibility of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation (NDFO) in non-growth, chloramphenicol-amended, resting-cell suspensions of Dechloromonas sp. strain UWNR4 and Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN. Cells previously incubated with Fe(II)-EDTA oxidized ca. 6-fold more Fe(II)-EDTA than cells previously incubated with Fe(III)-EDTA. This is the first report of induction of NDFO by Fe(II). PMID:23144134

  20. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  1. The role of humic acid in the toxicity of arsenite to the diatom Navicula sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Ni, Yanyan; Ding, Tengda; Zhang, Chunlong

    2014-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects arsenite [As(III)] toxicity by altering its sorption equilibrium at the cell wall interface. A better understanding of such mechanism is of great importance to assess As(III) ecotoxicity in aquatic systems. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of DOM on the regulation of As(III) sorption and toxicity in the diatom Navicula sp. The influence of humic acid (HA) on As(III) toxicity was assessed by measuring algal growth, chlorophyll a, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas As(III) mobility across the cell wall was estimated by determining the concentration of intracellular, cell-wall-bound, and free As(III) ions in cell media. Results showed that the effects of HA on arsenite toxicity varied depending on various combinations of As(III)-HA concentrations. EC50 had an approximate threefold increase from 8.32 (HA-free control) to 22.39 μM (at 20 mg L(-1) HA) when Navicula sp. was exposed to 1.0-100.0 μM of As(III), compared to an overall low complexation ratio of HA-As(III) in a range of 0.91-6.00 %. The cell wall-bound and intracellular arsenic content decreased by 19.8 and 20.3 %, respectively, despite the lower arsenite complexation (2.10 ± 0.16 % of the total As). Meanwhile, intracellular ROS was decreased by 12.6 % in response to 10.0 μM As(III) and 10 mg L(-1) HA vs. the HA-free control. The significant contrast indicated that complexation alone could not explain the HA-induced reduction in arsenite toxicity and other factors including HA-cell surface interactions may come into play. Isotherms describing adsorption of HA to the Navicula sp. cells combined with morphological data by scanning electron microscopy revealed a protective HA floccule coating on the cell walls. Additional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data suggested the involvement of carboxylic groups during the adsorption of both HA and As(III) on the Navicula sp. cell surface. Collective data from this study suggest that cell

  2. Rh(iii)-catalyzed chemoselective C-H functionalizations of tertiary aniline N-oxides with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaolei; Liang, Wenbo; Shi, Yang; You, Jingsong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report novel Rh(iii)-catalyzed chemoselective functionalizations of tertiary aniline N-oxides with alkynes, including annulation via the sequential C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-N activation for the formation of N-alkylindoles and an O-atom transfer (OAT) process for the synthesis of acetophenones. PMID:27121366

  3. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  4. Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-01-12

    Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

  5. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  6. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  7. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  8. Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Steiner, U; Ludwig, W

    2002-07-01

    A lipophilic, coryneform bacterium isolated from a human clinical specimen was characterized by phenotypic and molecular-taxonomic methods. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of cell-wall chemotype IV and short-chain mycolic acids consistent with the genus Corynebacterium. The isolate could be distinguished from other members of the genus Corynebacterium by positive urease and catalase tests as well as its failure to produce acid from carbohydrates. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this isolate constitutes a distinct subline within the genus Corynebacterium, displaying >3.0% sequence divergence from other known Corynebacterium species. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that this isolate be classified as a novel species, Corynebacterium appendicis sp. nov., represented by strain IMMIB R-3491T (= DSM 44531T = NRRL B-24151T). PMID:12148623

  9. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain. PMID:13678040

  10. DADiSP processing guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

  11. Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Monika; Worliczek, Hanna; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated D-1,5a(T) and D-1,5b, were isolated from a medieval wall painting in the chapel of Castle Herberstein, Styria (Austria). The Gram-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, spore-forming rods showed nearly identical whole-cell protein patterns, identical genomic fingerprints and identical physiological profiles, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. Both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, possessed a quinone system comprising menaquinone MK-7 and had fatty acid profiles in which C(15:0) iso and C(15:0) anteiso were predominant. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of D-1,5a(T) showed the highest similarity (99.5%) to the sequence of Bacillus sp. LMG 20243, and Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T) was the next most closely related established species (96.5%). Other type strains, such as Bacillus fastidiosus DSM 91(T), Bacillus indicus SD/3(T), Bacillus cibi JG-30(T), Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6308(T), Bacillus bataviensis LMG 21833(T) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T), shared 96.0-96.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with D-1,5a(T). The combination of physiological and chemotaxonomic traits distinguishes the two strains from those species sharing the highest sequence similarities (96.0-96.5%). On the basis of these characteristics and the phylogenetic position of strain D-1,5a(T) (=DSM 16534(T)=CCM 7228(T)), this strain is assigned as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:16166719

  12. Acetobacter okinawensis sp. nov., Acetobacter papayae sp. nov., and Acetobacter persicus sp. nov.; novel acetic acid bacteria isolated from stems of sugarcane, fruits, and a flower in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

    2012-01-01

    Eleven strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from stems of sugarcane, fruits, and a flower in Japan. The isolates were separated into three groups, Groups I, II, and III, in the genus Acetobacter according to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences. The isolates had sequence similarities of 99.8-100% within the Group, 99.3-99.6% to those of the type strains of each related Acetobacter species, and less than 98.4% to those of the type strains of other Acetobacter species. Genomic DNA G+C contents of Groups I, II, and III were 59.2-59.4, 60.5-60.7, and 58.7-58.9 mol%, respectively. The isolates in the Group showed high values of DNA-DNA relatedness to each other, but low values less than 46% to the type strains of related Acetobacter species. A good correlation was found between the three Groups and groups based on DNA G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness. All the strains had Q-9 as the main component, and Q-8 and Q-10 as minor components. The isolates in the three Groups did not completely match with any Acetobacter species on catalase reaction, the production of ketogluconic acids from D-glucose, growth on ammoniac nitrogen with ethanol (Hoyer-Frateur medium and Frateur modified Hoyer medium), growth on 30% (w/v) D-glucose, growth in 10% (v/v) ethanol, or DNA G+C contents. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships in the genus Acetobacter and chemosystematic and phenotypic characteristics, the three Groups were regarded as novel species in the genus Acetobacter. Acetobacter okinawensis sp. nov. is proposed for Group I, Acetobacter papayae sp. nov. for Group II, and Acetobacter persicus sp. nov. for Group III. PMID:22878741

  13. Identification of Catalytic Residues in the As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Qin, Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.137) (ArsM or AS3MT) is found in members of every kingdom, from bacteria to humans. In these enzymes, there are three conserved cysteine residues at positions 72, 174, and 224 in the CmArsM orthologue from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508. Substitution of any of the three led to loss of As(III) methylation. In contrast, a C72A mutant still methylated trivalent methylarsenite [MAs(III)]. Protein fluorescence of a single-tryptophan mutant reported binding of As(III) or MAs(III). As(GS)3 and MAs(GS)2 bound significantly faster than As(III), suggesting that the glutathionylated arsenicals are preferred substrates for the enzyme. Protein fluorescence also reported binding of Sb(III), and the purified enzyme methylated and volatilized Sb(III). The results suggest that all three cysteine residues are necessary for the first step in the reaction, As(III) methylation, but that only Cys174 and Cys224 are required for the second step, methylation of MAs(III) to dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)]. The rate-limiting step was identified as the conversion of DMAs(III) to trimethylarsine, and DMAs(III) accumulates as the principal product. PMID:22257120

  14. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  15. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Bone marrow transplant Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) AT III deficiency, an inherited condition Liver ... Schmaier AH, Miller JL. Coagulation and fibrinolysis. In: McPherson ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. 76 FR 56876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 9779, 9779(SP), 9783, 9783(SP), 9787, 9787(SP), 9789 and 9789(SP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is...

  17. SP-100 Advanced Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  18. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  19. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

  20. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  1. Visible-Light-Induced Alkoxyl Radical Generation Enables Selective C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) Bond Cleavage and Functionalizations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kunfang; Zhang, Fuyuan; Huang, Hanchu; Chen, Yiyun

    2016-02-10

    The alkoxyl radical is an important reactive intermediate in mechanistic studies and organic synthesis; however, its current generation from alcohol oxidation heavily relies on transition metal activation under strong oxidative conditions. Here we report the first visible-light-induced alcohol oxidation to generate alkoxyl radicals by cyclic iodine(III) reagent catalysis under mild reaction conditions. The β-fragmentation of alkoxyl radicals enables selective C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond cleavage and alkynylation/alkenylation reactions with various strained cycloalkanols, and for the first time with linear alcohols. PMID:26829105

  2. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Erik; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyounghyun; Safe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is overexpressed in multiple tumors and is a negative prognostic factor for patient survival. Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show that the three TFs individually play a role in the growth, survival and migration/invasion of breast, kidney, pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cells as xenografts were significantly decreased in cells depleted for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 (combined) or Sp1 alone. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of changes in gene expression in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells after individual knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 demonstrates that these TFs regulate genes and pathways that correlated with the functional responses observed after knockdown but also some genes and pathways that inversely correlated with the functional responses. However, causal IPA analysis which integrates all pathway-dependent changes in all genes strongly predicted that Sp1-, Sp3- and Sp4-regulated genes were associated with the pro-oncogenic activity. These functional and genomic results coupled with overexpression of Sp transcription factors in tumor vs. non-tumor tissues and decreased Sp1 expression with age indicate that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and are attractive drug targets for individual and combined cancer chemotherapies. PMID:26967243

  3. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  4. Integrated Investigation on the Production and Fate of Organo-Cr(III) Complexes from Microbial Reduction of Chromate

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2004-06-01

    The screening of different genera of bacteria for production of soluble Cr(III) complexes has been completed. A total of eight organisms were screened for production of soluble Cr(III); three were Gram positive and five were Gram negative. The Gram positive bacteria were Cellulomonas sp. ES 6, Rhodococcus sp., and Leafsonia sp., while Shewanella. oneidensis MR 1, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, Pseudomonas putida MK 1 and Ps. aeruginosa PAO 1 were Gram negative. S. oneidensis MR 1 and Cellulomonas sp ES 6 were grown in minimal media, GWM (Ground Water Medium with lactate/fumarate) and SGM (Simulated Groundwater Medium with sucrose), respectively. Other bacteria were screened under non-growth conditions with sucrose, lactate, or glycerol as electron donor. All experiments were carried out for a period of 15-30 days, with different organisms reaching a maximum soluble Cr(III) concentrations at different times: S. oneidensis, 2d; Cellulomonas sp., 8d; Leafsonia, 6d; Rhodococcus, 9d; Ps. putida MK 1, 6d, Ps. aeruginosa PAO 1, 3d; D. vulgaris Hildenborough, 3d; and D. desulfuricans G20, 21d. Initial characterization indicates that the soluble Cr(III) fraction produced by both S. oneidensis MR 1 and Cellulomonas sp. ES 6 passes through a 1-Kd cut off filter.

  5. Pioneer III Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

  6. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  7. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  8. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  9. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  10. Bacterial cellulose synthesis mechanism of facultative anaerobe Enterobacter sp. FY-07.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kaihua; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Bing; Chen, Sibin; Zhao, Qianqian; Chen, Yueqing; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis. PMID:26911736

  11. Bacterial cellulose synthesis mechanism of facultative anaerobe Enterobacter sp. FY-07

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Kaihua; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Bing; Chen, Sibin; Zhao, Qianqian; Chen, Yueqing; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis. PMID:26911736

  12. Arsenic redox transformation by Pseudomonas sp. HN-2 isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Cai, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhenzhou; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-09-01

    A mesophilic, Gram-negative, arsenite[As(III)]-oxidizing and arsenate[As(V)]-reducing bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. HN-2, was isolated from an As-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain was closely related to Pseudomonas stutzeri. Under aerobic conditions, this strain oxidized 92.0% (61.4μmol/L) of arsenite to arsenate within 3hr of incubation. Reduction of As(V) to As(III) occurred in anoxic conditions. Pseudomonas sp. HN-2 is among the first soil bacteria shown to be capable of both aerobic As(III) oxidation and anoxic As(V) reduction. The strain, as an efficient As(III) oxidizer and As(V) reducer in Pseudomonas, has the potential to impact arsenic mobility in both anoxic and aerobic environments, and has potential application in As remediation processes. PMID:27593283

  13. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  14. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  15. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SP_Ace derived data from stellar spectra (Boeche+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2015-11-01

    SP_Ace is a software designed to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances from stellar spectra. In this tables we report the stellar parameters Teff, logg, [M/H], and chemical abundances [El/H] for ten elements derived with the software SP_Ace from spectra of the ELODIE spectral library (Prugniel et al., 2007, Cat. III/251), the benchmark stars (Jofre et al., 2014, Cat. J/A+A/564/A133), and the S4N library (Allende Prieto et al., 2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/183) degraded to spectral resolution R=12,000 and S/N=100. (3 data files).

  17. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  18. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  19. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  20. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2014-06-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  1. Fueling type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are complex nanomachines that export proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm across the cell envelope in a single step. They are at the core of the machinery used to assemble the bacterial flagellum, and the needle complex many Gram-negative pathogens use to inject effector proteins into host cells and cause disease. Several models have been put forward to explain how this export is energized, and the mechanism has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we present an overview of these models and discuss their relative merits. Recent evidence suggests that the proton motive force is the primary energy source for type III secretion, although contribution from refolding of secreted proteins has not been ruled out. The mechanism, by which the proton motive force is converted to protein export, remains enigmatic. PMID:25701111

  2. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  3. Integrated Investigation on the Production and Fate of Organo-Cr(III) Complexes from Microbial Reduction of Chromate

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    Our objective is to investigate the complexity of chromium biogeocycling. Our results clearly support more complexity. In short, the chromium cycle is not as simple as the conversion between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in inorganic forms. We have obtained more evidence to prove the formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes from microbial reduction of Cr(VI). The complexes are relatively stable due to the slow ligand exchange of Cr(III). However, some microorganisms can consume the organic ligands and release Cr(III), which then precipitates. Efforts are being made to characterize the organo-Cr(III) complexes and investigate their behavior in soil. Progress and efforts are summarized for each task. Task 1. Production of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes by selected microorganisms A total of eight organisms were screened for production of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes by culturing in both growth and non growth media containing 4 mg/L of Cr(VI); three were Gram positive and five were Gram negative. The Gram-positive bacteria were Cellulomonas sp. ES 6, Rhodococcus sp., and Leafsonia sp., while Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, Pseudomonas putida MK 1 and Ps. aeruginosa PAO 1 were Gram negative. Purifications of the soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes produced by Cellulomonas sp. ES 6, Shewanella. oneidensis MR 1, Rhodococcus sp., and D. vulgaris Hildenborough were carried out. The culture supernatants were lyophilized and extracted first with methanol followed by water. The extracts were then analyzed for soluble Cr. The majority of the Cr(III) was present in the water-soluble fraction for all of the bacteria tested (data not shown), revealing a general phenomenon of soluble Cr(III) production. Cellulomonas sp. ES6 produced the highest amount of soluble Cr(III) (364 ppm) and D. vulgaris Hildenborough produced the least (143 ppm). Seventy eight percent of the soluble Cr(III) produced by Shewanella. oneidensis MR 1 was

  4. Migration Type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel

    2004-03-01

    Migration type IIIMigration of objects embedded in disks (and the accompanying eccentricity evolution) is becoming a major theme in planetary system formation.The underlying physics can be distilled into the notion of disk-planet coupling via Lindblad resonances, which launch waves, sometimes spectacular spiral shock waves in gas disks. The wave pattern exchanges angular momentum with the planet. That causes (i) migration, (ii) eccentricity evolution, and (iii) gap opening by sufficiently massive planets.A competing source of disk-planet interaction, the corotationaltorques, are much less conspicuous (corotation does not produce easilydetectable waves, as galaxy observers can attest) and have often been missed in the analysis of planet migration. If spiral waves are like waves at Goleta beach, then the corotation acts more like a stealthy riptide. Corotationalflows lie at the basis of a new, surprisingly rapid, mode of migration (type III),superseding the standard type II migration (with a gap), and revising the speed of type I migration (without a gap). The talk will contain results obtained at KITP, e.g., an analytical derivation of da/dt in type III motion. It will be illustrated by videos of high-resolution numerical simulations obtained with different implementations of the Piecewise Parabolic Method hydrodynamics.

  5. Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov., Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov.: Three novel taxa from the faeces of cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Filippini, Gianfranco; Spiezio, Caterina; Sandri, Camillo; Biavati, Bruno; Pisi, Annamaria; Mattarelli, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T)). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the results from the cluster analysis and revealed relatively low level similarities to each other (mean value 95%) and to members of the genus Bifidobacterium. All eight isolates showed the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (mean value 96.6%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ and dnaG) supported their independent phylogenetic position to each other and to related species of Bifidobacterium. The G+C contents were 63.2%, 65.9% and 63.0% for Cluster I, Cluster II and Cluster III, respectively. Peptidoglycan types were A3α l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala, A4β l-Orn (Lys)-d-Ser-d-Glu and A3β l-Orn-l-Ser-l-Ala in Clusters I, II and III, respectively. Based on the data provided, each cluster represented a novel taxon for which the names Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov. (TRE 17(T)=DSM 100689=JCM 30941; TRE 26=DSM 100690=JCM 30942), Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. (TRE C(T)=DSM 100685=JCM 30943) and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov. (TRE M=DSM 100688=JCM 30944) are proposed. PMID:27236565

  6. Role of SP1-binding domains in in vivo transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat.

    PubMed

    Harrich, D; Garcia, J; Wu, F; Mitsuyasu, R; Gonazalez, J; Gaynor, R

    1989-06-01

    Five regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) have been shown to be important in the transcriptional regulation of HIV in HeLa cells. These include the negative regulatory, enhancer, SP1, TATA, and TAR regions. Previous studies in which purified SP1 was used showed that the three SP1-binding sites in the HIV LTR were important in the in vitro transcription of this promoter. However, no studies to ascertain the role of each of these SP1-binding sites in basal and tat-induced transcriptional activation in vivo have been reported. To determine the role of SP1 sites in transcriptional regulation of the HIV LTR in vivo, these sites were subjected to oligonucleotide mutagenesis both individually and in groups. The constructs were tested by DNase I footprinting with both oligonucleotide affinity column-purified SP1 and partially purified HeLa extract and by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays in both the presence and absence of the tat gene. Mutagenesis of each SP1-binding site resulted in minimal changes in basal and tat-induced transcriptional activation. Mutations involving alterations of SP1 sites I and II, I and III, or II and III also resulted in minimal decreases in basal and tat-induced transcriptional activation. However, mutagenesis of all three SP1-binding sites resulted in a marked decrease in tat induction. The latter mutation also greatly decreased DNase I protection over the enhancer, TATA, and TAR regions when partially purified HeLa nuclear extract was used. Mutagenesis of the HIV LTR SP1 sites which converted them to consensus high-affinity SP1-binding sites with the sequence GGGGCGGGGC resulted in increased tat-induced gene expression compared with the wild-type HIV LTR template. These results suggest that SP1, through its interaction with other DNA-binding proteins, is critical for in vivo transcriptional regulation of HIV. PMID:2657100

  7. Beauveriolides, specific inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages, produced by Beauveria sp. FO-6979.

    PubMed

    Namatame, I; Tomoda, H; Si, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Masuma, R; Omura, S

    1999-01-01

    Beauveria sp. FO-6979, a soil isolate, was found to produce inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. A new compound beauveriolide III was isolated along with a known compound beauveriolide I from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Beauveriolides I and III caused a reduction in the number and size of cytosolic lipid droplets in macrophages at 10 microM without any cytotoxic effect on macrophages. PMID:10092189

  8. Molecular cloning of a malyl coenzyme A lyase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1, a facultative methylotroph.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, G L; Nunn, D N; Lidstrom, M E

    1984-01-01

    A genomic library containing HindIII partial digests of Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pVK100. PCT57, a Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 methanol mutant deficient in malyl coenzyme A lyase activity, was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype by mobilization of the pVK100 library into PCT57 recipients with the ColE1/RK2 mobilizing plasmid pRK2013. Six different complemented isolates all contained a recombinant plasmid carrying the same 19.6-kilobase-pair Pseudomonas sp. strain AM1 DNA insert. Subcloning and complementation analysis demonstrated that the gene deficient in PCT57 (mcl-1) was located in a 1.6-kilobase-pair region within a 7.4-kilobase-pair EcoRI-HindIII fragment. PMID:6094488

  9. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

  10. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  11. Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites. PMID:19688378

  12. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. PMID:24736090

  13. Molecular cloning of an endoglucanase gene from an alkalophilic bacillus sp. and its expression in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Kong, I.S.; Yu, J.H.

    1987-11-01

    One of the cellulase genes from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain N-4 was cloned in pBR322. A recombinant plasmid, pYBC107, expressing carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) was isolated, and the size of the cloned HindIII fragment was found to be 5.5 kilobases. The restriction map of pYBC107 showed a different pattern from those of pNKI and pNKII. When the HindIII fragment from pYBC107 was subcloned into pYEJ001, there was a 3.8-fold increase in CMCase activity over that observed with pYBC107. Plasmid pYBC108 constructed by treatment of pYBC107 with HindIII and ECORI expressed the CMCase activity, although to a limited extend. To verify the originality of cloned pYBC107 from Bacillus sp;, the authors analyzed the restriction digest by Southern blotting.

  14. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa­hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa­hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 + cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  15. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III).

    PubMed

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from In(III) cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa-hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular-pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa-hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2](-) layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2](-) layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 (+) cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  16. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  17. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment. PMID:26544154

  18. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Oki, Kaihei; Yanokura, Emiko; Shimakawa, Yasuhisa; Modesto, Monica; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study on bifidobacterial distribution in New World monkeys, six strains belonging to the Bifidobacteriaceae were isolated from faecal samples of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). All the isolates were Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, asporogenous and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed relatively low levels of similarity (maximum identity 96 %) to members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and placed the isolates in three independent clusters: strains of cluster I (MRM_5.9T and MRM_5.10) and cluster III (MRM_5.18T and MRM_9.02) respectively showed 96.4 and 96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bifidobacterium callitrichos DSM 23973T, while strains of cluster II (MRM_8.14T and MRM_9.14) showed 95.4 % similarity to Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Phylogenetic analysis of partial hsp60 and clpC gene sequences supported an independent phylogenetic position of each cluster from each other and from the related type strains B. callitrichos DSM 23973T and B. stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Clusters I, II and III respectively showed DNA G+C contents of 64.9-65.1, 56.4-56.7 and 63.1-63.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of MRM_5.9T were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c dimethylacetal, while C16 : 0 was prominent in strains MRM_5.18T and MRM_8.14T, followed by C18 : 1ω9c and C14 : 0. Biochemical profiles and growth parameters were recorded for all the isolates. Based on the data provided, the clusters represent three novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.9T = DSM 100196T = JCM 30796T), Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov. (type strain MRM_8.14T = DSM 100202T = JCM 30799T) and Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.18T = DSM 100201T = JCM 30798T) are proposed. PMID:26515885

  19. Force constants of phosphorus (III) cyanide and arsenic (III) cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Fawcett, V.

    The force constants of phosphorus (III) cyanide and arsenic (III) cyanide have been calculated using a simple valence force-field approximation with interaction constants. Several revisions are proposed to the existing vibrational assignments for the As(CN) 3 species and the vibrational assignments for P(CN) 3 are confirmed.

  20. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  1. Two New Species of Cryptococcus sp. and Candida sp. from Wild Flowers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Hong; Kang, Min-Gu; Ryu, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, Chang-Mu; Kim, Ha-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Among 80 types of yeast isolated from wild flowers in Daejeon, Korea, two species that have not yet been identified by phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) genes and 26S rDNA sequences were identified as Candida sp. 44-C-1 and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1. Neither of the newly identified species formed ascospores, while Candida sp. 44-C-1 formed pseudomycelium and Cryptococcus sp. 9-D-1 did not. PMID:23323051

  2. Title III in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The journal on special education programs funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act contains articles on three projects, abstracts of other projects, a picture story on San Diego Schools' outdoor classroom for special education, and a state by state listing of all Title III special education projects. The programs…

  3. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  4. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  5. Zinc Finger Independent Genome-Wide Binding of Sp2 Potentiates Recruitment of Histone-Fold Protein Nf-y Distinguishing It from Sp1 and Sp3

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten; Nist, Andrea; Suske, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo. PMID:25793500

  6. Fast hybrid SPECT simulation including efficient septal penetration modelling (SP-PSF).

    PubMed

    Staelens, Steven; de Wit, Tim; Beekman, Freek

    2007-06-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are degraded by the detection of scattered photons and photons that penetrate the collimator septa. In this paper, a previously proposed Monte Carlo software that employs fast object scatter simulation using convolution-based forced detection (CFD) is extended towards a wide range of medium and high energy isotopes measured using various collimators. To this end, a fast method was developed for incorporating effects of septal penetrating (SP) photons. The SP contributions are obtained by calculating the object attenuation along the path from primary emission to detection followed by sampling a pre-simulated and scalable septal penetration point spread function (SP-PSF). We found that with only a very slight reduction in accuracy, we could accelerate the SP simulation by four orders of magnitude. To achieve this, we combined: (i) coarse sampling of the activity and attenuation distribution; (ii) simulation of the penetration only for a coarse grid of detector pixels followed by interpolation and (iii) neglection of SP-PSF elements below a certain threshold. By inclusion of this SP-PSF-based simulation it became possible to model both primary and septal penetrated photons while only 10% extra computation time was added to the CFD-based Monte Carlo simulator. As a result, a SPECT simulation of a patient-like distribution including SP now takes less than 5 s per projection angle on a dual processor PC. Therefore, the simulator is well-suited as an efficient projector for fully 3D model-based reconstruction or as a fast data-set generator for applications such as image processing optimization or observer studies. PMID:17505087

  7. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of degradation for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions were observed in treatments (III-IV) compared to treatments (I-II), and this was especially the case with the degradative rates for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil. PMID:25929330

  8. Microbiological oxidation of antimony(III) with oxygen or nitrate by bacteria isolated from contaminated mine sediments.

    PubMed

    Terry, Lee R; Kulp, Thomas R; Wiatrowski, Heather; Miller, Laurence G; Oremland, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] is a well-studied and important biogeochemical pathway that directly influences the mobility and toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In contrast, little is known about microbiological oxidation of the chemically similar anion antimonite [Sb(III)]. In this study, two bacterial strains, designated IDSBO-1 and IDSBO-4, which grow on tartrate compounds and oxidize Sb(III) using either oxygen or nitrate, respectively, as a terminal electron acceptor, were isolated from contaminated mine sediments. Both isolates belonged to the Comamonadaceae family and were 99% similar to previously described species. We identify these novel strains as Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis strain IDSBO-1 and Variovorax paradoxus strain IDSBO-4. Both strains possess a gene with homology to the aioA gene, which encodes an As(III)-oxidase, and both oxidize As(III) aerobically, but only IDSBO-4 oxidized Sb(III) in the presence of air, while strain IDSBO-1 could achieve this via nitrate respiration. Our results suggest that expression of aioA is not induced by Sb(III) but may be involved in Sb(III) oxidation along with an Sb(III)-specific pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins encoded by the aioA genes revealed a close sequence similarity (90%) among the two isolates and other known As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, particularly Acidovorax sp. strain NO1. Both isolates were capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth using As(III) as a primary electron donor, and strain IDSBO-4 exhibited incorporation of radiolabeled [(14)C]bicarbonate while oxidizing Sb(III) from Sb(III)-tartrate, suggesting possible Sb(III)-dependent autotrophy. Enrichment cultures produced the Sb(V) oxide mineral mopungite and lesser amounts of Sb(III)-bearing senarmontite as precipitates. PMID:26431974

  9. Microbiological oxidation of antimony(III) with oxygen or nitrate by bacteria isolated from contaminated mine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terry, Lee R.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Wiatrowski, Heather A.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] is a well-studied and important biogeochemical pathway that directly influences the mobility and toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In contrast, little is known about microbiological oxidation of the chemically similar anion antimonite [Sb(III)]. In this study, two bacterial strains, designated IDSBO-1 and IDSBO-4, which grow on tartrate compounds and oxidize Sb(III) using either oxygen or nitrate, respectively, as a terminal electron acceptor, were isolated from contaminated mine sediments. Both isolates belonged to the Comamonadaceae family and were 99% similar to previously described species. We identify these novel strains as Hydrogenophagataeniospiralis strain IDSBO-1 and Variovorax paradoxus strain IDSBO-4. Both strains possess a gene with homology to the aioA gene, which encodes an As(III)-oxidase, and both oxidize As(III) aerobically, but only IDSBO-4 oxidized Sb(III) in the presence of air, while strain IDSBO-1 could achieve this via nitrate respiration. Our results suggest that expression of aioA is not induced by Sb(III) but may be involved in Sb(III) oxidation along with an Sb(III)-specific pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins encoded by the aioA genes revealed a close sequence similarity (90%) among the two isolates and other known As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, particularly Acidovorax sp. strain NO1. Both isolates were capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth using As(III) as a primary electron donor, and strain IDSBO-4 exhibited incorporation of radiolabeled [14C]bicarbonate while oxidizing Sb(III) from Sb(III)-tartrate, suggesting possible Sb(III)-dependent autotrophy. Enrichment cultures produced the Sb(V) oxide mineral mopungite and lesser amounts of Sb(III)-bearing senarmontite as precipitates.

  10. Microbiological Oxidation of Antimony(III) with Oxygen or Nitrate by Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Mine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Lee R.; Wiatrowski, Heather; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] is a well-studied and important biogeochemical pathway that directly influences the mobility and toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In contrast, little is known about microbiological oxidation of the chemically similar anion antimonite [Sb(III)]. In this study, two bacterial strains, designated IDSBO-1 and IDSBO-4, which grow on tartrate compounds and oxidize Sb(III) using either oxygen or nitrate, respectively, as a terminal electron acceptor, were isolated from contaminated mine sediments. Both isolates belonged to the Comamonadaceae family and were 99% similar to previously described species. We identify these novel strains as Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis strain IDSBO-1 and Variovorax paradoxus strain IDSBO-4. Both strains possess a gene with homology to the aioA gene, which encodes an As(III)-oxidase, and both oxidize As(III) aerobically, but only IDSBO-4 oxidized Sb(III) in the presence of air, while strain IDSBO-1 could achieve this via nitrate respiration. Our results suggest that expression of aioA is not induced by Sb(III) but may be involved in Sb(III) oxidation along with an Sb(III)-specific pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins encoded by the aioA genes revealed a close sequence similarity (90%) among the two isolates and other known As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, particularly Acidovorax sp. strain NO1. Both isolates were capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth using As(III) as a primary electron donor, and strain IDSBO-4 exhibited incorporation of radiolabeled [14C]bicarbonate while oxidizing Sb(III) from Sb(III)-tartrate, suggesting possible Sb(III)-dependent autotrophy. Enrichment cultures produced the Sb(V) oxide mineral mopungite and lesser amounts of Sb(III)-bearing senarmontite as precipitates. PMID:26431974

  11. Scopulariopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. in the Documentary Heritage: Evaluation of Their Biodeterioration Ability and Antifungal Effect of Two Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Paola; de Saravia, Sandra Gómez; Guiamet, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Fungi produce pigments and acids, generating particular local conditions which modify the physicochemical properties of materials. The aims of this work are (i) to investigate bioadhesion, foxing production and biofilm formation by Scopulariopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. isolated from document collections under laboratory conditions; (ii) to verify attack on cellulose fibres and (iii) to study the possibility of reducing fungal growth using natural products. Biofilm formation and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production by fungi were demonstrated in laboratory assays and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. The biocidal activity of two essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L. was evaluated using the microatmosphere method. SEM observations showed that these strains were able to attach to paper and form biofilms, causing damage on them, which demonstrates the biodeterioration ability of these microorganisms. Scopulariopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. isolated from paper books showed the formation of fox-like reddish-brown colour spots, attack to the paper structure and pigment production on aged paper samples. The strains tested produced a decrease in the pH of one unit. This would substantiate the effect of the strains in paper biodeterioration. The microatmosphere method showed that volatile compounds of the essential oils have antifungal activity. PMID:26500067

  12. Chromate reductase activity in Streptomyces sp. MC1.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2010-02-01

    Biological transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by enzymatic reduction may provide a less costly and more environmentally friendly approach to remediation. In a previous report a Cr(VI) resistant actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. MC1, was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in a synthetic medium, soil extract and soil samples. This is the first time optimal conditions such as pH, temperature, growth phase and electron donor have been elucidated in vitro for Cr(VI) reduction by a streptomycete. Chromate reductase of Streptomyces sp. MC1 is a constitutive enzyme which was mainly associated with biomass and required NAD(P)H as an electron donor. It was active over a broad temperature (19-39 degrees C) and pH (5-8) range, and optimum conditions were 30 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme was present in supernatant, pellet and cell free extract. Bioremediation with the enzyme was observed in non-compatible cell reproduction systems, conditions frequently found in contaminated environments. PMID:20339215

  13. Cellular Response of Sinorhizobium sp. Strain A2 during Arsenite Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Koh; Huang, He; Hamamura, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed toxic element in the environment and microorganisms have developed resistance mechanisms in order to tolerate it. The cellular response of the chemoorganotrophic arsenite (As[III])-oxidizing α-Proteobacteria, Sinorhizobium sp. strain A2, to arsenic was examined in the present study. Several proteins associated with arsenite oxidase and As resistance were shown to be accumulated in the presence of As(III). A shift in central carbon metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid pathway to glyoxylate pathway was also observed in response to oxidative stress. Our results revealed the strategy of the As(III)-oxidizing Sinorhizobium strain to mitigate arsenic toxicity and oxidative damage by multiple metabolic adaptations. PMID:26477790

  14. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  15. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  16. Reclassification of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strains and proposals of Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter nataicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Navarro, Richard R; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Ten strains previously assigned to Acetobacter hansenii (=Gluconacetobacter hansenii), Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1584 and eight reference strains of the genus Gluconacetobacter were reclassified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA similarity, DNA base composition and phenotypic characteristics. The A. hansenii strains and A. pasteurianus LMG 1584 were included in the cluster of acetic acid bacteria (family Acetobacteraceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Further, they were separated into seven distinct groups by DNA-DNA similarity. DNA-DNA similarity group I was identified as G. hansenii. DNA-DNA similarity group II was retained as Gluconacetobacter sp., because DNA-DNA similarity between the strain and Gluconacetobacter entanii LTH 4560(T) could not be determined. This was due to a lack of availability of the type strain from any source. DNA-DNA similarity group III was regarded as a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 1582(T)=NRIC 0614(T)) is proposed. DNA-DNA similarity group IV included the type strains of Gluconacetobacter oboediens and Gluconacetobacter intermedius, and three A. hansenii strains. This group was identified as G. oboediens because high values of DNA-DNA similarity were obtained between the type strains and G. oboediens has priority over G. intermedius. DNA-DNA similarity group V was identified as Gluconacetobacter europaeus. DNA-DNA similarity group VI was regarded as a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter nataicola sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 1536(T)=NRIC 0616(T)) is proposed. DNA-DNA similarity group VII was reclassified as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The description of G. hansenii is emended. PMID:16957106

  17. Comparative evaluations on bio-treatment of hexavalent chromate by resting cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. and Proteus sp. in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Dong, Xinjiao; Zhou, Jiangmin; Ge, Shichao

    2013-09-15

    Two marine bacterial strains, B5 and H24, were isolated from long-term Cr(VI) contaminated seawater and identified as Pseudochrobactrum and Proteus, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Both strains were examined for their tolerance to Cr(VI) and other metal salts and their abilities to reduce Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. Growing cells of Pseudochrobactrum sp. B5 and Proteus sp. H24 could tolerate Cr(VI) at a concentration of 2000 and 1500 mg/l and completely reduce 1000 mg/l Cr(VI) in LB medium within 96 and 144 h, respectively. Resting cells of the two strains were able to reduce 200mg/l Cr(VI) in Tris-HCl buffer within 16 and 24h, respectively. Furthermore, resting cells of both strains were able to reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters three times consecutively. Overall, this study provides evidence of the potential for application of chromate-reducing bacteria to direct Cr(VI) decontamination of industrial effluents. PMID:23644665

  18. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  19. Novel polymer anchored Cr(III) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvi, Canan; Nartop, Dilek

    2012-09-01

    New polymer-bound Schiff bases and Cr(III) complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde, polymer-bound with 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-4-chlorophenol and 2-amino-4-methylphenol. The structure of polymeric-Schiff bases and their Cr(III) complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, IR, UV-Vis, TG-DTA and 1H-NMR. All these compounds have also been investigated for antibacterial activity by the well-diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus (RSKK-07035), Shigella dysenteria type 10 (RSKK 1036), Listeria monocytogenes 4b(ATCC 19115, Escherichia coli (ATCC 1230), Salmonella typhi H (NCTC 901.8394), Staphylococcus epidermis (ATCC 12228), Brucella abortus (RSKK-03026), Micrococcs luteus (ATCC 93419, Bacillus cereus sp., Pseudomonas putida sp. and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans (Y-1200-NIH).

  20. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  1. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients. PMID:26347895

  2. Structural and pharmacological characterization of the crotamine isoforms III-4 (MYX4_CROCu) and III-7 (MYX7_CROCu) isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    Two major crotamine isoforms (III-4 and III-7) were obtained combining two chromatographic steps on molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion-exchange column (Protein Pack SP 5PW) of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom. The "in vivo" myotoxic effect of the venom, its "in vitro" cytotoxicity in myoblasts and myotubes (C2C12) and the neurotoxic and edema-forming activity were characterized. The molecular masses of the crotamine isoforms were 4907.94 Da (III-4) and 4985.02 Da (III-7) and, as determined by mass spectrometry, both contained six Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing through tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of both isoforms. III-4 and III-7 isoforms presented a 42-amino acid residues sequence and showed high molecular amino acid sequence identity with other crotamine-like proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus. In vivo, both crotamine isoforms induced myotoxicty and a systemic interleukin-6 response upon intramuscular injection. These new crotamine isoforms induced low cytotoxicity in skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes (C2C12) and both induced a facilitatory effect on neuromuscular transmission in young chick biventer cervicis preparation. Edema-forming activity was also analyzed by injection of the crotamine isoforms into the right paw, since both crotamine isoforms exert a strong pro-inflammatory effect. PMID:20206199

  3. Structural and functional differences among human surfactant proteins SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2: role of supratrimeric oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barbero, Fernando; Rivas, Germán; Steinhilber, Wolfram; Casals, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    SP-A (surfactant protein A) is a membrane-associated SP that helps to maintain the lung in a sterile and non-inflamed state. Unlike SP-As from other mammalian species, human SP-A consists of two functional gene products: SP-A1 and SP-A2. In all the functions examined, recombinant human SP-A1 invariably exhibits lower biological activity than SP-A2. The objective of the present study was to investigate why SP-A2 possesses greater biological activity than SP-A1 and what advantage accrues to having two polypeptide chains instead of one. We analysed structural and functional characteristics of recombinant baculovirus-derived SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 using a wide array of experimental approaches such as analytical ultracentrifugation, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and fluorescence. We found that the extent of supratrimeric assembly is much lower in SP-A1 than SP-A2. However, the resistance to proteolysis is greater for SP-A1 than for SP-A2. Co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 had greater thermal stability than SP-A1 and SP-A2 and exhibited properties of each protein. On the one hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A2, had a higher degree of oligomerization than SP-A1, and consequently had lower Kd for binding to bacterial Re-LPS (rough lipopolysaccharide), higher self-association in the presence of calcium and greater capability to aggregate Re-LPS and phospholipids than SP-A1. On the other hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A1, was more resistant to trypsin degradation than SP-A2. Finally, the importance of the supratrimeric assembly for SP-A immunomodulatory function is discussed. PMID:17542781

  4. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

  5. The MAX III storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, M.; Wallén, E.; Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.-J.

    2009-04-01

    One of the primary goals of the 700 MeV MAX III synchrotron radiation source is to test and gain experience with new magnet and accelerator technology. Each magnet cell is machined out of two solid iron blocks that are then sandwiched together after coil and quadrupole installation. The MAX III ring makes extensive use of combined function magnets to obtain a compact lattice. In order to obtain flexibility in machine tuning pole face current strips are used in the main dipoles, which also contain the horizontally defocusing gradients. Commissioning finished in 2007 and MAX III is now going into user operation. Over the last year, MAX III has been characterized in order to both obtain calibrated models for operation purposes as well as evaluating the magnet technology. The characterization results will be described in this paper.

  6. Characterization and optimization of Fe(II)Cit-No reduction by Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Jiang, Jin-Lin; Cai, Ling-Lin; Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO), chelated by ferrous L (L: chelate reagent), to N2 is one of the core processes in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated technique for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal from flue gases. In this study, a newly isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp., was used to reduce NO chelated by Fe(II)Cit (Cit: citrate) as Fe(II)Cit-NO, and some factors were investigated. The results showed that, at the NO concentration of 670 mg/m3, 65.9% of NO was totally reduced within 25 h under anaerobic conditions, and the optimal conditions for the bioreduction of NO were found. The strain of Pseudomonas sp. could efficiently use glucose as the carbon source for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction. Though each complex could be reduced by its own dedicated bacterial strain, Fe(III)Cit could also be reduced by the strain of Pseudomonas sp. The nitrite ion, NO2-, could inhibit cell growth and thus affect the Fe(III) reduction process. These findings provide some useful data for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction, scrubber solution regeneration and NOx removal process design. PMID:22439583

  7. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given. PMID:27395968

  8. The role of thiol species in the hypertolerance of Aspergillus sp. P37 to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, David; Vooijs, Riet; Schat, Henk; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2004-12-01

    Aspergillus sp. P37 is an arsenate-hypertolerant fungus isolated from a river in Spain with a long history of contamination with metals. This strain is able to grow in the presence of 0.2 M arsenate, i.e. 20-fold higher than the reference strain, Aspergillus nidulans TS1. Although Aspergillus sp. P37 reduces As(V) to As(III), which is slowly pumped out of the cell, the measured efflux of oxyanions is insufficient to explain the high tolerance levels of this strain. To gain an insight into this paradox, the accumulation of acid-soluble thiol species in Aspergillus sp. P37 when exposed to arsenic was compared with that of the arsenic-sensitive A. nidulans TS1 strain. Increasing levels of arsenic in the medium did not diminish the intracellular pool of reduced glutathione in Aspergillus sp. P37, in sharp contrast with the decline of glutathione in A. nidulans under the same conditions. Furthermore, concentrations of arsenic that were inhibitory for the sensitive A. nidulans strain (e.g. 50 mM and above) provoked a massive formation of vacuoles filled with thiol species. Because the major fraction of the cellular arsenic was present as the glutathione conjugate As(GS)3, it is plausible that the arsenic-hypertolerant phenotype of Aspergillus sp. P37 is in part due to an enhanced capacity to maintain a large intracellular glutathione pool under conditions of arsenic exposure and to sequester As(GS)3 in vacuoles. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of cell extracts revealed that the contact of Aspergillus sp. P37 (but not A. nidulans) with high arsenic concentrations (> or =150 mM) induced the production of small quantities of a distinct thiol species indistinguishable from plant phytochelatin-2. Yet, we argue that phytochelatins do not explain arsenic resistance in Aspergillus, and we advocate the role of As(GS)3 complexes in arsenic detoxification. PMID:15364940

  9. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  10. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  11. Characterization of arsenite tolerant Halomonas sp. Alang-4, originated from heavy metal polluted shore of Gulf of Cambay.

    PubMed

    Jain, Raina; Jha, Sanjay; Mahatma, Mahesh K; Jha, Anamika; Kumar, G Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Arsenite [As(III)]-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from heavy metal contaminated shore of Gulf of Cambay at Alang, India. The most efficient bacterial strain Alang-4 could tolerate up to 15 mM arsenite [As(III)] and 200 mM of arsenate [As(V)]. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence was 99% identical to the 16S rRNA genes of genus Halomonas (Accession no. HQ659187). Arsenite oxidase enzyme localized on membrane helped in conversion of As(III) to As(V). Arsenite transporter genes (arsB, acr3(1) and acr3(2)) assisted in extrusion of arsenite from Halomonas sp. Alang-4. Generation of ROS in response to arsenite stress was alleviated by higher activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase enzymes. Down-regulation in the specific activities of nearly all dehydrogenases of carbon assimilatory pathway viz., glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases, was observed in presence of As(III), whereas, the specific activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase enzymes were found to increase two times in As(III) treated cells. The results suggest that in addition to efficient ars operon, alternative pathways of carbon utilization exist in the marine bacterium Halomonas sp. Alang-4 to overcome the toxic effects of arsenite on its dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26865328

  12. Superhard sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    Four sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  13. NanoCrySP technology for generation of drug nanocrystals: translational aspects and business potential.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ganesh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Drug nanocrystals have rapidly evolved into a mature drug delivery strategy in the last decade, with almost 16 products currently on the market. Several "top-down" technologies are available in the market for generation of nanocrystals. Despite several advantages, very few bottom-up technologies have been explored for commercial purpose. This short communication highlights a novel, bottom-up, spray drying based technology-NanoCrySP-to generate drug nanocrystals. Nanocrystals are generated in the presence of non-polymeric excipients that act as crystallization inducer for the drug. Excipients encourage crystallization of drug by plasticization, primary heterogeneous nucleation, and imparting physical barrier to crystal growth. Nanocrystals have shown significant improvement in dissolution and thereby oral bioavailability. NanoCrySP technology is protected through patents in India, the USA, and the European Union. NanoCrySP can be utilized for (i) pharmaceutical development of new chemical entities, (ii) differentiated products of existing molecules, and (iii) generic drug products. The aggregation of drug nanocrystals generated using NanoCrySP poses significant challenges in the nanocrystal-based product development. Addition of stabilizers either during spray drying or during dissolution has shown beneficial effects. PMID:26912190

  14. Degradation of 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol via a novel intermediate, 4-chlororesorcinol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2014-03-01

    A 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol (4C3NP)-mineralizing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. JHN was isolated from a waste water sample collected from a chemically-contaminated area, India by an enrichment method. Pseudomonas sp. JHN utilized 4C3NP as a sole carbon and energy source and degraded it with the release of stoichiometric amounts of chloride and nitrite ions. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 4-chlororesorcinol as a major metabolite of the 4C3NP degradation pathway. Inhibition studies using 2,2'-dipyridyl showed that 4-chlororesorcinol is a terminal aromatic compound in the degradation pathway of 4C3NP. The activity for 4C3NP-monooxygenase was detected in the crude extracts of the 4C3NP-induced JHN cells that confirmed the formation of 4-chlororesorcinol from 4C3NP. The capillary assay showed that Pseudomonas sp. JHN exhibited chemotaxis toward 4C3NP. The bioremediation capability of Pseudomonas sp. JHN was monitored to carry out the microcosm experiments using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C3NP. Strain JHN degraded 4C3NP in sterile and non-sterile soil with same degradation rates. This is the first report of (i) bacterial degradation and bioremediation of 4C3NP, (ii) formation of 4-chlororesorcinol in the degradation pathway of 4C3NP, (iii) bacterial chemotaxis toward 4C3NP.

  15. Effect of surface nitridation on the epitaxial growth of few-layer sp2 BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snure, Michael; Paduano, Qing; Kiefer, Arnold

    2016-02-01

    Boron Nitride is a promising 2D dielectric material for use in numerous electronic applications. In order to realize this potential, a process for producing atomically thin layers on microelectronics-compatible substrates is desirable. In this paper we describe an approach to epitaxially grow few-layer sp2 BN directly on an insulating substrate, using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We also elucidate the effect of sapphire surface nitridation on the growth characteristics. We compare the effect of nitridation on the growth rate, surface morphology and structure across a wide range of V/III ratios. Depending on the V/III ratio, two different growth modes were identified: at low V/III 3D island growth is dominant and at high V/III the growth transitions to a self-terminating mode. Under self-terminating growth a film thickness of 1.5 nm is typically achieved. Surface nitridation was found to improve nucleation, promoting self-terminating growth, and resulting in atomically smooth films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns reveal the epitaxial relationship between BN and sapphire to be [1-100]‖[11-20] and [0001]‖[0001]. Growth at low V/III ratios without surface nitridation produced films with large hexagonal holes, which could not be completely filled by extending the growth time. Through surface nitridation, these holes were eliminated, producing continuous smooth films.

  16. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  17. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  18. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  19. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  20. Theoretical discovery of stable structures of group III-V monolayers: The materials for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2015-11-23

    Group III-V compounds are very important as the materials of semiconductor devices. Stable structures of the monolayers of group III-V binary compounds have been discovered by using first-principles calculations. The primitive unit cell of the discovered structures is a rectangle, which includes four group-III atoms and four group-V atoms. A group-III atom and its three nearest-neighbor group-V atoms are placed on the same plane; however, these connections are not the sp{sup 2} hybridization. The bond angles around the group-V atoms are less than the bond angle of sp{sup 3} hybridization. The discovered structure of GaP is an indirect transition semiconductor, while the discovered structures of GaAs, InP, and InAs are direct transition semiconductors. Therefore, the discovered structures of these compounds have the potential of the materials for semiconductor devices, for example, water splitting photocatalysts. The discovered structures may become the most stable structures of monolayers which consist of other materials.

  1. The haemosporidian parasites of bats with description of Sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Landau, I.; Chavatte, J.M.; Karadjian, G.; Chabaud, A.; Beveridge, I.

    2012-01-01

    Four species of Haemoproteidae were found in Pteropus alecto Temminck, 1837 in Queensland, Australia: i) Johnsprentia copemani, Landau et al., 2012; ii) Sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov., characterised by schizonts in the renal vessels; iii) Hepatocystis levinei, Landau et al., 1985, originally described from Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck, 1825 and, experimentally from Culicoides nubeculosus and found in this new host and for which features of the hepatic schizonts are reported; iv) gametocytes of Hepatocystis sp. which are illustrated but cannot be assigned to a known species. A tentative interpretation of phylogenetic characters of haemosporidians of bats is provided from the morphology of the gametocytes and localisation of the tissue stages with respect to recent data on the phylogeny of bats. PMID:22550624

  2. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Yuan, Shu-xing; Qu, Hai; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Ya-jun; Wang, Ming-xi; Ming, De-song

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole genome sequence of Myroides sp., using next generation sequencing methods, would help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and guide antibiotic selection to treat Myroides sp. infections. As Myroides sp. can survive in hospitals and the environment, there is a risk of nosocomial infections and pandemics. For better management of Myroides sp. infections, it is imperative to apply next generation sequencing technologies to clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in these bacteria. PMID:26984839

  3. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  4. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  5. Direct and Fe(II)-Mediated Reduction of Technetium by Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J. R.; Sole, V. A.; Van Praagh, C. V. G.; Lovley, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    The dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens reduced and precipitated Tc(VII) by two mechanisms. Washed cell suspensions coupled the oxidation of hydrogen to enzymatic reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), leading to the precipitation of TcO2 at the periphery of the cell. An indirect, Fe(II)-mediated mechanism was also identified. Acetate, although not utilized efficiently as an electron donor for direct cell-mediated reduction of technetium, supported the reduction of Fe(III), and the Fe(II) formed was able to transfer electrons abiotically to Tc(VII). Tc(VII) reduction was comparatively inefficient via this indirect mechanism when soluble Fe(III) citrate was supplied to the cultures but was enhanced in the presence of solid Fe(III) oxide. The rate of Tc(VII) reduction was optimal, however, when Fe(III) oxide reduction was stimulated by the addition of the humic analog and electron shuttle anthaquinone-2,6-disulfonate, leading to the rapid formation of the Fe(II)-bearing mineral magnetite. Under these conditions, Tc(VII) was reduced and precipitated abiotically on the nanocrystals of biogenic magnetite as TcO2 and was removed from solution to concentrations below the limit of detection by scintillation counting. Cultures of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria enriched from radionuclide-contaminated sediment using Fe(III) oxide as an electron acceptor in the presence of 25 μM Tc(VII) contained a single Geobacter sp. detected by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and were also able to reduce and precipitate the radionuclide via biogenic magnetite. Fe(III) reduction was stimulated in aquifer material, resulting in the formation of Fe(II)-containing minerals that were able to reduce and precipitate Tc(VII). These results suggest that Fe(III)-reducing bacteria may play an important role in immobilizing technetium in sediments via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:10966385

  6. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence for Frankia sp. Strain EI5c, a Single-Spore Isolate of a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium, Isolated from the Root Nodules of Elaeagnus angustifolia.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Timothy; Oshone, Rediet; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Frankia sp. strain EI5c is a member of Frankia lineage III, which is able to reinfect plants of the Eleagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Myricaceae, and Gymnostoma, as well as the genus Alnus Here, we report the 6.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain EI5c with a G+C content of 72.14 % and 5,458 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27389275

  7. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence for Frankia sp. Strain EI5c, a Single-Spore Isolate of a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium, Isolated from the Root Nodules of Elaeagnus angustifolia

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Timothy; Oshone, Rediet; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Frankia sp. strain EI5c is a member of Frankia lineage III, which is able to reinfect plants of the Eleagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Myricaceae, and Gymnostoma, as well as the genus Alnus. Here, we report the 6.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain EI5c with a G+C content of 72.14 % and 5,458 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27389275

  8. Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. and N. ostovani sp.nov. (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Yazdanpanah, Shima; Masoudian, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described: Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. collected from soil under Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) in Markazi province and Neophyllobius ostovani sp. nov. from soil and rotten leaves of oak trees in Fars province, Iran. A key to all known Iranian and Turkish species of Neophyllobius is provided. PMID:24870646

  9. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements. PMID:27442286

  10. Terrain Perception for DEMO III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, R.; Bellutta, P.; Matthies, L.; Owens, K.; Rankin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Demo III program has as its primary focus the development of autonomous mobility for a small rugged cross country vehicle. In this paper we report recent progress on both stereo-based obstacle detection and terrain cover color-based classification.

  11. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  12. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  13. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

    PubMed

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

  14. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  15. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  16. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  17. Dollfustrema durum n. sp. and Heterobucephalopsis perardua n. sp. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker) (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), and proposal of the Heterobucephalopsinae n. subfam.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Curran, Stephen S; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    Two new species of bucephalid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) are described from the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), from off Lizard Island, Australia. We used a combined morphological and molecular-based approach targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the D1-D3 region of the large subunit (28S) of rDNA to circumscribe the species. Dollfustrema durum n. sp. is distinguished from seven congeners in having 5-6 rows of enlarged body spines circling the anterior portion of the rhynchus. From the remaining 10 species, D. durum n. sp. differs in body length, and in having a caecum that terminates posteriorly to the confluent arc formed by the vitelline follicles, gonads predominantly anterior to the pharynx, testes in tandem, an anterior testis positioned posteriorly to the vitelline follicles, and the pre-vitelline field 23-40% of the body length. Heterobucephalopsis perardua n. sp. differs from Heterobucephalopsis gymnothoracis, the type- and only other reported species, in being two to three times smaller. Heterobucephalopsis, currently considered a genus inquirendum, is confirmed as valid and is rediagnosed. Bayesian inference analysis of 28S rDNA sequences representing 28 species from nine genera and four subfamilies of bucephalid, indicates that i) subfamily classifications previously based on morphological characters are broadly robust, ii) the sequence representing H. perardua n. sp. is resolved as distinct, and basal, to sequences representing the Bucephalinae, the Prosorhynchinae, the Paurorhynchinae, and the Dolichoenterinae, iii) the Dolichoenterinae and the Prosorhynchinae are monophyletic sister clades, basal to the Bucephalinae and the Paurorhynchinae, iv) sequences representing Grammatorcynicola, Prosorhynchus, and Dollfustrema are also monophyletic, v) the Bucephalinae is paraphyletic relative to the Paurorhynchinae, and vi) the bucephaline genera Prosorhynchoides

  18. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  19. Benchmark physics experiments for SP-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, David N.; Carpenter, Stuart G.; Grasseschi, Gary L.; Smith, Dale M.

    A space nuclear power system (SNPS) benchmark reactor physics program was performed at Argonne's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). Two uranium fuelled, BeO reflected reactors were assembled to test 300 kWe conceptual designs considered for the SP-100. The major difference between configurations was the reactivity control concept. Program goals were to aid designers in evaluating SP-100 designs and provide guidance in defining a series of engineering mockup criticals to be performed in support of the ground engineering test. ZPPR-16 was a short program aimed at providing basic physics data for cores representing early SP-100 designs. All measurement results from the experimental program are available. Initial analysis, using standard deterministic methods, shows significant errors when compared against the measurements. Calculational difficulties are enhanced by the need to model a natural B4C/graphite room-return shield used in the ZPPR experiments.

  20. Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for production of biodiesel, long-chain omega-3 oils, and exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye; Nichols, Carol Mancuso; Blackburn, Susan I; Dunstan, Graeme A; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in coproducing biodiesel for transportation, as well as producing a feedstock for omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for use in nutraceuticals. In this study, we compared eight new endemic Australian thraustochytrid strains from the genera Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium, and Ulkenia for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS), in addition to biodiesel and LC-PUFA. Aurantiochytrium sp. strains readily utilized glucose for biomass production, and increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased biomass yield by an average factor of 1.7. Ulkenia sp. strain TC 010 and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 033 did not utilize glucose, while Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 utilized less than half the glucose available by day 14, and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 004 utilized glucose at 4 % w/v but not 2 % w/v of the culture suggesting a threshold requirement between these values. Across all strains, increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased total fatty acid methyl ester content by an average factor of 1.9. Despite an increasing literature demonstrating the capacity of thraustochytrids for DHA synthesis, the production of EPS from these organisms is not well documented. A broad range of EPS yields was observed. The maximum yield of EPS was observed for Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 (299 mg/L). High biomass-producing strains that also have high lipid and high EPS yield may be better candidates for commercial production of biofuels and other coproducts. PMID:24463839

  1. Precipitates of Al(III), Sc(III), and La(III) at the muscovite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A; Geiger, Franz M

    2014-11-20

    The interaction of Al(III), Sc(III), and La(III) with muscovite-water interfaces was studied at pH 4 and 10 mM NaCl using second harmonic generation (SHG) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SHG data for Sc(III) and La(III) suggest complete and/or partial irreversible adsorption that is attributed by XPS to the growth of Sc(III) and La(III) hydroxides/oxides on the muscovite surface. Al(III) adsorption appears to coincide with the growth of gibbsite (Al(OH)3) deposits on the muscovite surface, as indicated by the magnitude of the interfacial potential computed from the SHG data. This interpretation of the data is consistent with previous studies reporting the epitaxial growth of gibbsite on the muscovite surface under similar conditions. The implication of our findings is that the surface charge density of mica may change (and in the case of Al(III), even flip sign from negative (mica) to positive (gibbsite)) when Al(III), Sc(III), or La(III) is present in aqueous phases in contact with heterogeneous geochemical media rich in mica-class minerals, even at subsaturation conditions. PMID:25380548

  2. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  3. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T

  4. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of 57Fe metabolic transformations in the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Kovács, Krisztina; Biró, Borbála; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the first time for live cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp245) grown aerobically with 57FeIII-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex as a sole source of iron. The results obtained have shown that live cells actively reduce part of the assimilated iron(III) to iron(II), the latter amounting up to 33 % of total cellular iron after 18 h of growth, and 48 % after additional 3 days of storage of the dense wet cell suspension in nutrient-free saline solution in air at room temperature (measured at 80 K). The cellular iron(II) was found to be represented by two quadrupole doublets of different high-spin forms, while the parameters of the cellular iron(III) were close to those typical for bacterioferritins.

  5. The Multiple Facets of Iodine(III) Compounds in an Unprecedented Catalytic Auto-amination for Chiral Amine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Julien; Grelier, Gwendal; Darses, Benjamin; Jarvis, Amanda G; Taran, Frédéric; Dauban, Philippe

    2016-06-20

    Iodine(III) reagents are used in catalytic one-pot reactions, first as both oxidants and substrates, then as cross-coupling partners, to afford chiral polyfunctionalized amines. The strategy relies on an initial catalytic auto C(sp(3) )-H amination of the iodine(III) oxidant, which delivers an amine-derived iodine(I) product that is subsequently used in palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings to afford a variety of useful building blocks with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities. This study demonstrates the concept of self-amination of the hypervalent iodine reagents, which increases the value of the aryl moiety. PMID:27158802

  6. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  7. DSN tracking system: Mark III-77

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Deep Space Network tracking system is described. Revisions of subsystem Mark III-75 are briefly outlined, and the currently used multimission support subsystem Mark III-77 is described. Tracking functions performed are given as well.

  8. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  9. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal–ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  10. Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    PubMed

    Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Kloska, Anna; Malinowska, Marcelina; Piotrowska, Ewa; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Banecki, Bogdan; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID. The primary storage is responsible for some disease symptoms, but other arise as a result of secondary storage, including glycosphingolipids, and subsequent processes, like oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Central nervous system is predominantly affected in all subtypes of MPS III. Heparan sulfate and its derivatives are the most commonly used biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction procedures. Currently, there is no therapy for Sanfilippo syndrome, however, clinical trials are ongoing for enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy (particularly gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy). PMID:27100513

  11. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa. PMID:20640876

  12. Axial Ligation and Redox Changes at the Cobalt Ion in Cobalamin Bound to Corrinoid Iron-Sulfur Protein (CoFeSP) or in Solution Characterized by XAS and DFT

    PubMed Central

    Schrapers, Peer; Mebs, Stefan; Goetzl, Sebastian; Hennig, Sandra E.; Dau, Holger; Dobbek, Holger; Haumann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A cobalamin (Cbl) cofactor in corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CoFeSP) is the primary methyl group donor and acceptor in biological carbon oxide conversion along the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. Changes of the axial coordination of the cobalt ion within the corrin macrocycle upon redox transitions in aqua-, methyl-, and cyano-Cbl bound to CoFeSP or in solution were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Co K-edge in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, supported by metal content and cobalt redox level quantification with further spectroscopic methods. Calculation of the highly variable pre-edge X-ray absorption features due to core-to-valence (ctv) electronic transitions, XANES shape analysis, and cobalt-ligand bond lengths determination from EXAFS has yielded models for the molecular and electronic structures of the cobalt sites. This suggested the absence of a ligand at cobalt in CoFeSP in α-position where the dimethylbenzimidazole (dmb) base of the cofactor is bound in Cbl in solution. As main species, (dmb)CoIII(OH2), (dmb)CoII(OH2), and (dmb)CoIII(CH3) sites for solution Cbl and CoIII(OH2), CoII(OH2), and CoIII(CH3) sites in CoFeSP-Cbl were identified. Our data support binding of a serine residue from the reductive-activator protein (RACo) of CoFeSP to the cobalt ion in the CoFeSP-RACo protein complex that stabilizes Co(II). The absence of an α-ligand at cobalt not only tunes the redox potential of the cobalamin cofactor into the physiological range, but is also important for CoFeSP reactivation. PMID:27384529

  13. Expedient Access to 2,3-Dihydropyridines from Unsaturated Oximes by Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Sedillo, Kassandra F; Neely, Jamie M; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-07-22

    α,β-Unsaturated oxime pivalates are proposed to undergo reversible C(sp(2))-H insertion with cationic Rh(III) complexes to furnish five-membered metallacycles. In the presence of 1,1-disubstituted olefins, these species participate in irreversible migratory insertion to give, after reductive elimination, 2,3-dihydropyridine products in good yields. Catalytic hydrogenation can then be used to convert these molecules into piperidines, which are important structural components of numerous pharmaceuticals. PMID:26154248

  14. Physiological factors affecting carbon tetrachloride dehalogenation by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was grown on a medium with a low content of transition metals in order to examine the conditions for carbon tetrachloride (CT) transformation. Several carbon sources, including acetate, glucose, glycerol, and glutamate, were able to support CT transformation. The chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline stimulated CT transformation in a rich medium that otherwise did not support this activity. Low (< 10 microM) additions of dissolved iron(II), iron(III), and cobalt(II), as well as an insoluble iron(III) compound, ferric oxyhydroxide, inhibited CT transformation. The addition of 50 microM iron to actively growing cultures resulted in delayed inhibition of CT transformation. CT transformation was seen in aerobic cultures of KC, but with reduced efficiency compared with denitrifying cultures. Inhibition of CT transformation by iron was also seen in aerobically grown cultures. Optimal conditions were used in searching for effective CT transformation activity among denitrifying enrichments grown from samples of aquifer material. No activity comparable to that of Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was found among 16 samples tested. PMID:8517754

  15. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  16. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov., and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain...

  17. Lagenidium sp. Ocular Infection Mimicking Ocular Pythiosis

    PubMed Central

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  18. Lagenidium sp. ocular infection mimicking ocular pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Kasetsuwan, Ngamjit; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-08-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  19. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species. PMID:25851131

  20. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  1. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  2. Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).

    PubMed

    Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

    2011-08-01

    The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. PMID:21681635

  3. Scaling study for SP-100 reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.; McKissock, B.

    Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of using alternative power conversion subsystems, with SP-100 reactor technology was investigated. One of the principal concerns for any space based system is mass; consequently, this study focused on estimating reactor, shield, and total system mass. The RSMASS code (Marshall 1986) was used to estimate reactor and shield mass. Simple algorithms developed at NASA-Lewis were used to estimate the balance of system mass. Power ranges from 100 kWe to 10 MWe were explored assuming both one year and seven years of operation. Thermoelectric, Stirling, Rankine, and Brayton power conversion systems were investigated. The impact on safety, reliability, and other system attributes, caused by extending the technology to higher power levels, was also investigated.

  4. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L I; Nishinaka, T; Kwan, K; Kitabayashi, I; Yokoyama, K; Fu, Y H; Grünwald, S; Chiu, R

    1994-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, can either positively or negatively regulate expression of several genes through cis-acting elements in a cell-type-dependent manner. The nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) motif, GCCACC or CCACCC, and the Sp1 consensus binding sequence, CCGCCC, can confer equal responsiveness to RB. Here, we report that RB activates transcription of the c-jun gene through the Sp1-binding site within the c-jun promoter. Preincubation of crude nuclear extracts with monoclonal antibodies to RB results in reduction of Sp1 complexes in a mobility shift assay, while addition of recombinant RB in mobility shift assay mixtures with CCL64 cell extracts leads to an enhancement of DNA-binding activity of SP1. These results suggest that RB is directly or indirectly involved in Sp1-DNA binding activity. A mechanism by which RB regulates transactivation is indicated by our detection of a heat-labile and protease-sensitive Sp1 negative regulator(s) (Sp1-I) that specifically inhibits Sp1 binding to a c-jun Sp1 site. This inhibition is reversed by addition of recombinant RB proteins, suggesting that RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transactivation by liberating Sp1 from Sp1-I. Additional evidence for Sp1-I involvement in Sp1-mediated transactivation was demonstrated by cotransfection of RB, GAL4-Sp1, and a GAL4-responsive template into CV-1 cells. Finally, we have identified Sp1-I, a approximately 20-kDa protein(s) that inhibits the Sp1 complexes from binding to DNA and that is also an RB-associated protein. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between two distinct classes of oncoproteins, RB and c-Jun, that are involved in the control of cell growth, and also define a novel mechanism for the regulation of c-jun expression. Images PMID:8007947

  5. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  6. Contribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms to U(VI) Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, B.; Kennedy, David W.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-06-05

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells without EPS, we showed that i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contributed significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; ii) bEPS could be considered as a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at initial U(VI) concentrations; and iii) U(VI) reduction efficiency was found to be dependent upon initial U(VI) concentration and the efficiency decreased at lower concentrations. To quantify relative contribution of sorption and reduction in U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(V). We found that, when in reduced form, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated reactivity of laEPS while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, might facilitate U(VI) reduction.

  7. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  8. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  9. New Approaches to Characterizing Fe(III) Bioreduction by Hyperthermophiles: Combining Physiological Potential with Mineral Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, S.; Sklute, E.; Dyar, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Fe(III) is a widely available electron acceptor in many mildly-reducing deep-sea hydrothermal vents and terrestrial hot springs. Dissimilatory iron reduction, or the extracellular reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), is an integral biogeochemical process at these sites. Most of what is known about microbial Fe(III) reduction, however, has been established for mesophiles rather than the hyperthermophiles that are ubiquitous in hot environments. Our study examines the rates and constraints of Fe(III) bioreduction by hyperthermophilic archaea in order to address the types of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides that are favored for growth of hyperthermophiles, the rates of growth and Fe(II) production for these organisms, and the mineralogy of Fe(III) bioreduction and possible variations with electron acceptor. We synthesized a range of nanophase Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides (2-line-ferrihydrite, 6-line-ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, hematite, goethite, maghemite and akaganéite) and examined cell growth and Fe(II) production rates of Pyrodictium sp. Su06 and Pyrobaculum islandicum on the different Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides at 90°C and 95°C, respectively. Two different aggregate sizes of 2-line ferrihydrite and one of 6-line ferrihydrite were used to understand the effect of mineral aggregate size and shape on bioreduction. Direct cell counts and ferrozine assays were used to monitor cell growth and Fe(II) production respectively. Transformed mineral products were characterized using Mössbauer and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopies. Preliminary results suggest that Pyrodictium sp. Su06 can only utilize 2-line ferrihydrite, producing up to 35 mM Fe(II) for smaller aggregates, and 10 mM Fe(II) for larger aggregates. P. islandicum on the other hand, can reduce 2-line-ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite, producing up to 8 mM Fe(II) with ferrihydrite, 7 mM with lepidocrocite, and 2 mM with goethite as an electron acceptor. Initial results from Mössbauer and ATR spectra

  10. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  11. The gelation mechanism of chromium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1988-05-01

    Chromium(III) is commonly used crosslinker for preparing profile control gels with polymers having carboxylate and amide functionalities. Cr(III) is applied in many forms. For example, it can be used in the form of simple chromic salts of chloride and sulfate, or as complexed Cr(III) used in leather tanning, or as in-situ generated Cr(III) from the redox reaction of dichromate and bisulfite or thiourea. The gelation rate, and gel quality, doped on which form of Cr(III) is used. The author has found that the Cr olates, produced by hydrolysis of Cr(III) ions, are the reactive crosslinking species. The different gelation rates are due to the different degrees of olation. Furthermore, by controlling the degree of hydrolysis Cr(III) derived from various sources mentioned above can exhibit the same gelation rate.

  12. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  13. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  14. Titan III-C Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph shows a Titan III-C launch vehicle. Titan vehicles are designed to carry payloads equal to the size and weight of those on the space shuttle. The Titan IV Centaur can put 10,000 pound payloads into geosynchronous orbit, 22,300 miles above Earth. For more information about Titan and Centaur, please see chapters 4 and 8, respectively, in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  15. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  16. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  17. Enriched Iron(III)-Reducing Bacterial Communities are Shaped by Carbon Substrate and Iron Oxide Mineralogy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Christopher J.; Wankel, Scott D.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments. PMID

  18. Progesterone induces expression of the prolactin receptor gene through cooperative action of Sp1 and C/EBP

    PubMed Central

    Goldhar, Anita S.; Duan, Renqin; Ginsburg, Erika; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Prolactin (Prl) and progesterone (P) cooperate synergistically during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that one mechanism for these effects may be through mutual induction of receptors (R). EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells stably transfected with PR-A express elevated levels of PrlR mRNA and protein compared to control EpH4 cells that lack the PR. Likewise, T47D human breast cancer cells treated with P overexpress the PrlR and activate PrlR promoter III. PrlR promoter III does not contain a classical P response element but contains several binding sites for transcription proteins, including C/EBP, Sp1 and AP1, which may also interact with the PR. Using promoter deletion and site directed mutagenesis analyses as well as gel shift assays, cooperative activation of the C/EBP and adjacent Sp1A, but not the Sp1B or AP1, sites by P is shown to confer P responsiveness leading to increased PrlR transcription. PMID:21238538

  19. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  20. Zinc in +III oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher has fascinated chemists for decades. Significant efforts have been made in the past to achieve higher oxidation states for the heavier congener mercury (since the 3^rd ionization potential of the elements decrease as we go down the periodic table). It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities i.e. superhalogens. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.4 eV, and 8.4 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

  1. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  2. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    PubMed

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C; Ros, Marian A

    2014-08-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/-) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  3. Isolation and identification of a 10-deacetyl baccatin-III-producing endophyte from Taxus wallichiana.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Xiuren; Zhao, Wenen; Jian, Zaiyou

    2015-02-01

    Endophytic fungi of inner root bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei were investigated in order to find endophytes producing 10-DABIII (10-deacetyl baccatin III). Purified colonies were cultured in potato dextrose broth (PDB), and then the organic extracts from fungi were analyzed with HPLC, LC-MS, and (1)H NMR. Of 102 fungal endophytes isolated from the inner root bark, only one strain named IRB54 can yield 10-DABIII but no taxol and baccatin III. In PDB culture medium, its productivity was 187.564 ug/l. Based on its morphological characteristics and molecular data, the IRB54 strain was identified as Trichoderma sp. The isolation of the fungus IRB54 yielding 10-DABIII will provide an alternative resource to manufacture taxol/taxotere via semi-synthesis and some useful clues for improving the understanding of taxane synthesis evolution. PMID:25475888

  4. Atomic data for opacity calculations. X - Oscillator strengths and photoionisation cross sections for O III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, D.; Pradhan, A. K.; Saraph, H. E.; Storey, P. J.; Yu, Yan

    1989-01-01

    Energy levels and electric dipole radiative transitions were determined for O III. The wavefunctions for the bound and continuum states were derived by solving coupled integrodifferential equations in the close-coupling approximation with the aid of two methods, the R-matrix and linear algebraic methods. Configuration interaction wavefunctions are presented for eight states of the O IV target with configurations of 2s(x)sp(y) (x + y = 3). Oscillator strengths are calculated for the transitions between, and photoionization cross sections from, bound states of O III with configurations of 2s(x)2p(y)nl (for n of not greater than 10 and l of not greater than 3).

  5. Regulation of arsenite oxidation by the phosphate two-component system PhoBR in Halomonas sp. HAL1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Cao, Yajing; Wei, Sha; Li, Yanzhi; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2015-01-01

    Previously, the expression of arsenite [As(III)] oxidase genes aioBA was reported to be regulated by a three-component regulatory system, AioXSR, in a number of As(III)-oxidizing bacterial strains. However, the regulation mechanism is still unknown when aioXSR genes are absent in some As(III)-oxidizing bacterial genomes, such as in Halomonas sp. HAL1. In this study, transposon mutagenesis and gene knock-out mutation were performed, and two mutants, HAL1-phoR 931 and HAL1-▵phoB, were obtained in strain HAL1. The phoR and phoB constitute a two-component system which is responsible for phosphate (Pi) acquisition and assimilation. Both of the mutants showed negative As(III)-oxidation phenotypes in low Pi condition (0.1 mM) but not under normal Pi condition (1 mM). The phoBR complementation strain HAL1-▵phoB-C reversed the mutants' null phenotypes back to wild type status. Meanwhile, lacZ reporter fusions using pCM-lacZ showed that the expression of phoBR and aioBA were both induced by As(III) but were not induced in HAL1-phoR 931 and HAL1-▵phoB. Using 15 consensus Pho box sequences, a putative Pho box was found in the aioBA regulation region. PhoB was able to bind to the putative Pho box in vivo (bacterial one-hybrid detection) and in vitro (electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay), and an 18-bp binding sequence containing nine conserved bases were determined. This study provided the evidence that PhoBR regulates the expression of aioBA in Halomonas sp. HAL1 under low Pi condition. The new regulation model further implies the close metabolic connection between As and Pi. PMID:26441863

  6. Regulation of arsenite oxidation by the phosphate two-component system PhoBR in Halomonas sp. HAL1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Cao, Yajing; Wei, Sha; Li, Yanzhi; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2015-01-01

    Previously, the expression of arsenite [As(III)] oxidase genes aioBA was reported to be regulated by a three-component regulatory system, AioXSR, in a number of As(III)-oxidizing bacterial strains. However, the regulation mechanism is still unknown when aioXSR genes are absent in some As(III)-oxidizing bacterial genomes, such as in Halomonas sp. HAL1. In this study, transposon mutagenesis and gene knock-out mutation were performed, and two mutants, HAL1-phoR931 and HAL1-▵phoB, were obtained in strain HAL1. The phoR and phoB constitute a two-component system which is responsible for phosphate (Pi) acquisition and assimilation. Both of the mutants showed negative As(III)-oxidation phenotypes in low Pi condition (0.1 mM) but not under normal Pi condition (1 mM). The phoBR complementation strain HAL1-▵phoB-C reversed the mutants' null phenotypes back to wild type status. Meanwhile, lacZ reporter fusions using pCM-lacZ showed that the expression of phoBR and aioBA were both induced by As(III) but were not induced in HAL1-phoR931 and HAL1-▵phoB. Using 15 consensus Pho box sequences, a putative Pho box was found in the aioBA regulation region. PhoB was able to bind to the putative Pho box in vivo (bacterial one-hybrid detection) and in vitro (electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay), and an 18-bp binding sequence containing nine conserved bases were determined. This study provided the evidence that PhoBR regulates the expression of aioBA in Halomonas sp. HAL1 under low Pi condition. The new regulation model further implies the close metabolic connection between As and Pi. PMID:26441863

  7. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  8. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  9. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  10. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  11. IAA production by Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 promotes Indian mustard growth in the presence of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Jin-Won; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sp. strain JH 2-2, isolated from the rhizosphere of plants at a multi-metal contaminated mine site, has the potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and promote plant growth by reducing Cr toxicity and producing IAA. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cr(VI) to Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 was 1000 mg L(-1) and the strain reduced 99% of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) to Cr(IV) within 24 h. Lower Cr(VI) stress (10 mg L(-1) ) stimulated IAA production, but much less IAA was produced at 30 or 50 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) . Inoculation with Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 increased the length of Brassica juncea L. roots by 364% and stems by 735% in the presence of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) from those of uninoculated control plants. These findings suggest potential use of Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 to promote phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Cr(VI). PMID:25283159

  12. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  13. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  14. The homopentameric chlorite dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    PubMed

    Freire, Diana M; Rivas, Maria G; Dias, André M; Lopes, Ana T; Costa, Cristina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; González, Pablo J

    2015-10-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a b-type heme containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of chlorite into chloride plus dioxygen. This enzyme has gained attention because it can be used in the development of bioremediation processes, biosensors, and controlled dioxygen production. In the present work, Cld was purified from Magnetospirillum sp. cells cultured anaerobically with acetate/perchlorate until stationary phase. Biochemical, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallography methods showed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. is a ~140 kDa homopentamer comprising ~27.8 kDa monomers. Preliminary X-ray crystallography studies confirmed the quaternary structure and the presence of one b-type heme per monomer. The EPR spectroscopic signature of the as-purified Cld samples is affected by the buffer composition used during the purification. Potassium phosphate buffer is the only buffer that affected neither the spectral nor the kinetic properties of Cld. Kinetic studies in solution revealed that Cld from Magnetospirillum sp. decomposes chlorite at high turnover rates with optimal pH6.0. A temperature below 10 °C is required to avoid enzyme inactivation due to cofactor bleaching during turnover, and to achieve full substrate consumption. Cld kinetic parameters were not affected when kinetic assays were performed in the presence of air or under argon atmosphere, but chloride is a weak mixed inhibitor that modifies the EPR signal of as-prepared samples. PMID:26218477

  15. A further insight into the biosorption mechanism of Au(III) by infrared spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The interactions of microbes with metal ions form an important basis for our study of biotechnological applications. Despite the recent progress in studying some properties of Au(III) adsorption and reduction by Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass, there is still a need for additional data on the molecular mechanisms of biosorbents responsible for their interactions with Au(III) to have a further insight and to make a better exposition. Results The biosorption mechanism of Au(III) onto the resting cell of Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass on a molecular level has been further studied here. The infrared (IR) spectroscopy on D01 biomass and that binding Au(III) demonstrates that the molecular recognition of and binding to Au(III) appear to occur mostly with oxygenous- and nitrogenous-active groups of polysaccharides and proteins in cell wall biopolymers, such as hydroxyl of saccharides, carboxylate anion of amino-acid residues (side-chains of polypeptide backbone), peptide bond (amide I and amide II bands), etc.; and that the active groups must serve as nucleation sites for Au(0) nuclei growth. A further investigation on the interactions of each of the soluble hydrolysates of D01, Bacillus licheniformis R08, Lactobacillus sp. strain A09 and waste Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomasses with Au(III) by IR spectrometry clearly reveals an essential biomacromolecule-characteristic that seems the binding of Au(III) to the oxygen of the peptide bond has caused a significant, molecular conformation-rearrangement in polypeptide backbones from β-pleated sheet to α-helices and/or β-turns of protein secondary structure; and that this changing appears to be accompanied by the occurrence, in the peptide bond, of much unbound -C=O and H-N- groups, being freed from the inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding of the β-pleated sheet and carried on the helical forms, as well as by the alternation in side chain steric positions of protein primary structure. This might be reasonably

  16. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  17. CpcM posttranslationally methylates asparagine-71/72 of phycobiliprotein beta subunits in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gaozhong; Leonard, Heidi S; Schluchter, Wendy M; Bryant, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Cyanobacteria produce phycobilisomes, which are macromolecular light-harvesting complexes mostly assembled from phycobiliproteins. Phycobiliprotein beta subunits contain a highly conserved gamma-N-methylasparagine residue, which results from the posttranslational modification of Asn71/72. Through comparative genomic analyses, we identified a gene, denoted cpcM, that (i) encodes a protein with sequence similarity to other S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, (ii) is found in all sequenced cyanobacterial genomes, and (iii) often occurs near genes encoding phycobiliproteins in cyanobacterial genomes. The cpcM genes of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 were insertionally inactivated. Mass spectrometric analyses of phycobiliproteins isolated from the mutants confirmed that the CpcB, ApcB, and ApcF were 14 Da lighter than their wild-type counterparts. Trypsin digestion and mass analyses of phycobiliproteins isolated from the mutants showed that tryptic peptides from phycocyanin that included Asn72 were also 14 Da lighter than the equivalent peptides from wild-type strains. Thus, CpcM is the methyltransferase that modifies the amide nitrogen of Asn71/72 of CpcB, ApcB, and ApcF. When cells were grown at low light intensity, the cpcM mutants were phenotypically similar to the wild-type strains. However, the mutants were sensitive to high-light stress, and the cpcM mutant of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was unable to grow at moderately high light intensities. Fluorescence emission measurements showed that the ability to perform state transitions was impaired in the cpcM mutants and suggested that energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to the photosystems was also less efficient. The possible functions of asparagine N methylation of phycobiliproteins are discussed. PMID:18469097

  18. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  19. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history. PMID:27054834

  20. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of few-layer sp2 bonded boron nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduano, Qing; Snure, Michael; Weyburne, David; Kiefer, Arnold; Siegel, Gene; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    A systematic study of the growth of atomically smooth few-layer sp2 bonded BN on 50 mm sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using Triethylboron (TEB) and NH3 as precursors is described. Based on the experimental results obtained using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectance measurements and transmission electron microscopy, we explored the growth parameter space and identified three different growth modes: random three-dimensional (3D) growth, a self-terminating few-layer growth mode, and a very slow layer-by-layer mode. The growth mode depends on the temperature, pressure, V/III ratio, and surface nitridation conditions, as follows: 3D island growth is dominant in the low V/III range and is characterized by a decreasing growth rate with increasing deposition temperature. When the V/III ratio is increased this 3D island growth mode transitions to a self-terminating few-layer growth mode. An additional transition from self-terminating growth to 3D growth occurs when the growth pressure is increased. Very slow layer by layer growth is found at high temperature and low pressure. Finally, substrate surface nitridation promotes self-terminating growth that results in atomically smooth films.

  1. Dens invaginatus (Type III B)

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Sudheendra, US; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus or ‘dens in dente’ is a developmental malformation of the tooth resulting from infolding of the dental papilla before calcification. This article presents a case of dens invaginatus occurring in maxillary right lateral incisor of a 45-year-old male patient. The patient presented with pain and clinically missing maxillary right canine. The tooth was found to be non-vital. Radiographic examination revealed the tooth-in-tooth appearance of lateral incisor with a dilated pulp chamber. The crown of impacted canine was found within the pulp chamber of lateral incisor. Owing to this unique clinical presentation, both the lateral incisor and the impacted canine were extracted. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Dens invaginatus Type III B. A brief review on etiopathogenesis, radiographic features and treatment of dens invaginatus has also been included. PMID:22923901

  2. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface. PMID:26198355

  3. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella. PMID:26778206

  4. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  5. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase. PMID:26340746

  6. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  7. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed. PMID:26031294

  8. Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov., Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov., and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Eom, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-11-01

    Four Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, MM-124, MM-126, NB-68 and NB-77, were isolated from the coastal seawater or a region with a bloom of sea sparkle around Geoje island in Korea. The sequence similarity values of the 16S rRNA gene between the isolates and Sulfitobacter mediterraneus DSM 12244(T) ranged from 97.7 to 98.2%, and phylogenetic relationships suggested that they belong to a phylogenetic branch that includes the genera Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. The isoprenoid quinone of all three novel strains was ubiquinone-10 and the major fatty acid was cis-vaccenic acid, as in other species of the genus Sulfitobacter. However, there were several differences in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics among the four strains and the reference species of the genus Sulfitobacter. Moreover, the average nucleotide identity values between the three sequenced isolates and the reference strains were below 76.33, indicating that genomic variation exists between the isolates and reference strains. Chemotaxonomic characteristics together with phylogenetic affiliations and genomic distances illustrate that strains MM-124, NB-68 and NB-77 represent novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the names Sulfitobacter geojensis sp. nov. (type strain MM-124(T) =KCTC 32124(T) =JCM 18835(T)), Sulfitobacter noctilucae sp. nov. (type strain NB-68(T) =KCTC 32122(T) =JCM 18833(T)) and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola sp. nov. (type strain NB-77(T) =KCTC 32123(T) =JCM 18834(T)) are proposed. PMID:25122614

  9. Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Yates, Matthew; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A previously isolated exoelectrogenic bacterium, strain SD-1(T), was further characterized and identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Geobacter. Strain SD-1(T) was Gram-negative, aerotolerant, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Geobacter, with the closest known relative being Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98% similarity). Similar to other members of the genus Geobacter, strain SD-1(T) used soluble or insoluble Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor coupled with the oxidation of acetate. However, SD-1(T) could not reduce fumarate as an electron acceptor with acetate oxidization, which is an important physiological trait for G. sulfurreducens. Moreover, SD-1(T) could grow in media containing as much as 3% NaCl, while G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) can tolerate just half this concentration, and this difference in salt tolerance was even more obvious when cultivated in bioelectrochemical systems. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain SD-1(T) and its closest relative, G. sulfurreducens ATCC 51573(T), showed a relatedness of 61.6%. The DNA G+C content of strain SD-1(T) was 58.9 mol%. Thus, on the basis of these characteristics, strain SD-1(T) was not assigned to G. sulfurreducens, and was instead classified in the genus Geobacter as a representative of a novel species. The name Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SD-1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12536(T) = KCTC 4672(T)). PMID:25052395

  10. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

  11. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain. PMID:27088819

  12. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp2and sp3Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-01

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp2 bonding found in graphitic C and sp3 bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semi-metallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  13. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-01

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters. PMID:27267512

  14. Organoantimony(III)-Containing Tungstoarsenates(III): From Controlled Assembly to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Bassil, Bassem S; Lin, Zhengguo; Haider, Ali; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Silvestru, Cristian; Kortz, Ulrich

    2015-10-26

    A family of three sandwich-type, phenylantimony(III)-containing tungstoarsenates(III), [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](11-) (1), [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](10-) (2), and [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ](12-) (3), have been synthesized by one-pot procedures and isolated as hydrated alkali metal salts, Cs3 K3.5 Na4.5 [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅41H2 O (CsKNa-1), Cs4.5 K5.5 [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅35H2 O (CsK-2), and Cs4.5 Na7.5 [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ]⋅42H2 O (CsNa-3). The number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } units could be selectively tuned from one to three by careful control of the reaction parameters. The three compounds were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The aqueous solution stability of sandwich polyanions 1-3 was also studied by multinuclear ((1) H, (13) C, (183) W) NMR spectroscopy. Effective inhibitory activity against six different kinds of bacteria was identified for all three polyanions, for which the activity increased with the number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } groups. PMID:26368119

  15. Rh-Catalyzed Direct Amination of Unactivated C(sp(3) )-H bond with Anthranils Under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Conghui; Zou, Miancheng; Liu, Jianzhong; Wen, Xiaojin; Sun, Xiang; Zhang, Yiqun; Jiao, Ning

    2016-08-01

    C-N Bond formation is of great significance due to the ubiquity of nitrogen-containing compounds. Here, a mild and efficient Rh(III) -catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H aryl amination reaction is reported. Anthranil is employed as the nitrogen source with 100 % atom efficiency. This C-H amination reaction exhibits broad substrate scope without using any external oxidants. Mechanistic studies including rhodacycle intermediates, H-D exchange, kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments, and in situ IR are presented. PMID:27258824

  16. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  17. O-Linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  18. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome. PMID:26431879

  19. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  20. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity in rice: Comparative effect of inoculation of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis sp. on growth, biochemical changes and arsenic uptake.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, A K; Singh, N K; Singh, R; Rai, U N

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Triguna) by inoculating alga; Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochlropsis sp. supplemented with As(III) (50µM) under hydroponics condition. Results showed that reduced growth variables and protein content in rice plant caused by As toxicity were restored in the algae inoculated plants after 7d of treatment. The rice plant inoculated with Nannochloropsis sp. exhibited a better response in terms of increased root, shoot length and biomass than C. vulgaris under As(III) treatment. A significant reduction in cellular toxicity (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, APX and GR) activities were observed in algae inoculated rice plant under As(III) treatment in comparison to uninoculated rice. In addition, rice treated with As(III), accumulated 35.05mgkg(-1)dw arsenic in the root and 29.96mgkg(-1)dw in the shoot. However, lower accumulation was observed in As(III) treated rice inoculated with C. vulgaris (24.09mg kg(-1)dw) and Nannochloropsis sp. (20.66mgkg(-1)dw) in the roots, while in shoot, it was 20.10mgkg(-1)dw and 11.67mgkg(-1)dw, respectively. Results demonstrated that application of these algal inoculum ameliorates toxicity and improved tolerance in rice through reduced As uptake and modulating antioxidant enzymes. Thus, application of algae could provide a low-cost and eco-friendly mitigation approach to reduce accumulation of arsenic in edible part of rice as well as higher yield in the As contaminated agricultural field. PMID:26473328

  1. Grant Administration Manual for Title III Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Emily Duncan; Ashmore, Frances W.

    Guidelines for coordinators of programs under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, based on a national survey of Title III program coordinators. The responsibilities of the coordinator and information on administering the Strengthening Developing Institutions Program (SDIP) grant are covered. The program can either be a…

  2. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  4. The case of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    Skrziepietz, A

    2011-11-01

    In this short essay we will discuss the possible diseases of King Richard III according to the descriptions in Shakespeare's plays King Richard III and Henry VI. Furthermore, it is shown that the description of the defeated enemy as physically and mentally deformed is part of a long tradition which has its roots in Ancient Greece. PMID:22089046

  5. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype. PMID:20477965

  6. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  7. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  8. FATE OF CHROMIUM (III) IN CHLORINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of trivalent chromium, Cr(III), to the more toxic Cr(VI) in chlorinated water is thermodynamically feasible and was the subject of the study. The study found that free available chlorine (FAC) readily converts Cr(III) to Cr(VI) at a rate that is highly dependent upo...

  9. Dissimilatory Reduction of Fe(III) and Other Electron Acceptors by a Thermus Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Onstott, T. C.; Gorby, Y. A.; Kostandarithes, H. M.; Bailey, T. J.; Kennedy, D. W.; Li, S. W.; Plymale, A. E.; Spadoni, C. M.; Gray, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A thermophilic bacterium that can use O2, NO3−, Fe(III), and S0 as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at a 3.2-km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors. Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus strain SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could reduce only relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II); reduction of Fe(III)-NTA was coupled to the oxidation of lactate and supported growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus strain SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and U(VI). Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H2. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO2 and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65°C; their optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn, or S. PMID:10049886

  10. Dissimilatory Reduction of Fe(III) and Other Electron Acceptors by a Thermus Isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T. L.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Onstott, T. C.; Gorby, Y. A.; Kostandarithes, H. M.; Bailey, T. J.; Kennedy, D. W.; Li, S. W.; Plymale, A. E.; Spadoni, C. M.; Gray, M. S.

    1995-10-25

    A thermophilic bacterium that could use O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe(III), or S{sup o} as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at 3.2 km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors, whereas Thermus aquaticus (ATCC 25104) and Thermus filiformis (ATCC 43280) did not reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} or Fe(III). Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could only reduce relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS) was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II), was coupled to the oxidation of lactate, and could support growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and AQDS. Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H{sub 2}. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO{sub 2} and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65 C; optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn or S.

  11. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  12. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    SciTech Connect

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D. )

    1993-01-10

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW[sub e] system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW[sub 2], Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW[sub e] in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  13. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  14. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  15. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12. PMID:25945812

  16. Superoxide radical production by sponges Sycon sp.

    PubMed

    Peskin, A V; Labas, Y A; Tikhonov, A N

    1998-08-28

    Using the catechol Tiron as an O2-. scavenger, we showed that sea sponges (Sycon sp.) produce superoxide radicals in sea water at a high rate without any stimuli added. The rate of O2-. outflow from sponges to their water surroundings reaches a value of 0.5 nmol/min per sponge at pH 6.5. The generation of O2-. was inhibited by Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and restored by the addition of KCN. We also confirmed the abiotic production of O2-. in sea water, detected earlier with a different method by Petasne and Zika [Nature 325 (1987) 516-518]. PMID:9738478

  17. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1990-07-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  19. Title III and toxic torts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodnehausen, G.A.

    1989-07-01

    In July the second annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) report under Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the computerized, national TRI data-base will be issued. Although the Environmental Protection Agency will not be able to aggregate the July, 1989 reports and issue its own annual report until early next year, we can expect political attention to focus quickly on whether total releases to air, land and water, and in particular total emissions to the air, have increased or decreased from 1987 to 1988. Because the reporting threshold for chemical manufacturing and processing facilities will drop from 75,000 to 50,000 pounds per year, the number of facilities reporting and number of chemicals reported should increase significantly, forcing up total releases. Bringing the totals down will be waste and release reduction efforts already underway in the chemical industry and elsewhere, and perhaps improved accuracy in measurement and estimation of releases. Additions to and deletions from the list of reportable chemicals will also have an effect. Nevertheless, any significant increase in aggregate totals, no matter what the explanation, will be bound to have a political impact on air toxics legislation, and spur public concern with the health risks of air pollution.

  20. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  1. Doublet III Big Dee Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Luxon, J.L.

    1985-05-01

    The Doublet III tokamak is presently being reconfigured into a new larger dee-shaped plasma configuration. Experiments will begin in 1986 with a goal of high current, high beta plasma operation at moderate magnetic field. The existing toroidal field coil, Ohmic heating coil, and innermost plasma shaping coils will be retained. A new water-cooled vacuum vessel is being fabricated using a corrugated Inconel sandwich wall construction. Six new water-cooled copper poloidal field coils are also being fabricated. The resultant device along with additional power supplies will provide a capability for plasma currents of 3.5 MA for 1.5 s during the first phase of operations; the tokamak systems are designed for 5 MA operation with additional power systems. The four existing 80 keV, 3 MW neutral beam lines are being modified for optimum torus access and 0.7 s operation. These injectors will be upgraded to allow 5 s operation with new sources in 1987. The device has been designed to accommodate an additional 20 MW of ICRH and ECH power in the future. Limiters and vessel wall protection will be provided for initial operation with up to 40 MJ of input energy. Future installation of additional thermal armor will allow operation with up to 200 MJ of input energy over a 10 s period. Most of the existing diagnostics will be modified as required and reinstalled on the new vessel.

  2. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  3. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  4. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  5. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  6. Coexisting bacterial populations responsible for multiphasic mineralization kinetics in soil. [Janthinobacterium sp. Rhodococcus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.K.; Gier, M.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low {mu}{sub max} and a low K{sub m} for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for {mu}{sub max} from soil incubations were similar to {mu}{sub max} values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, K{sub s} and K{sub m} values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies.

  7. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  8. Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hagler, Allen N; Ribeiro, José R A; Pinotti, T; Brandão, Luciana R; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lins, U; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsieh, Chin-Wen; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-08-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated during three independent studies of yeasts associated with natural substrates in Brazil and Taiwan. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that these novel species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade. The first was isolated from freshwater and a leaf of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) in Brazil and from leaves of Wedelia biflora in Taiwan. Described here as Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov., it differs by 56 nucleotide substitutions and 19 gaps in the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene from Candida sorbophila, the least divergent species. The second species, named Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., was isolated from leaves and the rhizosphere of sugar cane collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species differs by 54 nucleotide substitutions and nine gaps in the D1/D2 domains from Candida drosophilae, its least divergent relative. The type strains are Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52096(T) (= CBS 12417(T) = DBVPG 8032(T)) and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52102(T) (= CBS 12419(T) = DBVPG 8034(T)). PMID:23710055

  9. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  10. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  11. Identification of a Novel Di-D-Fructofuranose 1,2’:2,3’ Dianhydride (DFA III) Hydrolysis Enzyme from Arthrobacter aurescens SK8.001

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuhuai; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a di-D-fructofuranose 1,2’:2,3’ dianhydride (DFA III)-producing strain, Arthrobacter aurescens SK8.001, was isolated from soil, and the gene cloning and characterization of the DFA III-forming enzyme was studied. In this study, a DFA III hydrolysis enzyme (DFA IIIase)-encoding gene was obtained from the same strain, and the DFA IIIase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The SDS-PAGE and gel filtration results indicated that the purified enzyme was a homotrimer holoenzyme of 145 kDa composed of subunits of 49 kDa. The enzyme displayed the highest catalytic activity for DFA III at pH 5.5 and 55°C, with specific activity of 232 U mg-1. Km and Vmax for DFA III were 30.7 ± 4.3 mM and 1.2 ± 0.1 mM min-1, respectively. Interestingly, DFA III-forming enzymes and DFA IIIases are highly homologous in amino acid sequence. The molecular modeling and docking of DFA IIIase were first studied, using DFA III-forming enzyme from Bacillus sp. snu-7 as a template. It was suggested that A. aurescens DFA IIIase shared a similar three-dimensional structure with the reported DFA III-forming enzyme from Bacillus sp. snu-7. Furthermore, their catalytic sites may occupy the same position on the proteins. Based on molecular docking analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, it was shown that D207 and E218 were two potential critical residues for the catalysis of A. aurescens DFA IIIase. PMID:26555784

  12. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied. PMID:20175511

  13. Large Hexadecametallic {Mn(III) -Ln(III) } Wheels: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, and Theoretical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis, gas sorption studies, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of new molecular wheels of core type {Mn(III) 8 Ln(III) 8 } (Ln=Dy, Ho, Er, Y and Yb), using the ligand mdeaH2 , in the presence of ortho-toluic or benzoic acid are reported. From the seven wheels studied the {Mn8 Dy8 } and {Mn8 Y8 } analogues exhibit SMM behavior as determined from ac susceptibility experiments in a zero static magnetic field. From DFT calculations a S=16 ground state was determined for the {Mn8 Y8 } complex due to weak ferromagnetic Mn(III) -Mn(III) interactions. Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations on the {Mn8 Dy8 } wheel estimated the Mn(III) -Dy(III) exchange interaction as -0.1 cm(-1) . This weak exchange along with unfavorable single-ion anisotropy of Dy(III) /Mn(III) ions, however, led to the observation of SMM behavior with fast magnetic relaxation. The orientation of the g-anisotropy of the Dy(III) ions is found to be perpendicular to the plane of the wheel and this suggests the possibility of toroidal magnetic moments in the cluster. The {Mn8 Ln8 } clusters reported here are the largest heterometallic Mn(III) Ln(III) wheels and the largest {3d-4f} wheels to exhibit SMM behavior reported to date. PMID:26403264

  14. Mechanisms of Eu(III) and Cm(III) Association With Chlorella Vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Chlorella vulgaris and cellulose was studied by a batch method, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The kinetics study performed by a batch method showed that the maximum adsorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris was attained within three minutes of contact time, and afterwards the percentage adsorption decreased with time due to exudates released from C. vulgaris with affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). TRLFS showed that the short-term adsorption of Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was attributed to their coordination with the cell wall components comprised of cellulose. TRLFS also demonstrated that Eu(III) coordinated with the functional groups of cellulose very weakly in spite of the large distribution coefficients observed. EXAFS analysis showed the local structure around the Eu(III) adsorbed on cellulose and with C. vulgaris was similar. These results indicate that the reactions both at cell surfaces through the adsorption as well as in solution phases through chelation with the exudates are important in estimating the environmental behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) in aqueous environments.

  15. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1987-07-01

    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  16. An outbreak of trichinosis with molecular identification of Trichinella sp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Ha, Nguyen Hong; Nga, Vu Thi; Ha, Nguyen Minh; Thuy, Pham Thanh; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2012-12-01

    The 5th outbreak of trichinosis occurred in a mountainous area of North Vietnam in 2012, involving 24 patients among 27 people who consumed raw pork together. Six of these patients visited several hospitals in Hanoi for treatment. Similar clinical symptoms appeared in these patients within 5-8 days after eating infected raw pork, which consisted of fever, muscle pain, difficult moving, edema, difficult swallowing, and difficult breathing. ELISA revealed all (6/6) positive reactions against Trichinella spiralis antigen and all cases showed positive biopsy results for Trichinella sp. larvae in the muscle. The larvae detected in the patients were identified as T. spiralis (Vietnamese strain) by the molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) gene. PMID:23230332

  17. Brevibacillus sp. KUMAs2, a bacterial isolate for possible bioremediation of arsenic in rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Ivy; Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Sinha, Sangram; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of soil and water has been considered as a major global environmental issue during last few decades. Among the various methods so far reported for reclamation of As contaminated rhizosphere soil, bioremediation using bacteria has been found to be most promising. An As resistant bacterial isolate Brevibacillus sp. KUMAs2 was obtained from As contaminated soil of Nadia, West Bengal, India, which could resist As(V) and As(III) a maximum of 265mM and 17mM, respectively. The strain could remove ~40 percent As under aerobic culture conditions. As resistant property in KUMAs2 was found to be plasmid-borne, which carried both As oxidizing and reducing genes. The strain could promote chilli plant growth under As contaminated soil environment by decreasing As accumulation in plant upon successful colonization in the rhizosphere, which suggests the possibility of using this isolate for successful bioremediation of As in the crop field. PMID:25011120

  18. An Outbreak of Trichinosis with Molecular Identification of Trichinella sp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trung, Nguyen Vu; Ha, Nguyen Hong; Nga, Vu Thi; Ha, Nguyen Minh; Thuy, Pham Thanh; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2012-01-01

    The 5th outbreak of trichinosis occurred in a mountainous area of North Vietnam in 2012, involving 24 patients among 27 people who consumed raw pork together. Six of these patients visited several hospitals in Hanoi for treatment. Similar clinical symptoms appeared in these patients within 5-8 days after eating infected raw pork, which consisted of fever, muscle pain, difficult moving, edema, difficult swallowing, and difficult breathing. ELISA revealed all (6/6) positive reactions against Trichinella spiralis antigen and all cases showed positive biopsy results for Trichinella sp. larvae in the muscle. The larvae detected in the patients were identified as T. spiralis (Vietnamese strain) by the molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) gene. PMID:23230332

  19. C-F sp(2) bond functionalization mediated by niobium complexes.

    PubMed

    Nechayev, Michael; Gianetti, Thomas L; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John

    2015-12-01

    Insertion chemistry of isocyanide molecules was used to functionalize C-F sp(2) bonds after their oxidative addition across the metal center in a β-diketiminate niobium(iii) imido complex (BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)(C6H6). The complexes formed, 3a-b ([BDI]Nb(PhC[double bond, length as m-dash]N)(N(t)Bu)(F) (R = 1,6-diisopropylphenyl, tert-butyl), were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. Further treatment with phenylsilane induced H/F exchange under mild conditions, which was followed by hydride transfer to the inserted isocyanide. Divergent reactivity was observed when the two analogous aryl and tert-butyl isocyanide insertion products were treated with phenylsilane. PMID:26216334

  20. Arsenite Oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22

    PubMed Central

    Lieutaud, Aurélie; van Lis, Robert; Duval, Simon; Capowiez, Line; Muller, Daniel; Lebrun, Régine; Lignon, Sabrina; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lett, Marie-Claire; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the aro arsenite oxidation system in the novel strain Ralstonia sp. 22, a β-proteobacterium isolated from soil samples of the Salsigne mine in southern France. The inducible aro system consists of a heterodimeric membrane-associated enzyme reacting with a dedicated soluble cytochrome c554. Our biochemical results suggest that the weak association of the enzyme to the membrane probably arises from a still unknown interaction partner. Analysis of the phylogeny of the aro gene cluster revealed that it results from a lateral gene transfer from a species closely related to Achromobacter sp. SY8. This constitutes the first clear cut case of such a transfer in the Aro phylogeny. The biochemical study of the enzyme demonstrates that it can accommodate in vitro various cytochromes, two of which, c552 and c554, are from the parent species. Cytochrome c552 belongs to the sox and not the aro system. Kinetic studies furthermore established that sulfite and sulfide, substrates of the sox system, are both inhibitors of Aro activity. These results reinforce the idea that sulfur and arsenic metabolism are linked. PMID:20421652

  1. The ANL/IBM SP scheduling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lifka, D.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately five years ago scientists discovered that modern UNLX workstations connected with ethernet and fiber networks could provide enough computational performance to compete with the supercomputers. As this concept became increasingly popular, the need for distributed queuing and scheduler systems became apparent. Systems such as DQS from Florida State University were developed and worked very well. Today however, supercomputers such as Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM SP system can provide more CPU and networking speed than can be obtained from these networks of workstations. Nevertheless, because modern super computers look like clusters of workstations developers felt that the scheduling systems previously used on clusters of workstations should still apply. After trying to apply some of these scheduling systems to Argonne`s SP environment it became obvious that these two computer environments have very different scheduling needs. Recognizing this need, and realizing that no one has addressed it, we at Argonne developed a new scheduling system. The approach taken in creating this system was unique in that user input and interaction were encouraged throughout the development process. Thus a scheduler was built that actually works the way the users want it to.

  2. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  3. SP-100 Space Reactor Power System readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, A. T.; Matteo, D. N.; Bailey, H. S.

    The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996 - 1997 time frame.

  4. Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction by a newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA from a rotating drum biofilter for NOx removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Yan; Hao, Hong-hong; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jian-meng

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO is one of the core processes in BioDeNOx, an integrated physicochemical and biological technique for NOx removal from industrial flue gases. A newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA, identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, could simultaneously reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(III)EDTA. A maximum NO removal efficiency of 98.7% was achieved when 3mM Fe(II)EDTA-NO was used in the nutrient solution at 55°C. Results of this study strongly indicated that the biological oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA played an important role in the formation of Fe(III)EDTA in the anaerobic system. Fe(II)EDTA-NO was more competitive than Fe(III)EDTA as an electron acceptor, and the presence of Fe(III)EDTA slightly affected the reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. At 55°C, the maximum microbial specific growth rate μmax reached the peak value of 0.022h(-1). The maximum NO removal efficiency was also measured (95.4%) under this temperature. Anoxybacillus sp. HA, which grew well at 50°C-60°C, is a potential microbial resource for Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction at thermophilic temperatures. PMID:25541258

  5. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) in the presence of different Fe(III) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang; Hu, Xingyun

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity and mobility of antimony (Sb) are strongly influenced by the redox processes associated with Sb. Dissolved iron (Fe) is widely distributed in the environment as different species and plays a significant role in Sb speciation. However, the mechanisms of Sb(III) oxidation in the presence of Fe have remained unclear because of the complexity of Fe and Sb speciation. In this study, the mechanisms of Sb(III) photooxidation in the presence of different Fe species were investigated systematically. The photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred over a wide pH range, from 1 to 10. Oxygen was not a predominant or crucial factor in the Sb(III) oxidation process. The mechanism of Sb(III) photooxidation varied depending on the Fe(III) species. In acidic solution (pH 1-3), dichloro radicals (radCl2-) and hydroxyl radicals (radOH) generated by the photocatalysis of FeCl2+ and FeOH2+ were the main oxidants for Sb(III) oxidation. Fe(III) gradually transformed into the colloid ferric hydroxide (CFH) and ferrihydrite in circumneutral and alkaline solutions (pH 4-10). Photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred through electron transfer from Sb(III) to Fe(III) along with the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) through a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) process. The photocatalysis of different Fe(III) species may play an important role in the geochemical cycle of Sb(III) in surface soil and aquatic environments.

  6. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Min; Shen, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Song-Xi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Luo, Li; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Ji, Bo; Zhang, Lu-Fen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation). Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations. PMID:24665334

  7. Chryseobacterium zeae sp. nov., Chryseobacterium arachidis sp. nov., and Chryseobacterium geocarposphaerae sp. nov. isolated from the rhizosphere environment.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; McInroy, John A; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2014-03-01

    Four yellow pigmented strains (91A-561(T), 91A-576, 91A-593(T), and JM-1085(T)) isolated from plant materials, showed 97.2-98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among each other and were studied in a polyphasic approach for their taxonomic allocation. Cells of all four isolates were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the four bacteria had highest sequence similarities to Chryseobacterium formosense (97.2-98.7 %), Chryseobacterium gwangjuense (97.1-97.8 %), and Chryseobacterium defluvii (94.6-98.0 %). Sequence similarities to all other Chryseobacterium species were below 97.5 %. Fatty acid analysis of the four strains showed Chryseobacterium typical profiles consisting of major fatty acids C15:0 iso, C15:0 iso 2-OH/C16:1 ω7c, C17:1 iso ω9c, and C17:0 iso 3-OH, but showed also slight differences. DNA-DNA hybridizations with type strains of C. gwangjuense, C. formosense, and C. defluvii resulted in values below 70 %. Isolates 91A-561(T) and 91A-576 showed DNA-DNA hybridization values >80 % indicating that they belonged to the same species; but nucleic acid fingerprinting showed that the two isolates represent two different strains. DNA-DNA hybridization results and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed, that both strains 91A-561(T) and 91A-576 represent a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium geocarposphaerae sp. nov. (type strain 91A-561(T)=LMG 27811(T)=CCM 8488(T)) is proposed. Strains 91A-593(T) and JM-1085(T) represent two additional new species for which we propose the names Chyrseobacterium zeae sp. nov. (type strain JM-1085(T)=LMG 27809(T), =CCM 8491(T)) and Chryseobacterium arachidis sp. nov. (type strain 91A-593(T)=LMG 27813(T), =CCM 8489(T)), respectively. PMID:24379020

  8. Neptunium(III) application in extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Nadeau, Kenny; Larivière, Dominic

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a novel strategy for actinide separation by extraction chromatography with Np(III) valence adjustment. Neptunium(IV) was reduced to Np(III) using Cr(II) and then selectively separated from uranium (IV) on a TEVA resin. After elution, Np(III) was retained on a DGA resin in order to remove any detrimental chromium impurities. Neptunium(III) formation was demonstrated by the complete and selective elution of Np from TEVA resin (99 ± 7%) in less than 12 mL of 9M HCl from U(IV) (0.7 ± 0.7%). It was determined by UV-visible and kinetic studies that Cr(II) was the only species responsible for the elution of Np(IV) as Np(III) and that the Cr(II) solution could be prepared from 2 to 30 min before its use without the need of complex degassing systems to prevent the oxidation of Np(III) by oxygen. The methodology proposed here with TEVA/DGA resins provides removal of Cr(III) impurities produced at high decontamination factors (2.8 × 10(3) and 7.3 × 10(4) respectively). PMID:22099641

  9. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports. PMID:22565523

  10. Enumeration and Characterization of Iron(III)-Reducing Microbial Communities from Acidic Subsurface Sediments Contaminated with Uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Balkwill, David L.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml−1 for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  11. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a key role in innate lung host defense, in surfactant-related functions, and in parturition. In the course of evolution, the genetic complexity of SP-A has increased, particularly in the regulatory regions (i.e. promoter, untranslated regions). Although most species have a single SP-A gene, two genes encode SP-A in humans and primates (SFTPA1and SFTPA2). This may account for the multiple functions attributed to human SP-A, as well as the regulatory complexity of its expression by a relatively diverse set of protein and non-protein cellular factors. The interplay between enhancer cis-acting DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins that recognize these DNA elements is essential for gene regulation, primarily at the transcription initiation level. Furthermore, regulation at the mRNA level is essential to ensure proper physiological levels of SP-A under different conditions. To date, numerous studies have shown significant complexity of the regulation of SP-A expression at different levels, including transcription, splicing, mRNA decay, and translation. A number of trans-acting factors have also been described to play a role in the control of SP-A expression. The aim of this report is to describe the genetic complexity of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, as well as to review regulatory mechanisms that control SP-A expression in humans and other animal species. PMID:23069847

  12. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sioud, Samiha; Aigle, Bertrand; Karray-Rebai, Ines; Smaoui, Slim; Bejar, Samir; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002), as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA) from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch. PMID:19547659

  13. Siladifluoromethylation and Difluoromethylation onto C(sp(3)), C(sp(2)), and C(sp) Centers Using Ruppert-Prakash Reagent and Fluoroform.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Maruyama, Kenichi; Nitta, Junki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-07-15

    Siladifluoromethylations and difluoromethylations on sp(3), sp(2), and sp carbons of lithiated carbamates, arenes, and terminal alkynes, respectively, have been attained by employing the Ruppert-Prakash reagent (CF3TMS) and fluoroform (CF3H) as the CF2 sources. The advantage of this reaction is that the (sila)difluoromethylated compounds can be obtained by simple treatment of easily accessible substrates, lithium bases, and CF3TMS or CF3H. Furthermore, the products bearing the TMS group can be transformed into the valuable compounds with the CF2 fragment via the carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. PMID:27340753

  14. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Misra, Mira

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  15. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  16. Iron(III)-Salophene: An Organometallic Compound with Selective Cytotoxic and Anti-Proliferative Properties in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh K.; Strongin, Robert M.; McCourt, Carolyn K.; Brard, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background In this pioneer study to the biological activity of organometallic compound Iron(III)-salophene (Fe-SP) the specific effects of Fe-SP on viability, morphology, proliferation, and cell-cycle progression on platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Fe-SP displayed selective cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 (ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma) cell lines at concentrations between 100 nM and 1 µM, while the viability of HeLa cells (epithelial cervix adenocarcinoma) or primary lung or skin fibroblasts was not affected. SKOV-3 cells in contrast to fibroblasts after treatment with Fe-SP revealed apparent hallmarks of apoptosis including densely stained nuclear granular bodies within fragmented nuclei, highly condensed chromatin and chromatin fragmentation. Fe-SP treatment led to the activation of markers of the extrinsic (Caspase-8) and intrinsic (Caspase-9) pathway of apoptosis as well as of executioner Caspase-3 while PARP-1 was deactivated. Fe-SP exerted effects as an anti-proliferative agent with an IC50 value of 300 nM and caused delayed progression of cells through S-phase phase of the cell cycle resulting in a complete S-phase arrest. When intra-peritoneally applied to rats Fe-SP did not show any systemic toxicity at concentrations that in preliminary trials were determined to be chemotherapeutic relevant doses in a rat ovarian cancer cell model. Conclusion/Significance The present report suggests that Fe-SP is a potent growth-suppressing agent in vitro for cell lines derived from ovarian cancer and a potential therapeutic drug to treat such tumors in vivo. PMID:18509533

  17. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schendel, F.J.; August, P.R.; Anderson, C.R.; Flickinger, M.C. ); Hanson, R.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Acetate salts are emerging as potentially attractive bulk chemicals for a variety of environmental applications, for example, as catalysts to facilitate combustion of high-sulfur coal by electrical utilities and as the biodegradable noncorrosive highway deicing salt calcium magnesium acetate. The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (M{sub r}, 84,500) with a sub unit with an M{sub r} of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.

  18. Biosorption and biotransformation of chromium by Serratia sp. isolated from tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2012-01-01

    A bacterium isolated from soil and sediment ofa leather tanning mill's effluent was identified as Serratia sp. by the analysis of 16S rDNA. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess morphological changes and confirm chromium biosorption in Serratia sp. both in a shake-flask culture containing chromium and in a tannery wastewater. The SEMEDX and the elemental analysis of the chromate-containing samples confirmed the binding of chromium with the bacterial biomass. The TEM exhibited chromium accumulation throughout the bacterial cell, with some granular deposits in the cell periphery and in the cytoplasm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to quantify the chromium and to determine the chemical nature of the metal-microbe interaction. The XRD data showed the crystalline character of the precipitates, which consisted of mainly calcium chromium oxide, chromium fluoride phosphate and related organo-Cr(III) complex crystals. The XRD data also revealed a strong involvement of cellular carboxyl and phosphate groups in chromium binding by the bacterial biomass. The results of the study indicated that a combined mechanism of ion-exchange, complexation, croprecipitation and immobilization was involved in the biosorption of chromium by bacterial cells in contaminated environments. PMID:22519094

  19. Genetic Adaptation of Achromobacter sp. during Persistence in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ridderberg, Winnie; Nielsen, Signe Maria; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter species are increasingly isolated from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients and often a chronic infection is established. How Achromobacter sp. adapts to the human host remains uncharacterised. By comparing longitudinally collected isolates of Achromobacter sp. isolated from five CF patients, we have investigated the within-host evolution of clonal lineages. The majority of identified mutations were isolate-specific suggesting co-evolution of several subpopulations from the original infecting isolate. The largest proportion of mutated genes were involved in the general metabolism of the bacterium, but genes involved in virulence and antimicrobial resistance were also affected. A number of virulence genes required for initiation of acute infection were selected against, e.g. genes of the type I and type III secretion systems and genes related to pilus and flagellum formation or function. Six antimicrobial resistance genes or their regulatory genes were mutated, including large deletions affecting the repressor genes of an RND-family efflux pump and a beta-lactamase. Convergent evolution was observed for five genes that were all implicated in bacterial virulence. Characterisation of genes involved in adaptation of Achromobacter to the human host is required for understanding the pathogen-host interaction and facilitate design of future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26313451

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of an Erwinia sp. gene encoding diphenyl ether cleavage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, H J; Srinivasan, V R

    1989-01-01

    A 2.1-kilobase fragment obtained by restriction enzyme HindIII digestion of Erwinia sp. genomic DNA was cloned into plasmid pUC19 and introduced into Escherichia coli by transformation. The transformants with diphenyl ether cleaving activity (Dpe+) were selected on agar plates with a specially designed medium (LTFN) containing 4-nitrodiphenyl ether. The positive clones showed a clear zone around the colonies. Analysis of mutants obtained by transposon mini-Mu dI(lacZ Kmr) mutagenesis indicated the coding region of the gene (dpe) and the utilization of a lacZ promoter of pUC19 for transcription of dpe. Clones with dpe in the opposite orientation in pUC19 were not expressed, confirming the need for a lacZ promoter. Utilization of a lacZ promoter in pUC19 was further confirmed by the observation that the degradation of 4-nitrodiphenyl ether was enhanced in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside. Expression of dpe was also found in pDPE7321, generated from cloning this gene into another plasmid, pSP73. Analysis of the plasmid-encoded proteins by the maxicell technique showed a polypeptide of 21,000 molecular weight as the product of dpe. Images PMID:2679381

  1. Linear plasmidlike DNA in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, H C; Leong, S A

    1986-01-01

    Double-stranded, 1.9-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA molecules were found in 18 strains representing three pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The DNA element (pFOXC1) from a race 1 strain and the DNA element (pFOXC2) from a race 2 strain were shown by restriction endonuclease mapping to be linear. pFOXC2 was found in mitochondrial preparations and appears to have blocked 5' termini, as it was sensitive to 3'----5' exonuclease III but insensitive to 5'----3' lambda exonuclease. The major 1.8-kbp BglII restriction endonuclease fragment of pFOXC2 was cloned in plasmid pUC12. The recombinant plasmid (pCK1) was not homologous to the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. This suggests that pFOXC2 is self-replicating. pCK1 was homologous to all 1.9-kbp DNA elements of race 2 but was not homologous to those of race 1 or race 5. All race 1 and 5 elements were also shown to share common DNA sequences. Images PMID:3015880

  2. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N.; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization. PMID:20236164

  3. Reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO by a newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DN-2 in NOx scrubber solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Han; Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Han; Shi, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO) chelated by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) to N2 is one of the core processes in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated technique for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal from flue gases. A new isolate, identified as Pseudomonas sp. DN-2 by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, was able to reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO. The specific reduction capacity as measured by NO was up to 4.17 mmol g DCW(-1) h(-1). Strain DN-2 can simultaneously use glucose and Fe(II)EDTA as electron donors for Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction. Fe(III)EDTA, the oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA by oxygen, can also serve as electron acceptor by strain DN-2. The interdependency between various chemical species, e.g., Fe(II)EDTA-NO, Fe(II)EDTA, or Fe (III)EDTA, was investigated. Though each complex, e.g., Fe(II)EDTA-NO or Fe(III)EDTA, can be reduced by its own dedicated bacterial strain, strain DN-2 capable of reducing Fe(III)EDTA can enhance the regeneration of Fe(II)EDTA, hence can enlarge NO elimination capacity. Additionally, the inhibition of Fe(II)EDTA-NO on the Fe(III)EDTA reduction has been explored previously. Strain DN-2 is probably one of the major contributors for the continual removal of NOx due to the high Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate and the ability of Fe(III)EDTA reduction. PMID:17598105

  4. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a slowly progressive disorder that affects ...

  5. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  6. Extraction chromatographic separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) by TPEN-immobilized gel

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Ogata, T.; Oaki, H.; Inaba, Y.; Mori, A.; Yaita, T.; Koyama, S.I.

    2013-07-01

    A TPEN derivative with 4 vinyl groups, N,N,N',N' -tetrakis-(4-propenyloxy-2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPPEN) was synthesized for the separation of trivalent minor actinides (Am(III)) and lanthanides (Eu(III)). A co-polymer gel with TPPEN and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) showed a high separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) (SF[Am/Eu]), which was evaluated to be 26 at pH=5. Thin film of NIPA-TPPEN gel (average thickness: 2-40 nm) was immobilized on the pore surface in porous silica particles (particle diameter : 50 μm, average pore diameter : 50 and 300 nm) and a chromatographic column (diameter: 6 mm, height: 11 mm) packed with the gel-coated particles was prepared. A small amount of weakly acidic solution (pH=4) containing Am(III) and Eu(III) was supplied in the column and the elution tests of Am(III) and Eu(III) were carried out. Eu(III) was recovered separately by a weakly acidic eluent (pH=4) at 313 K and Am(III) by a highly acidic eluent (pH=2) at 298 K. These results suggest that the contentious separation of minor actinides and lanthanides is attainable by a new extraction chromatographic process with two columns adjusted to 298 K and 313 K. (authors)

  7. A highly efficient preparative method of alpha-ylidene-beta-diketones via Au(III)-catalyzed acyl migration of propargylic esters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Liming

    2006-07-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of alpha-alkylidene or benzylidene-beta-diketones from readily available propargylic esters has been developed. The proposed key transformation is a novel intramolecular acyl migration to nucleophilic AuIII-C(sp2) bonds. Noteworthy features of this method are its efficiency and stereoselectivity. The yields of this reaction were mostly close to quantitative, and high to excellent stereoselectivities were observed in the cases of dienyl beta-diketones. PMID:16802803

  8. Experimental study on the inhibition of biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA in NOx absorption solution*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-zhi; Zhang, Shi-han; Shi, Yao; Lei, Le-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Scrubbing of NOx from the gas phase with Fe(II)EDTA has been shown to be highly effective. A new biological method can be used to convert NO to N2 and regenerate the chelating agent Fe(II)EDTA for continuous NO absorption. The core of this biological regeneration is how to effectively simultaneous reduce Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO, two mainly products in the ferrous chelate absorption solution. The biological reduction rate of Fe(III)EDTA plays a main role for the NOx removal efficiency. In this paper, a bacterial strain identified as Klebsiella Trevisan sp. was used to demonstrate an inhibition of Fe(III)EDTA reduction in the presence of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. The competitive inhibition experiments indicted that Fe(II)EDTA-NO inhibited not only the growth rate of the iron-reduction bacterial strain but also the Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate. Cell growth rate and Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate decreased with increasing Fe(II)EDTA-NO concentration in the solution. PMID:16187414

  9. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  11. Progress in the SP-100 FSQ reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. B.

    1991-09-01

    The reactor for the SP-100 Space Power Supply System is described in this paper. The various components that make up the reactor are discussed and the testing programs to assure that the design will meet the SP-100 requirements are described.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  13. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  14. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. PMID:12453515

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPORULATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. SPHENOCLEAE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted on agar media to characterize the factors for the optimization of sporulation of Alternaria alternata f. sp. sphenocleae, a fungal pathogen being evaluated as a biological control agent for Sphenoclea zeylanica (gooseweed). A. alternata f. sp. sphenocleae conidiation was affec...

  16. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  17. Pneumonitis and emphysema in sp-C gene targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Detmer, Emily A; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Stahlman, Mildred T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2003-04-18

    SP-C-deficient (SP-C -/-) mice developed a severe pulmonary disorder associated with emphysema, monocytic infiltrates, epithelial cell dysplasia, and atypical accumulations of intracellular lipids in type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Whereas alveolar and tissue surfactant phospholipid pools were increased, levels of other surfactant proteins were not altered (SP-B) or were modestly increased (SP-A and SP-D). Analysis of pressure-volume curves and forced oscillatory dynamics demonstrated abnormal respiratory mechanics typical of emphysema. Lung disease was progressive, causing weight loss and cardiomegaly. Extensive alveolar remodeling was accompanied by type II cell hyperplasia, obliteration of pulmonary capillaries, and widespread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating myofibroblast transformation in the lung parenchyma. Dysplastic epithelial cells lining conducting airways stained intensely for the mucin, MUC5A/C. Tissue concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were not substantially altered in the SP-C (-/-) mice. Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was increased in alveolar macrophages from SP-C (-/-) mice. Absence of SP-C caused a severe progressive pulmonary disorder with histologic features consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:12519727

  18. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  19. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  20. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  1. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  2. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. PMID:27085001

  3. SAGE III capabilities and global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the satellite-borne SAGE III are presented as they pertain to detecting global change. SAGE III is the proposed follow on and improved version of SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II which have measured stratospheric and, in some cases, tropospheric species since late 1978. Specifically, SAGE III will measure profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide and trioxide, neutral density, temperature, clouds, and chlorine dioxide using the solar and lunar occultation techniques. These techniques are inherently self-calibrating, provide high vertical resolution, and use well-behaved data retrievals making them ideal for trend detection and global change studies. The potential capabilities of SAGE III are illustrated by using data and results from SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II.

  4. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  5. Biodegradation of Xanthan Gum by Bacillus sp

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus, Martin C.; Jackson, Linda K.; Burton, Kermit A.; Plattner, Ronald D.; Slodki, Morey E.

    1982-01-01

    Strains tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. were isolated from sewage sludge and soil and shown to elaborate extracellular enzymes that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide (xanthan gum, polysaccharide B-1459) of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. Enzyme production by one strain was greatly enhanced when the strain was incubated in a mixed culture. Products of degradation were identified as d-glucuronic acid, d-mannose, pyruvylated mannose, 6-O-acetyl d-mannose, and a (1→4)-linked glucan. These products correlate with the known structure of the gum. The complexity of the product mixture indicated that the xanthanase was a mixture of carbohydrases. The xanthanase complexes were similar to one another in temperature stability, pH and temperature optima, degree of substrate degradation, and enzymolysis products. Differences in pH stability, salt tolerance, recoverability, and yields of enzyme were observed. PMID:16346068

  6. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  7. SP-100 Control Drive Assembly Development Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The Control Drive Assemblies are the only active components in the entire SP-100 system. Consequently, the design challenges dealing with self-welding, wear, and misalignment in the high temperature and high radiation environment are significant. Because of the harsh environment, it has been necessary to test a variety of materials for such components as bearings, electromagnetic coils, clutches, brakes, and gears. The current Control Drive Assembly technology status is adequate for the 20-KWe design with a five-year life, but has not yet been completely demonstrated for the 100-KWe design with a full ten-year life. The difference in technology status for the 20-KWe and 100-KWe designs is due to the shorter lifetime requirement of the 20-KWe system.

  8. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Kolla J.P.; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2009-01-01

    Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35°C. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield. Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE. PMID:24031419

  9. Improvement of the basidiomycete Coprinus sp.

    PubMed

    Pavlíková, E; Fuska, J; Růzicková, V; Jílek, R; Zezula, V

    1982-01-01

    Coprinus sp. C-1 (obtained from uranium mines) was subjected to improvement procedures with the aim of preparing a strain that could degrade cellulose in the straw substrate more rapidly and effectively. The original C-1 strain was highly resistant to UV and X radiation but it was rather sensitive to tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, the effect of which increased when applying simultaneously compounds reacting with mercapto groups of some enzymes. The mutants obtained synthesized during the same interval by up to 94% more N compounds than the original strain the rate of cellulose degradation increasing by about 40%. In certain mutants the content of some essential amino acids simultaneously increased by up to 110%. PMID:7200932

  10. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms. PMID:18429665

  11. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  12. The Mark III Hypercube-Ensemble Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C.; Tuazon, Jesus O.; Lieberman, Don; Pniel, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Mark III Hypercube concept applied in development of series of increasingly powerful computers. Processor of each node of Mark III Hypercube ensemble is specialized computer containing three subprocessors and shared main memory. Solves problem quickly by simultaneously processing part of problem at each such node and passing combined results to host computer. Disciplines benefitting from speed and memory capacity include astrophysics, geophysics, chemistry, weather, high-energy physics, applied mechanics, image processing, oil exploration, aircraft design, and microcircuit design.

  13. Population III Stars Around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop III) stars, born of primordial gas. Pop III stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ should survive to date though are not yet observed, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]\\lt -5 in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press-Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor stars also escaped from the mini-halos. We discuss the spatial distributions of these escaped stars by evaluating the distances between the mini-halos in the branches of merger trees under the spherical collapse model of dark matter halos. It is demonstrated that the escaped stars distribute beyond the stellar halo with a density profile close to the dark matter halo, while Pop III stars are slightly more centrally concentrated. 6%-30% of the escaped stars leave the Milky Way and go out into the intergalactic space. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of observing the Pop III stars with the pristine surface abundance.

  14. Identification of a cryptic type III polyketide synthase (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase) from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Oh, Tae-Jin; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-10-31

    We identified a 1,134-bp putative type III polyketide synthase from the sequence analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, named Sp-RppA, which is characterized as 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase and shares 33% identity with SCO1206 from S. coelicolor A3(2) and 32% identity with RppA from S. griseus. The 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase is known to catalyze the sequential decarboxylative condensation, intramolecular cyclization, and aromatization of an oligoketide derived from five units of malonyl-CoA to give 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, which spontaneously oxidizes to form 2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (flaviolin). In this study, we report the in vivo expression and in vitro synthesis of flaviolin from purified gene product (Sp-RppA). PMID:18612244

  15. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

  16. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. and Microlaimus validus sp. n. (Nematoda) from the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Tu, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    Two nematode species isolated from sediments of the littoral zone of South China Sea on the coast of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. is closely related to P. elegans Gagarin & Thanh, 2009 and P. lissum Gagarin & Thanh, 2009. It differs from the former species in the shorter body, longer and more slender tail, longer cephalic setae and shorter spicules, and from the latter species in the shorter body, longer cephalic setae, presence of cervical setae and smaller number of precloacal supplements in males. Microlaimus validus sp. n. is morphologically closest to M. citrus Gerlach, 1959 and M. nanus Blome, 1982 and differs from both species in the longer body, relatively shorter pharynx and relatively shorter and thicker tail.  PMID:25284664

  17. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria. PMID:24888562

  18. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  19. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  20. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  1. Gallium(iii) and iron(iii) complexes of quinolone antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Mjos, Katja Dralle; Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Polishchuk, Elena; Abrams, Michael J; Orvig, Chris

    2016-08-16

    Iron is an essential nutrient for many microbes. According to the "Trojan Horse Hypothesis", biological systems have difficulties distinguishing between Fe(3+) and Ga(3+), which constitutes the antimicrobial efficacy of the gallium(iii) ion. Nine novel tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes and their corresponding iron(iii) analogs have been synthesized and fully characterized. Quinolone antimicrobial agents from three drug generations were used in this study: ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid, and pipemidic acid. The antimicrobial efficacy of the tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes was studied against E. faecalis and S. aureus (both Gram-positive), as well as E. coli, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa (all Gram-negative) in direct comparison to the tris(quinolono)iron(iii) complexes and the corresponding free quinolone ligands at various concentrations. For the tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes, no combinational antimicrobial effects between Ga(3+) and the quinolone antimicrobial agents were observed. PMID:27315225

  2. Haloalkylphosphorus Hydrolases Purified from Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuto; Mori, Junichi; Doi, Yuka; Takahashi, Shouji; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Phosphotriesterases catalyze the first step of organophosphorus triester degradation. The bacterial phosphotriesterases purified and characterized to date hydrolyze mainly aryl dialkyl phosphates, such as parathion, paraoxon, and chlorpyrifos. In this study, we purified and cloned two novel phosphotriesterases from Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that hydrolyze tri(haloalkyl)phosphates, and we named these enzymes haloalkylphosphorus hydrolases (TDK-HAD and TCM-HAD, respectively). Both HADs are monomeric proteins with molecular masses of 59.6 (TDK-HAD) and 58.4 kDa (TCM-HAD). The enzyme activities were affected by the addition of divalent cations, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis suggested that zinc is a native cofactor for HADs. These enzymes hydrolyzed not only chlorinated organophosphates but also a brominated organophosphate [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate], as well as triaryl phosphates (tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates). Paraoxon-methyl and paraoxon were efficiently degraded by TCM-HAD, whereas TDK-HAD showed weak activity toward these substrates. Dichlorvos was degraded only by TCM-HAD. The enzymes displayed weak or no activity against trialkyl phosphates and organophosphorothioates. The TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD genes were cloned and found to encode proteins of 583 and 574 amino acid residues, respectively. The primary structures of TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD were very similar, and the enzymes also shared sequence similarity with fenitrothion hydrolase (FedA) of Burkholderia sp. strain NF100 and organophosphorus hydrolase (OphB) of Burkholderia sp. strain JBA3. However, the substrate specificities and quaternary structures of the HADs were largely different from those of FedA and OphB. These results show that HADs from sphingomonads are novel members of the bacterial phosphotriesterase family. PMID:25038092

  3. Carbon-Binding Designer Proteins that Discriminate between sp2- and sp3-Hybridized Carbon Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Brandon L.; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-01-01

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA∷Car9 and TrxA∷Car15 have similar affinity for sp2-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA∷Car15 interacts with sp2-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA∷Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding which relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π-stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA∷Car9 binds equally well to sp2- and sp3-bonded (diamond-like) carbon particles, while TrxA∷Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications. PMID:23510486

  4. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  5. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  7. Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-Lichen-Associated Bacterium Isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions. PMID:22582384

  8. Two new species, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Min, Gi-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of anthuroid isopods, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. are described from the southern and western coasts of the Korean Peninsula. A key to the species and the type locality of Caenanthura are provided. Additionally, we determined the partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) from two new species. PMID:25947475

  9. Life cycle and secondary production of two mayflies Leptophlebia sp. and Ephemera sp. in Heizhuchong stream, Hubei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yan, Yunjun

    2008-02-01

    From June 2003 to June 2004, an investigation on the life cycle, production and trophic basis of dominant species of macrozoobenthos community in a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, Hubei, China was carried out. The results showed that the dominant species Leptophlebia sp. and Ephemera sp. appeared to develop two generations per year, and there was a small overlap in the two generations of both species. The pupation of Leptophlebia sp. mainly occurred in autumn and winter, while pupation of Ephemera sp. mainly took place in summer and winter. The standing stocks of the Leptophlebia sp. population and Ephemera sp. population had two peaks in a year. The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Leptophlebia sp. population estimated by size frequency method were 19.018 1 g/m2.a and 5.7 respectively, while its annual production and P/B ratio were 38.036 2 g/m2.a and 11.4. The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Ephemera sp. population were 38.015 9 g/m2.a and 5.9, while its annual production and P/B ratio were 76.031 8 g/m2.a and 11.8.

  10. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  11. Competition between sp³-C-N vs sp³-C-F reductive elimination from Pd(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Temprano, Mónica H; Racowski, Joy M; Kampf, Jeff W; Sanford, Melanie S

    2014-03-19

    This communication describes the design of a model system that allows direct investigation of competing sp(3)-C-N and sp(3)-C-F bond-forming reductive elimination from a Pd(IV) fluoro sulfonamide complex. The reductive elimination selectivity varies dramatically as a function of reaction additives. A mechanism is proposed that provides a rationale for these effects. PMID:24579653

  12. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  13. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  14. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices.

  15. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  16. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  17. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  18. All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: Geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junjun; Kwong, Gordon; Li, Ji; Fan, Zhiqiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiping

    2013-01-01

    All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures comprised of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene (ZTG)and carbon chains are proposed and constructed as nanojunctions. It has been found that such simple hybrid structures possess very intriguing propertiesapp:addword:intriguing. The high-performance rectifying behaviors similar to macroscopic p-n junction diodes, such as a nearly linear positive-bias I-V curve (metallic behavior), a very small leakage current under negative bias (insulating behavior), a rather low threshold voltage, and a large bias region contributed to a rectification, can be predicted. And also, a transistor can be built by such a hybrid structure, which can show an extremely high current amplification. This is because a sp-hybrid carbon chain has a special electronic structure which can limit the electronic resonant tunneling of the ZTG to a unique and favorable situation. These results suggest that these hybrid structures might promise importantly potential applications for developing nano-scale integrated circuits. PMID:23999318

  19. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. PMID:25662709

  20. Selective production of fungal beauveriolide I or III by fermentation in amino acid-supplemented media.

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Kobayashi, Susumu; Omura, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    Beauveriolides I and III, cyclic depsipeptides composed of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-Leu and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, and L-Phe, L-Ala, L-allo-Ile and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, respectively, were previously isolated from the culture broth of fungal Beauveria sp. FO-6979 as inhibitors of macrophage foam cell formation. To improve the production of these compounds by fermentation, the culture conditions were studied. The production of both beauveriolides was increased five to ten folds by fermentation in the culture media containing tryptone. Further study revealed that addition of L-Leu/L-Ile, but not D-Leu/D-allo-Ile, to the culture medium yielded a high and selective production of beauveriolide I or III. As a result, regardless of their separation difficulty due to the similar physico-chemical properties, a large amount of beauveriolide I or III was prepared from the culture broth obtained from L-Leu- or L-Ile-supplemented fermentation, respectively, by one step purification using silica gel column chromatography. PMID:12617514

  1. Identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanwei; Li, Zhongzhen; Wang, Shasha; Wan, Weisong; Wang, Shuqi; Wen, Xiaobo; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Yueling; Li, Shengkang

    2015-11-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. To identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length 1362 bp Sp-cSP contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 384 amino acids. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-cSP has about 52% and 51% identity with Pt-cSP2 (AFA42360) and Pt-cSP3 (AFA42361) from Portunus trituberculatus, respectively, while the similarity with other cSP sequences was lower than 30%. However, all cSP sequences possess a conserved clip domain at the N-terminal and a Tryp-SPc domain at the C-terminal. The genomic organization of Sp-cSP consists of nine exons and eight introns, with some introns containing one or more tandem repeats. RT-PCR results indicated that Sp-cSP transcripts were predominantly expressed in the subcuticular epidermis, muscle and mid-intestine, but barely detectable in the brain and heart. Further, Sp-cSP transcripts were significantly up-regulated after challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, in vitro, the recombinant Sp-cSP revealed a strong antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila) bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the antimicrobial activity assay indicate that Sp-cSP is a potent immune protector and plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasion in S. paramamosain. PMID:26272638

  2. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D.J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell

  3. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be

  4. Aurantimonas manganoxydans, sp. nov. and Aurantimonas litoralis, sp. nov.: Mn(II) oxidizing representatives of a globally distributed clade of alpha-Proteobacteria from the order Rhizobiales

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, C. R.; Dick, G. J.; Chu, M-L.; Cho, J-C.; Davis, R. E.; Bräuer, S. L.; Tebo, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Several closely related Mn(II)-oxidizing alpha-Proteobacteria were isolated from very different marine environments: strain SI85-9A1 from the oxic/anoxic interface of a stratified Canadian fjord, strain HTCC 2156 from the surface waters off the Oregon coast, and strain AE01 from the dorsal surface of a hydrothermal vent tubeworm. 16S rRNA analysis reveals that these isolates are part of a tight phylogenetic cluster with previously characterized members of the genus Aurantimonas. Other organisms within this clade have been isolated from disparate environments such as surface waters of the Arctic and Mediterranean seas, a deep-sea hydrothermal plume, and a Caribbean coral. Further analysis of all these strains revealed that many of them are capable of oxidizing dissolved Mn(II) and producing particulate Mn(III/IV) oxides. Strains SI85-9A1 and HTCC 2156 were characterized further. Despite sharing nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences with the previously described Aurantimonas coralicida, whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that their overall genomic similarity is low. Polyphasic phenotype characterization further supported distinguishing characteristics among these bacteria. Thus SI85-9A1 and HTCC 2156 are described as two new species within the family ‘Aurantimionadaceae’: Aurantimonas manganoxydans sp. nov. and Aurantimonas litoralis sp. nov. This clade of bacteria is widely distributed around the globe and may be important contributors to Mn cycling in many environments. Our results highlight the difficulty in utilizing 16S rRNA-based approaches to investigate the microbial ecology of Mn(II) oxidation. PMID:19768133

  5. A Comprehensive Protocol for Improving the Description of Saprolegniales (Oomycota): Two Practical Examples (Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov.).

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The description, identification and classification of organisms are the pillar in biodiversity and evolutionary studies. The fungal-like organism Saprolegnia contains important animal pathogens. However, its taxonomy is weak, making it difficult to perform further studies. This problem mainly arises from the unavailability of suitable holotypes. We propose a standardized protocol for describing Saprolegnia spp. that includes good cultural practices and proper holotype preservation. In order to illustrate this new proposal, we describe two species, Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov., based on the recently described molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), phylogenetic relationships, and the analyses of morphological features. We show that they belong to two different MOTUs that are grouped into two sister clades. Morphologically, we find that S. racemosa exhibits a species-specific character, i.e., aggrupation of oogonia in racemes, while S. aenigmatica does not have any specific characters. Analyses of a combined set of characters, i.e., length and breadth of sporangia, length/breadth ratio (l/b) of oogonia, cyst and oospore diameter, and the number of oospores per oogomium, allow distinguishing these two species. To improve Saprolegnia taxonomy, we propose to incorporate into the protologue: (i) several isolates of the new species; (ii) the rDNA sequences to compare them to data-bases of Saprolegnia sequences of reference; (iii) a phylogenetic analysis to check relationships with other species; (iv) to preserve holotypes in absolute ethanol and to include lyophilized material from holotype; and (v) the ex-type as a pure culture from single-spore isolates stored in at least two different collections. PMID:26186364

  6. A Comprehensive Protocol for Improving the Description of Saprolegniales (Oomycota): Two Practical Examples (Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov.)

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The description, identification and classification of organisms are the pillar in biodiversity and evolutionary studies. The fungal-like organism Saprolegnia contains important animal pathogens. However, its taxonomy is weak, making it difficult to perform further studies. This problem mainly arises from the unavailability of suitable holotypes. We propose a standardized protocol for describing Saprolegnia spp. that includes good cultural practices and proper holotype preservation. In order to illustrate this new proposal, we describe two species, Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov., based on the recently described molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), phylogenetic relationships, and the analyses of morphological features. We show that they belong to two different MOTUs that are grouped into two sister clades. Morphologically, we find that S. racemosa exhibits a species-specific character, i.e., aggrupation of oogonia in racemes, while S. aenigmatica does not have any specific characters. Analyses of a combined set of characters, i.e., length and breadth of sporangia, length/breadth ratio (l/b) of oogonia, cyst and oospore diameter, and the number of oospores per oogomium, allow distinguishing these two species. To improve Saprolegnia taxonomy, we propose to incorporate into the protologue: (i) several isolates of the new species; (ii) the rDNA sequences to compare them to data-bases of Saprolegnia sequences of reference; (iii) a phylogenetic analysis to check relationships with other species; (iv) to preserve holotypes in absolute ethanol and to include lyophilized material from holotype; and (v) the ex-type as a pure culture from single-spore isolates stored in at least two different collections. PMID:26186364

  7. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  8. Taxonomic study of the kinorhyncha in Japan. III. Echinoderes sensibilis n. sp. (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida) from Tanabe Bay.

    PubMed

    Adrianov, Andrey V; Murakami, Chisato; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2002-04-01

    A new species of echinoderid kinorhynch, Echinoderes sensibilis, is described and illustrated using light and electron microscopy. The specimens were collected from masses of the red algae Corallina pilulifera growing in intertidal pools in Tanabe Bay, Honshu Island, Japan. Diagnostic characters of E. sensibilis include the presence of middorsal spines on segments 6-10; lateral spines/tubules on segments 4, 7-12; remarkable trapezium-like subventral fields of minute cuticular hairs on segments 5-12. The positions of numerous sensory spots, large sieve areas, glandular tubes and the shape of terminal tergal and sternal extensions are also diagnostic. All taxonomic characters used for this description are illustrated by SEM. Echinoderes sensibilis constitutes the fifty-eight valid species of the genus Echinoderes and the fourteenth species described from the Pacific Ocean. This is the third representative of Pacific kinorhynchs found only in the intertidal zone and the first Pacific Echinoderes living on red macroalgae in intertidal pools. PMID:12130824

  9. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  10. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  11. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  12. Reductive dissolution of Pu(IV) by Clostridium sp. under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Arokiasamy J; Dodge, Cleveland J; Gillow, Jeffrey B

    2008-04-01

    An anaerobic, gram positive, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium sp., common in soils and wastes, capable of reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), Mn(IV) to Mn(II), Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), and U(VI) to U(IV), reduced Pu(IV) to Pu(III). Addition of 242Pu (IV)-nitrate to the bacterial growth medium at pH 6.4 resulted in the precipitation of Pu as amorphous Pu(OH)4 due to hydrolysis and polymerization reactions. The Pu (1 x 10(-5) M) had no effect upon growth of the bacterium as evidenced by glucose consumption; carbon dioxide and hydrogen production; a decrease in pH of the medium from 6.4 to 3.0 due to production of acetic and butyric acids from glucose fermentation; and a change in the Eh of the culture medium from +50 to -180 mV. Commensurate with bacterial growth, Pu was rapidly solubilized as evidenced by an increase in Pu concentration in solution which passed through a 0.03 microm filtration. Selective solvent extraction of the culture by thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) indicated the presence of a reduced Pu species in the soluble fraction. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic (XANES) analysis of Pu in the culture sample at the Pu LIII absorption edge (18.054 keV) showed a shift of -3 eV compared to a Pu(IV) standard indicating reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III). These results suggestthat, although Pu generally exists as insoluble Pu(IV) in the environment, under appropriate conditions, anaerobic microbial activity could affect the long-term stability and mobility of Pu by its reductive dissolution. PMID:18504965

  13. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ∼115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (∼98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (∼55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ∼5.4 million sources.

  14. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  15. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ˜115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (˜98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (˜55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ˜5.4 million sources.

  16. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries. PMID:26633229

  17. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).

    PubMed

    Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

    2000-11-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p < 0.05) for diets without krill meal. A second experiment was set up with 969, 1.5 g fish, trained with GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p < 0.05) fish feeding on GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success. PMID:11241964

  18. The Berkeley SETI Program: SERENDIP III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, C.; Bowyer, S.; Werthimer, D.; Ng, D.; Cobb, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Berkeley SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program, named SERENDIP, was begun in the late 1970's. It is aimed at detecting narrow band radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. The SERENDIP I, II and III systems have operated autonomously in a piggyback search mode, conducting unobtrusive, long-term observations on the world's largest radio telescopes. The latest generation SERENDIP instrument, SERENDIP III, is a four million channel FFT-based spectrum analyzer operating at 0.6 Hz resolution with a 1.7 second integration time. SERENDIP III has been operating at the NAIC Arecibo Observatory since April, 1992. Several independent criteria suggest that this search is the most sensitive SETI search in operation. To date SERENDIP III has accumulated over 3600 hours of high quality telescope time, observing 75% of the sky visible by the Arecibo telescope. Over this period SERENDIP III has analyzed over 30 trillion spectral bins, and recorded information on 110 million strong narrow band signals in the 424--435 MHz band. A handful of these signals have survived our RFI rejection and signal detection algorithms, and have thus been added to our list of ETI candidate signals. A follow-up observation program will be conducted next year in an attempt to verify each of these candidate signals. This work has been supported by NASA grant NAGW-2722.

  19. Stoichiometries of arsenazo III-Ca complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Palade, P; Vergara, J

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium interactions of the metallochromic indicator arsenazo III with calcium at physiological ionic strength and pH were investigated spectrophotometrically and with the aid of a calcium electrode. Evidence suggests the formation of more than one dye-calcium complex. The analysis of data obtained over a 10,000-fold range of dye concentrations concludes that at the concentrations used for in vitro biochemical studies (10--100 microM), arsenazo III absorbance changes in response to calcium binding primarily involve the formation of a complex involving two dye molecules and two calcium ions. At millimolar dye concentrations, typical of physiological calcium transient determinations in situ, a second complex involving two arsenazo III molecules and one calcium ion is additionally formed. A third complex, involving one arsenazo III molecule and one calcium ion, is formed at very low dye concentrations. The results reported here suggest that equilibrium calibration of the dye with calcium cannot be used directly to satisfactorily relate transient absorbance changes in physiological preparations to calcium concentration changes since several stoichiometrically distinct complexes with different absorbances could be formed at different rates. The results of this study do not permit the elucidation of a unique kinetic scheme of arsenazo III complexation with calcium; for this, in vitro kinetic analysis is required. Results of similar analysis of the dye interaction with magnesium are also reported, and these appear compatible with a much simpler model of complexation. PMID:6626673

  20. A semisimultaneous inversion algorithm for SAGE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dale M.

    2002-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III instrument was successfully launched into orbit on 10 December 2001. The planned operational species separation inversion algorithm will utilize a stepwise retrieval strategy. This paper presents an alternative, semisimultaneous species separation inversion that simultaneously retrieves all species over user-specified vertical intervals or blocks. By overlapping these vertical blocks, retrieved species profiles over the entire vertical range of the measurements are obtained. The semisimultaneous retrieval approach provides a more straightforward method for evaluating the error coupling that occurs among the retrieved profiles due to various types of input uncertainty. Simulation results are presented to show how the semisimultaneous inversion can enhance understanding of the SAGE III retrieval process. In the future, the semisimultaneous inversion algorithm will be used to help evaluate the results and performance of the operational inversion. Compared to SAGE II, SAGE III will provide expanded and more precise spectral measurements. This alone is shown to significantly reduce the uncertainties in the retrieved ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosol extinction profiles for SAGE III. Additionally, the well-documented concern that SAGE II retrievals are biased by the level of volcanic aerosol is greatly alleviated for SAGE III.

  1. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  2. Failures in Phase III: Causes and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Seruga, Bostjan; Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-15

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) in oncology fail to lead to registration of new therapies more often than RCTs in other medical disciplines. Most RCTs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, which reflects industry's increasing responsibility in cancer drug development. Many preclinical models are unreliable for evaluation of new anticancer agents, and stronger evidence of biologic effect should be required before a new agent enters the clinical development pathway. Whenever possible, early-phase clinical trials should include pharmacodynamic studies to demonstrate that new agents inhibit their molecular targets and demonstrate substantial antitumor activity at tolerated doses in an enriched population of patients. Here, we review recent RCTs and found that these conditions were not met for most of the targeted anticancer agents, which failed in recent RCTs. Many recent phase III RCTs were initiated without sufficient evidence of activity from early-phase clinical trials. Because patients treated within such trials can be harmed, they should not be undertaken. The bar should also be raised when making decisions to proceed from phase II to III and from phase III to marketing approval. Many approved agents showed only better progression-free survival than standard treatment in phase III trials and were not shown to improve survival or its quality. Introduction of value-based pricing of new anticancer agents would dissuade the continued development of agents with borderline activity in early-phase clinical trials. When collaborating with industry, oncologists should be more critical and better advocates for cancer patients. PMID:26473191

  3. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  4. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  5. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  6. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  7. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  8. Psychometric Testing of the FACES III with Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Bette; Dingmann, Colleen; Cuevas, Elizabeth; Meehan, Maurita

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the validity and reliability of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) in two samples of rural adolescents. The underlying theory is the linear 3-D circumplex model. The FACES III was administered to 1,632 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 in two counties in a rural western state. The FACES III Scale and the…

  9. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  10. SP-NET: A draft signal processor network protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David M.

    SP-net, a synchronous high-speed switched network that has been designed for signal processor backplanes, is discussed. The network uses bit-slicing to improve fault tolerance and to allow growth in the width of the data path. In addition, single-bit error detection has been included in the protocol. Although no company at present is building a network to the draft SP-net specifications, SP-net has several similarities to signal processor network designs by major defense contractors.

  11. A review of the OvidSP platform.

    PubMed

    FitzSimmons, Marie; Gross, Valerie A

    2008-01-01

    As part of its mission to advance the technological capabilities of its products, Ovid introduced a redesign of its database platform in fall 2007. The platform redesign brought new features and enhancements to an already robust system. The transition between Ovid Gateway and the OvidSP platform was orchestrated seamlessly. With the OvidSP platform came innovative changes such as the incorporation of Natural Language Processing associated with the new Basic Search mode. Discussed are OvidSP features, advantages and disadvantages of the new platform, customizable settings, and future direction. PMID:19042719

  12. Teachers' Guide to Music Appreciation III A and III B in the Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. Mark; Dawkins, Barbara R.

    This guide to music appreciation courses was developed for use in senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. Music Appreciation III A examines the development of music, from the Gothic period through the Classical period. Music Appreciation III B examines the development of music from the Romantic period through the 1970s.…

  13. Hexaammine Complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A Spectral Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for experiments containing complex ions with octahedral symmetry, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate, so students can interpret fully the ultra violet/visible spectra of the complex cations in terms of the ligand field parameters, 10 "Dq," the Racah interelectron repulsion parameters, "B,"…

  14. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Facultative Methanotroph Methylocystis sp. Strain SB2 Grown on Methane or Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Vorobev, Alexey; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Jain, Sunit; Anantharaman, Karthik; Dick, Gregory J.; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A minority of methanotrophs are able to utilize multicarbon compounds as growth substrates in addition to methane. The pathways utilized by these microorganisms for assimilation of multicarbon compounds, however, have not been explicitly examined. Here, we report the draft genome of the facultative methanotroph Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 and perform a detailed transcriptomic analysis of cultures grown with either methane or ethanol. Evidence for use of the canonical methane oxidation pathway and the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from methane was obtained, as well as for operation of the complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (EMC) pathway. Experiments with Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 grown on methane revealed that genes responsible for the first step of methane oxidation, the conversion of methane to methanol, were expressed at a significantly higher level than those for downstream oxidative transformations, suggesting that this step may be rate limiting for growth of this strain with methane. Further, transcriptomic analyses of Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 grown with ethanol compared to methane revealed that on ethanol (i) expression of the pathway of methane oxidation and the serine cycle was significantly reduced, (ii) expression of the TCA cycle dramatically increased, and (iii) expression of the EMC pathway was similar. Based on these data, it appears that Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 converts ethanol to acetyl-coenzyme A, which is then funneled into the TCA cycle for energy generation or incorporated into biomass via the EMC pathway. This suggests that some methanotrophs have greater metabolic flexibility than previously thought and that operation of multiple pathways in these microorganisms is highly controlled and integrated. PMID:24610846

  15. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on bile acids and growth of DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Kaneko, Maki; Ohashi, Midori; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-06-01

    The growth of DFA III-assimilating bacteria in the intestines of rats fed 3% DFA III for 2 weeks was examined. Sixty-four percent of the DFA III intake had been assimilated on day 3 of ingestion, and almost all of the DFA III was assimilated at the end of the experiment. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus, in DFA III-fed rats was in the stationary state of 10(8)-10(9) cells/g dry feces within a week from 10(6) cells/g dry feces on day 1 of DFA III ingestion. The number of R. productus cells was associated with the amount of DFA III excreted in the feces. The acetic acid produced from DFA III by R. productus lowered the cecal pH to 5.8. In control-fed rats and DFA III-fed rats, 94% of secondary bile acids and 94% of primary bile acids, respectively, were accounted for in the total bile acids analyzed. DFA III ingestion increased the ratio of primary bile acids and changed the composition of fecal bile acids. In conclusion, R. productus assimilated DFA III, produced short chain fatty acids, and the cecal pH was lowered. The acidification of rat intestine perhaps inhibited secondary bile acid formation and decreased the ratio of secondary bile acids. Therefore, it is expected that DFA III may prevent colorectal cancer and be a new prebiotic candidate. PMID:16233830

  16. The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Mireia; Domènech, Jordi; Capdevila, Mercè; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate α and β domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles. PMID:23847757

  17. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. PMID:23775888

  18. Chryseobacterium defluvii sp. nov., isolated from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Dreyer, Ute; Neef, Alexander; Dott, Wolfgang; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium (strain B2T) isolated from wastewater of a sequence batch reactor showing enhanced phosphorus removal was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the organism should be placed in the genus Chryseobacterium. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound, menaquinone MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and ai-C15:0, i-C15:0 and C16:1 as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids were detected in the polar lipid profile. Phylogenetically, strain B2T was most closely related to Chryseobacterium indoltheticum and Chryseobacterium gleum (96.2 and 95-9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The phylogenetic distance from any validly described species within the genus Chryseobacterium, as indicated from 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, and its phenotypic properties demonstrate that strain B2T represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is B2T (=DSM 14219T =CIP 107207T). PMID:12656158

  19. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takao; Arihara, Keizo; Ikeda, Ami; Nomura, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Ohori, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Four strains isolated from chicken small intestine and strains JCM 1038 and JCM 1039 (designated as Lactobacillus acidophilus) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. These strains had similar phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intergroup DNA relatedness values of >77 %, indicating that they comprised a single species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain, JCM 1039(T) (designated as type strain in this study), was determined and aligned with those of other Lactobacillus species. JCM 1039(T) was placed in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii cluster of the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and formed an independent cluster that was distinct from its closest neighbours, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and whole-cell protein profiles clearly indicated that these strains represent a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of this species is JCM 1039(T). PMID:14657145

  20. SP-100 program - Where we are today

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program is in the process of validating the technology/components on which the generic flight system (GFS) design is based. A major step in this validation process is the nuclear assembly test (NAT) to be built by General Electric and operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company in an existing containment building at the US Department of Energy's Hanford facilities in the state of Washington. Other segments of the GES program include the development of the thermoelectric converter assembly, the thermoelectro-magnetic (TEM) pump, and the gas separator. The evolution of all these segments from design to hardware is in full swing. Nuclear fuel development and manufacture is under way at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. An important activity in the GES program is materials development and testing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) plays a key role in this effort with support from Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems. Encouraging progress in other GES activities not directly associated with the NAT includes the successful manufacture of multicouple thermoelectric modules incorporating the compliant pad coupling to the heat source and sink and the necessary sapphire electrical insulation in a mass-efficient configuration. Successful tests of both the TEM pump and gas separator concepts lend validity to proposed flight system designs.

  1. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, C; Selvaraj, J; Gomathinayagam, S; Thangapandiyan, M; Ravikumar, G; Roy, Parimal; Balachandran, C

    2014-12-01

    Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The 'central vacuole forms' of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. The intensity of infection was low, with less than one organism per oil immersion field, indicating that their presence was unconnected to the cause of death. Caecal scraping was found to be more ideal than duodenal scraping for the diagnosis of Blastocystis, and can be a potential specimen for definitive diagnosis. Identical organisms were also detected in the dung samples of a buffalo calf which showed clinical signs of diarrhoea The presence of Blastocystis in food animals acquires public health significance, as many subtypes of the parasite from poultry and pigs are transmissible to humans. PMID:25320500

  2. Exiguobacterium enclense sp. nov., isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Thorat, Meghana N; Mual, Poonam; Verma, Ashish; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Tang, Shan-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated strain NIO-1109(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and data from phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NIO-1109(T) was related to the genus Exiguobacterium . Strain NIO-1109(T) exhibited >98.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to Exiguobacterium indicum HHS 31(T) (99.5%) and Exiguobacterium acetylicum NCIMB 9889(T) (99.1%); the type strains of other species showed <98% similarity. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NIO-1109(T) and E. acetylicum DSM 20416(T) and E. indicum LMG 23471(T) were less than 70% (33.0 ± 2.0 and 37 ± 3.2%, respectively). Strain NIO-1109(T) also differed from these two closely related species in a number of phenotypic traits. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain NIO-1109(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Exiguobacterium , for which the name Exiguobacterium enclense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1109(T) ( =NCIM 5457(T) =DSM 25128(T)  = CCTCC AB 2011124(T)). PMID:25716950

  3. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications. PMID:17705506

  4. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  5. Mycobacterium heraklionense sp. nov.: A case series

    PubMed Central

    NEONAKIS, IOANNIS K.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; GITTI, ZOE

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium heraklionense sp. nov. (M. heraklionense) is a novel non-tuberculous mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium terrae complex that has recently been described. It has a world-wide distribution. Recently, a case of tenosynovitis in an immunocompetent individual caused by M. heraklionense was reported, indicating that it has the ability to cause diseases. In the present study, in order to provide a more detailed profile of this mycobacterium and to obtain a more complete overall picture of its clinical significance, we report all available data regarding the initial 12 cases of its isolation. Of the 12 patients, 5 (42%) eventually died within a period of 3 months following the isolation of the mycobacterium. However, any connection between the presence of M. heraklionense and these deaths could not be documented. These 5 patients were all males with a mean age of 74.6 years suffering from serious underlying diseases, which most probably were the cause of death. Additional data from possible new cases of M. heraklionense isolation are anticipated. PMID:26622497

  6. Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive actinobacterial strain, designated KT1403(T), was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karpaz, Magusa, Northern Cyprus, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phytomonospora. The cell wall of the novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose and mannose as the major sugars in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids in the cell membrane were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The major fatty acids were found to be iso C15:0 , anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KT1403(T) belongs to the genus Phytomonospora with a sequence similarity of 99.73 % with Phytomonospora endophytica, the type species of the genus. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain KT1403(T) from its near phylogenetic neighbour, P. endophytica DSM 45386(T) (29.0 ± 2.2 % DNA relatedness). Therefore, it is proposed that strain KT1403(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phytomonospora, for which the name Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KT1403(T) (=KCTC 29479(T) = DSM 46767(T)). PMID:26427856

  7. Systematic Enumeration of sp(3) Nanothreads.

    PubMed

    Xu, En-shi; Lammert, Paul E; Crespi, Vincent H

    2015-08-12

    Slow decompression of crystalline benzene in large-volume high-pressure cells has recently achieved synthesis of a novel one-dimensional allotrope of sp(3) carbon in which stacked columns of benzene molecules rehybridize into an ordered crystal of nanothreads. The progenitor benzene molecules function as six-valent one-dimensional superatoms with multiple binding sites. Here we enumerate their hexavalent bonding geometries, recognizing that the repeat unit of interatomic connectivity ("topological unit cell") need not coincide with the crystallographic unit cell, and identify the most energetically favorable cases. A topological unit cell of one or two benzene rings with at least two bonds interconnecting each adjacent pair of rings, accommodates 50 topologically distinct nanothreads, 15 of which are within 80 meV/carbon atom of the most stable member. Optimization of aperiodic helicity reveals the most stable structures to be chiral. We generalize Euler's rules for ring counting to cover this new form of very thin one-dimensional carbon, calculated their physical properties, and propose a naming convention that can be generalized to handle nanothreads formed from other progenitor molecules. PMID:26207926

  8. Paracoccus angustae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuelian; Luo, Patrick; Li, Mingshun

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, aerobic bacterium, strain E6T, was isolated from soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a cluster containing strain E6T and Paracoccus sediminis CMB17T (the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity of 97.2 %). The other strains investigated showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of less than 97 % to strain E6T. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain E6T and P. sediminis DSM 26170T was 59.2 %. Strain E6T also shows some differences compared with other Paracoccus strains such as motility and inability to utilize lactate and propionate as sole carbon sources. The major fatty acids of strain E6T were C18 : 1ω7c and C18 : 0 and ubiquinone-10 was the only respiratory quinone. Strain E6T had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown aminolipid and an unknown glycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain E6T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus angustae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E6T ( = KCTC 42473T = CCTCC AB 2015056T). PMID:26296343

  9. Altererythrobacter marensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seong Hae; Lee, Soon Dong

    2010-02-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated MSW-14(T), was isolated from seawater collected around Mara Island, Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organism was motile by means of a flagellum and showed optimum growth at 0-4 % NaCl, 30 degrees C and pH 7.1. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the family Erythrobacteraceae. The strain's closest phylogenetic neighbours were Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans JCS350(T) (97.7 % sequence similarity), Altererythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) (97.3 %) and Altererythrobacter indicus MSSRF26(T) (95.0 %). The dominant cellular fatty acid was C(18 : 1) (summed feature 7, 52.8 %). The major ubiquinone was UQ-10. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MSW-14(T) and A. epoxidivorans KCCM 42314(T) and A. luteolus KCTC 12311(T) were 26.0-27.3 % and 9.8-15.2 %, respectively. On the basis of the data from the polyphasic characterization, strain MSW-14(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Altererythrobacter marensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MSW-14(T) (=KCTC 22370(T)=DSM 21428(T)). PMID:19651736

  10. Dickeya aquatica sp. nov., isolated from waterways.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; DeVos, Paul; Pirhonen, Minna; Elphinstone, John

    2014-07-01

    Pectinolytic Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from different waterways in the UK and Finland. Three strains (174/2(T), 181/2 and Dw054) had the same 16S rRNA gene sequences which shared 99% sequence similarity to species of the genus Dickeya, and a phylogeny of related genera confirmed attribution to this genus. Fatty acid profile analysis of all three strains found a high proportion of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 fatty acids, and library profile searches found closest matches to Dickeya chrysanthemi. Production of a concatenated phylogeny using six loci, recA, gapA, atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB, provided a high-resolution phylogeny which placed strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 as a distinct clade, separated from the other species of the genus Dickeya by a relatively long branch-length. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with a limited number of reference species also supported the distinctiveness of strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 within the genus Dickeya. All three strains could be phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus by fermentation of melibiose and raffinose but not D-arabinose or mannitol. The name Dickeya aquatica sp. nov. is proposed for the new taxon; the type strain is 174/2(T) ( = NCPPB 4580(T) = LMG 27354(T)). PMID:24719023

  11. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

  12. Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yam; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Bouanane, Nabila A; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2010-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 1YB-R12T, was isolated from a soil sample in western Algeria. The novel isolate was heterotrophic, chemoorganotrophic, halotolerant and psychrotolerant. The temperature and pH optima for growth were 28-30 degrees C and pH 7.3-8. The bacterium tolerated up to 6% (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and non-spore-forming, and were characterized by a variable morphological cycle. Flexirubin-type pigments were not detected. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 1YB-R12T occupied a distinct lineage within the genus Chryseobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Chryseobacterium haifense LMG 24029T (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain 1YB-R12T was 40.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (41.4%) and iso-C15:0 (14.4%). On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 1YB-R12T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1YB-R12T (=DSM 22468T=CCUG 55604T). PMID:19767354

  13. SP-100 reactor and shield design update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deane, Nelson A.; Stewart, Samuel L.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Newkirk, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 technical specification for the generic flight system has been updated to eliminate design specific and unnecessarily restrictive requirements. Relaxation of these requirements allows considerably more flexibility to the reactor and shield designer to minimize the mass of the system. Ground Engineering System (GES) Program test results are also beginning to become available to the designer. Some of these test results in combination with the design requirement changes have lead to design changes in 1) the fuel pin to include an aft axial reflector, 2) the reflector control mechanism concept from a hinged to an aft sliding system, 3) the number of safety rods from seven to three, and 4) the use of Be and B4C instead of LiH in the forward neutron field section. These changes have been developed to minimize the mass of the total system. Generic Flight System Design Option/Update Studies are ongoing activities with mass reduction as the primary objective to assure that the Flight System Qualification Program adequately defines and achieves the development needs.

  14. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T). PMID:25969476

  15. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)). PMID:25726422

  16. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

  17. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  18. Class III viral membrane fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Backovic, Marija

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating structural studies of viral fusion glycoproteins have revealed unanticipated structural relationships between unrelated virus families and allowed the grouping of these membrane fusogens into three distinct classes. Here we review the newly identified group of class III viral fusion proteins, whose members include fusion proteins from rhabdoviruses, herpesviruses and baculoviruses. While clearly related in structure, the class III viral fusion proteins exhibit distinct structural features in their architectures as well as in their membrane-interacting fusion loops, which are likely related to their virus-specific differences in cellular entry. Further study of the similarities and differences in the class III viral fusion glycoproteins may provide greater insights into protein:membrane interactions that are key to promoting efficient bilayer fusion during virus entry. PMID:19356922

  19. The Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschi, B. Y.; Morse, D. E.; Woolston, T. L.

    1996-06-01

    The Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope III (SPIRIT III) is a mid- through long-wave infrared instrumentation package built and managed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University for the Midcourse Space Experiment. SPIRIT III contains a radiometer and an auto-aligning interferometer-spectrometer that share a telescope designed for high off-axis rejection. A solid-hydrogen cryostat, the first of its kind to be used in a space/satellite application, cools the entire sensor system to cryogenic operating temperatures. This hardware will measure the spectral, spatial, temporal, and intensity characteristics of Earth-limb backgrounds, celestial objects, and other upper atmospheric phenomena. Collected data will provide answers to fundamental questions about Department of Defense surveillance systems and supply invaluable information for system planners and designers of future threat detection systems.

  20. Radiation shielding design considerations for Doublet III

    SciTech Connect

    Engholm, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Calculations and measurements were made of the bremsstrahlung (x-ray) doses resulting from runaway electron shots at Doublet III. The analysis considered direct, wall-scattered, and skyshine contributions. Reasonably good agreement was obtained between calculations and measurements. The x-ray dose in the control room was about 1 mR per runaway shot, while that at the north boundary was undetectable, with a calculated value of 0.05 mR per shot. These low doses attest to the adequacy of the 2 ft concrete shadow shield surrounding the Doublet III room. Exploratory shielding analyses were performed for possible neutron generation if Doublet III were operated with neutral beam injection in an aggressive D-D mode.

  1. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  2. Complexation of Cm(III)/Eu(III) with Silicate in Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R; Xia, Yuanxian; Qafoku, Odeta; Yantasee, Wassana; Cho, Herman M

    2005-12-01

    The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with dissolved silica was studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in basic solutions over a range of total silica concentrations and ionic strengths (NaNO3). In highly basic solutions, both the fluorescence spectra and lifetime data indicate the formation of Eu(III)/Cm(III) complexes with oligomeric silicates as well as hydroxide groups and/or nitrate in the presence of concentrated NaNO3. At high silica concentration the inner-sphere complexation caused the shift of the fluorescence spectral maximum for Cm(III)(aq) from 594 nm to up to 607 nm and a significant increase of the hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F2 band around 615 nm relative to the non-hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F1 band at 592 nm for Eu(III). At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime increased from 68 s to up to 202 s for Cm(III) in 0.1 M NaNO3 and from 115 s to 1.8 ms for Eu(III) in 3.0 M and 5.0 M NaNO3, consistent with the removal of 6 or more water molecules upon silicate complexation. Linear correlations between the spectral intensity of Cm(III) complexes and the concentrations of the dissolved silicates suggest that Cm(III) complexation with the silicate dimer, Si2O2(OH)22-, may play a role.

  3. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 106 to 4.27 × 105 and 8.57 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 105 and 5.12 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22649297

  4. Transcribing RNA polymerase III observed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Niklas A; Jakobi, Arjen J; Vorländer, Matthias K; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W

    2016-08-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy reconstructions of elongating RNA polymerase (Pol) III at 3.9 Å resolution and of unbound Pol III (apo Pol III) in two distinct conformations at 4.6 Å and 4.7 Å resolution allow the construction of complete atomic models of Pol III and provide new functional insights into the adaption of Pol III to fulfill its specific transcription tasks. PMID:27059519

  5. Factor structure of the MCMI-III.

    PubMed

    Craig, R J; Bivens, A

    1998-02-01

    The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1994; MCMI-III) was assessed among 444 African American inpatient substance abusers and constitutes the first factor analysis of the MCMI-III. We found 3 main factors: General Maladjustment, Paranoid Behavior/Thinking With Detached Emotionality, and Antisocial Acting Out. These factors were essentially similar to previous findings of factor studies with the MCMI and MCMI-II across diverse populations. This factor invariance should lend credibility to the revised test and spur additional research into its psychometric properties. PMID:9615431

  6. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  7. Medical management of suspected Paecilomyces sp. deep keratitis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Lee; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed a deep keratitis presenting with an endothelial plaque without overlying stromal involvement. Owing to the characteristic clinical appearance, she was provisionally diagnosed with a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Corneal scrapings and aqueous humour samples were culture negative. The difficulties in diagnosing Paecilomyces sp. keratitis are discussed. The patient's keratitis was managed with a combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole. This medical management strategy was successful in achieving good infection control and visual outcome. We report a rarely encountered presentation of keratitis in which the clinical appearance and response to voriconazole are highly suggestive evidence of a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. We believe the combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole represents a novel treatment approach for Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Our case supports the potential for a medical approach as initial treatment in this otherwise devastating form of oculomycosis. PMID:26135494

  8. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, William R; Muscarella, Mario E; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  10. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments. PMID:26089434

  11. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  12. 'PROCTOECES' SP. (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN THE AMERICAN OYSTER, 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histological examination of over 6,000 oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting northern Gulf Coast estuaries revealed unencysted junvenile and possible adult stages of digenetic trematode, Proctoeces sp., inhabiting the gonadal ducts of the mollusc. The morphology of the worm ...

  13. Lustromycin, a new antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, H; Iwata, R; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Oiwa, R; Omura, S

    1986-09-01

    A new antibiotic, lustromycin, was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces sp. SK-1071. It exhibits selective antibacterial activity against anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium sp. The molecular formula C32H38O13 as determined by high resolution mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis and the NMR spectrum suggest structural resemblance of this antibiotic to luminamicin, an anti-anaerobic antibiotic reported previously. PMID:3781918

  14. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  15. Sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, M; Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1982-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P less than 0.01). PMID:6808158

  16. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  17. Genome sequencing and annotation of Serratia sp. strain TEL.

    PubMed

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    We present the annotation of the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KP711410). This organism was isolated from entomopathogenic nematode Oscheius sp. strain TEL (GenBank accession number KM492926) collected from grassland soil and has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp and 542 subsystems. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number LDEG00000000. PMID:26697332

  18. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  19. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Kasberg, Abigail D.; Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  20. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera. PMID:26732137

  1. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef. PMID:19783617

  2. Genome-directed isolation of the key nitrogen fixer Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum sp. nov. from an acidophilic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Gene W; Lo, Ian; Baker, Brett J; Allen, Eric E; Hugenholtz, Philip; Banfield, Jillian F

    2005-10-01

    Analysis of assembled random shotgun sequence data from a low-diversity, subsurface acid mine drainage (AMD) biofilm revealed a single nif operon. This was found on a genome fragment belonging to a member of Leptospirillum group III, a lineage in the Nitrospirae phylum with no cultivated representatives. Based on the prediction that this organism is solely responsible for nitrogen fixation in the community, we pursued a selective isolation strategy to obtain the organism in pure culture. An AMD biofilm sample naturally abundant in Leptospirillum group III cells was homogenized, filtered, and serially diluted into a nitrogen-free liquid medium. The resulting culture in the terminal dilution grew autotrophically to a maximum cell density of approximately 10(6) cells/ml, oxidizing ferrous iron as the sole energy source. 16S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer region clone library analysis confirmed that the isolate is a member of Leptospirillum group III and that the culture is axenic. We propose the name Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum sp. nov. for this iron-oxidizing, free-living diazotroph. This study highlights how environmental sequence data can provide insights for culturing previously uncultured microorganisms. PMID:16204553

  3. Characterization of the arene-oxidizing intermediate in ToMOH as a diiron(III) species.

    PubMed

    Murray, Leslie J; Naik, Sunil G; Ortillo, Danilo O; García-Serres, Ricardo; Lee, Jessica K; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Lippard, Stephen J

    2007-11-21

    We report the generation and characterization of a diiron(III) intermediate formed during reaction with dioxygen of the reduced hydroxylase component of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1. The decay rate of this species is accelerated upon mixing with phenol, a substrate for this system. Under steady-state conditions, hydrogen peroxide was generated in the absence of substrate. The oxidized hydroxylase also decomposed hydrogen peroxide to liberate dioxygen in the absence of reducing equivalents. This activity suggests that dioxygen activation may be reversible. The linear free energy relationship determined from hydroxylation of para-substituted phenols under steady-state turnover has a negative slope. A value of rho < 0 is consistent with electrophilic attack by the oxidizing intermediate on the aromatic substrates. The results from these steady and pre-steady-state experiments provide compelling evidence that the diiron(III) intermediate is the active oxidant in the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase system and is a peroxodiiron(III) transient, despite differences between its optical and Mössbauer spectroscopic parameters and those of other peroxodiiron(III) centers. PMID:17967027

  4. Characterization of the Arene-Oxidizing Intermediate in ToMOH as a Diiron(III) Species

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Leslie J.; Naik, Sunil G.; Ortillo, Danilo O.; García-Serres, Ricardo; Lee, Jessica K.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the generation and characterization of a diiron(III) intermediate formed during reaction with dioxygen of the reduced hydroxylase component of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1. The decay rate of this species is accelerated upon mixing with phenol, a substrate for this system. Under steady state conditions, hydrogen peroxide was generated in the absence of substrate. The oxidized hydroxylase also decomposed hydrogen peroxide to liberate dioxygen in the absence of reducing equivalents. This activity suggests that dioxygen activation may be reversible. The linear free energy relationship determined from hydroxylation of para substituted phenols under steady state turnover has a negative slope. A value of ρ < 0 is consistent with electrophilic attack by the oxidizing intermediate on the aromatic substrates. The results from these steady and pre-steady state experiments provide compelling evidence that the diiron(III) intermediate is the active oxidant in ToMO and a peroxodiiron(III) transient, despite differences between its optical and Mössbauer spectroscopic parameters and those of other peroxodiiron(III) centers. PMID:17967027

  5. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2014-12-01

    A major carotenoid in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, originally isolated from a river in Daejon City, South Korea, was identified as astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside. Gene clusters encoding the astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthetic enzymes were identified by screening Sphingomonas sp. PB304 fosmid libraries using degenerate probes that harbor highly conserved sequences from the Sphigomonas elodea-derived crtI and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120-dervied crtW genes. Selected positive gene clusters were fully sequenced and annotated, revealing genes encoding six putative carotenogenic enzymes: phytoene synthase (CrtB), phytoene desaturase (CrtI), lycopene cyclase (CrtY), carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), carotene ketolase (CrtW), and glycosyltransferase (CrtX). All of the carotenogenic enzymes, except for CrtX, were functional in the recombinant host Escherichia coli expressing synthetic carotenogenic modules from Pantoea agglomerans. CrtX did not take up UDP-glucose or GDP-fucose as sugar substrates during the in vitro reaction. Although no direct experimental evidence was obtained for the function of Sphingomonas sp. PB304 CrtX, it can be categorized as a putative deoxyglycosyltransferase based on the presence of astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside in Sphingomonas sp. PB304, a putative corresponding gene in the carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster, and high amino acid sequence homology to the existing glycosyltransferases. Therefore, we propose that astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside can be synthesized in Sphingomonas sp. PB304 via sequential reactions of six pathway enzymes, including CrtX on the phytoene intermediate. PMID:25193422

  6. Calibration of Regional S/P Amplitude-ratio Discriminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, R. D.; Sereno, T. J., Jr.

    - S/P amplitude ratios have proven to be a valuable discriminant in support of monitoring a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Regional S and P phases attenuate at different rates and the attenuation can vary geographically. Therefore, calibration is needed to apply the S/P discriminant in new regions. Calibration includes application of frequency-dependent source and distance corrections for regional Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases.Jenkins etal. (1998) developed Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg amplitude models for nine geographic regions and two global composite models, stable and tectonic. They determined frequency-dependent source and attenuation corrections from a large data set obtained from the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC). We use their corrections to evaluate calibrated S/P discriminants.Our discrimination data set includes >1000 amplitude ratios from earthquakes, industrial explosions, chemical explosions, and nuclear explosions from Lop Nor, India and Pakistan. We find that the calibrated S/P ratio is largest for earthquakes and smallest for the nuclear explosions, as expected. However, the discriminant is not universally valid. In particular, the S/P ratio for the Pakistan nuclear explosion fell within the normal range for the earthquakes. This event was recorded by only a few stations at far-regional distances and appears to have an anomalously high Sn amplitude. The industrial explosions overlap with the earthquake population, however the buried chemical explosions generally register lower S/P ratio than earthquakes.

  7. Supported liquid membrane system for Cr(III) separation from Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Religa, P; Rajewski, J; Gierycz, P; Swietlik, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses of the chromium(III) transport process from mixtures of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions using supported liquid membranes (SLM), in which dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) were used as carriers. In both cases the membrane worked as a selective barrier for Cr(VI) ions. The increase in both the time of Cr(VI) ions-carrier interaction and the Cr(VI) concentration in the feed phase negatively influenced the Cr(III) separation. The polarizing layer consisting of Cr(VI) ions prevents the access of Cr(III) ions to the inter phase surface and leads to the deactivation of the carrier, which is the result of the strong oxidation properties of Cr(VI) ions. These factors meant that, in the case of the membrane with DNNSA, the membrane could not be used for the effective separation of Cr(III) from the Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixture. On the other hand, the membrane with D2EHPA can be used for fast and efficient transport of Cr(III) ions, but only for strictly defined process parameters, i.e. where the level of chromium(VI) concentration is below 10(-3)M and with intensive feed phase mixing. PMID:24960010

  8. GLUT1 glucose transporter gene transcription is repressed by Sp3. Evidence for a regulatory role of Sp3 during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fandos, C; Sánchez-Feutrie, M; Santalucía, T; Viñals, F; Cadefau, J; Gumà, A; Cussó, R; Kaliman, P; Canicio, J; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1999-11-19

    GLUT1 glucose transporters are highly expressed in proliferating and transformed cells as well as in tissues during fetal life. However, the mechanisms that regulate GLUT1 gene expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Sp3 proteins bind to the GLUT1 proximal promoter gene and inhibit transcriptional activity in muscle and non-muscle cells. Two different Sp3 translational products (110 and 74 kDa) derived from differential translational initiation were detected in nuclear extracts from myoblast cells, and both Sp3 protein species inhibited GLUT1 gene transcriptional activity. The inhibitory effect of Sp3 was dominant over the stimulatory effect of Sp1 on transcriptional activity of GLUT1 gene. Furthermore, abolition of Sp3 binding to the proximal promoter of GLUT1 gene completely blocked the response to Sp3. We provide evidence that the expression of Sp3 protein is subject to regulation in muscle cells and that this is likely to control GLUT1. Thus, Sp3 protein was up-regulated in the absence of changes in Sp1 early after the induction of IGF-II-dependent myogenesis. Furthermore, forced over-expression of MyoD caused an enhancement in the cellular Sp3/Sp1 ratio which was concomitant to a reduced GLUT1 expression. Later during myogenesis, Sp3 expression was substantial whereas Sp1 was markedly down-regulated. In summary, we provide direct evidence that the transcription factor Sp3 represses gene expression in non-muscle and muscle cells and this is likely to operate in fetal heart by binding to the GLUT1 gene promoter. This is the first description of a repressor of GLUT1 gene transcription. Furthermore, we propose that variations in the ratio of Sp3 versus Sp1 regulate GLUT1 promoter activity and this is crucial in the down-regulation of GLUT1 associated to myogenesis. PMID:10556032

  9. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis. PMID:25398907

  10. [Purification and physico-chemical properties of Streptomyces sp. 1349 collagenase and Streptomyces sp. 1382 keratinase].

    PubMed

    Ivanko, O V; Varbanets', L D

    2004-01-01

    The schemes of isolation and purification of collagenolytic enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1349 and keratinolyte enzymes of Streptomyces sp. 1382, which include fractionation by ammonium sulphate separation on TSK-gels: ion-exchange chromatography on Toyopearl DEAE-650(M) and gel-filtration on Toyopearl HW-50, as well as highly efficient liquid chromatography. The purified enzyme preparations proved to be proteases of serine type (collagenase 2 and keratinases) as well as metalloproteases (collagenases 1 and 3). It has seen established that collagenases are enzymes of broad specificity, which are active in respect of proteins of both globular and fibrillar nature. And vice versa, keratinases are proteolytic enzymes of narrow specificity which hydrolyze native keratin. Molecular masses of purified enzyme preparations, from the data of SDS-PAAG are approximately 30-40 kDa (collagenases 1-3) and about 15-20 kDa (keratinases 1 and 2). It is shown that the charged aminoacid residues (about 85%) prevail in enzyme molecules. The enzymes are distinguished by pH- and thermooptima. PMID:15208850

  11. Bacillus infantis sp. nov. and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Hyuck; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2006-11-01

    Two Gram-positive bacilli, designated as strains SMC 4352-1T and SMC 4352-2T, were isolated sequentially from the blood of a newborn child with sepsis. They could not be identified by using conventional clinical microbiological methods. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains belonged to the genus Bacillus but clearly diverged from known Bacillus species. Strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T were found to be closely related to Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366T (98.2% sequence similarity) and Bacillus cibi JG-30T (97.1% sequence similarity), respectively. They also displayed low DNA-DNA reassociation values (less than 40%) with respect to the most closely related Bacillus species. On the basis of their polyphasic characteristics, strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus infantis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-1T=KCCM 90025T=JCM 13438T) and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-2T=KCCM 90024T=JCM 13437T) are proposed. PMID:17082387

  12. Achromobacter insolitus sp. nov. and Achromobacter spanius sp. nov., from human clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Coenye, Tom; Vancanneyt, Marc; Falsen, Enevold; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2003-11-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study (employing whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses, 16S rDNA sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, determination of DNA G+C content, antibiotic susceptibility testing and extensive phenotypic characterization) was performed on 10 isolates that appeared to be related to Alcaligenes faecalis. The isolates were recovered from diverse environments that included human clinical samples. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that these isolates belonged to the genus ACHROMOBACTER: Whole-cell protein analysis distinguished two groups, which were confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on the results of this study, the organisms were classified as two novel Achromobacter species, Achromobacter insolitus sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 6003(T)) and Achromobacter spanius sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 5911(T)). Achromobacter insolitus can be distinguished from Achromobacter spanius by its ability to grow on acetamide and to assimilate mesaconate and aconitate, and by its inability to assimilate diaminobutane. Various tests allow the differentiation of both novel species from other Achromobacter species, including growth on acetamide, denitrification and assimilation of D-glucose, D-xylose, mesaconate, aconitate and diaminobutane. PMID:14657110

  13. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. PMID:24786712

  14. Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov., two dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Straub, K L; Buchholz-Cleven, B E

    2001-09-01

    Two strictly anaerobic, dissimilatory ferric-iron-reducing bacteria, strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T, were isolated from freshwater mud samples with ferrihydrite as electron acceptor. Both strains also grew by reducing Mn(IV), S0 and fumarate. Electron donors used by strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T for growth with ferric iron as electron acceptor included hydrogen, formate, acetate, pyruvate, succinate, fumarate and ethanol. An affiliation with the family Geobacteraceae was revealed by comparative analysis of 165 rRNA gene sequences. Strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T shared 92.5% sequence identity and their closest known relative was Geobacter sulfurreducens, with approximately 93% sequence identity. Cultures and colonies of strains Dfr1T and Dfr2T were intensely red in colour, due to the presence of c-type cytochromes. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, strain Dfr1T (= DSM 12179T = OCM 796T) is described as Geobacter bremensis sp. nov. and strain Dfr2T (= DSM 12255T = OCM 797T) as Geobacter pelophilus sp. nov. PMID:11594612

  15. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  16. Aphelenchoides microstylus n. sp. and Seinura onondagensis n. sp. (Nemata: Aphelenchina) from New York

    PubMed Central

    Kaisa, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    Aphelenchoides microstylus n. sp. and Seinura onondagensis n. sp., a nematode predator, are described from dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Onondaga County, New York. Females of A. microstylus are 370 to 485 µm long. The body is slender and tapers posteriorly to an amucronate, pointed terminus. The head is continuous with the body, and lips bear a stylet guide. Diagnostic characters of females are three incisures in the lateral field, a short stylet (6-7.5 µm) with small basal knobs, a single row of oocytes, and a long postuterine sac (25-50 µm). Males are characterized by small spicules (10-11µm); two pairs of post-anal, subventral papillae; and a single row of spermatocytes. A bursa and gubernaculum are absent. Seinura onondagensis females are characterized by a body of moderate length (475-595 µm), finely annulated cuticle, and a slightly set-off head. Diagnostic characters are four incisures in the lateral field, long stylet without basal knobs (17-22 µm), single row of oocytes, and presence of a postuterine sac (14-38 µm). Males are unknown. The monospecific genus Indaphelenchus is proposed as a synonym of Seinura, and S. siddiqii n. comb. is proposed for the only species, I. siddiqii. PMID:19270994

  17. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  18. Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

  19. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  20. Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov., isolated from bamboo leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

    2014-07-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative, methylotrophic bacteria, isolated because of their abilities to promote plant growth, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolates were strictly aerobic, motile, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, non-spore-forming rods. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included the presence of C18 : 1ω7c as the major cellular fatty acid. The DNA G+C contents of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) were 69.4 and 69.8 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strains BL36(T) and BL47(T) placed them under the genus Methylobacterium, with the pairwise sequence similarity between them and the type strains of closely related species ranging from 97.2 to 99.0%. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, the isolates represent two novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium pseudosasicola sp. nov. (type strain BL36(T) = NBRC 105203(T) = ICMP 17621(T)) and Methylobacterium phyllostachyos sp. nov. (type strain BL47(T) = NBRC 105206(T) = ICMP 17619(T)) are proposed. PMID:24760798

  1. Gordonia didemni sp. nov. an actinomycete isolated from the marine ascidium Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2016-02-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B204(T), was isolated from a marine ascidian Didemnum sp., collected from São Paulo, Brazil, and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Gordonia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Gordonia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was closely related to Gordonia terrae DSM 43249(T) (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Gordonia lacunae DSM 45085(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but was distinguished from these strains by a moderate level of DNA-DNA relatedness (63.0 and 54.7 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B204(T) (=CBMAI 1069(T) = DSM 46679(T)) should therefore be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia didemni sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26678782

  2. Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov., novel spirochaetes isolated from porcine faeces.

    PubMed

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Taras, David; Macha, Moritz; Tedin, Karsten; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2005-07-01

    Limit-dilution procedures were used to isolate seven, helically coiled bacterial strains from faeces of swine that constituted two unidentified taxa. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed highest similarity values with species of the genus Treponema indicating that the isolates are members of this genus. Strain 7CPL208(T), as well as five further isolates, and 14V28(T) displayed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Treponema pectinovorum ATCC 33768(T) (92.3%) and Treponema parvum OMZ 833(T) (89.9%), respectively. Polar lipid profiles distinguished 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) from each other as well as from related species. Based on their phenotypic and genotypic distinctiveness, strains 7CPL208(T) and 14V28(T) are suggested to represent two novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the names Treponema berlinense sp. nov. and Treponema porcinum sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain for Treponema berlinense is 7CPL208(T) (=ATCC BAA-909(T)=CIP 108244(T)=JCM 12341(T)) and for Treponema porcinum 14V28(T) (=ATCC BAA-908(T)=CIP 108245(T)=JCM 12342(T)). PMID:16014500

  3. Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov., isolated from medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Chen, Hua-Hong; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T), were isolated from the roots of Scoparia dulcis and Maytenus austroyunnanensis, two Chinese medicinal plants, and their taxonomic status was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The organisms were found to have chemical and morphological markers typical of members of the genus Glycomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that they were closely related to each other and to Glycomyces sambucus E71(T). A battery of physiological characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that strains YIM 56256(T) and YIM 61331(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from the related known Glycomyces species. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that each of these strains represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces scopariae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 56256(T) =KCTC 19158(T) =DSM 44968(T)) and Glycomyces mayteni sp. nov. (type strain YIM 61331(T) =KCTC 19527(T) =CCTCC AA 208004(T)) are proposed. PMID:19406786

  4. Bacteroides plebeius sp. nov. and Bacteroides coprocola sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ike, Masako; Sakata, Shinji; Benno, Yoshimi

    2005-09-01

    Nine strains of Gram-negative, anaerobic rod were isolated from human faeces. Based on phylogenetic analysis and specific phenotypic characteristics, these strains were included within the Bacteroides cluster and were divided into two clusters. Strains from the two clusters showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 90.4 and 92.7% to the nearest recognized species, Bacteroides vulgatus. The strains also formed two clusters exhibiting a 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence of approximately 6%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that the two novel strain clusters were distinct from each other. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, two novel species, Bacteroides plebeius sp. nov. and Bacteroides coprocola sp. nov., are proposed, each representing one of the two strain clusters. The DNA G+C content of the type strains were 43.9 mol% for B. plebeius (M12(T)=JCM 12973(T)=DSM 17135(T)) and 42.4 mol% for B. coprocola (M16(T)=JCM 12979(T)=DSM 17136(T)). PMID:16166722

  5. Catabolism of Naphthalenesulfonic Acids by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22

    PubMed Central

    Brilon, C.; Beckmann, W.; Knackmuss, H.-J.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene and two naphthalenesulfonic acids were degraded by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22 by the same enzymes. Gentisate is a major metabolite. Catabolic activities for naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid are induced by growth with naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, methylnaphthalene, or salicylate. Gentisate is also an inducer in strain A3. Inhibition kinetics show that naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes are hydroxylated by the same naphthalene dioxygenase. Substrates with nondissociable substituents such as CH3, OCH3, Cl, or NO2 are hydroxylated in the 7,8-position, and 4-substituted salicylates are accumulated. If CO2H, CH2CO2H, or SO3H are substituents, hydroxylation occurs with high regioselectivity in the 1,2-position. Thus, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acids are formed quantitatively from the corresponding naphthalenecarboxylic acids. Utilization of naphthalenesulfonic acids proceeds by the same regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation which labilizes the C—SO3− bond and eliminates sulfite. PMID:16345814

  6. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:22922536

  7. Corynebacterium frankenforstense sp. nov. and Corynebacterium lactis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Wiertz, Raika; Schulz, Stefanie Christine; Müller, Ute; Kämpfer, Peter; Lipski, André

    2013-12-01

    Two groups of Gram-stain positive, aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from raw cow's milk, from a milking machine and from bulk tank milk. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences these isolates formed two distinct groups within the genus Corynebacterium. The sequence similarities of the isolates to the type strains of species of the genus Corynebacterium were below 98.4%. The presence of menaquinones MK-8(H2) and MK-9(H2), the predominant fatty acid 18:1 cis 9 and a polar lipid pattern with several phospholipids but without aminolipids was in accord with the characteristics of this genus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from all known species of the genus Corynebacterium. Therefore, the isolates were assigned to two novel species of this genus for which the names Corynebacterium frankenforstense sp. nov. (type strain ST18(T) =DSM 45800(T) = CCUG 63371(T)), and Corynebacterium lactis sp. nov. (type strain RW2-5(T) = DSM 45799(T) = CCUG 63372(T)) are proposed, respectively. PMID:23907219

  8. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472). PMID:27188884

  9. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  10. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis. PMID:25912808

  11. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  12. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  13. Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Im, Dong-Moon; Kang, HeeCheol; Yun, Pyeong; Park, Sun-Ki; Hyun, Seung-Su; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain, yH16, was isolated on nutrient agar from soil samples collected at KyungHee University, Suwon City, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain yH16(T) were short rods, Gram-negative-staining, motile and non-spore-forming, with a polar flagellum. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that this strain was most similar to Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T). Further 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the new strain clustered with Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T) (95.9 % similarity), Paludibacterium yongneupense 5YN8-15(T) (95.2 % similarity), Gulbenkiania mobilis E4FC31-5(T) (94.6 % similarity) and Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SE-YA-1(T) (93.9 % similarity). The isolate was able to grow at 25-40 °C, 0.3-2 % NaCl and pH 5.5-7. The DNA G+C content was 65.9 ± 1.0 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). Ubiquinone 8 was the major respiratory quinone. It was evident from the data obtained that the strain should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudogulbenkiania. The name proposed for this taxon is Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., and the type strain is yH16(T) (=KCCM 90100(T) = JCM 17850(T)). PMID:22389280

  14. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). PMID:25351880

  15. Chryseobacterium shandongense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-bin; Wang, Xiang; Li, Shun-peng; Hong, Qing

    2015-06-01

    YF-3T is a Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, yellow-orange, rod-shaped bacterium. Optimal growth conditions were at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis, on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain YF-3T was closely related to the strains Chryseobacterium hispalense AG13T and Chryseobacterium taiwanense Soil-3-27T with 98.71 % and 96.93 % sequence similarity, respectively. Strain YF-3T contained MK-6 as the main menaquinone and had a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major component. Its major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-3T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain YF-3T was 37 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain YF-3T and the most closely related strains, C. hispalense AG13T and C. taiwanense Soil-3-27T, were 31.7 ± 2.1 % and 28.4 ± 5.4 %, respectively. Based on these results, a novel species named Chryseobacterium shandongense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YF-3T ( = CCTCC AB 2014060T = JCM 30154T). PMID:25762725

  16. Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-Yi; You, Hong; Li, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain LA53(T), was isolated from a deep-sea water sample collected from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Strain LA53(T) grew in the presence of 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 15-37 °C; optimum growth was observed with 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 35 °C. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) as major fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain LA53(T) belongs to the genus Novosphingobium. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain LA53(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Novosphingobium with validly published names ranged from 93.1 to 96.3 %. In addition, strain LA53(T) could be differentiated from Novosphingobium pentaromativorans DSM 17173(T) and Novosphingobium indicum DSM 23608(T) as well as the type strain of the type species of the genus, Novosphingobium capsulatum DSM 30196(T), by some phenotypic characteristics, including hydrolysis of substrates, utilization of carbon sources and susceptibility to antibiotics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LA53(T) represents a novel species within the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LA53(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12918(T) = JCM 30307(T)). PMID:25424486

  17. Pseudorhodoferax aquiterrae sp. nov., isolated from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lin, Yang-Shun; Young, Chiu-Chung; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-containing bacterial strain, designated NAFc-7(T), was isolated from groundwater in Taiwan and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-3 % NaCl (optimum, 0-1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NAFc-7(T), together with Pseudorhodoferax soli TBEA3(T) (98.2 % sequence similarity) and Pseudorhodoferax caeni SB1(T) (98.0 %), formed a deep line within the family Comamonadaceae. Strain NAFc-7(T) contained summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c), C(16 : 0) and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the predominant fatty acids. The major 3-hydroxy fatty acid was C(10 : 0) 3-OH. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and an uncharacterized phospholipid. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain NAFc-7(T) with respect to recognized species of the genus Pseudorhodoferax was less than 70 %. On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain NAFc-7(T) represents a novel member of the genus Pseudorhodoferax, for which the name Pseudorhodoferax aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NAFc-7(T) (= BCRC 80210(T) = LMG 26333(T) = KCTC 23314(T)). PMID:22368172

  18. Deinococcus humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, spherical, non-motile, red-pigmented bacterium, designated strain MK03(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in South Korea. The taxonomic position of the novel strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MK03(T) was placed in a clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae and appeared to be most closely related to Deinococcus aerolatus 5516T-9(T) (97.4% sequence similarity), Deinococcus marmoris AA-63(T) (97.2%), Deinococcus radiopugnans ATCC 19172(T) (97.2%) and Deinococcus saxicola AA-1444(T) (96.9%). The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 64.5 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MK03(T) were typical of members of the genus Deinococcus: MK-8 was identified as the predominant respiratory quinine, the major fatty acids were C(16:1)ω7c, C(15:1)ω6c, C(16:0) and C(15:0, )ornithine was found to be the diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the novel strain showed resistance to gamma radiation, with a D(10) value (i.e. the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) in excess of 9 kGy. In hybridization experiments, only low DNA-DNA relatedness values (11.6-34.5%) were recorded between the novel strain and its closest relatives in the genus Deinococcus. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain MK03(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MK03(T) ( = KCTC 13619(T)  = JCM 17915(T)). PMID:22228662

  19. Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated YCS-6(T), that was motile by gliding, was isolated from seawater on the southern coast of Korea. Strain YCS-6(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and with 2% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YCS-6(T) fell within the genus Tenacibaculum and was most closely associated with Tenacibaculum litopenaei B-I(T), with which the isolate exhibited 95.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Sequence similarity between strain YCS-6(T) and other members of the genus Tenacibaculum was 93.8-95.7%. Strain YCS-6(T) contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant respiratory quinone and iso-C(15:0), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH and iso-C(15:1) G as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 32.7 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness distinguished strain YCS-6(T) from all other members of the genus Tenacibaculum. On the basis of our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YCS-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum geojense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YCS-6(T) (=KCTC 23423(T) =CCUG 60527(T)). PMID:21257684

  20. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)). PMID:21515703