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1

Crecimiento y producción de metabolitos de la cianobacteria marina Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) en función de la irradiancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance. Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and indus- trial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and

Néstor Rosales-Loaiza; Miguel Guevara; César Lodeiros; Ever Morales

2

Descripción del funcionamiento del mercado secundario de bonos soberanos locales en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se describe el funcionamiento del mercado secundario de los bonos de largo plazo soberanos locales. Más específicamente, se describen en profundidad los agentes involucrados, los instrumentos transados y los tipos de plataformas existentes. A partir de este trabajo es posible obtener las siguientes conclusiones. Primero, existe un alto grado de segmentación en el mercado secundario de renta

Sergio D’Acuńa; Sergio Godoy; Nicolás Malandre

2009-01-01

3

Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability  

PubMed Central

Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

2012-01-01

4

Sp(2)-BRST  

SciTech Connect

A general method is given for the construction of gauge-fixed actions for theories with local gauge symmetries. The method is based on the single requirement that the space of fields carries an irreducible representation of the Sp(2)-BRST algebra, with respect to which the resultant actions are then automatically invariant.

Twisk, S.; Zhang, R.B.

1988-09-01

5

[Aspergillus insulicola Sp. Nov].  

PubMed

A strain of Aspergillus sp. is described and proposed as a new species under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov." Montemayor & Santiago, 1973. This strain was isolated from soil samples taken in "Aves Island" during a scientific expedition.--Aves Island, situated at 15 degrees, 40 feet, 42 inches N and 63 degrees, 36 feet, 47 inches W, about 665 Km of the coast of Venezuela, has very special ecological conditions. Due to its smallness: 550 m long and 40 to 120 m across and to its low profile only 3 m over sea level, it is swept by the sea during the periodical storms and hurricanes in the area. It has thus a very interesting fauna and flora. We took a series of soil samples to study its mycological flora. Forty samples were inoculated by dilution method. In this first paper a species is described and proposed as a new species because of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as by its biological properties, under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov.". In its study we have tried to follow as closely as possible the methods recommended by Kennet B. Raper & Dorothy Fenell, world authorities on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The strain is being kept in USB under the number T1, and has been sent to ATCC & CBSC to be incorporated in their collections. PMID:1128647

de Montemayor, L; Santiago, A R

1975-04-30

6

SP-100 Power Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a brief summary of the SP-100 project accomplishments and the tasks remaining to complete the space reactor power system development. A fast-track development approach was started in 1992 which would use near-term technology for early nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) planetary missions. In parallel, the technology would be improved for the more aggressive NEP missions. A conceptual design for a twenty-kilowatt space reactor thermoelectric power system was completed using near-term technology. The SP-100 near-term technology is developed except for (1) the converter, (2) the pump, and (3) the control drive actuator (CDA). The first converter was fabricated in September 1993. A CDA subassembly was put on test at the end of September 1993. The critical bonding steps for assembling the TE cells and the pump ducts were developed by the end of September 1993. The remaining technology development tasks for the early systems are primarily building and testing a converter, a pump, and an actuator. The SP-100 technology is well documented and therefore available when the need for space reactor power systems returns.

Mondt, Jack F.

1994-07-01

7

SP-100 program developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An update is provided on the status of the Sp-100 Space Reactor Power Program. The historical background that led to the program is reviewed and the overall program objectives and development approach are discussed. The results of the mission studies identify applications for which space nuclear power is desirable and even essential. Results of a series of technology feasibility experiments are expected to significantly improve the earlier technology data base for engineering development. The conclusion is reached that a nuclear reactor space power system can be developed by the early 1990s to meet emerging mission performance requirements.

Schnyer, A. D.; Sholtis, J. A., Jr.; Wahlquist, E. J.; Verga, R. L.; Wiley, R. L.

1985-01-01

8

Sp1\\/Sp3 compound heterozygous mice are not viable: Impaired erythropoiesis and severe placental defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitously expressed zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 play critical roles in embryonic development. Sp1 knockout mice die around embryonic day 10.5. Mice lacking Sp3 are postnatal lethal. Mice heterozygous for either Sp1 or Sp3 are apparently normal, although slightly smaller. Here, we show that compound heterozygosity of Sp1 and Sp3 results in embryonic lethality accompanied by a

Imme Krüger; Marion Vollmer; David G. Simmons; Hans-Peter Elsässer; Sjaak Philipsen; Guntram Suske

2007-01-01

9

SP-100 space reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

Not Available

1987-05-01

10

SP-100 Advanced Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

Sovie, Ronald J.

1987-01-01

11

Predominance of Bacteriophage SP82 over Bacteriophage SP01 in Mixed Infections of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

In mixed infections with Bacillus subtilis phages SP82 and SP01, the SP82 genotype is predominant among the progeny. This predominance is determined by a specific region of the genome, the pos region, which apparently is located near genes 29 to 32 (by the SP01 numbering system). Recombination between SP82 and SP01 yields phage which have both the SP82 pos region and an SP01 mutation. This mutation then behaves in mixed infection as if it were part of an SP82 genome.

Stewart, Charles R.; Franck, Michelle

1981-01-01

12

Structure-function relationships of bovine pulmonary surfactant proteins: SP-B and SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant contains at least three unique proteins: SP-A, SP-B and SP-C. SP-B and SP-C from bovine surfactant are markedly hydrophobic and have molecular masses between 3 and 26 kDa. We identify surfactant proteins under nonreducing conditions on polyacrylamide gels with approximate molecular mass of 5, 14, 26 kDa (SP-5, 14, 26) when organic solvent-soluble material is eluted from a Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion column followed by separation on a high-performance reverse-phase chromatography system. These bands correspond to monomeric SP-C, oligomeric SP-C and oligomeric SP-B, respectively. Computer analysis (Eisenberg-hydrophobic moment) of sequences for these proteins suggests that SP-B contains surface-seeking amphiphilic segments. In contrast, SP-C resembles a more hydrophobic transmembrane anchoring peptide. Dispersions containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, palmitic acid and multimeric SP-B and SP-C duplicate the surface activity of natural surfactant when assayed in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. We speculate that oligomers of SP-B and monomers and oligomers of SP-C may act cooperatively in affecting surfactant function. An important function of SP-B and SP-C may be to affect the ordering of surfactant lipids so that rates of transport of surfactant lipids to the hypophase surface in the alveoli are enhanced. PMID:2160285

Takahashi, A; Waring, A J; Amirkhanian, J; Fan, B; Taeusch, H W

1990-05-01

13

SP Josephson Array Voltage Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SP Josephson array voltage standard has since 1993 been used to realize the Swedish unit of DC voltage. The report describes the voltage standard and how the Josephson voltage is used to determine the voltage of primary voltage standards as Weston cel...

G. Eklund H. Pajander

1995-01-01

14

Argonne's SpEC Module  

ScienceCinema

Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

Harper, Jason

2014-06-05

15

Scaling study for SP100 reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of

A. C. Marshall; B. McKissock; OH Cleveland

1989-01-01

16

Antifungal macrodiolide from Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic fermentation cultures of Streptomyces sp. produced an antifungal macrodiolide. This new antibiotic consists of two units of homononactic acid linked to form a cyclic diester. An unknown polypeptide was also isolated in trace quantities. The antibiotic with polypeptide complex showed high levels of antifungal activity compared with that of the macrodiolide alone. The macrodiolide also showed a stimulatory effect on some species of fungi. The production, purification, and characterization of these compounds are reported.

Jois, H R; Sarkar, A; Gurusiddaiah, S

1986-01-01

17

Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov., Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov., Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

The taxonomic positions of four novel actinomycetes isolated from soil samples, designated KT2142T, PM2084T, K236T and A4038T, were established by using a polyphasic approach. The organisms had chemical and morphological features that were consistent with their classification in the genus Pseudonocardia. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the four strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars (cell-wall type IV). Their predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid was iso-C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence data supported the classification of the isolates in the genus Pseudonocardia and showed that they formed four distinct branches within the genus. DNA-DNA relatedness studies between the isolates and their phylogenetic neighbours showed that they belonged to distinct genomic species. The four isolates were readily distinguished from one another and from the type strains of species classified in the genus Pseudonocardia based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. In conclusion, it is proposed that the four isolates be classified in four novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the names Pseudonocardia cypriaca sp. nov. (type strain KT2142T=KCTC 29067T=DSM 45511T=NRRL B-24882T), Pseudonocardia hierapolitana sp. nov. (type strain PM2084T=KCTC 29068T=DSM 45671T=NRRL B-24879T), Pseudonocardia salamisensis sp. nov. (type strain K236T=KCTC 29100T=DSM 45717T) and Pseudonocardia kujensis sp. nov. (type strain A4038T=KCTC 29062T=DSM 45670T=NRRL B-24890T) are proposed. PMID:24523445

Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Spröer, Cathrin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2014-05-01

18

Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed. PMID:21841003

Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

2012-07-01

19

cDNA cloning of ovine pulmonary SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C: isolation of two different sequences for SP-B.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant promotes alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the peripheral air spaces. The three surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C contribute to dynamic surface properties involved during respiration. We have cloned and sequenced the complete cDNAs for ovine SP-A and SP-C and two distinct forms of ovine SP-B cDNAs. The nucleotide sequence of ovine SP-A cDNA consists of 1,901 bp and encodes a protein of 248 amino acids. Ovine SP-C cDNA contains 809 bp, predicting a protein of 190 amino acids. Ovine SP-B is encoded by two mRNA species, which differ by a 69-bp in-frame deletion in the region coding for the active airway protein. The larger SP-B cDNA comprises 1,660 bp, encoding a putative protein of 374 amino acids. With the sequences reported, a more complete analysis of surfactant regulation and the determination of their physiological function in vivo will be enabled. PMID:10749754

Pietschmann, S M; Pison, U

2000-04-01

20

Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.  

PubMed

Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (?'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher ?' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. PMID:24736090

Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

2014-06-01

21

An ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of four polychaetes is described: Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae). All the sperm show features typical of externally fertilizing sperm in having a rounded nucleus, a short unmodified midpiece, and a simple flagellum with a 9+2 axoneme. Owenia fusiformis and Lepidonotus sp. have a nuclear cone extending into the subacrosomal space that may act to present the inner acrosomal membrane to the egg during fertilization. The acrosome of Lumbrineris sp. is flattened and crenulated. The sperm of Eulalia sp. is unusual in having the four mitochondria of the midpiece ensheathed by a membrane. Comparisons are made with other polychaete sperm, and the use of sperm ultrastructure as a taxonomic tool within the Polychaeta is discussed.

Rouse, G. W.

1988-03-01

22

Blastocystis sp.: waterborne zoonotic organism, a possibility?  

PubMed Central

Background Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in faecal sample surveys. Several studies have implicated human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions by Blastocystis sp. However, there has been no study providing evidence interlinking these three transmissions in a community. We have previously shown a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 amongst village dwellers in Bahunipati, Nepal, and the present study extends the observation to assess if the same subtype of Blastocystis sp. occurs in animals they rear and rivers they frequent. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 65 animals. Four river water samples were collected from two rivers. Faecal samples were examined using in vitro cultivation. Blastocystis sp. from animal faecal and river samples were genotyped using seven subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Blastocystis sp. infected 15.4% animals with subtype 4 being the predominant genotype (40.0%). Both rivers were contaminated with Blastocystis sp. subtype 1 and subtype 4, which were also detected in humans living in the same village in our previous study. Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 that was detected in buffalo and pigs was also found in the respective family members that reared these animals. Conclusions This unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis subtype 4 found in village dwellers was also found to be pervasive in the animals they reared and the rivers they frequented implying a strong possibility of waterborne zoonosis for Blastocystis sp.

2012-01-01

23

Stability of sp carbon (carbyne) chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An sp carbon chain, which contains only one carbon atom in its cross section, is generally considered unstable. In this Letter, however, the DFT calculations showed that an isolated sp carbon chain is more stable than the smallest armchair (3,0) and zigzag (2,2) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). This is consistent with the fact that an isolated sp carbon chain was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, but isolated (3,0) and (2,2) SWCNTs were never produced. Nevertheless, the sp chain is less stable than lager SWCNTs.

Hu, Yun Hang

2009-09-01

24

Keratitis due to Chaetomium sp.  

PubMed Central

Aim. To describe keratitis due to Chaetomium sp. occurring in a 65-year-old woman who presented with a corneal ulcer with hypopyon of the right eye with a history of trauma by vegetable matter. Method. Multiple scrapings were obtained from the ulcer. A lactophenol cotton blue wet mount and a Gram-stained smear of the scrapings were made. Scrapings were also inoculated onto various culture media. Results. Direct microscopy of corneal scrapings revealed moderate numbers of septate fungal hyphae. Greenish-yellow-coloured fungal colonies with aerial mycelium were observed in culture of the corneal scrapes. On the basis of colony characteristics and conidial structure, the fungal isolate was identified as Chaetomium sp. The patient was treated with topical natamycin (5%) hourly and cyclopentolate 1% drops 3 times a day. After 4 weeks of therapy, the hypopyon had disappeared, the epithelial defect had healed, and the stromal infiltration had almost completely resolved; the visual acuity of the eye improved from hand movements to (1/2)/60. Conclusion. Fungi of the genus Chaetomium, which are rare causes of human disease (systemic mycosis, endocarditis, subcutaneous lesions), may also cause ocular lesions.

Kaliamurthy, Jayaraman; Kalavathy, Catti Munuswamy; Nelson Jesudasan, Christadoss Arul; Thomas, Philip A.

2011-01-01

25

Actinoplanes sichuanensis sp. nov. and Actinoplanes xinjiangensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Two motile actinomycetes, designated strains 03-723(T) and 03-8772(T), which had potent inhibitory activity against Enterococcus faecium peptide deformylase and several clinical Gram-positive, antibiotic-resistant strains, were isolated from two soil samples collected from Sichuan Province and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China, respectively. The taxonomic status of these two organisms was established by using a polyphasic approach. The taxonomic data were consistent with the assignment of the strains to the genus Actinoplanes. The neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates formed a branch with the type strains of Actinoplanes lobatus, Actinoplanes auranticolor, Actinoplanes capillaceus, Actinoplanes campanulatus and Actinoplanes philippinensis in the clade of Actinoplanes species. This branching pattern was also supported by the tree constructed with the maximum-parsimony method. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 03-723(T) and 03-8772(T) and their phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 98.0 to 98.8 % and 97.4 to 98.1 %, respectively. However, the two strains shared low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strains of closely related Actinoplanes species and were readily distinguished by using a combination of phenotypic properties. Therefore, it is proposed that strains 03-723(T) and 03-8772(T) represent two novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, for which the names Actinoplanes sichuanensis sp. nov. (type strain 03-723(T)=KCTC 19460(T)=CCM 7526(T)) and Actinoplanes xinjiangensis sp. nov. (type strain 03-8772(T)=KCTC 19461(T)=CCM 7527(T)) are proposed. PMID:19625414

Sun, Wei; Dong, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Qiu-Ping; Yu, Li-Yan; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yue-Qin

2009-11-01

26

SP100 start-up control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control analysis was performed to evaluate the reference and two alternative reactor start-up control strategies for the SP-100, using a detailed nonlinear model of the reactor. The analysis results show that the reference control strategy for the SP-100 adequately meets the current requirements. The two alternative control strategies provide tighter control than the reference strategy. Use of the measured

Raymond A. Meyer; Sang K. Rhow; Kwok K. Wong; Frank J. Halfen

1991-01-01

27

Scaling Study for SP-100 Reactor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, we explored several ways of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capabil...

A. C. Marshall B. McKissock

1989-01-01

28

Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants.  

PubMed

On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T) ?= JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T) ?= JCM 17242(T)), Candida danieliae sp. nov. (CBS 8533(T) ?= JCM 17247(T)), Candida robnettiae sp. nov. (CBS 8580(T) ?= JCM 17243(T)) and Candida eppingiae sp. nov. (CBS 8586(T) ?= JCM 17241(T)), isolated from plants in Thailand and Guyana, are proposed in this study. PMID:20833877

Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

2011-08-01

29

Early experiences with the IBM SP-1  

SciTech Connect

The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

Gropp, W. [ed.

1993-06-01

30

Differences in the alveolar macrophage proteome in transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1 and SP-A2  

PubMed Central

Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a number of roles in lung host defense and innate immunity. There are two human genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2, and evidence indicates that the function of SP-A1 and SP-A2 proteins differ in several respects. To investigate the impact of SP-A1 and SP-A2 on the alveolar macrophage (AM) phenotype, we generated humanized transgenic (hTG) mice on the SP-A knockout (KO) background, each expressing human SP-A1 or SP-A2. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) we studied the AM cellular proteome. We compared mouse lines expressing high levels of SPA1, high levels of SP-A2, low levels of SP-A1, and low levels of SP-A2, with wild type (WT) and SP-A KO mice. AM from mice expressing high levels of SP-A2 were the most similar to WT mice, particularly for proteins related to actin and the cytoskeleton, as well as proteins regulated by Nrf2. The expression patterns from mouse lines expressing higher levels of the transgenes were almost the inverse of one another – the most highly expressed proteins in SP-A2 exhibited the lowest levels in the SP-A1 mice and vice versa. The mouse lines where each expressed low levels of SP-A1 or SP-A2 transgene had very similar protein expression patterns suggesting that responses to low levels of SP-A are independent of SP-A genotype, whereas the responses to higher amounts of SP-A are genotype-dependent. Together these observations indicate that in vivo exposure to SP-A1 or SP-A2 differentially affects the proteomic expression of AMs, with SP-A2 being more similar to WT.

Phelps, David S.; Umstead, Todd M.; Silveyra, Patricia; Hu, Sanmei; Wang, Guirong; Floros, Joanna

2014-01-01

31

Electron Microscope Study of Sarcocystis SP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which ...

V. H. Zeve D. L. Price C. M. Herman

1965-01-01

32

Sarcocystic Sp. from Swine in Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During routine histological examination of swine diaphragm muscle tissue obtained from a slaughterhouse in Djakarta, Indonesia, Sarcocystis sp. was found encysted in 2 or 23 diaphragms. In both cases the cysts were firmly embedded in the muscle tissue wit...

1972-01-01

33

Sarcocystis sp. in a Taiwan Pig.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a routine histological examination of swine tissues obtained from a slaughterhouse in Ping Tung, southern Taiwan, Sarcocystis sp. was found encysted in one of 20 pig diaphragms. The cyst appeared to be firmly imbedded in the longitudinal muscles of...

W. D. Kundin B. T. Schaeffer J. H. Cross

1971-01-01

34

Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium redolens f.sp. dianthi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and four as F. redolens f.sp. dianthi. All VCGs of F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi were characterized

R. P. Baayen; F. van Dreven; M. C. Krijger; C. Waalwijk

1997-01-01

35

Glutamate receptor activation evokes calpain-mediated degradation of Sp3 and Sp4, the prominent Sp-family transcription factors in neurons  

PubMed Central

Sp-family transcription factors (Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4) contain a zinc-finger domain that binds to DNA sequences rich in G-C/T. As assayed by RT-PCR analysis of mRNA, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, and antibody-dependent “supershift” of DNA-binding assays, the prominent Sp-family factors in cerebral neurons were identified as Sp3 and Sp4. By contrast, glial cells were found to express Sp1 and Sp3. We previously showed that the pattern of G-C/T binding activity of Sp-family factors is rapidly and specifically altered by the calcium influx accompanying activation of glutamate receptors. Here, we demonstrate that Sp-factor activity is also lost after a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. Consistent with its calcium-dependent nature, we found that glutamate’s effect on Sp-family factors could be blocked by inhibitors of calpains, neutral cysteine proteases activated by calcium. Purified calpain I cleaved Sp3 and Sp4 into products that retained G-C/T-binding activity, consistent with species observed in glutamate-treated neurons. These data provide details of an impact of glutamate-receptor activation on molecular events connected to gene expression.

Mao, Xianrong; Yang, Shao-Hua; Simpkins, James W.; Barger, Steven W.

2007-01-01

36

Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid--Mediated Drought Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

Li, Cui; Yan, Jian-Min; Li, Yun-Zhou; Zhang, Zhen-Cai; Wang, Qiao-Li; Liang, Yan

2013-01-01

37

Theoretical investigations of sp-sp2 hybridized zero-dimensional fullerenynes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widely recognized as the quintessential material, sp2 hybridized carbon material with low dimensions, such as zero-dimensional fullerene, one-dimensional carbon nanotube and two-dimensional graphene, has already compiled an impressive list of superlatives. Quite recently, one-dimensional sp-sp2 hybridized carbon tubular arrays with a wall thickness of about 40 nm and two-dimensional carbon films with the average thickness of 970 nm have been synthesized successfully. Thus, we expect that the existence of a sp-sp2 hybridized zero-dimensional carbon allotrope is possible. A novel and stable zero-dimensional carbon allotrope (fullerenyne) with sp-sp2 hybridization is introduced by means of density functional theory calculation and molecular dynamics confirmation. Unique porous characteristic C96 fullernenyne with an Oh symmetry group exhibits exceptionally high stability. We hope that the present study will lead to a further development of a broad new class of carbon materials.Widely recognized as the quintessential material, sp2 hybridized carbon material with low dimensions, such as zero-dimensional fullerene, one-dimensional carbon nanotube and two-dimensional graphene, has already compiled an impressive list of superlatives. Quite recently, one-dimensional sp-sp2 hybridized carbon tubular arrays with a wall thickness of about 40 nm and two-dimensional carbon films with the average thickness of 970 nm have been synthesized successfully. Thus, we expect that the existence of a sp-sp2 hybridized zero-dimensional carbon allotrope is possible. A novel and stable zero-dimensional carbon allotrope (fullerenyne) with sp-sp2 hybridization is introduced by means of density functional theory calculation and molecular dynamics confirmation. Unique porous characteristic C96 fullernenyne with an Oh symmetry group exhibits exceptionally high stability. We hope that the present study will lead to a further development of a broad new class of carbon materials. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: Description of theoretical methods for calculating fullerenynes, and all fullerenyne models from C24 to C120 with different symmetry groups and the corresponding energy gaps.

Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Yonghong; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Chunru

2012-04-01

38

Sp8 regulates inner ear development.  

PubMed

A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

2014-04-29

39

Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins  

PubMed Central

Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NF?B inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NF?B had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NF?B, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression.

Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noe, Veronique

2009-01-01

40

Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for Production of Biodiesel, Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils, and Exopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in coproducing biodiesel for transportation, as well as producing a feedstock for omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for use in nutraceuticals. In this study, we compared eight new endemic Australian thraustochytrid strains from the genera Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium, and Ulkenia for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS), in addition to biodiesel and LC-PUFA. Aurantiochytrium sp. strains readily utilized glucose for biomass production, and increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased biomass yield by an average factor of 1.7. Ulkenia sp. strain TC 010 and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 033 did not utilize glucose, while Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 utilized less than half the glucose available by day 14, and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 004 utilized glucose at 4 % w/v but not 2 % w/v of the culture suggesting a threshold requirement between these values. Across all strains, increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased total fatty acid methyl ester content by an average factor of 1.9. Despite an increasing literature demonstrating the capacity of thraustochytrids for DHA synthesis, the production of EPS from these organisms is not well documented. A broad range of EPS yields was observed. The maximum yield of EPS was observed for Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 (299 mg/L). High biomass-producing strains that also have high lipid and high EPS yield may be better candidates for commercial production of biofuels and other coproducts. PMID:24463839

Lee Chang, Kim Jye; Nichols, Carol Mancuso; Blackburn, Susan I; Dunstan, Graeme A; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

2014-08-01

41

SP-100 flight qualification testing assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SP-100 is a compact space power system driven by a nuclear reactor that provides 100 kWe to the user at 200 VDC. The thermal energy generated by the nuclear reactor is converted into electrical energy by passive thermoelectric devices. Various options for tailoring the MIL-STD-1540B guidelines to the SP-100 nuclear power system are discussed. This study aids in selecting the appropriate qualification test program based on the cost, schedule, and test effectiveness of the various options.

Jeanmougin, Nanette M.; Moore, Roger M.; Wait, David L.; Jacox, Michael G.

1988-01-01

42

Zebrafish Sp1-like protein is structurally and functionally comparable to human Sp1.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Sp1 is a regulator of TATA-less genes. It belongs to the Cys?-His? zinc finger domain-containing family. A zebrafish cDNA encoding a peptide homologous to mammalian Sp1 was cloned and inserted into a pET43.1a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells as a Nus-His-tag fusion protein. After induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside, the protein was purified with a Ni-Sepharose column, and approximately 5-8 mg of pure protein was obtained per liter of culture. The primary sequence and the predicted partial tertiary structure of the potential recombinant zebrafish Sp1 protein are similar to those of human Sp1. The DNA affinity precipitation assay and dual-luciferase promoter activity assay further confirm the nature of the recombinant zebrafish Sp1 protein as a transcription factor. Our results show that zebrafish Sp1-like protein is structurally and functionally comparable to human Sp1. PMID:21040790

Lin, Cha-Jang; Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Chung, Yi-Shao; Chang, Wen-Ni; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Chen, Bing-Hung; Fu, Tzu-Fun

2011-03-01

43

[Advances in the studies of sperm protein 22 (SP22)].  

PubMed

Multifunctional sperm protein 22 (SP22) is expressed ubiquitously and related to quite a few diseases. Located on the sperm surface, SP22 has an enzymatic activity that may assist sperm in penetrating into the ovum. SP22 may be carcinogenic in conspiracy with the factor ras. Among all species SP22 is highly conservative, which demonstrates its importance to life. More and more studies indicate that SP22 is directly correlated with male infertility and Parkinsons disease. This article summarizes recent researches on SP22 in the gene structure, protein structure and functional characteristics. PMID:15704685

Wan, Chuan-dan; Huang, Yu-feng; Xu, Xiao-feng

2005-01-01

44

Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) dependent agglutination  

PubMed Central

Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A) are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

2010-01-01

45

Extended SP-100 reactor power systems capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SP-100 space nuclear power system development program and the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) are discussed. The advanced technologies being developed for the CSTI high capacity nuclear reactor power system are outlined. The relationship between the CSTI and the Pathfinder project is considered.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Winter, J. M.; Mckissock, B. I.; Sovie, R. J.

1988-01-01

46

Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

Bents, David J.

1988-01-01

47

Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

Bents, David J.

1988-01-01

48

Structural studies of native Paecilomyces sp. Exopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide separated from Paecilomyces sp. was determined by gel permeation chromatography to be homogeneous. HPLC showed a monosaccharide containing D-glucose and D-fructose at a ratio of about 2:1. The results obtained from IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR analyses confirmed the proposed structure. PMID:18069232

Lillo, Luis; Alarcón, Julio; Cabello, Gerardo; Aguila, Sergio; Alderete, Joel B

2007-01-01

49

Lagenidium sp. Ocular Infection Mimicking Ocular Pythiosis  

PubMed Central

This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species.

Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

2013-01-01

50

Gametogony of Sarcocystis sp. in Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual stages and cystlike bodies of Sarcocystis sp., a protozoan parasite found in muscles of reptiles, birds, and mammals, including man, developed in cell culture. Motile organisms, obtained from leg muscles of wild grackles, were inoculated into cell line cultures of embryonic bovine kidney. Mature micro- and macrogametes and the cystlike forms were found 30 and 42 hours after inoculation,

Ronald Fayer

1972-01-01

51

Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae. PMID:21681635

Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

2011-08-01

52

Massilia dura sp. nov., Massilia albidiflava sp. nov., Massilia plicata sp. nov. and Massilia lutea sp. nov., isolated from soils in China.  

PubMed

Four Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples collected from south-east China. A taxonomic study including phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics was performed. DNA G+C contents of the four strains were 63-66 mol%. Their predominant ubiquinone was Q-8. The fatty acid profiles contained C16:1omega7c (36.9-54.7%) and C16:0 (22.8-25.5%) as the major components. Based on their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic position as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization results, the four isolates are considered to represent four novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the names Massilia dura sp. nov. (type strain 16T=CCTCC AB 204070T=KCTC 12342T), Massilia albidiflava sp. nov. (type strain 45T=CCTCC AB 204071T=KCTC 12343T), Massilia plicata sp. nov. (type strain 76T=CCTCC AB 204072T=KCTC 12344T) and Massilia lutea sp. nov. (type strain 101T=CCTCC AB 204073T=KCTC 12345T) are proposed. PMID:16449458

Zhang, Yu-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ke-Yun; Tian, Xin-Peng; Jiang, Yi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Lai, Ren

2006-02-01

53

Eremohadena afzalipouri sp. nov. from Iran  

PubMed Central

A new species of the genus Eremohadena Ronkay, Varga and Fabian, Eremohadena afzalipouri Shirvani sp. nov., is described from southeastern Iran. Holotype and female paratype and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated for the new species. A checklist of Iranian species of Eremohadena including nine species and subspecies is provided.

Shirvani, Asghar; Shoghali, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

54

Early SP100 flight mission designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor

Allan T. Josloff; Neal F. Shepard; Aaron S. Kirpich; Ronald Murata; Michael A. Smith; James D. Stephen

1993-01-01

55

Scaling study for SP-100 reactor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of using alternative power conversion subsystems, with SP-100 reactor technology was investigated. One of the principal concerns for any space based system is mass; consequently, this study focused on estimating reactor, shield, and total system mass. The RSMASS code (Marshall 1986) was used to estimate reactor and shield mass. Simple algorithms developed at NASA-Lewis were used to estimate the balance of system mass. Power ranges from 100 kWe to 10 MWe were explored assuming both one year and seven years of operation. Thermoelectric, Stirling, Rankine, and Brayton power conversion systems were investigated. The impact on safety, reliability, and other system attributes, caused by extending the technology to higher power levels, was also investigated.

Marshall, A. C.; McKissock, B.

56

Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood  

PubMed Central

A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.

Kania, Stephen A.

2007-01-01

57

Dynamic surface properties of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their mixtures with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.  

PubMed

Dynamic cyclic surface pressure (pi)-area measurements were performed on surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in pure and binary spread films with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). When the films of pure SP-B and SP-C were compressed beyond their collapse points (about 40 mN m-1), no appreciable irreversible loss of material occurred and the successive compression isotherms were reproducible. A similar reversible collapse for the proteins was observed when their binary films with DPPC were compressed up to high surface pressures (pi approximately 65 mN m-1), which did not surpass the collapse for DPPC (about 72 mN m-1). In this case, SP-B, squeezed out at 50 mN m-1 during compression of the SP-B/DPPC monolayers that contained > or = 10 weight % protein, reinserted in the films during their subsequent expansion. Likewise, SP-C-DPPC complexes were reversibly excluded at pi approximately 55 mN m-1 from the SP-C/DPPC films that contained > or = 5 weight % protein. Dynamic compression of the mixed protein-lipid films beyond the collapse pressure of DPPC showed that SP-B and SP-C improved the respreading of DPPC in a concentration dependent manner. SP-B was more effective in promoting the respreading of DPPC than was SP-C, as indicated by the collapse plateau length ratio criterion. The results from this study suggest a possible interfacial role for SP-B and SP-C in lipid replenishment at the alveolar-air interface, through enhancement of the respreading of DPPC collapse phases (SP-B and SP-C) or through reversible removal of phospholipid (SP-C) during dynamic cyclic compression-expansion of the alveolar surface. PMID:7993894

Taneva, S G; Keough, K M

1994-12-13

58

Catabolism of biphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 10643 and Nocardia sp. NCIB 10503  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of biphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 10643 is reported in detail; that of Nocardia sp. NCIB 10503 is briefly investigated. Both organisms dissimilate biphenyl by the same route via oxidation to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, meta cleavage to a product identified as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate which is then cleaved to give benzoate. Benzoate is a deadend metabolite in the pseudomonad but in the

Mark R. Smith; Colin Ratledge

1989-01-01

59

Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.  

PubMed Central

A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1–7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8–12. The structures of 1–7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549).

Ogi, Takayuki; Margiastuti, Palupi; Teruya, Toshiaki; Taira, Junsei; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Ueda, Katsuhiro

2009-01-01

60

Early RNAs in SP82- and SP01-infected Bacillus subtilis may be processed.  

PubMed Central

Transcription of SP82 and SP01 DNAs in vitro by Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase yielded mostly large RNA species, with many in excess of 1,500 bases in length, whereas most of the RNAs synthesized in vivo early in infection were much smaller. Addition of an extract from uninfected B. subtilis to reaction mixtures containing RNAs synthesized in vitro generated additional discrete RNAs whose mobilities on polyacrylamide gels matched the mobilities of some of the smaller RNAs synthesized in vivo. Images

Downard, J S; Whiteley, H R

1981-01-01

61

Glyphosate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. isolated from environmental sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 21 bacterial cultures were isolated that could utilize glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) as a sole source of phosphorus in a mineral salts medium. Sources of inocula for enrichment cultures included aerobic digester liquid, raw sewage, trickling filter effluent, pesticide disposal pit liquid, and soil. Eleven cultures were identified asPseudomonas sp., one asPseudomonas stutzeri, and nine asAlcaligenes sp. Aminomethylphosphonic

Henry W. Talbot; Layne M. Johnson; Douglas M. Munneckew

1984-01-01

62

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, mussels ( Brachidontes sp., Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the major groups of anthropogenic environmental pollutants, were firstly identified and measured in coastal waters, native mussels and fish of an industrialized South American estuary. The aim of this study was to measure the PAHs concentrations and evaluate distribution and sources in surface seawater, native mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) and fish ( Odontesthes sp.) from various coastal sites of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, in order to put the estuary in a global context and assess it ecotoxicological risk. For this, 40 samples of surface water were collected between August 2004 and February 2006 and analyzed by GC/MS for 17 PAHs, including the 16 EPA priority PAHs. In addition, main physicochemical parameters, nutrients and pigments were simultaneously obtained as key parameters to evaluate possible relationships. Finally, several native mussel communities and fish specimens were also analyzed for PAHs contents. The area of study is located at the Argentinean coast and presents an intensive human and industrial activity at the north shoreline. Total PAHs (?17 PAHs) in whole surface waters ranged from undetected to more than 4 ?g/l. Seasonal PAHs levels relationship with master parameters suggested a relationship between the phytoplankton microbiological cycling and the dissolved/suspended PAHs occurrence in water. In addition, Cluster Analysis was performed to identify the homogeneous groups of individual PAHs in water and Principal Component Analysis to extract underlying common factors. The result of PCA was similar to that of the cluster analysis; both could differentiate two subsets of pyrogenic sources and a petrogenic origin. PAHs levels in indigenous mussels ( Brachidontes sp. and Tagelus sp.) ranged from 348 to 1597 ng/g (dry weight). Fish specimens ( Odontesthes sp.) showed a mean concentration of 1095 ng/g d.w. in whole tissues. Mussel source ratios and PCA results were in good agreement with the dominant sources assessed for water samples and further enabled the linking of PAHs origins according to the sample location. The Bahía Blanca Estuary wide mean of the PAHs burden in mussels showed that the average PAH contamination level was within the "moderate" category. Levels appeared as ecotoxicologically risk safe for the inner stations; however, they were exceeding various safety criterions at the outer. Results indicate the needing of a systematic monitoring program for the area of study, in order to provide accurately assessment and management of risks for the regional population.

Arias, Andres H.; Spetter, Carla V.; Freije, Rubén H.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

2009-10-01

63

Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.  

PubMed

Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation. PMID:18155834

Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

2008-06-15

64

A physics/circuit-based switching model for carbon-based resistive memory with sp2/sp3 cluster conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The switching mechanism in carbon-based resistive-switching random access memory is modelled using a percolation approach built on the low-temperature transition between phases sp3 (diamond-like and high-resistive state) and sp2 (graphite-like and low-resistive state) for a matrix of carbon clusters in a diamond-like carbon film. The switching process is described using a random circuit breaker network with each breaker controlled by the resistance of clusters sp2/sp3. The key feature of the proposed model is the thermal stress-induced transition from sp2 to sp3 phase and the electric field-induced transition from sp3 to sp2 phase. Compared with experiments on the switching biasing scheme, a good agreement between simulation and measured data validated the accuracy of the proposed model.

Qin, Shengjun; Zhang, Jinyu; Fu, Di; Xie, Dan; Wang, Yan; Qian, He; Liu, Litian; Yu, Zhiping

2012-09-01

65

Coccidioides posadasii infection alters the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D  

PubMed Central

Background Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is caused by Coccidioides in Southwest US and Central America. Primary pulmonary infection is initiated by inhalation of air-borne arthroconidia. Since, lung is the first organ that encounters arthroconidia, different components of the pulmonary innate immune system may be involved in the regulation of host defense. Pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D have been recognized to play an important role in binding and phagocytosis of various microorganisms, but their roles in Coccidioides infection are not known. Methods In this study, we studied the changes in amounts of pulmonary SP-A, SP-D and phospholipid in murine model of Coccidioides posadasii infection, and binding of SP-A and SP-D to Coccidioidal antigens. Mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of C. posadasii (n = 30 arthroconidia) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected on day 10, post infection. In another group of animals, mice were immunized with protective formalin killed spherule (FKS) vaccine prior to infection. The concentrations of BALF SP-A, SP-D, total phospholipid were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biochemical assays. Results We found that in lavage fluid samples of C. posadasii infected mice, the concentrations of total phospholipid, SP-A and SP-D were 17 % (SEM 3.5, p < 0.001), 38 % (SEM 5.8, p < 0.001) and 4 % (SEM 1.3, p < 0.001) of those in lavage fluid samples of non-infected control mice, respectively. However, the concentrations of SP-A and SP-D remained unchanged in BALF samples of C. posadasii protected mice after immunization with FKS vaccine. Also, we found that both SP-A and SP-D bind to Coccidiodal antigens. Conclusion Our results suggest that the C. posadasii infection perturbs the pulmonary SP-A, SP-D, and phospholipids, potentially enabling the disease progression and promoting fungal dissemination.

Awasthi, Shanjana; Magee, D Mitchell; Coalson, Jacqueline J

2004-01-01

66

Legionella drozanskii sp. nov., Legionella rowbothamii sp. nov. and Legionella fallonii sp. nov.: three unusual new Legionella species.  

PubMed

Seven strains of Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) were characterized on the basis of their cultural and staining characteristics, biochemical reactions, serology, cellular fatty acids (CFAs), isoprenoid quinone composition, total DNA relatedness, analysis of 16S rRNA and macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) gene sequence analyses. All seven strains exhibited limited growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE) agar, required cysteine for growth and contained branched-chain CFAs and quinones typical of Legionella species. The bacilli were Gram-negative and catalase-positive. There were varying degrees of serological cross-reactions between these LLAP strains and other previously described Legionella species. Results from the various tests revealed that four LLAP strains represent three unusual new species of Legionella: Legionella drozanskii sp. nov., type strain LLAP-1T; Legionella rowbothamii sp. nov., type strain LLAP-6T; and Legionella fallonii sp. nov., type strain LLAP-10T. Three other LLAP strains, designated LLAP-7FL, LLAP-7NF and LLAP-9, were shown to be members of the species Legionella lytica. The deductions made from the phenetic characteristics of these bacteria were consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from 16S rRNA and mip gene sequence analyses. This study is the first to speciate LLAP strains on the basis of data including quantitative DNA hybridization. PMID:11411684

Adeleke, A A; Fields, B S; Benson, R F; Daneshvar, M I; Pruckler, J M; Ratcliff, R M; Harrison, T G; Weyant, R S; Birtles, R J; Raoult, D; Halablab, M A

2001-05-01

67

Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov., Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov., from sea water and marine animals.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting groups A46 (five isolates), A51 (six isolates), A52 (five isolates) and A53 (seven isolates) obtained in a previous study were further analysed through a polyphasic approach. The 23 isolates were phylogenetically related to Vibrio splendidus, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments proved that they belong to three novel species. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further disclosed several features that differentiate between the 23 isolates and known Vibrio species. The names Vibrio kanaloae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20539(T) = CAIM 485(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316193; G + C content 44.7 mol%), Vibrio pomeroyi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 20537(T) = CAIM 578(T); EMBL accession no. AJ491290; G +C content 44.1 mol%) and Vibrio chagasii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 21353(T) = CAIM 431(T); EMBL accession no. AJ316199; G + C content 44.6 mol%) are respectively proposed to encompass the five isolates of A46, the six isolates of A51 and the 12 isolates of A52/A53. The three novel species can be distinguished from known Vibrio species by several phenotypic features, including utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources, beta-galactosidase activity and fatty acid content (particularly of 12 : 0, 14: 0, 14 : 0 iso and 16 : 0 iso). PMID:12807197

Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Li, Y; Gomez-Gil, B; Vandenberghe, J; Hoste, B; Swings, J

2003-05-01

68

Maillard reaction inhibitors produced by Paecilomyces sp.  

PubMed

Maillard reaction inhibitors could be useful therapeutics for diabetes and other age-related diseases. We isolated for the first time 4-O-demethylsilvaticol (1) and (-)-mitorubrin (2) as Maillard reaction inhibitors from Paecilomyces sp. 3193B. Among the isolated inhibitors, 2 showed most potent inhibitory effect by an SDS-PAGE assay on cross-linked protein formation and by a fluorescent assay on AGE formation. PMID:24317065

Li, Daxin; Shigetomi, Kengo; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Ubukata, Makoto

2013-01-01

69

Microbial flocculant from Arcuadendron sp. TS49  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flocculant was purified from the culture broth of Archuadendron sp. TS-49 by a series of precipitations with acetone, 60% ammonium sulfate-butanol, salting-out by dialysis, and cetylpyridinium chloride. The flocculating activity was observed most highly at pH 3.0 and markedly enhanced by the addition of salts, especially in the case of FeCl3 or FeSO4. This bioflocculant efficiently flocculated all tested

Soon Ho Lee; Sang Ok Lee; Kyung Lib Jang; Tae Ho Lee

1995-01-01

70

Lasionectrin, a naphthopyrone from a Lasionectria sp.  

PubMed

A new naphthopyrone derivative, lasionectrin (1), was isolated from fermentations of an Acremonium-like fungus provisionally identified as a Lasionectria sp. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) and isolated from forest leaf litter from Equatorial Guinea. Its structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including UV, (+)-HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and comparison with published data for related fungal metabolites. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC(50) value of 11 ?M. PMID:22694295

El Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Sánchez, Paula; Cantizani, Juan; Ortiz-López, Francisco Javier; Martín, Jesús; González-Menéndez, Víctor; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald; Reyes, Fernando

2012-06-22

71

Solar drying of rose (Rosa sp.) petals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rose (Rosa sp.) petals can be dried after 2 days at about 30°C reaching an equilibrium moisture content after 16 h using the solar wire basket dryer. The initial moisture content (wet wt basis) and final moisture content (dry wt basis), determined by the Dean–Stark toluene were 65.7 and 25.2% respectively. The intensity of the rose red coloured pigment

D. a Balladin; Oliver Headley

1999-01-01

72

Natronococcus arnylolyticus sp. nov., a Haloalkaliphilic Archaeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a-amylase-producing haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. strain Ah-36T (T = type strain) was isolated previously from a Kenyan soda lake, Lake Magadi. Most cells of strain Ah-3(iT occurred in irregular clusters, and the colonies were orange-red. The polar lipids of this organism were composed of CZ0, C,, and C,,, C,, derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phosphatidylglycero-(cyclo-) phosphate, which is characteristic

HARUHIKO KANA; TETSUO KOBAYASHI; RIKIZO AONO; TOSHIAKI KUDO

1995-01-01

73

Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.  

PubMed

A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp. PMID:24081933

Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

2013-11-01

74

Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.  

PubMed

This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

2014-01-01

75

Salt stress tolerance of methylotrophic bacteria Methylophilus sp. and Methylobacterium sp. isolated from coal mine spoils.  

PubMed

Two methylotrophic strains of Bina coalmine spoil BNV7b and BRV25 were identified based on physiological traits and 16S rDNA sequence as Methylophilus and Methylobacterium species.' The strains exhibited similar carbon utilization but differed in N utilization and their response to the metabolic inhibitors. Methylophilus sp. was less tolerant to salt stress and it viability declined to one tenth within 4 h of incubation in 2M NaCI due to membrane damage and leakage of the intracellular electrolytes as evident from malondiaaldehyde (MDA) assay. In 200 mM NaCI, they exhibited increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity while in 500 mM NaCI, enzyme activities declined in Methylophilus sp. and increased in Methylobacterium sp. Among exogenously applied osmoprotectants proline was most efficient; however, polyols (mannitol, sorbitol and glycerol) also supported growth under lethal NaCI concentration. PMID:24459832

Giri, Deen Dayal; Kumar, Ajay; Shukla, Prabhu Nath; Singh, Ritu; Singh, P K; Pandey, Kapil Deo

2013-01-01

76

Characterization of lipid insertion into monomolecular layers mediated by lung surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, if present in preformed monolayers can induce lipid insertion from lipid vesicles into the monolayer after the addition of (divalent) cations [Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M. A., Haagsman, H. P., van Golde, L. M. G., & Demel, R. A. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 8276-8287]. This model system was used to study the mechanisms by which SP-B and SP-C induce monolayer formation from vesicles. Lipid insertion proceeds irrespectively of the molecular class, and PG is not required for this process. In addition to lipids that are immediately inserted from vesicles into the monolayer, large amounts of vesicles are bound to the monolayer and their lipids eventually inserted when the surface area is expanded. SP-B and SP-C are directly responsible for the binding of vesicles to the monolayer. By weight, the vesicle binding capacity of SP-B is approximately 4 times that of SP-C. For vesicle binding and insertion, the formation of close contacts between monolayer and vesicles is essential. SP-B and SP-C show very similar surface properties. Both proteins form extremely stable monolayers (collapse pressures 36-37 mN/m) of alpha-helical structures oriented parallel to the interface. In monolayers consisting of DPPC and SP-B or SP-C, an increase in mean molecular area is observed, which is mainly attributed to the phospholipid. This will greatly enhance the insertion of new lipid material into the monolayer. The results of this study suggest that the surface properties and the hydrophobic nature of SP-B and SP-C are important for the protein-mediated monolayer formation. PMID:1932022

Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M A; Haagsman, H P; van Golde, L M; Demel, R A

1991-11-12

77

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) -/- mice are rescued by restoration of SP-B expression in alveolar type II cells but not Clara cells.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA and protein are restricted to alveolar Type II and Clara cells in the respiratory epithelium. In order to investigate the function of SP-B in these distinct cell types, transgenic mice were generated in which SP-B expression was selectively restored in Type II cells or Clara cells of SP-B -/- mice. The 4.8-kilobase murine SP-C promoter was used to generate 3 transgenic lines which expressed human SP-B in Type II cells (mSP-C/hSP-B). Likewise, the 2.3-kilobase murine CCSP promoter was used to generate two transgenic lines which expressed human SP-B in Clara cells (mCCSP/hSP-B). mSP-C/hSP-B and mCCSP/hSP-B transgenic mice were subsequently bred to SP-B +/- mice in order to selectively express SP-B in Type II cells or Clara cells of SP-B -/- mice. Selective restoration of SP-B expression in Type II cells completely rescued the neonatal lethal phenotype in SP-B -/- mice. Expression of SP-B in some, but not all Type II cells of SP-B -/- mice, allowed postnatal survival, but resulted in significantly altered lung architecture and function. Selective restoration of SP-B expression in Clara cells of SP-B -/- mice resulted in respiratory dysfunction and invariable neonatal death, related to the complete absence of mature SP-B peptide in these mice. These results indicate that expression and processing of the SP-B proprotein to the mature peptide in Type II cells is absolutely required for lung function in vivo and that SP-B expression in Clara cells cannot substitute for this function. PMID:10383422

Lin, S; Na, C L; Akinbi, H T; Apsley, K S; Whitsett, J A; Weaver, T E

1999-07-01

78

Differential effects of human SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants on phospholipid monolayers containing surfactant protein B  

PubMed Central

Summary Surfactant protein A (SP-A), the most abundant protein in the lung alveolar surface, has multiple activities, including surfactant-related functions. SP-A is required for the formation of tubular myelin and the lung surface film. The human SP-A locus consists of two functional SP-A genes, SP-A1 and SP-A2, with a number of alleles characterized for each gene. We have found that the human in vitro expressed variants, SP-A1 (6A2) and SP-A2 (1A0), and the coexpressed SP-A1/SP-A2 (6A2/1A0) protein have a differential influence on the organization of phospholipid monolayers containing surfactant protein B (SP-B). Lipid films containing SP-B and SP-A2 (1A0) showed surface features similar to those observed in lipid films with SP-B and native human SP-A. Fluorescence images revealed the presence of characteristic fluorescent probe-excluding clusters coexisting with the traditional lipid liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed phase. Images of the films containing SP-B and SP-A1 (6A2) showed different distribution of the proteins. The morphology of lipid films containing SP-B and the coexpressed SP-A1/SP-A2 (6A2/1A0) combined features of the individual films containing the SP-A1 or SP-A2 variant. The results indicate that human SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants exhibit differential effects on characteristics of phospholipid monolayers containing SP-B. This may differentially impact surface film activity.

Wang, Guirong; Taneva, Svetla; Keough, Kevin M.W.; Floros, Joanna

2010-01-01

79

Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.  

PubMed Central

Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L?1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L?1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L?1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

Silva, R.F.; Lupatini, M.; Trindade, L.; Antoniolli, Z.I.; Steffen, R.B.; Andreazza, R

2013-01-01

80

Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov., Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov., and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies were performed on three strains isolated from Cheonho reservoir in Cheonan, Korea. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-positive, and oxidase-positive. Colonies on solid media were cream-yellow, smooth, shiny, and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Flavobacterium. The strains shared 98.6-99.4% sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 97% similarity with members of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names. The DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separate genomic status of strains ARSA-42(T), ARSA-103(T), and ARSA-108(T). The isolates contained menaqui-none-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH, iso-Ci(15:1) G, and iso-C(16:0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolates were 31.4-33.2 mol%. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data, these organisms are classified as representative of three novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, and the name Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-42(T) =KCTC 23182(T) =JCM 17066(T) =KACC 14969(T)), Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-103(T) =KCTC 23183(T) =JCM 17068(T) =KACC 14971(T)), and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-108(T) =KCTC 23184(T) =JCM 17069(T) =KACC 14972) are proposed. PMID:21717323

Lee, Siwon; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Ahn, Tae-Young

2011-06-01

81

Transcription Factor Sp3 Knockout Mice Display Serious Cardiac Malformations?  

PubMed Central

Mice lacking the zinc finger transcription factor specificity protein 3 (Sp3) die prenatally in the C57BL/6 background. To elucidate the cause of mortality we analyzed the potential role of Sp3 in embryonic heart development. Sp3 null hearts display defective looping at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), and at E14.5 the Sp3 null mutants have developed a range of severe cardiac malformations. In an attempt to position Sp3 in the cardiac developmental hierarchy, we analyzed the expression patterns of >15 marker genes in Sp3 null hearts. Expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (Carp) was downregulated prematurely after E12.5, while expression of the other marker genes was not affected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Sp3 is bound to the Carp promoter region in vivo. Microarray analysis indicates that small-molecule metabolism and cell-cell interactions are the most significantly affected biological processes in E12.5 Sp3 null myocardium. Since the epicardium showed distension from the myocardium, we studied expression of Wt1, a marker for epicardial cells. Wt1 expression was diminished in epicardium-derived cells in the myocardium of Sp3 null hearts. We conclude that Sp3 is required for normal cardiac development and suggest that it has a crucial role in myocardial differentiation.

van Loo, Pieter Fokko; Mahtab, Edris A. F.; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Hou, Jun; Grosveld, Frank; Suske, Guntram; Philipsen, Sjaak; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.

2007-01-01

82

Transcription factor Sp3 knockout mice display serious cardiac malformations.  

PubMed

Mice lacking the zinc finger transcription factor specificity protein 3 (Sp3) die prenatally in the C57BL/6 background. To elucidate the cause of mortality we analyzed the potential role of Sp3 in embryonic heart development. Sp3 null hearts display defective looping at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), and at E14.5 the Sp3 null mutants have developed a range of severe cardiac malformations. In an attempt to position Sp3 in the cardiac developmental hierarchy, we analyzed the expression patterns of >15 marker genes in Sp3 null hearts. Expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (Carp) was downregulated prematurely after E12.5, while expression of the other marker genes was not affected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Sp3 is bound to the Carp promoter region in vivo. Microarray analysis indicates that small-molecule metabolism and cell-cell interactions are the most significantly affected biological processes in E12.5 Sp3 null myocardium. Since the epicardium showed distension from the myocardium, we studied expression of Wt1, a marker for epicardial cells. Wt1 expression was diminished in epicardium-derived cells in the myocardium of Sp3 null hearts. We conclude that Sp3 is required for normal cardiac development and suggest that it has a crucial role in myocardial differentiation. PMID:17923686

van Loo, Pieter Fokko; Mahtab, Edris A F; Wisse, Lambertus J; Hou, Jun; Grosveld, Frank; Suske, Guntram; Philipsen, Sjaak; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

2007-12-01

83

Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).  

PubMed

Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

2012-03-01

84

Burkholderia humi sp. nov., Burkholderia choica sp. nov., Burkholderia telluris sp. nov., Burkholderia terrestris sp. nov. and Burkholderia udeis sp. nov.: Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria from soil and rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Analysis of partial gyrB gene sequences revealed six taxa in a group of 17 Burkholderia glathei-like isolates which were further examined by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, determination of the DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid analysis and an analysis of cell and colony morphology and more than 180 biochemical characteristics. The results demonstrated that one taxon consisting of three human clinical isolates represented Burkholderia zhejiangensis, a recently described methyl-parathion-degrading bacterium isolated from a wastewater-treatment system in China. The remaining taxa represented five novel species isolated from soil or rhizosphere soil samples, and could be distinguished by both genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We therefore propose to formally classify these bacteria as Burkholderia humi sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22934(T)?=?CCUG 63059(T)), Burkholderia choica sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22940(T)?=?CCUG 63063(T)), Burkholderia telluris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22936(T)?=?CCUG 63060(T)), Burkholderia udeis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27134(T)?=?CCUG 63061(T)) and Burkholderia terrestris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22937(T)?=?CCUG 63062(T)). PMID:23959831

Vandamme, Peter; De Brandt, Evie; Houf, Kurt; Salles, Joana Falcăo; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Spilker, Theodore; Lipuma, John J

2013-12-01

85

Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov., yeasts isolated from cachaça fermentation in Brazil.  

PubMed

Six strains of two novel yeast species were isolated from sugar-cane juice and fermentation vats of cachaça production in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that these species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade, and their closest described relative in terms of sequence similarity is Candida (iter. nom. Wickerhamiella) drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamiella cachassae sp. nov. is UFMG-D5L7(T) (?=?CBS 12587(T) ?=?CBMAI 1469(T)) and the type strain of Wickerhamiella dulcicola sp. nov. is UFMG-TOL15(T) (?=?CBS 12588(T) ?=?CBMAI 1468(T)). PMID:23203623

Badotti, Fernanda; Silva, Pollyana A B; Mendonça, Michelle C; Gomes, Fatima C O; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2013-03-01

86

Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from atrazine-treated bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S rDNA alignment, strain SP12 showed close phylogenic relationships with Nocardioides sp. C157 and Nocardioides simplex. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of strain SP12 were longer than those of other Nocardioides sp. and present Ala- and Ile-tRNA unlike Actinomycetales.

S Piutti; E Semon; D Landry; A Hartmann; S Dousset; E Lichtfouse; E Topp; G Soulas; F Martin-Laurent

2003-01-01

87

Appearance of surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-B, in developing rat lung and the effects of in vivo dexamethasone treatment.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP-B and SP-C) promote the adsorption of phospholipids at the air/liquid interface and the addition of surfactant protein A (SP-A) enhances this function. The developmental profiles of phospholipids and SP-A in the lung have been reported, but that of SP-B and SP-C remain unknown. We recently developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures SP-B in the rat. Using ELISA for SP-A and SP-B, we measured the contents of SP-A and SP-B in lung homogenates. The developmental profiles of SP-A and SP-B during the late gestational and postnatal periods were found to be distinctly different from each other. SP-A increased during late gestation and reached its maximum on day 1 after birth. This developmental profile of SP-A in the lungs was very similar to that of disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). In contrast, the SP-B contents in fetal lungs were low and increased after birth, reaching its maximum on day 4 after birth. In vivo dexamethasone treatment resulted in significant increases of SP-A content in rat lung homogenate on day 19 and day 21 of gestation, and day 5 after birth, whereas SP-B content increased significantly only on day 19 of gestation by dexamethasone administration. SP-A synthesis may be enhanced both pre- and postnatally, but SP-B synthesis may be stimulated only during the late gestational period by in vivo dexamethasone treatment. The difference in developmental profiles and the different responses to dexamethasone treatment between SP-A and SP-B indicate that the expression of SP-A and SP-B may be regulated independently at least in developing rat lungs. PMID:1991156

Shimizu, H; Miyamura, K; Kuroki, Y

1991-01-01

88

Early SP-100 flight mission designs  

SciTech Connect

Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW[sub e] system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW[sub 2], Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW[sub e] in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D. (General Electric Company, Astro Space Division, P.O. Box 8555, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (United States))

1993-01-10

89

Early SP-100 flight mission designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

1993-01-01

90

PHARMACOLOGIC DOSES OF ASCORBIC ACID REPRESS SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND Sp-REGULATED GENES IN COLON CANCER CELLS  

PubMed Central

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) inhibits cancer cell growth and there is a controversy regarding the cancer chemoprotective effects of pharmacologic doses of this compound which exhibits pro-oxidant activity. We hypothesized that the anticancer activity of pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid (< 5 mM) is due, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes. In this study, ascorbic acid (1 – 3 mM) decreased RKO and SW480 colon cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and necrosis and this was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins. In addition, ascorbic acid decreased expression of several Sp-regulated genes that are involved in cancer proliferation [hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclin D1], survival (survivin and bcl-2), and angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2)]. Other pro-oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide exhibited similar activities in colon cancer cells and cotreatment with glutathione inhibited these responses. This study demonstrates for the first time that the anticancer activities of ascorbic acid are due, in part, to ROS-dependent repression of Sp transcription factors.

Pathi, Satya S.; Lei, Ping; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Safe, Stephen

2012-01-01

91

SP-100, a project manager's view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

Truscello, Vincent C.

1983-01-01

92

Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp  

PubMed Central

Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7), were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7) is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

Won, Tae Hyung; You, Minjung; Lee, So-Hyoung; Rho, Boon Jo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

2014-01-01

93

Massilia sp. isolated from otitis media.  

PubMed

Common bacterial pathogens of otitis media include Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and Group A streptococci. We recently isolated a gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium from a patient with otitis media following tympanocentesis. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies of effusion identified this strain (CCUG 43427AT) as Massilia sp. (99.7%). Massilia spp. have been isolated from soil, air, and immunocompromised patients. However, there are no reports of their isolation from cases of otitis media. This case report highlights a rare and novel bacterial organism of otitis media. PMID:23211666

Park, Moo Kyun; Shin, Hee Bong

2013-02-01

94

Degradation of bromacil by a Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative rod, identified as a Pseudomonas sp., was isolated from soil by using bromacil as the sole source of carbon and energy. During growth on bromacil or 5-bromouracil, almost stoichiometric amounts of bromide were released. The bacterium was shown to harbor two plasmids approximately 60 and 100 kilobases in size. They appeared to be associated with the ability to utilize bromacil as a sole source of carbon and also with resistance to ampicillin. This microorganism also showed the potential to decontaminate soil samples fortified with bromacil under laboratory conditions. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Cortez, L

1988-01-01

95

Degradation of bromacil by a Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed

A gram-negative rod, identified as a Pseudomonas sp., was isolated from soil by using bromacil as the sole source of carbon and energy. During growth on bromacil or 5-bromouracil, almost stoichiometric amounts of bromide were released. The bacterium was shown to harbor two plasmids approximately 60 and 100 kilobases in size. They appeared to be associated with the ability to utilize bromacil as a sole source of carbon and also with resistance to ampicillin. This microorganism also showed the potential to decontaminate soil samples fortified with bromacil under laboratory conditions. PMID:3056270

Chaudhry, G R; Cortez, L

1988-09-01

96

Silicate deficiency and lipid synthesis of marine diatoms. [Chaetoceros gracilis; Hantzschia sp. ; Cyclotella sp  

SciTech Connect

Lipid synthesis of three marine diatoms was studied with a /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ incorporation technique in silicate limited batch cultures. Growth rates were independent of the silicate concentration but the cellular yields were proportional to the initial amount of silicate. At the beginning of the stationary growth phase, lipid synthesis rates per unit culture volume increased by 1.7 times for Chaetoceros gracilis, 3.1 times for Hantzschia sp., and 2.8 times for Cyclotella sp., respectively compared to those during the exponential growth phase. Lipid carbon accounted for as much as 57% of the carbon in C. gracilis, 71% in Hantzschia sp., and 65% in Cyclotella sp., respectively. Additional enrichment with silicate during stationary growth phase allowed the cultures to grow further. Lipid synthesis rates were reduced during the subsequent growth phase, and the growth rates themselves were dependent on the level of biomass achieved during the previous stationary phase. However, the cellular yields were similar and probably controlled by light.

Taguchi, S.; Hirata, J.A.; Laws, E.A.

1987-06-01

97

Tetrapisispora taiwanensis sp. nov. and Tetrapisispora pingtungensis sp. nov., two ascosporogenous yeast species isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Two novel yeast species, Tetrapisispora taiwanensis sp. nov. and Tetrapisispora pingtungensis sp. nov., belonging to the Saccharomycetaceae within the Saccharomycetales, are proposed to accommodate six strains isolated from samples of Taiwanese forest soil between 2005 and 2010. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene revealed that the two species are phylogenetically closely related to species of the genus Tetrapisispora. Moreover, the assimilation spectrum of carbon and nitrogen sources and morphological characteristics are very similar to those of other Tetrapisispora species. The molecular, morphological and physiological characteristics described above indicate that these two species should be classified as members of the genus Tetrapisispora. The two species can be differentiated from each other and from other Tetrapisispora species based on their LSU D1/D2 rRNA gene and ITS sequences. Thus, the two species could be regarded as novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora, and the names Tetrapisispora taiwanensis sp. nov. (type strain SJ6S04(T) =CBS 10586(T) =NBRC 102652(T) =BCRC 23090(T)) and Tetrapisispora pingtungensis sp. nov. (type strain NC2S06(T) =CBS 12780(T) =BCRC 23409(T)) are proposed. The type strains of the two species were isolated from forest soil in Leinhuatsu Park, Nantou, in 2006 and from Hungchun, Pingtung, in 2009, respectively. PMID:23625253

Chen, Shan-Fu; Lo, Shih Feng; Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu

2013-06-01

98

Identifying sp-sp2 carbon materials by Raman and infrared spectroscopies.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) materials composed of sp and sp(2) carbon atoms (e.g., graphyne and graphdiyne) show many interesting properties. These materials can be constructed through alkyne homocoupling; however, the occurrence of various side reactions increases the difficulty of their synthesis and structural characterization. Here, we investigate the thermodynamic properties and vibrational spectra of several aryl-alkynes. Both homocoupling and side reactions are found to occur spontaneously at room temperature in terms of thermodynamics. The calculated Raman spectra of the homocoupling products show regular changes with increasing polymerization degree. By rationalizing the vibrational modes of various oligomers, the Raman spectrum of a 2D sp-sp(2) carbon sheet is predicted; it exhibits three sharp peaks at 2241, 1560, and 1444 cm(-1). Although the target and byproducts display similar vibrational modes, a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopies can be used to differentiate them. The theoretical results are then used to analyze the structure of a synthesized sample and provide useful information. PMID:24789090

Wang, Jinying; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhou, Jingyuan; Liu, Rong; Du, Ran; Xu, Hua; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhirong

2014-06-21

99

Coexisting bacterial populations responsible for multiphasic mineralization kinetics in soil. [Janthinobacterium sp. Rhodococcus sp  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low {mu}{sub max} and a low K{sub m} for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for {mu}{sub max} from soil incubations were similar to {mu}{sub max} values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, K{sub s} and K{sub m} values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies.

Schmidt, S.K.; Gier, M.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1990-09-01

100

Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from natural substrates.  

PubMed

Two novel yeast species were isolated during three independent studies of yeasts associated with natural substrates in Brazil and Taiwan. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that these novel species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade. The first was isolated from freshwater and a leaf of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) in Brazil and from leaves of Wedelia biflora in Taiwan. Described here as Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov., it differs by 56 nucleotide substitutions and 19 gaps in the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene from Candida sorbophila, the least divergent species. The second species, named Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., was isolated from leaves and the rhizosphere of sugar cane collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species differs by 54 nucleotide substitutions and nine gaps in the D1/D2 domains from Candida drosophilae, its least divergent relative. The type strains are Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52096(T) (= CBS 12417(T) = DBVPG 8032(T)) and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52102(T) (= CBS 12419(T) = DBVPG 8034(T)). PMID:23710055

Hagler, Allen N; Ribeiro, José R A; Pinotti, T; Brandăo, Luciana R; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lins, U; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsieh, Chin-Wen; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2013-08-01

101

IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.  

SciTech Connect

Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

Navarro, J.P.

1999-05-27

102

Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.  

PubMed

We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied. PMID:20175511

Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

2010-03-24

103

SP-100 liquid metal test loop design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SP-100 Power System Qualification (PSO) program validates the technology readiness of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). As part of the PSQ, the GFS reactor, heat transport and power generation systems are being validated, by test, in high temperature liquid metal test loops. The liquid metal test loop program consists of two test loops. The first, a natural circulation material test loop (MTL), has been successfully operating for the last year at GE's test facility in San Jose. The second, a forced circulation Component Test Loop (CTL) is in the preliminary design phase. Fabrication of the CTL and modifications to the Test Facility will be completed in FY94 with component testing scheduled to begin in FY95. The CTL is a Nb-1Zr test loop with an Electromagnetic (EM) pump providing forced circulation for the liquid lithium coolant. The CTL test program is comprised of a series of individual component tests. Test components containing thermoelectric cells will have their cold side ducts piped to an existing heat rejection loop external to the CTL vacuum vessel. The test assembly and test components are being designed by GE. The detail design of several loop components is being performed by Westinghouse Atomic Energy Systems (WAES). The CTL will be assembled and the test performed at GE's facilties in San Jose, California.

Fallas, T. Ted; Kruger, Gordon B.; Wiltshire, Frank R.; Jensen, Grant C.; Clay, Harold; Upton, Hugh A.; Gamble, Robert E.; Kjaer-Olsen, Christian; Lee, Keith

1992-01-01

104

Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..  

PubMed

Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

105

Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include the reported novel species and their formation pathways. It is expected that outcomes of this study will be useful to understand the products formation from reactors to interstellar atmospheres as well as the growth mechanism of carbon nanomaterials. PMID:22582767

Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo

2012-06-01

106

Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional pickle and sourdough.  

PubMed

Three Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, 11050(T), 7-19(T) and 11102(T), were isolated from traditional pickle and sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. These bacteria were characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, pheS gene sequence analysis, rpoA gene sequence analysis, dnaK gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 11050(T) belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species group and shared 98.0-98.4?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and 84.7-88.9?% dnaK gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus fabifermentans and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis and had 75.9-80.7?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 90.7-92.5?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum LMG 6907(T), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis LMG 9205, Lactobacillus pentosus LMG 10755(T), Lactobacillus paraplantarum LMG 16673(T), Lactobacillus fabifermentans LMG 24284(T) and Lactobacillus xiangfangensis 3.1.1(T), respectively. Strain 7-19(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, having 94.1-96.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 71.5-82.3?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 71.2-83.4?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus thailandensis, Lactobacillus pantheris and Lactobacillus sharpeae, respectively. Strain 11102(T) was phylogenetically related to Lactobacillus oligofermentans, Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis. Strain 11102(T) had 99.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 81.3?% pheS gene sequence similarity and 96.1?% rpoA gene sequence similarity with Lactobacillus oligofermentans LMG 22743(T), respectively. Strain 11102(T) shared 96.0-96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 73.3-81.0?% pheS gene sequence similarities and 74.6-76.9?% rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus and Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis, respectively. Based upon the data from polyphasic characterization obtained in the present study, three novel species, Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus nenjiangensis sp. nov., are proposed and the type strains are 11050(T) (?=?LMG 27194(T)?=?CCUG 62991(T)), 7-19(T) (?=?LMG 27191(T)?=?NCIMB 14832(T)?=?CCUG 62990(T)) and 11102(T) (?=?LMG 27192(T)?=?NCIMB 14833(T)), respectively. PMID:23950151

Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

2013-12-01

107

Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of pulmonary surfactant protein SP 18 and evidence for cooperation between SP 18 and SP 28-36 in surfactant lipid adsorption.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-rich material that promotes alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-fluid interface in the peripheral air spaces. The turnover of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space is fast, and several lines of evidence suggest there is rapid formation and replenishment of the phospholipid surface film during normal respiration. Specific proteins may regulate these dynamic surface properties. The predominant surfactant protein is a well-characterized, lipid-associated glycoprotein, SP 28-36 (28-36 kDa). A second group of very hydrophobic proteins has recently been shown to affect the surface activity of surfactant phospholipids. We have isolated this group of hydrophobic proteins, herein called SP 5-18 (5-18 kDa), from canine surfactant and have shown by NH2-terminal sequence analysis that at least two proteins, SP 5-8 and SP 18, are present in this group. We have derived the full amino acid sequence of SP 18 from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs identified with oligonucleotide probes that were based on the NH2-terminal amino acids of SP 18. The protein isolated from extracellular surfactant appears to be a fragment of a much larger precursor protein (40 kDa). The amino acid sequence of SP 18 is markedly hydrophobic and contains two possible bilayer-spanning domains. We have shown that SP 18 and the glycoprotein SP 28-36 have a cooperative, calcium-dependent action in promoting the formation of phospholipid surface films. Images

Hawgood, S; Benson, B J; Schilling, J; Damm, D; Clements, J A; White, R T

1987-01-01

108

The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences?  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate ? and ? domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles.

Tomas, Mireia; Domenech, Jordi; Capdevila, Merce; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Silvia

2013-01-01

109

Integrative gene cloning and expression system for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 bioactive molecule producing strains.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002), as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA) from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch. PMID:19547659

Sioud, Samiha; Aigle, Bertrand; Karray-Rebai, Ines; Smaoui, Slim; Bejar, Samir; Mellouli, Lotfi

2009-01-01

110

Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. from California Citrus  

PubMed Central

In October 1999, the authors received fixed specimens of a species of Longidorus from Howard Ferris found about the roots of a citrus tree in Oakville, Napa County, CA. After determining it to be new a species, we requested additional specimens. The samples contained roughly equal numbers of males and females. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. is most similar to L. elongatus, but can be distinguished by a greater c-ratio (111-187 vs 73-141), a lesser c´ (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.3), a more offset head, a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 30-33 ?m), the presence of sperm in the uterus in mature females, and the approximate 1:1 ratio of females to males. Other similar species include L. artemisiae, L. crassus, L. glycines, and L. milanis. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. artemisiae by a lesser a-ratio (74-102 vs 109-155), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.6), a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 27-34 ?m), a longer odontostyle (91-108 vs 84-98 ?m), a wider lip region (16-19 vs 14-17 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 41-52 ?m), and longer spicules (57-65 vs 39-49 ?m). The new species differs substantially from L. crassus by its lip shape and the presence of males, and differs from L. glycines by a shorter body (4.33-5.97 vs 6.14-8.31 mm), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 0.9-1.4), a narrower lip region (16-19 vs 20-23 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 39-57 ?m), longer spicules (53-69 vs 45-53 ?m), and fewer supplements (7-11 vs 11-17). Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. milanis by a longer body (4.33-5.97vs 3.00-4.90 mm), a greater c value (111-187 vs 86-130), a wider mid-body (53-69 vs 43-56 ?m), a different head shape, and longer spicules (53-69 vs 41-54 ?m). The nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequence of this species revealed that this species is unique with respect to all sequenced Longidorus species.

Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

2009-01-01

111

Complete Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. BSs20148.  

PubMed

Marinobacter sp. BSs20148 was isolated from marine sediment collected from the Arctic Ocean at a water depth of 3,800 m. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Marinobacter sp. BSs20148. This genomic information will facilitate the study of the physiological metabolism, ecological roles, and evolution of the Marinobacter species. PMID:23682144

Song, Lai; Ren, Lufeng; Li, Xingang; Yu, Dan; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Guiming

2013-01-01

112

Calibration of PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The set-up and calibration of the PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis located at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is described. The PIXE-SP, that operates with 8 MeV alpha beam, has been calibrated for elements with Z >= 11, by me...

M. H. Tabacniks

1983-01-01

113

Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparaiso Bay, Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bloom of Tetraselmis sp. was observed during the first days of January of 2006 in the Valparaiso Bay (32 57'S; 71 33'W), producing green coloration of sea and exclusion of phytoplankton species. Previous blooms of Tetraselmis sp. have not been observed ...

A. Silva M. Pizarro R. Iturriaga S. Gallegos

2012-01-01

114

Genome Sequence of a Salinibacterium sp. Isolated from Antarctic Soil  

PubMed Central

The draft genome of Salinibacterium sp. PAMC 21357, isolated from permafrost soil of Antarctica, was determined. Here we present a 3.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Salinibacterium sp. that could provide further insight into the genetic determination of its cold-adaptive properties.

Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Su Jin; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Yung Mi

2012-01-01

115

Dielectric characteristics of nano-Ag\\/SP composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to modify material properties, nano Ag (diameter less than 20 nm) was successfully made from Ag colloidal sol and homogenes dispersed into silicone resin modified polyester (SP). The dielectric properties of the composite were studied. Resistivity-temperature characteristic of the composite is some different from that of pure SP. The maximal breakdown voltage of the composite is 112% of

Xiaobing Dong; Chuanxiang Xu; Xiuchen Jiang

2005-01-01

116

Start-up control strategy in the SP100  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control analysis was performed to evaluate the reference and two alternative reactor start-up control strategies for the SP-100, using a detailed nonlinear model of the reactor. The analysis results show that the reference control strategy for the SP-100 adequately meets the current requirements. Two alternative control strategies which are described in this paper provide tighter control than the reference

John E. Savanyo; Sang K. Rhow; Raymond A. Meyer; Brian F. Coleman; Frank J. Halfen

1991-01-01

117

Alternate pulse oximetry algorithms for SpO2 computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) values are currently computed using weighted moving average techniques. Digital signal processing algorithms were explored to identify improved algorithms for SpO2 computation. The fast Fourier transform and discrete cosine transform were identified as potentially superior algorithms. Improvements to the original algorithm using combinations of overlapped processing and averaging techniques were also explored

T. L. Rusch; J. E. Scharf; R. Sankar

1994-01-01

118

SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

2010-12-01

119

Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching  

PubMed Central

Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern.

Ramos, Belen; Valin, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

2009-01-01

120

SP-100 Reactor with Brayton Conversion for Lunar Surface Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power syste...

L. S. Mason C. D. Rodriguez B. I. Mckissock J. C. Hanlon B. C. Mansfield

1992-01-01

121

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

122

Bifidobacterium scardovii sp. nov., from human sources.  

PubMed

Five strains of an unusual catalase-negative Gram-positive asporogenous rod-shaped bacterium from human sources were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase, a key enzyme of bifidobacterial hexose metabolism, indicated the strains were members of the genus Bifidobacterium but they did not correspond to any of the recognized species of this genus on the basis of biochemical profiles and whole-cell protein analyses. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the placement of the isolates in the genus Bifidobacterium, and demonstrated they represent a hitherto unknown subline within the genus displaying > 5% sequence divergence with recognized species. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic criteria, it is proposed that the isolates recovered from human sources be classified as a new species, Bifidobacterium scardovii sp. nov.; the type strain is CCUG 13008T (= DSM 13734T). PMID:12054269

Hoyles, Lesley; Inganäs, Elisabeth; Falsen, Enevold; Drancourt, Michel; Weiss, Norbert; McCartney, Anne L; Collins, Matthew D

2002-05-01

123

Lysinibacillus macroides sp. nov., nom. rev.  

PubMed

'Bacillus macroides' ATCC 12905(T) (?=?DSM 54(T)?=?LMG 18474(T)), isolated in 1947 from cow dung, was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and so it lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. Reinvestigation of the strain, including DNA-DNA relatedness experiments, revealed that 'Bacillus macroides' is genomically distinct from its closest relatives Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus, Lysinibacillus boronitolerans and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with pairwise similarity values of 99.2, 98.8 and 98.5 %, respectively, with the type strains of these species). Further analysis showed that 'Bacillus macroides' shares the A4? L-Lys-D-Asp peptidoglycan type with other members of the genus Lysinibacillus and can thus be attributed to this genus. These results, combined with additional phenotypic data, justify the description of strain LMG 18474(T) (?=?DSM 54(T)?=?ATCC 12905(T)) as Lysinibacillus macroides sp. nov., nom. rev. PMID:21724959

Coorevits, An; Dinsdale, Anna E; Heyrman, Jeroen; Schumann, Peter; Van Landschoot, Anita; Logan, Niall A; De Vos, Paul

2012-05-01

124

Glycosylceramides from marine green microalga Tetraselmis sp.  

PubMed

Glycosylceramides are ubiquitous and important components of the plasma membrane in most eukaryotic cells and a few bacteria. They play significant roles in a variety of cellular functions. Their molecular structures are well recognized in animals, higher plants, and fungi, but are poorly characterized in lower plants. In this study, a high glycosylceramide-producing microalgal strain Tetraselmis sp. NKG 400013 was found. TLC and MS analyses established the presence of glycosylceramides, GT1 and GT2, in this strain. Their chemical structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS, and were identified as glycosylceramides consisting of the typical botanical sphingoid base ([4E, 8E]-sphinga-4, 8-dienine) and 2-hydroxy-?3-unsaturated fatty acyl chains, respectively. To our knowledge, the occurrence of glycosylceramides in microalga of the class Prasinophyceae was previously unknown. PMID:23089133

Arakaki, Atsushi; Iwama, Daisuke; Liang, Yue; Murakami, Nagisa; Ishikura, Masaharu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2013-01-01

125

Predicting fuel performance for SP-100 conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on methods for analyzing fuel designs proposed for the thermionic and thermoelectric concepts for SP-100 application. The proposed fuel design for the thermionic concept consisted of fully-enriched oxide fuel clad in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten, which also served as the emitter for the thermionic fuel element (TFE). The fuel density was 95% of theoretical with the linear heat rate flattened radially by removing fuel from the center of the fuel pellet. The fuel inner diameter varied from approx.0.45 in. at the core center to zero at the edge of the core. The as-fabricated gap between fuel and emitter was 10 mils radial. The emitter thickness was 80 mils, and the outer diameter was 1.099 in. The LIFE-4 code was used for evaluation of this concept after extensive review of the code and development of a procedure that corrects certain deficiencies noted in analysis of several tests.

Baars, R.E.

1985-01-01

126

Analysis of SP-100 critical experiments  

SciTech Connect

In support of the SP-100 space nuclear power source program, preliminary critical benchmark experiments were performed at the ZPPR facility at ANL-W. These configurations are representative of small, fast-spectrum, BeO-reflected, liquid metal-cooled space reactor designs at a 300-kWe power level. Analyses were performed using MCNP (Monte Carlo) and TWODANT (discrete ordinates) transport codes to calculate system criticality, control worth, and power distribution. Both methods calculated eigenvalues within 0.5% of the experimental results. Internal-poison-rod worth was underpredicted and radial reflector worth was overpredicted by both codes by up to 20%. MCNP-calculated control drum worths were underestimated by approximately 8%. Good agreement with experimental values was observed for /sup 235/U fission and for /sup 238/U fission and capture rates with the best agreement occurring in the fuel region and slightly poorer predictions apparent near BeO moderator. 7 refs., 12 figs.

Sapir, J.L.; Brandon, D.I.; Collins, P.J.; Cowan, C.L.; Porter, C.A.; Andre, S.V.

1988-01-01

127

Binary NS simulations using SpEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark; Moesta, Philipp; Duez, Matthew; Foucart, Francois

2012-03-01

128

Binary NS simulations using SpEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Szilagyi, Bela; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Duez, Matthew; Ott, Christian

2013-04-01

129

Benhamycin, novel alkaloid from terrestrial Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

During our screening for bioactive natural compounds from microorganisms, a novel alkaloid has been isolated from a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. isolate NR12, and named as benhamycin (1). This was along with the known metabolites, uracil, thymine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2'-deoxyuridin, tryptophol, indolyl-3-carboxylic acid, and indolyl-3-carbaldehyde. Chemical structure of the novel compound was determined by detailed analysis of its spectroscopic data (extensive NMR experiments, 1 & 2D, MS spectroscopy, and MS high resolution). Structurally, Benhamycin (1) is a pentacyclic aromatic compound bearing an acridine moiety lactamized with benzene. Biological studies showed that the strain extract was moderately active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:17987502

Shaaban, Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S

2007-11-01

130

Biodegradation of Xanthan Gum by Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Strains tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. were isolated from sewage sludge and soil and shown to elaborate extracellular enzymes that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide (xanthan gum, polysaccharide B-1459) of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. Enzyme production by one strain was greatly enhanced when the strain was incubated in a mixed culture. Products of degradation were identified as d-glucuronic acid, d-mannose, pyruvylated mannose, 6-O-acetyl d-mannose, and a (1-->4)-linked glucan. These products correlate with the known structure of the gum. The complexity of the product mixture indicated that the xanthanase was a mixture of carbohydrases. The xanthanase complexes were similar to one another in temperature stability, pH and temperature optima, degree of substrate degradation, and enzymolysis products. Differences in pH stability, salt tolerance, recoverability, and yields of enzyme were observed. PMID:16346068

Cadmus, M C; Jackson, L K; Burton, K A; Plattner, R D; Slodki, M E

1982-07-01

131

Biodegradation of Xanthan Gum by Bacillus sp  

PubMed Central

Strains tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. were isolated from sewage sludge and soil and shown to elaborate extracellular enzymes that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide (xanthan gum, polysaccharide B-1459) of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. Enzyme production by one strain was greatly enhanced when the strain was incubated in a mixed culture. Products of degradation were identified as d-glucuronic acid, d-mannose, pyruvylated mannose, 6-O-acetyl d-mannose, and a (1?4)-linked glucan. These products correlate with the known structure of the gum. The complexity of the product mixture indicated that the xanthanase was a mixture of carbohydrases. The xanthanase complexes were similar to one another in temperature stability, pH and temperature optima, degree of substrate degradation, and enzymolysis products. Differences in pH stability, salt tolerance, recoverability, and yields of enzyme were observed.

Cadmus, Martin C.; Jackson, Linda K.; Burton, Kermit A.; Plattner, Ronald D.; Slodki, Morey E.

1982-01-01

132

SP-100 Thermoelectric Electromagnetic Pump Performance Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric electromagnetic (TEM) pump is a key component of the SP-100 space nuclear power system that reliably pumps liquid metals through both the primary heat transport and the secondary or heat rejection subsystems. The TEM Pump Performance (TiPP) Model is a performance prediction and design tool, developed from first principles, that determines developed and delivered pressures for different geometries and conditions of the TEM pump. Several key analytical models used in the performance prediction of the TEM pump have been experimentally demonstrated in the Magnetic Bench Test (MBT) and the Electro-Magnetic Integration Test (EMIT). These tests focused on specific phenomena of the pump. The model predictions are based on given inlet temperatures of the fluids and their flow rates. Detailed 3-dimensional modelling, including end effects, is performed by the modules in the code. Different fluids can be readily simulated. A sample application is included and results compared with a single-point model predictions.

Salamah, Samir A.,; Miller, David D.; Sinha, Upendra

1994-07-01

133

Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov., novel ascomycetous yeast species.  

PubMed

The unidentified strains AS 2.0706(T), preserved in the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC), Academia Sinica, Beijing, China, and CBS 6904(T), preserved in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Utrecht, The Netherlands, were shown to represent two novel ascomycetous yeast species of the genus Kazachstania by 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including 5.8S rDNA) and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis and electrophoretic karyotype comparison. The names Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov. are proposed for strains AS 2.0706(T) and CBS 6904(T), respectively. Phylogenetically, the two novel species are closely related to Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. PMID:16166736

Wu, Zuo-Wei; Bai, Feng-Yan

2005-09-01

134

Halotolerant laccases from Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora, and Coprinopsis sp. isolated from a Mediterranean coastal area.  

PubMed

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are phenoloxidases involved in the transformation of the recalcitrant fraction of organic matter in soil. These enzymes are also able to transform certain aromatic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are known to be inhibited by chloride ions. This study aims to test the potential of some fungal strains newly isolated from natural environments subjected to high osmotic pressure such as coastal ecosystems, to produce chloride tolerant laccases. Three strains were identified as Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora (two Ascomycota), and Coprinopsis sp. (a Basidiomycota) and the laccases produced by these fungi were weakly inhibited by chloride ions compared with previous data from literature. Moreover, we tested their reactivity towards various PAHs which are widespread anthropic pollutants. They were able to transform anthracene to 9,10-anthraquinone and we determine 7.5 eV as the threshold of ionization potential for PAH oxidation by these laccases. PMID:23063188

Qasemian, Leila; Billette, Christophe; Guiral, Daniel; Alazard, Emilie; Moinard, Magalie; Farnet, Anne-Marie

2012-10-01

135

Denitrifying sulfide removal and nitrososulfide complex: Azoarcus sp. NSC3 and Pseudomonas sp. CRS1 mix.  

PubMed

Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously removes nitrate, sulfide and organic matters in the same reactor. This study applied Azoarcus sp. NSC3 and Pseudomonas sp. CRS1 mix for DSR tests in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growths. Negligible NO-compounds were noted in heterotrophic or mixotrophic growths, while most cells were damaged and bound with NO-compounds in autotrophic growth. Nitroprusside (SNP) ions were applied as model compound to reveal the formation of nitrososulfide complex (RSNO) by nitroso (NO(+)) and excess sulfide (S(2-)), rather than the previously proposed mechanism by direct reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and S(2-). We speculated that RSNO was then abiotically decomposed to NO and elemental sulfur in the presence of biological cells. A revised nitrogen cycle considering interactions with sulfur compounds was proposed. We also speculated that SNO and NO were inhibitory to the functional strains, whose efficient removals were essential to reach high-rate DSR performance. PMID:24929301

Lee, Duu-Jong; Wong, Biing-Teo

2014-08-01

136

Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

Vishniac, H. S.

1985-01-01

137

Carbon-Binding Designer Proteins that Discriminate between sp2- and sp3-Hybridized Carbon Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA?Car9 and TrxA?Car15 have similar affinity for sp2-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA?Car15 interacts with sp2-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and ?-? interactions but that TrxA?Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding which relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker ?-stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA?Car9 binds equally well to sp2- and sp3-bonded (diamond-like) carbon particles, while TrxA?Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications.

Coyle, Brandon L.; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, Francois

2013-01-01

138

All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification.  

PubMed

All-carbon sp-sp(2) hybrid structures comprised of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene (ZTG)and carbon chains are proposed and constructed as nanojunctions. It has been found that such simple hybrid structures possess very intriguing propertiesapp:addword:intriguing. The high-performance rectifying behaviors similar to macroscopic p-n junction diodes, such as a nearly linear positive-bias I-V curve (metallic behavior), a very small leakage current under negative bias (insulating behavior), a rather low threshold voltage, and a large bias region contributed to a rectification, can be predicted. And also, a transistor can be built by such a hybrid structure, which can show an extremely high current amplification. This is because a sp-hybrid carbon chain has a special electronic structure which can limit the electronic resonant tunneling of the ZTG to a unique and favorable situation. These results suggest that these hybrid structures might promise importantly potential applications for developing nano-scale integrated circuits. PMID:23999318

Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junjun; Kwong, Gordon; Li, Ji; Fan, Zhiqiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiping

2013-01-01

139

All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: Geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification  

PubMed Central

All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures comprised of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene (ZTG)and carbon chains are proposed and constructed as nanojunctions. It has been found that such simple hybrid structures possess very intriguing propertiesapp:addword:intriguing. The high-performance rectifying behaviors similar to macroscopic p-n junction diodes, such as a nearly linear positive-bias I-V curve (metallic behavior), a very small leakage current under negative bias (insulating behavior), a rather low threshold voltage, and a large bias region contributed to a rectification, can be predicted. And also, a transistor can be built by such a hybrid structure, which can show an extremely high current amplification. This is because a sp-hybrid carbon chain has a special electronic structure which can limit the electronic resonant tunneling of the ZTG to a unique and favorable situation. These results suggest that these hybrid structures might promise importantly potential applications for developing nano-scale integrated circuits.

Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junjun; Kwong, Gordon; Li, Ji; Fan, Zhiqiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiping

2013-01-01

140

Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21{sup WAF1}). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

Chen Yongxin [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Guo Yingqiu [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ge Xijin [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hirotaka [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Akira [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, Takeshi [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Division of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aburatani, Hiroyuki [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honchou Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan)]. E-mail: haburata-tky@umin.ac.jp

2006-02-17

141

CELLULAR ARCHITECTURAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF VIPERA RUSSELLI PARASITIZED BY LARVAE OF ANISAKIS SP. AND CONTRACAECUM SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological changes are described in the liver of Vipera russelli parasitized by larvae of Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp. Histological sections of infected liver were prepared by standard procedure for detailed study. These sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and mounted permanently in DPX. Photographs were taken by Nikon Optiphot-II. Prominent degenerative changes observed were: thrombosis in dilated portal

N. KHATOON; A. G. RIZWANA; R. SIDRA; F. M. BILQEES

142

Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1.  

PubMed Central

The activities of certain nuclear regulatory proteins are modified by high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols associated with nitrosative stress. In the present study, we have studied the effect of physiological (low microM) concentrations of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1). Low concentrations of GSNO increased Sp3 binding, as well as Sp3-dependent transcription of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory gene, cftr. However, higher GSNO levels prevented Sp3 binding, augmented Sp1 binding and prevented both cftr transcription and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression. We conclude that low concentrations of GSNO favour Sp3 binding to 'housekeeping' genes such as cftr, whereas nitrosative stress-associated GSNO concentrations shut off Sp3-dependent transcription, possibly to redirect cellular resources. Since low micromolar concentrations of GSNO also increase the maturation and activity of a clinically common CFTR mutant, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect, these observations may have implications for dosing of S-nitrosylating agents used in cystic fibrosis clinical trials.

Zaman, Khalequz; Palmer, Lisa A; Doctor, Allan; Hunt, John F; Gaston, Benjamin

2004-01-01

143

Lipid mixing is mediated by the hydrophobic surfactant protein SP-B but not by SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant contains two families of hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C. Both proteins are thought to promote the formation of the phospholipid monolayer at the air/fluid interface of the lung. The excimer/monomer ratio of pyrene-labeled PC fluorescence intensities was used to investigate the capacity of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, to induce lipid mixing between protein-containing small unilamellar vesicles and pyrene-PC-labeled small unilamellar vesicles. At 37 degrees C SP-B induced lipid mixing between protein-containing vesicles and pyrene-PC-labeled vesicles. In the presence of negatively charged phospholipids (PG or PI) the SP-B-induced lipid mixing was enhanced, and dependent on the presence of (divalent) cations. The extent of lipid mixing was maximal at a protein concentration of 0.2 mol%. SP-C was not capable of inducing lipid mixing at 37 degrees C not even at protein concentrations of 1 mol%. The SP-B-induced lipid mixing may occur during the Ca(2+)-dependent transformation of lamellar bodies into tubular myelin and the subsequent formation of the phospholipid monolayer. PMID:1390835

Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M A; van Eijk, M; van Golde, L M; Haagsman, H P

1992-09-21

144

Biophysical activity of an artificial surfactant containing an analogue of surfactant protein (SP)-C and native SP-B.  

PubMed

Natural surfactant preparations containing phospholipids and the hydrophobic surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C) are effective in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. The limited supply, and the risk of infectious agents and immunological reactions have promoted the evaluation of synthetic peptides in surfactant preparations. However, the folding of synthetic SP-C into an alpha-helix is inefficient and alpha-helical SP-C analogues with Val-->Leu substitutions form oligomers. In order to circumvent these problems we have synthesized an SP-C analogue, named SP-C(LKS), which differs from SP-C mainly by the exchange of most of the Val residues in positions 16-28 with Leu residues to promote an alpha-helical conformation, and by the introduction of Lys residues at positions 17, 22 and 27 in order to locate positive charges around the helical circumference and thereby avoid self polymerization. CD spectroscopy showed a spectrum typical for alpha-helical peptides and SDS/PAGE disclosed a single band. The biophysical activity of artificial surfactant preparations containing SP-C(LKS) and phospholipids, with and without native SP-B, was measured using a Wilhelmy balance and a pulsating bubble surfactometer. SP-C(LKS) (3%, w/w) in a mixture of 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/phosphatidylglycerol/palmitic acid (68:22:9, by wt.) suspended in 150 mM NaCl, showed rapid spreading at the air-liquid interface and produced a surface tension of <1 mN/m at minimum bubble size (gammamin) and 42 mN/m at maximum bubble size (gammamax) in the pulsating bubble surfactometer. The addition of 2% (w/w) SP-B to the preparation reduced the maximum surface tension to 33-35 mN/m, i.e. both gammamin and gammamax values were similar to those of natural surfactant preparations. Optimal in vitro characteristics were also obtained from a preparation containing SP-C(LKS), SP-B, DPPC and phosphatidylglycerol, i.e. when palmitic acid was omitted from the lipid mixture. SP-B containing surfactant preparations made up in Hepes buffer at pH 6.9, instead of in 150 mM NaCl, had similar biophysical activity provided that palmitic acid was omitted, but decreased activity in the presence of palmitic acid. PMID:10191270

Palmblad, M; Johansson, J; Robertson, B; Curstedt, T

1999-04-15

145

N-terminally extended surfactant protein (SP) C isolated from SP-B-deficient children has reduced surface activity and inhibited lipopolysaccharide binding.  

PubMed

In both humans and mice, a deficiency of surfactant protein B (SP-B) is associated with a decreased concentration of mature SP-C and accumulation of a larger SP-C peptide, denoted SP-C(i), which is not observed under normal conditions. Isolation of hydrophobic polypeptides from the lungs of children who died with two different SP-B mutations yielded pure SP-C(i) and showed only trace amounts of mature SP-C. Determination of the SP-C(i) covalent structure revealed a 12-residue N-terminal peptide segment, followed by a 35-residue segment that is identical to mature SP-C. The SP-C(i) structure determined herein is similar to that of a proposed late intermediate in the processing of proSP-C, suggesting that SP-C(i) is the immediate precursor of SP-C. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from transgenic mice with a focal deficiency of SP-B, SP-C(i) was detected in the biophysically active, large aggregate fraction and was associated with membrane structures that are typical for a large aggregate surfactant. However, unlike SP-C, SP-C(i) exhibited a very poor ability to promote phospholipid adsorption, gave high surface tension during cyclic film compression, and did not bind lipopolysaccharide in vitro. SP-C(i) is thus capable of associating with surfactant lipids, but its N-terminal dodecapeptide segment must be proteolytically removed to generate a biologically functional peptide. The results of this study indicate that the early postnatal fatal respiratory distress seen in SP-B-deficient children is combined with the near absence of active variants of SP-C. PMID:15049696

Li, Jing; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Hamvas, Aaron; Espinassous, Quentin; Chaby, Richard; Nogee, Lawrence M; Weaver, Timothy E; Johansson, Jan

2004-04-01

146

Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

1995-01-01

147

Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1 as a therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Introduction: Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) are members of the Sp/Kruppel-like factor family, and Sp proteins play an important role in embryonic and early postnatal development. Sp1 has been the most extensively investigated member of this family, and expression of this protein decreases with age, whereas Sp1 and other family members (Sp3 and Sp4) are highly expressed in tumors and cancer cell lines. Area covered: The prognostic significance of Sp1 in cancer patients and the functional pro-oncogenic activities of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in cancer cell lines are summarized. Several different approaches have been used to target downregulation of Sp TFs and Sp-regulated genes, and this includes identification of different structural classes of antineoplastic agents including NSAIDs, natural products and their synthetic analogs and several well-characterized drugs including arsenic trioxide, aspirin and metformin. The multiple pathways involved in drug-induced Sp downregulation are also discussed. Expert opinion: The recognition by the scientific and clinical community that experimental and clinically used antineoplastic agents downregulate Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, and pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes will facilitate future clinical applications for individual drug and drug combination therapies that take advantage of their unusual effects. PMID:24793594

Safe, Stephen; Imanirad, Parisa; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Jutooru, Indira

2014-07-01

148

Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).  

PubMed

The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p < 0.05) for diets without krill meal. A second experiment was set up with 969, 1.5 g fish, trained with GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p < 0.05) fish feeding on GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success. PMID:11241964

Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

2000-11-01

149

Characterization of nitrile hydratation catalysed by Nocardia sp. 108  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   \\u000a Nocardia sp. 108 exhibited strong acrylonitrile-hydrating activity and its nitrile hydratase was Co2+-dependent. Nocardia sp. 108 was active within a broad pH range from 6.0 to 10.0 at 30C and thermostable at temperatures below 35C, but became\\u000a unstable at temperatures above 45C. Furthermore, it was found that Nocardia sp. 108 can hydrate indole-3-acetonitrile, p-chlorobenzonitrile, p-hydroxybenzylcyanide, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzonitrile, p-aminobenzonitrile, 3-cyanopyridine,

Ya-Jun Wang; Yu-Guo Zheng; Jian-Ping Xue; Yin-Chu Shen

2007-01-01

150

Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.  

PubMed

Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 ?N in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. PMID:22387476

Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

2012-03-30

151

Brevundimonas lenta sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, Brevundimonas-like bacterial strain, DS-18(T), was isolated from soil in Dokdo, Korea, and its exact taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain DS-18(T) grew optimally at pH 6.5-7.0 and 25 degrees C without NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-18(T) belonged to the genus Brevundimonas. Strain DS-18(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 68.7 mol%. Strain DS-18(T) exhibited levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.3-98.7 % to the type strains of Brevundimonas species and Mycoplana bullata. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DS-18(T) and the type strains of phylogenetically related Brevundimonas species and M. bullata were in the range 15-32 %. Strain DS-18(T) differed from Brevundimonas species and M. bullata in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain DS-18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Brevundimonas, for which the name Brevundimonas lenta sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-18(T) (=KCTC 12871(T) =JCM 14602(T)). PMID:17911289

Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Jung-Sook; Oh, Hyun Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

2007-10-01

152

Mineralization of phenanthrene by a Mycobacterium sp  

SciTech Connect

A Mycobacterium sp., designated strain BG1, able to utilize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from estuarine sediment following enrichment with the hydrocarbon. Unlike other phenanthrene degraders, this bacterium degraded phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid without accumulating this or other aromatic intermediates, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degradation proceeded via meta cleavage of protocatechuic acid. Different nonionic surfactants (Tween compounds) solubilized the phenanthrene to different degrees and enhanced phenanthrene utilization. The order of enhancement, however, did not correlate perfectly with increased solubility, suggesting physiological as well as physicochemical effects of the surfactants. Plasmids of approximately 21, 58, and 77 megadaltons were detected in cells grown with phenanthrene but not in those which, after growth on nutrient media, lost the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype. Given that plasmid-mediated degradations of aromatic hydrocarbons generally occur via meta cleavages, it is of interest that the addition of pyruvate, a product of meta cleavage, supported rapid mineralization of phenanthrene in broth culture; succinate, a product of ortho cleavage, supported growth but completely repressed the utilization of phenanthrene. The involvement of plasmids may have given rise to the unusual degradation pattern that was observed.

Guerin, W.F.; Jones, G.E.

1988-04-01

153

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

SciTech Connect

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

Schmitz, P.; Tower, L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Dawson, R. [Aerospace Design and Fabrication Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States); Blue, B.; Dunn, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1994-09-01

154

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

1993-01-01

155

Description of Ectothiorhodospira salini sp. nov.  

PubMed

Strain JA430(T) is a Gram-negative, vibrioid to spiral shaped phototrophic purple sulfur bacterium isolated from anoxic sediment of a saltern at Kanyakumari in a mineral salts medium that contained 2% NaCl (w/v). Strain JA430(T) grows optimally at 5-6% NaCl and tolerates up to 12% NaCl. Intracellular photosynthetic membranes were of the lamellar type. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series are present as photosynthetic pigments. Major cellular fatty acids are C(18:1)?7c, C(16:0), C(19:0)cyclo?8c and C(16:1)?7c/C(16:1)?6c. Strain JA430(T) exhibits photoorganoheterotrophy and chemoorganoheterotrophy and requires para-aminobenzoic acid, pantothenate and pyridoxal phosphate for growth. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain JA430(T) forms monophyletic group in the genus Ectothiorhodospira. The highest sequence similarity for strain JA430(T) was found with the type strains of Ectothiorhodospira variabilis DSM 21381(T) (96.1%) and Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila ATCC 51935(T) (96.2%). Morphological and physiological characteristics discriminate strain JA430(T) from other species of the genus Ectothiorhodospira, for which we describe this as a novel species, Ectothiorhodospira salini sp. nov. ( = NBRC 105915(T) = KCTC 5805(T)). PMID:20953095

Venkata Ramana, Vemuluri; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Veera Venkata Ramaprasad, Eedara; Venkata Ramana, Chintalapati

2010-08-01

156

Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov., from wine.  

PubMed

Ten Lactobacillus strains, previously isolated from different Bobal grape wines from the Utiel-Requena Origin Denomination of Spain, were characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a tight phylogenetic clade that is closely related to reference strains Lactobacillus satsumensis NRIC 0604T, 'Lactobacillus uvarum' 8 and Lactobacillus mali DSM 20444T. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separation of the strains from other Lactobacillus species. Genotypically, the strains could be differentiated from their closest neighbours by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The strains were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not exhibit catalase activity. Phenotypically, they could be distinguished from their closest relatives by several traits such as their inabilities to grow at pH 3.3, to ferment sucrose, amygdalin and arbutin or to hydrolyse aesculin. The characteristics of the ten wine isolates suggest that they represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59bT (=CECT 7334T=DSM 19972T). PMID:19567555

Mańes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Pardo, Isabel

2009-08-01

157

Nonomuraea muscovyensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, strain FMN03(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Yuga Zapadnaya South-West Forest Park, Moscow, Russia. The isolate had chemical and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nonomuraea and formed a distinct 16S rRNA gene subclade with the type strains Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminata NBRC 15903(T) and Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. roseoviolacea NBRC 14098(T). The organism formed extensively branched substrate and aerial hyphae, which generated spiral chains of spores with smooth surfaces. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole cell sugars were glucose, galactose and trace amounts of madurose, mannose and xylose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C16?:?0 2-OH, C17?:?0 10-methyl, C17?:?1 cis9 and iso-C16?:?0. Analyses of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with DNA-DNA relatedness data, confirmed that strain FMN03(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, which is distinct from closely related reference strains. Strain FMN03(T) (?=?DSM 45913(T)?=?KCTC 29233(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Nonomuraea muscovyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24801152

Ozdemir-Kocak, Fadime; Isik, Kamil; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Sahin, Nevzat

2014-07-01

158

Mineralization of phenanthrene by a Mycobacterium sp.  

PubMed Central

A Mycobacterium sp., designated strain BG1, able to utilize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from estuarine sediment following enrichment with the hydrocarbon. Unlike other phenanthrene degraders, this bacterium degraded phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid without accumulating this or other aromatic intermediates, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degradation proceeded via meta cleavage of protocatechuic acid. Different nonionic surfactants (Tween compounds) solubilized the phenanthrene to different degrees and enhanced phenanthrene utilization. The order of enhancement, however, did not correlate perfectly with increased solubility, suggesting physiological as well as physicochemical effects of the surfactants. Plasmids of approximately 21, 58, and 77 megadaltons were detected in cells grown with phenanthrene but not in those which, after growth on nutrient media, lost the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype. Given that plasmid-mediated degradations of aromatic hydrocarbons generally occur via meta cleavages, it is of interest that the addition of pyruvate, a product of meta cleavage, supported rapid mineralization of phenanthrene in broth culture; succinate, a product of ortho cleavage, supported growth but completely repressed the utilization of phenanthrene. The involvement of plasmids may have given rise to the unusual degradation pattern that was observed. Images

Guerin, W F; Jones, G E

1988-01-01

159

Dickeya aquatica sp. nov., isolated from waterways.  

PubMed

Pectinolytic Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from different waterways in the UK and Finland. Three strains (174/2(T), 181/2 and Dw054) had the same 16S rRNA gene sequences which shared 99?% sequence similarity to species of the genus Dickeya, and a phylogeny of related genera confirmed attribution to this genus. Fatty acid profile analysis of all three strains found a high proportion of C16?:?1?7c/C16?:?1?7c and C16?:?0 fatty acids, and library profile searches found closest matches to Dickeya chrysanthemi. Production of a concatenated phylogeny using six loci, recA, gapA, atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB, provided a high-resolution phylogeny which placed strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 as a distinct clade, separated from the other species of the genus Dickeya by a relatively long branch-length. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with a limited number of reference species also supported the distinctiveness of strains 174/2(T) and 181/2 within the genus Dickeya. All three strains could be phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus by fermentation of melibiose and raffinose but not d-arabinose or mannitol. The name Dickeya aquatica sp. nov. is proposed for the new taxon; the type strain is 174/2(T) (?=?NCPPB 4580(T)?=?LMG 27354(T)). PMID:24719023

Parkinson, Neil; DeVos, Paul; Pirhonen, Minna; Elphinstone, John

2014-07-01

160

Pontibacter saemangeumensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.  

PubMed

A gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink bacterial strain, designated strain GCM0142(T), was isolated from the confined seawater in the Saemangeum Tide Embankment of South Korea, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain GCM0142(T) indicated that the isolate belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and exhibited similarity levels of 94.0-96.4?% to the type strains of recognized Pontibacter species. Strain GCM0142(T) was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were summed feature 4 (comprising iso-C(17?:?1)I and/or anteiso-C(17?:?1)B, 36.8?%), iso-C(15?:?0) (22.3?%) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16?:?1)?7c and/or C(16?:?1)?6c, 6.2?%). The DNA G+C content of strain GCM0142(T) was 48.9 mol% and the major quinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids (AL1-2), an unknown aminophospholipid, five unknown lipids (L1-5) and an unknown glycolipid. On the basis of the evidence presented, strain GCM0142(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter saemangeumensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GCM0142(T) (?=?KACC 16448(T)?=?JCM 17926(T)). PMID:22523168

Kang, Ji Young; Joung, Yochan; Chun, Jeesun; Kim, Haneul; Joh, Kiseong; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

2013-02-01

161

Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).  

PubMed

We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 ?l g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

2013-04-01

162

Sphaerisporangium krabiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial strain, designated A-T 0308(T), was isolated from soil of a tropical mangrove forest in Thailand. Strain A-T 0308(T) developed spherical sporangia containing non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, N-acetyl-type peptidoglycan and madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)); a small amount of MK-9(H(2)) and MK-9 was also detected. Mycolic acids were not detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphoglycolipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and 10-methylated C(17:0). The G+C content of the DNA was 72 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the novel isolate had characteristics typical of members of the genus Sphaerisporangium. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and that it represents a clade distinct from other members of the genus with sequence similarities ranging from 96.3 to 97.8% between the novel strain and its closest relatives. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, strain A-T 0308(T) (=BCC 21702(T) =NBRC 107571(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Sphaerisporangium, for which the name Sphaerisporangium krabiense sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:21257689

Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

2011-12-01

163

Moraxella porci sp. nov., isolated from pigs.  

PubMed

Nine Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, coccus-shaped bacteria were isolated from pigs affected by different pathological processes. Phenotypic and genotypic methods were adopted to determine the relationships of these new isolates to recognized species of the genus Moraxella. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the clinical isolates represented a new lineage within the genus Moraxella. The isolates were closely related to Moraxella cuniculi and Moraxella pluranimalium with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.1?% and 99.1?%, respectively. The isolates displayed DNA-DNA relative binding ratios of 74?% to each other, but distinctly lower levels of DNA-DNA hybridization were observed with phylogenetically closely related moraxellae (<32?%). The new isolates could be distinguished from all other recognized species of the genus Moraxella by physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the phenotypic and molecular data, the nine new isolates from pigs represent a novel species within the genus Moraxella, for which the name Moraxella porci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SN9-4M(T) (=CECT 7294(T)=CCUG 54912(T)). PMID:19946050

Vela, A I; Sánchez-Porro, C; Aragón, V; Olvera, A; Domínguez, L; Ventosa, A; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

2010-10-01

164

Bacillus songklensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated CAU 1033(T), was isolated from soil and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CAU 1033(T) formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus drentensis KCTC 13025(T) (similarity 95.9?%). CAU 1033(T) contained MK-7 as the only isoprenoid quinone and iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0 as the major fatty acids. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain CAU 1033(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major whole-cell sugars were arabinose, sucrose and ribose. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified aminophospholipids, an unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids and another unidentified polar lipid. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain CAU 1033(T) was classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Bacillus for which the name Bacillus songklensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1033(T) (?=?KCTC 13881(T)?=?CCUG 61889(T)). PMID:23771626

Kang, Hyeonji; Weerawongwiwat, Veeraya; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Sukhoom, Ampaitip; Kim, Wonyong

2013-11-01

165

Oceanobacillus luteolus sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Two Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped and endospore-forming bacteria, designated WM-1(T) and WM-4, were isolated from a paddy soil and a forest soil, respectively, in South China. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that both strains were members of the genus Oceanobacillus and most closely related to Oceanobacillus chironomi LMG 23627(T) with pairwise sequence similarity of 96.0?%. The isolates contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the respiratory quinone and anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0 as the major fatty acids (>10?%). Polar lipids consisted of a predominance of diphosphatidylglycerol and moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 38.6-39.2 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain WM-1(T) displayed 99.7?% similarity to that of strain WM-4, and DNA-DNA hybridization between the two strains showed a relatedness value of 91?%. Based on the results of this polyphasic study, strains WM-1(T) and WM-4 represent a novel species in the genus Oceanobacillus, for which the name Oceanobacillus luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM-1(T) (?=?KCTC 33119(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12406(T)). PMID:24453233

Wu, Min; Yang, Guiqin; Yu, Zhen; Zhuang, Li; Jin, Yingqiang; Zhou, Shungui

2014-05-01

166

Streptomyces catbensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Strain VN07A0015(T) was isolated from soil collected on Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. The taxonomic position of strain VN07A0015(T) was near Streptomyces aomiensis M24DS4(T) (98.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces scabrisporus NBRC 100760(T) (95.6?%), and it clustered within them; however, this cluster was distant from the type strains of other species of the genus Streptomyces. The aerial mycelia of strain VN07A0015(T) were greyish and formed imperfect spiral spore chains (retinaculiaperti type) with smooth-surfaced spores. The morphological features of strain VN07A0015(T) were different from those of the type strains of S. aomiensis and S. scabrisporus. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain VN07A0015(T) were typical for all members of the genus Streptomyces, which possessed ll-type diaminopimelic acid, menaquinone MK-9(H6, H8) and the major fatty acids iso-C16?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain VN07A0015(T) and S. aomiensis NBRC 106164(T) was less than 30?%. In addition, some physiological and biochemical traits differed from those of S. aomiensis. Therefore, we propose that strain VN07A0015(T) be classified in the genus Streptomyces as a representative of Streptomyces catbensis sp. nov. (type strain VN07A0015(T)?=?VTCC-A-1889(T)?=?NBRC 107860(T)). PMID:24699065

Sakiyama, Yayoi; Giang, Nguyen M; Miyadoh, Shinji; Luong, Dao Thi; Van Hop, Duong; Ando, Katsuhiko

2014-06-01

167

Pseudomonas taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, CMS(T), isolated from soil was characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the organism belongs phylogenetically to the genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas monteilii, P. plecoglossicida and P. mosselii were the most closely related species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the respective type strains of 99.79, 99.73 and 99.59 %. Relatively low gyrB gene sequence similarities (<90 %) and DNA-DNA reassociation values (<51 %) were obtained between the strain and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C content of strain CMS(T) was 62.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1) ? 7c, summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1) ? 7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), C(16 : 0) and C(10 : 0) 3-OH. Based on the phenotypic and genetic evidence, the strain is suggested to represent a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CMS(T) (=BCRC 17751(T) =DSM 21245(T)). PMID:19854877

Wang, Li-Ting; Tai, Chun-Ju; Wu, Yen-Chi; Chen, Ying-Bei; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Wang, San-Lang

2010-09-01

168

Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.)  

PubMed Central

We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9–42.4 °C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst–burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta < 5 °C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31 °C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7 °C to 74 mHz at 39.7 °C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 ?l g?1 cycle?1. A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

Kafer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

2013-01-01

169

Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov., isolated from plants.  

PubMed

Eight Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated during screening of enterococcal populations on plants. rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer showed that the isolates constituted a single cluster that was separate from all known enterococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis of three representative strains showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus and that they clustered with the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Sequencing of the genes for the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) also revealed the isolates' separate taxonomic position. Application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping and extensive phenotyping demonstrated the genetic and phenotypic homogeneity of the isolates and confirmed their separate position within the E. faecalis species group. The isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CCM 7889(T) (=LMG 26214(T)=C27(T)). PMID:21856982

Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Bryndová, Hana; Holochová, Pavla; Kosina, Marcel; Maslanová, Ivana; Sedlácek, Ivo

2012-07-01

170

Taibaiella chishuiensis sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, AY17T, was isolated from the Chishui River in Guizhou Province, South-west China. Strain AY17T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 20 °C. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AY17T belonged to the family Chitinophagaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes; the closest phylogenetic relative was Taibaiella smilacinae PTJT-5T (95.3% gene sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. Strain AY17T contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data, strain AY17T was classified as representing a novel species of the genus Taibaiella, for which the name Taibaiella chishuiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AY17T (=CGMCC 1.12700T=JCM 19637T). PMID:24556635

Tan, Xu; Zhang, Ren-Gang; Meng, Tian-Yi; Liang, Hui-Zhen; Lv, Jie

2014-05-01

171

Control of sp2/sp3 carbon ratio and surface chemistry of nanodiamond powders by selective oxidation in air.  

PubMed

The presence of large amounts of nondiamond carbon in detonation-synthesized nanodiamond (ND) severely limits applications of this exciting nanomaterial. We report on a simple and environmentally friendly route involving oxidation in air to selectively remove sp(2)-bonded carbon from ND. Thermogravimetric analysis and in situ Raman spectroscopy shows that sp(2) and sp(3) carbon species oxidize with different rates at 375-450 degrees C and reveals a narrow temperature range of 400-430 degrees C in which the oxidation of sp(2)-bonded carbon occurs with no or minimal loss of diamond. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy detects an increase of up to 2 orders of magnitude in the sp(3)/sp(2) ratio after oxidation. The content of up to 96% of sp(3)-bonded carbon in the oxidized samples is comparable to that found in microcrystalline diamond and is unprecedented for ND powders. Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies show high purity 5-nm ND particles covered by oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The surface functionalization can be controlled by subsequent treatments (e.g., hydrogenization). In contrast to current purification techniques, the air oxidation process does not require the use of toxic or aggressive chemicals, catalysts, or inhibitors and opens avenues for numerous new applications of nanodiamond. PMID:16939289

Osswald, Sebastian; Yushin, Gleb; Mochalin, Vadym; Kucheyev, Sergei O; Gogotsi, Yury

2006-09-01

172

Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov., isolated from Apodemus mice.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T), were isolated from the blood of the small Japanese field mouse (Apodemus argenteus) and the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), respectively, specimens of which were captured in the forest of Mount Fuji, Japan. Phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (40.1 mol% for strain Fuji 18-1(T) and 40.4 mol% for strain Fuji 23-1(T)) and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that both strains were members of the genus Bartonella. Using rpoB and gltA sequencing analysis, the highest sequence similarities between strains Fuji 18-1(T), Fuji 23-1(T) and other recognized species of the genus Bartonella showed values considerably lower than 91.4 % and 89.9 % in the rpoB gene and 89.1 % and 90.4 % in the gltA gene, respectively. It is known that similarities of 95.4 % for the rpoB gene and 96.0 % for the gltA gene can be applied as cut-off values for the designation of novel species of the genus Bartonella. In a phylogenetic tree based on the merged set of concatenated sequences of seven loci [16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC and rpoB genes and the intergenic spacer region (ITS)], strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) formed a distinct clade from other recognized species of the genus Bartonella. These data support the classification of strains Fuji 18-1(T) and Fuji 23-1(T) as novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. The type strains of Bartonella japonica sp. nov. and Bartonella silvatica sp. nov. are Fuji 18-1(T) (=JCM 15567(T)=CIP 109861(T)) and Fuji 23-1(T) (=JCM 15566(T)=CIP 109862(T)), respectively. PMID:19656930

Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Shiratori, Hatsumi; Ueda, Kenji; Kosoy, Michael Y; Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Maruyama, Soichi

2010-04-01

173

Combinations of fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in phospholipid films.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant (PS) proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) modulate the surface properties of PS lipids. Epifluorescence microscopy was performed on solvent-spread monolayers of fluorescently labeled porcine SP-B (R-SP-B, labeled with Texas Red) and SP-C (F-SP-C, labeled with fluorescein) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (at protein concentrations of 10 and 20 wt%, and 10 wt% of both) under conditions of cyclic compression and expansion. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy of R-SP-B and F-SP-C indicated that the proteins were intact and labeled with the appropriate fluorescent probe. The monolayers were compressed and expanded for four cycles at an initial rate of 0.64 A2 x mol(-1) x s(-1) (333 mm2 x s x [-1]) up to a surface pressure pi approximately 65 mN/m, and pi-area per residue (pi-A) isotherms at 22 +/- 1 degrees C were obtained. The monolayers were microscopically observed for the fluorescence emission of the individual proteins present in the film lipid matrix, and their visual features were video recorded for image analysis. The pi-A isotherms of the DPPC/protein monolayers showed characteristic "squeeze out" effects at pi approximately 43 mN/m for R-SP-B and 55 mN/m for F-SP-C, as had previously been observed for monolayers of the native proteins in DPPC. Both proteins associated with the expanded (fluid) phase of DPPC monolayers remained in or associated with the monolayers at high pi (approximately 65 mN/m) and redispersed in the monolayer upon its reexpansion. At comparable pi and area/molecule of the lipid, the proteins reduced the amounts of condensed (gel-like) phase of DPPC monolayers, with F-SP-C having a greater effect on a weight basis than did R-SP-B. In any one of the lipid/protein monolayers the amounts of the DPPC in condensed phase were the same at equivalent pi during compression and expansion and from cycle to cycle. This indicated that only minor loss of components from these systems occurred between compression-expansion cycles. This study indicates that hydrophobic PS proteins associate with the fluid phase of DPPC in films, some proteins remain at high surface pressures in the films, and such lipid-protein films can still attain high pi during compression. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6

Nag, K; Taneva, S G; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

1997-01-01

174

An Acetylenic Alkaloid from the Calcareous Sponge Leucetta sp.  

PubMed Central

A new acetylenic alkaloid was isolated from the sponge Leucetta sp. The structure was established by analyzing spectroscopic data. The alkaloid showed cytotoxicity IC50 2.5 ?g/mL against NBT-T2 cells.

Hermawan, Idam; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Tanaka, Junichi

2011-01-01

175

Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.  

PubMed

Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively. PMID:15280264

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

2004-07-01

176

Telosticta iban sp. nov. from Sarawak (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae) .  

PubMed

T. iban sp. nov. is described from the Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Both sexes can be distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the antehumeral markings. PMID:24872033

Dow, Rory A

2014-01-01

177

'Pleistophora' SP. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): A New Parasite of Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White (Penaeus setiferus) and brown (P. aztecus) shrimp from Galveston Bay were observed to be infected with Pleistophora sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae). Heavily infected shrimp had a blue-black discoloration of the body. Cysts with 40 or more spores we...

R. H. Rigdon C. Hanna K. N. Baxter

1970-01-01

178

'PROCTOECES' SP. (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN THE AMERICAN OYSTER, 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Histological examination of over 6,000 oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting northern Gulf Coast estuaries revealed unencysted junvenile and possible adult stages of digenetic trematode, Proctoeces sp., inhabiting the gonadal ducts of the mollusc. The morphology of the worm ...

179

Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1  

SciTech Connect

This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

1994-10-01

180

Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1?m(3) in a tank of 2?×?1?×?1?m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored. PMID:23001957

Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

2013-01-01

181

Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system  

SciTech Connect

The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

Ferguson, D.C.

1993-01-01

182

Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

Roffe, Thomas J.

1988-01-01

183

Liquid metal testing at ETEC for the SP-100 program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology goals of the SP-100 space program include the design, fabrication, testing and development of a space based power system. The purpose of the Liquid Metal Component Test Program at ETEC is to test the high temperature, lithium cooled, refractory metal SP-100 components at operating conditions. This requires ground testing in a high vacuum environment in order to avoid oxygen embrittlement of the Nb - 1 percent Zr refractory metal. What articles are to be tested and how, is presented.

Triumph, Therese F.

184

Alkylated benzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus sp. strain T09.  

PubMed

A benzothiophene desulfurizing bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain T09. Growth assays revealed that this strain assimilated, as the sole sulfur source, various organosulfur compounds that cannot be assimilated by the well-studied dibenzothiophene-desulfurizing Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The cellular growth rate of strain T09 for the alkylated benzothiophenes depended on the alkylated position and the length of the alkyl moiety. PMID:10803960

Matsui, T; Onaka, T; Tanaka, Y; Tezuka, T; Suzuki, M; Kurane, R

2000-03-01

185

Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped.

Kral, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drozova, Dana; Sipek, Petr

2013-01-01

186

Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Associated with Corynebacterium Sp. Infection  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States.

Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

2011-01-01

187

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with corynebacterium sp. Infection.  

PubMed

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States. PMID:21857740

Stary, Creed Michael; Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

2011-05-01

188

[Causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis--Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n].  

PubMed

A new cestode species, Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n., is described on the basis of experimental examination and morphological study of 51 specimens expelled from men in lower part of the Amur river and 18 specimens expelled from golden hamsters. The larval stage of this cestode is plerocercoid of type F, which is localized in muscles of Oncorhynchus keta and O. gorbuscha. D. klebanovskii sp. n. is a marine species, it differs from D. latum and other species of the genus Diphyllobothrium. PMID:3387122

Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

1988-01-01

189

Novel anamorphic mite-associated fungi belonging to the Ustilaginomycetes: Meira geulakonigii gen. nov., sp. nov., Meira argovae sp. nov. and Acaromyces ingoldii gen. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

Three novel mite-associated basidiomycetous species are described in two new anamorph genera as Meira geulakonigii gen. nov., sp. nov. (type CBS 110052(T)=NRRL Y-27483(T)=AS 004(T)), Meira argovae sp. nov. (type CBS 110053(T)=NRRL Y-27482(T)=AS 005(T)) and Acaromyces ingoldii gen. nov., sp. nov. (type CBS 110050(T)=NRRL Y-27484(T)=AS 001(T)). Morphologically, these fungi are similar to the yeast-like fungi classified in the Ustilaginales, such as Pseudozyma species. However, analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA suggests that they belong to two different lineages within the Exobasidiomycetidae of the Ustilaginomycetes (Basidiomycota). Furthermore, these fungi may be of interest for the biocontrol of mites, as they reduced mite numbers by approximately 80 % after inoculation. PMID:13130065

Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Houbraken, Jos; Robert, Vincent; Scorzetti, Gloria; Gafni, Aviva; Gerson, Uri; Sztejnberg, Abraham

2003-09-01

190

Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.  

PubMed

An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90?%), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90?%), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80?%), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80?%) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40?%). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) (?=?BCC 45620(T)?=?NBRC 109075(T)). PMID:23710052

Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

2013-11-01

191

Amycolatopsis echigonensis sp. nov. and Amycolatopsis niigatensis sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from a filtration substrate.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of two actinomycete strains, LC2(T) and LC11(T), isolated from a filtration substrate made from Japanese volcanic soil, was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strains grew at temperatures from 5 to 45 degrees C, on media of pH between 6 and 11 and in the presence of 7 % NaCl. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)). The major fatty acid was iso-C(16 : 0). A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Amycolatopsis. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, the isolates are proposed to represent two novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis, for which the names Amycolatopsis echigonensis sp. nov. (type strain LC2(T) =IAM 15387(T) =CCTCC AB206019(T)), and Amycolatopsis niigatensis sp. nov. (type strain LC11(T) =IAM 15388(T) =CCTCC AB206020(T)) are proposed. PMID:17684249

Ding, Linxian; Hirose, Taketo; Yokota, Akira

2007-08-01

192

Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo  

PubMed Central

The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2013-01-01

193

Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

2014-05-01

194

Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.  

PubMed

Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ĺlesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0?% and 92.3-96.7?%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8?% and 39.4?%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012936(T)?=?LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012941(T)?=?NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. PMID:24763603

Qiu, Xia; Qu, Zhihao; Jiang, Fan; Ren, Lvzhi; Chang, Xulu; Kan, Wenjing; Fang, Chengxiang; Peng, Fang

2014-07-01

195

Ochrobactrum haematophilum sp. nov. and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from clinical specimens between 1992 and 2000. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, these strains (CCUG 30717T, CCUG 43892 and CCUG 38531T) were shown to belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, most closely related to Ochrobactrum grignonense (99.0 and 98.2% similarity to the type strain). Chemotaxonomic data (major ubiquinone Q-10; major polyamines spermidine, sym-homospermidine and putrescine; major polar lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine; major fatty acids C18:1omega7c and C19:0 cyclo omega8c) supported the affiliation of the isolates to the genus Ochrobactrum. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from described Ochrobactrum species. Isolates CCUG 30717T and CCUG 43892 were closely related on the basis of DNA-DNA reassociation experiments and therefore represent one novel species, for which the name Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CCUG 30717T (=CIP 109451T). Isolate CCUG 38531T was different from these strains and also from other Ochrobactrum species. For this strain, the name Ochrobactrum haematophilum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CCUG 38531T (=CIP 109452T). PMID:17978211

Kämpfer, Peter; Scholz, Holger C; Huber, Birgit; Falsen, Enevold; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

2007-11-01

196

Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae sp. nov. and Ochrobactrum thiophenivorans sp. nov., isolated from the environment.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, PR17(T) and DSM 7216(T), isolated from the potato rhizosphere and an industrial environment, respectively, were studied for their taxonomic allocation. By rrs (16S rRNA) gene sequencing, these strains were shown to belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, most closely related to Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (98.4 and 99.3 % similarity to the type strain, respectively). Chemotaxonomic data (major ubiquinone Q-10; major polyamines spermidine, sym-homospermidine and putrescine; major polar lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and the Ochrobactrum-specific unidentified aminolipid AL2; major fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c) supported the genus affiliation. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from all hitherto-described Ochrobactrum species. Hence, both isolates represent novel species of the genus Ochrobactrum, for which the names Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain PR17(T) =CCUG 55411(T) =CCM 7493(T) =DSM 19824(T)) and Ochrobactrum thiophenivorans sp. nov. (type strain DSM 7216(T) =CCUG 55412(T) =CCM 7492(T)) are proposed. PMID:18523190

Kämpfer, Peter; Sessitsch, Angela; Schloter, Michael; Huber, Birgit; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Scholz, Holger C

2008-06-01

197

Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility.  

PubMed

Two novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic, heterotrophic bacteria representing two novel species were isolated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF) at Pasadena, CA, USA. The incidence of similar strains was examined by screening the growing collection of isolates ( approximately 400 strains) obtained from the JPL-SAF using species-specific PCR primer sets designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-007(T). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these novel isolates within the genus Paenibacillus. Two strains, SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125, shared 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus timonensis and 97 % similarity with Paenibacillus macerans. Strain SAFN-007(T) showed 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus kobensis, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological tests and biochemical analysis allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from currently recognized Paenibacillus species. Strain SAFN-007(T) and strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125 are representatives of two separate novel species, for which the names Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-007(T)=ATCC BAA-1211(T)=NBRC 101214(T)) and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-016(T)=ATCC BAA-1209(T)=NBRC 101215(T)) are proposed. PMID:16825621

Osman, Shariff; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2006-07-01

198

[New species, Actinomadura fulvescens sp. nov. and Actinomadura turkmeniaca sp. nov. and their antagonistic properties].  

PubMed

Two new species of Actinomadura isolated from soil samples of the Turkmen SSR, i.e. Actinomadura fulvescens sp. nov. and Actinomadura turkmeniaca sp. nov. are described. The first species is characterized by formation of short (1-2 turns) spiral spore chains, smooth spores, scanty white aerial mycelium, colourless or yellowish substrate mycelium on synthetic media and brownish-yellow substrate mycelium and soluble pigment of the same colour on organic media. No melanoid pigment is secreted. The type culture is designated as INA 3321. The cultures of A. fulvescens show antibiotic activity. A. turkmeniaca is characterized by formation of short straight or spiral spore chains, smooth spores, scanty white aerial mycelium, substrate mycelium and soluble pigment of pinkish-violet colour, absence of melanoid pigment. The type culture is designated as INA 3344. The strains of this species have low antibiotic activity. The study on the use of carbon sources by the representatives of 7 species (9 strains) of Actinomadura showed that the majority of the cultures (5 species, 7 strains) produced no growth on the Pridham and Gottlieb medium (ISP-9) with various carbon sources, including glucose. Possibly this medium cannot be used as the main medium for investigation of the spectrum of carbohydrate consumption in Actinomadura. PMID:6461291

Terekhova, L P; Galatenko, O A; Preobrazhenskaia, T P

1982-02-01

199

Description of Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus sp. nov., isolated from Italian apple fruit.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria (DST GL01T and DST GL02T) were isolated from apple fruit juice in the region of the Italian Alps. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strains DST GL01T and DST GL02T were shown to belong to the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria, and, in particular, to the genus Gluconacetobacter, in the Gluconacetobacter xylinus branch (98.5-100 %). Chemotaxonomic data (major ubiquinone, Q10; predominant fatty acid, C(18 : 1omega7c), accounting for approximately 50 % of the fatty acid content) support the affiliation of both strains to the genus Gluconacetobacter. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, together with physiological and biochemical data, allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between strains DST GL01T and DST GL02T and from the 11 validly published Gluconacetobacter species. They therefore represent two new species, for which the names Gluconacetobacter swingsii sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus sp. nov. are proposed, with the type strains DST GL01T (=LMG 22125T=DSM 16373T) and DST GL02T (=LMG 22126T=DSM 16663T), respectively. PMID:16280498

Dellaglio, Franco; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Felis, Giovanna E; Engelbeen, Katrien; Janssens, Danielle; Marzotto, Marta

2005-11-01

200

Peptoniphilus duerdenii sp. nov. and Peptoniphilus koenoeneniae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Two previously uncharacterized strains of Gram-reaction-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria, designated strains WAL 18896(T) and WAL 18898(T), were recovered from human wound specimens and characterized using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and biochemical characteristics demonstrated that these organisms are genotypically and phenotypically distinct and represent previously unidentified sublines within the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes. Pairwise sequence analysis demonstrated that the novel organisms had 91.9% sequence similarity to each other and were most closely related to members of the genus Peptoniphilus. The major long-chain fatty acids of both strains were C(16:0,) C(18:0), C(18:1)?9c and C(18:2)?6,9c. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, strains WAL 18896(T) (?=?CCUG 56065(T) ?=?ATCC BAA-1640(T)) and WAL 18898(T) (?=?CCUG 56067(T) ?=?ATCC BAA-1638(T) ?=?DSM 22616(T)) represent two novel species, for which the names Peptoniphilus duerdenii sp. nov. and Peptoniphilus koenoeneniae sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. PMID:22140159

Ulger-Toprak, Nurver; Lawson, Paul A; Summanen, Paula; O'Neal, Lindsey; Finegold, Sydney M

2012-10-01

201

Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp. infections in a free-ranging baboon colony.  

PubMed

We conducted cross-sectional surveys of parasites infecting a large free-living colony of baboons at the Southwest National Primate Research Center in San Antonio in October 2003 and April 2004, immediately before, and 6 mo after, treatment with ivermectin. Trichuris sp. was the predominant species present, infecting 79 and 69% of individual animals in the 2 surveys, with fecal egg counts (FEC) of up to 60,200 eggs per g (epg) (mean = 1,235 in October 2003 and 1,256 in April 2004). Prevalence remained fairly stable across age groups, and intensity was highest in animals <1 or >15 yr old, in contrast to patterns observed in humans, where school-age children show the heaviest infections. Strongyloides sp. was also identified, but the species identity remains uncertain. Small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences differed from published sequences of Strongyloides fuelleborni at multiple sites, but resided in a monophyletic group with other Strongyloides species with 92% bootstrap support. This may reflect a recent acquisition from a local host, or that the published sequence of S. fuelleborni is incorrect. Widespread infections with 2 nematode genera in a free-ranging baboon colony that are an important source of morbidity in human populations provide a useful model system for work on the epidemiology, control, pathology, and genetics of these parasites in a host species that is physiologically, immunologically, and genetically similar to humans. PMID:21830937

Anderson, J; Upadhayay, R; Sudimack, D; Nair, S; Leland, M; Williams, J T; Anderson, T J C

2012-02-01

202

Gemella parahaemolysans sp. nov. and Gemella taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Four Gram-staining-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates, designated NTUH_1465(T), NTUH_2196, NTUH_4957 and NTUH_5572(T), were isolated from human specimens. The four isolates displayed more than 99.6?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Gemella haemolysans ATCC 10379(T), and 96.7 to 98.6?% similarity with Gemella sanguinis ATCC 700632(T), Gemella morbillorum ATCC 27824(T) or Gemella cuniculi CCUG 42726(T). However, phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of three housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB and recA, suggested that the four isolates were distinct from G. haemolysans ATCC 10379(T) and other species. Isolates NTUH_2196, NTUH_4957 and NTUH_5572(T) clustered together and formed a stable monophyletic clade. DNA-DNA hybridization values among strains NTUH_1465(T) and NTUH_5572(T) and their phylogenetically related neighbours were all lower than 49?%. The four isolates could be distinguished from G. haemolysans and other species by phenotypic characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic results, two novel species Gemella parahaemolysans sp. nov. (type strain NTUH_1465(T)?=?BCRC 80365(T)?=?JCM 18067(T)) and Gemella taiwanensis sp. nov. (type strain NTUH_5572(T)?=?BCRC 80366(T)?=?JCM 18066(T)) are proposed. PMID:24664577

Hung, Wei-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lee, Tai-Fen; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Shieh, Wung Yang; Teng, Lee-Jene

2014-06-01

203

Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.  

PubMed

Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Spröer, Cathrin

2010-02-01

204

Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.  

PubMed

The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

2013-10-01

205

Enterococcus ureasiticus sp. nov. and Enterococcus quebecensis sp. nov., isolated from water.  

PubMed

Three enterococcal isolates, CCRI-16620, CCRI-16986(T) and CCRI-16985(T), originating from water were characterized using morphological, biochemical and molecular taxonomic methods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis classified all three strains in the Enterococcus faecalis species group. The phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three isolates form two separate branches. The first branch is represented by strains CCRI-16620 and CCRI-16986(T) and the second branch by strain CCRI-16985(T). Further sequence analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoA (encoding RNA polymerase ? subunit), pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase), tufA (elongation factor Tu) and atpD (ATP synthase ?-subunit) as well as the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed the distinct status of these strains. Moreover, biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of the strains from the other species of the E. faecalis species group. On the basis of the results obtained, the names Enterococcus ureasiticus sp. nov. (type strain CCRI-16986(T) = CCUG 59304(T) = DSM 23328(T) = LMG 26304(T)) and Enterococcus quebecensis sp. nov. (type strain CCRI-16985(T) = CCUG 59306(T) = DSM 23327(T) = LMG 26306(T)) are proposed for the two hitherto undescribed species. PMID:21788227

Sistek, Viridiana; Maheux, Andrée F; Boissinot, Maurice; Bernard, Kathryn A; Cantin, Philippe; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Bergeron, Michel G

2012-06-01

206

Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.  

PubMed

During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3?% identity in this gene and 96?%, 92?% and 86?% identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18?:?1?7c in summed feature 8 (40.82?%), C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?6c in summed feature 3 (23.72?%) and C16?:?0 (15.20?%). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or ?-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52?% relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) (?=?LMG 26839(T)?=?CECT 8089(T)). PMID:23002045

Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúńiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

2013-05-01

207

Paenibacillus doosanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated CAU 1055(T), was isolated from soil and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Paenibacillus and was most closely related to Paenibacillus contaminans CKOBP-6(T) (similarity, 95.2?%) and Paenibacillus terrigena A35(T) (similarity, 95.2?%). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other species of the genus Paenibacillus, including the type species of the genus, Paenibacillus polymyxa IAM 13419(T) (similarity, 91.7?%), were all <94.6?%. Strain CAU 1055(T) contained MK-7 as the only isoprenoid quinone and anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0 as the major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain CAU 1055(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, lysyl-phospatidylglycerol and three unidentified aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 48.3 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain CAU 1055(T) from closely related recognized species. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain CAU 1055(T) should be classified in the genus Paenibacillus, as a member of a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus doosanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1055(T) (?=?KCTC 33036(T)?=?CCUG 63270(T)). PMID:24425736

Kim, Jong-Hwa; Kang, Hyeonji; Kim, Wonyong

2014-04-01

208

Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic bacterium with gliding motility, designated strain SW150(T), was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (39° 19' S 139° 48' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7-8 and at 28-30 °C. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH, iso-C(15?:?1) G, C(16?:?1)?6c and/or C(16?:?1)?7c and 10-methyl C(16?:?0) and/or iso-C(17?:?1)?9c. The polar lipids of strain SW150(T) comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of strain SW150(T) was 33.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was related most closely to Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) with 97.8 and 96.8% sequence similarities, respectively. The estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values were 21.00±2.33% between strain SW150(T) and A. macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and 20.60±2.32% between strain SW150(T) and Aquimarina megaterium XH134(T). On the basis of polyphasic analyses, strain SW150(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW150(T) (?=?JCM 18214(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12180(T)). PMID:24626966

Zhang, Zenghu; Yu, Tong; Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

2014-06-01

209

Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.  

PubMed

A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) (?=?DSM 24998(T) ?=?LMG 26584(T)). PMID:22523164

Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-02-01

210

Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.  

PubMed

A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)?7c and/or ?9t and/or ?12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) (?=?KCTC 12768(T)?=?JCM 17804(T)). PMID:21948092

Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

2012-08-01

211

Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, motile and oval- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-43T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 30 degrees C in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DS-43T had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids, which are consistent with the corresponding data for the type strain (KCTC 12459T) of Variovorax paradoxus. The DNA G+C content was 66.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-43T was most closely related to Variovorax paradoxus, the only recognized species of the genus. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DS-43T and V. paradoxus IAM 12373T was 97.3 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain DS-43T is distinguishable from V. paradoxus. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, it is proposed that strain DS-43T (=KCTC 12544T = CIP 108838T) be classified in the genus Variovorax as a member of a novel species, Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov. PMID:16585700

Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Tae-Kwang

2006-04-01

212

Marinomonas hwangdonensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated HDW-15(T), was isolated from seawater of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain HDW-15(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25 °C and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HDW-15(T) fell within the clade comprising Marinomonas species, joining the type strain of Marinomonas arctica, with which it exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.7 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain HDW-15(T) and the type strains of other Marinomonas species were in the range 93.7-97.2 %. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain HDW-15(T) and the type strains of M. arctica, Marinomonas polaris and Marinomonas pontica were 5.0-9.9 %. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 48.7 mol%. Strain HDW-15(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)?7c, summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)?7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and C(16 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids found in strain HDW-15(T) were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, showed that strain HDW-15(T) can be differentiated from other Marinomonas species. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDW-15(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas hwangdonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDW-15(T) (= KCTC 23661(T) = CCUG 61321(T)). PMID:22021582

Jung, Yong-Taek; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2012-09-01

213

Massilia flava sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Y9(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Ningxia Province in China and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Strain Y9(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone. Major fatty acid components were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Y9(T) was 68.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Massilia. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain Y9(T) and the type strains of recognized Massilia species ranged from 95.2 to 98.2%, the highest values being with Massilia albidiflava 45(T) (98.2%) and Massilia lutea 101(T) (98.0%). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain Y9(T) and M. albidiflava KCTC 12343(T) and M. lutea KCTC 12345(T) were 37 and 26%, respectively. Strain Y9(T) was clearly differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic relatives in the genus Massilia based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties. Therefore, strain Y9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y9(T) (=CGMCC 1.10685(T) =KCTC 23585(T)). PMID:21515701

Wang, Jiewei; Zhang, Jianli; Pang, Huancheng; Zhang, Yabo; Li, Yuyi; Fan, Jinping

2012-03-01

214

Massilia lurida sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A bacterial isolate, designated strain D5(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation using a polyphasic approach. Strain D5(T) was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile. Strain D5(T) fell within the evolutionary radius of the genus Massilia in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and was most closely related to Massilia plicata 76(T) with 97.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The predominant quinone of strain D5(T) was Q-8. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and C16:0. These chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain D5(T) to the genus Massilia. The genomic DNA G+C content was 65.9 mol%. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain D5(T) and the phylogenetically most closely related species of the genus Massilia, Massilia plicata KCTC 12344(T) and Massilia dura KCTC 12342(T), were 26 and 21%, respectively. Strain D5(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Massilia by several phenotypic characteristics. It is clear from the data presented that strain D5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia lurida sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D5(T) (=CGMCC 1.10822(T)=KCTC 23880(T)). PMID:23087170

Luo, Xiaonan; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Jiewei; Pang, Huancheng; Fan, Jinping; Zhang, Jianli

2013-06-01

215

Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1?%). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5?%. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) (?=?MTCC 9831(T)?=?MCC 2100(T)?=?KCTC 13724(T)?=?CCM 7754(T)). PMID:23990650

Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-12-01

216

Thalassomonas eurytherma sp. nov., a marine proteobacterium.  

PubMed

Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17, were isolated from seawater of the East China Sea. Cells of Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 were approximately 1.5-2.0 µm×0.5-0.7 µm and motile by a single polar flagellum. Strains grew optimally at pH 7.5-8.0, 28 °C, and in the presence of 2.5-3.0?% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the predominant respiratory quinone of strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 was ubiquinone-8 (>97?%), and the major fatty acids were C14?:?0, C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH, C16?:?0 and C17?:?1?8c. Their DNA G+C contents were 42.7 mol% and 42.8 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Thalassomonas and showed the highest sequence similarity to Thalassomonas loyana CBMAI 722(T) (95.9?%). Strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 could be differentiated from T. loyana CBMAI 722(T) according to their phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, DNA G+C contents and fatty acid composition. On the basis of these features, we propose strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 to be representatives of a novel species of the genus Thalassomonas with the name Thalassomonas eurytherma sp. nov. suggested. Strain Za6a-12(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12115(T)?=?JCM 18482(T)) is the type strain of this novel species. PMID:24664580

Sun, Cong; Huo, Ying-Yi; Liu, Jin-Jin; Pan, Jie; Qi, Yun-Zhen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Min

2014-06-01

217

Inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma cell and tumor growth by targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.  

PubMed

Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In tissue arrays of RMS tumor cores from 71 patients, 80% of RMS patients expressed high levels of Sp1 protein, whereas low expression of Sp1 was detected in normal muscle tissue. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibited growth and migration of RD and RH30 RMS cell lines and also inhibited tumor growth in vivo using a mouse xenograft (RH30 cells) model. The effects of TA were accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes in RMS cells and tumors, and the role of Sp protein downregulation in mediating inhibition of RD and RH30 cell growth and migration was confirmed by individual and combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins by RNA interference. TA treatment and Sp knockdown in RD and RH30 cells also showed that four genes that are emerging as individual drug targets for treating RMS, namely c-MET, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), PDGFR? and CXCR4, are also Sp-regulated genes. These results suggest that NSAIDs such as TA may have potential clinical efficacy in drug combinations for treating RMS patients. PMID:22815231

Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Pathi, Satya; Kim, Kyounghyun; Chen, Candy; Crose, Lisa; Linardic, Corinne; Safe, Stephen

2013-02-15

218

INHIBITION OF RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELL AND TUMOR GROWTH BY TARGETING SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS  

PubMed Central

Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In tissue arrays of RMS tumor cores from 71 patients, 80% of RMS patients expressed high levels of Sp1 protein, whereas low expression of Sp1 was detected in normal muscle tissue. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibited growth and migration of RD and RH30 RMS cell lines and also inhibited tumor growth in vivo using a mouse xenograft (RH30 cells) model. The effects of TA were accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes in RMS cells and tumors, and the role of Sp protein downregulation in mediating inhibition of RD and RH30 cell growth and migration was confirmed by individual and combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins by RNA interference. TA treatment and Sp knockdown in RD and RH30 cells also showed that four genes that are emerging as individual drug targets for treating RMS, namely c-MET, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), PDGFR? and CXCR4, are also Sp-regulated genes. These results suggest that NSAIDs such as TA may have potential clinical efficacy in drug combinations for treating RMS patients.

Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Pathi, Satya; Kim, Kyounghyun; Chen, Candy; Crose, Lisa; Linardic, Corinne; Safe, Stephen

2012-01-01

219

Decol orization and Degradation of C. I. Reactive Red 195 by Enterobacter sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four selected facultative bacteria of Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., and Erwinia sp. were investigated for their ability to degrade C. I. Reactive Red 195 in solid and liquid dye medium. Their decolorizations in liquid medium under anaerobic conditions were superior to the aerobic conditions. The best decolorizer, removing dye up to 90Yo, within 2 days of incubation, was

Kalyanee Jirasripongpun; Boonsiri Chotikasatian

220

Interaction between an Ammonium-Oxidizer, 'Nitrosomonas' sp., and Two Heterotrophic Bacteria, 'Nocardia atlantica' and 'Pseudomonas' sp.: A Note.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Closed culture experiments showed that the ability of an estuarine chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizer, Nitrosomonas sp., to convert ammonium to nitrite was substantially increased by as much as 150% and 50% when grown in the presence of two heterotrophs ...

R. D. Jones M. A. Hood

1980-01-01

221

Strain improvement of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. by induced mutation for biotransformation of alpha-pinene to verbenol.  

PubMed

Variants of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. obtained after treatment with colchicine, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation indicated varying levels of significant increases in their efficiency to transform alpha-pinene to verbenol. In case of Aspergillus sp. the UV-induced variant was the best performer with a 15-fold increase in biotransformation efficiency compared to the wild type. In case of colchicine and EMS-induced variants the biotransformation increases were 2- and 8-fold, respectively. The UV-induced variant of Penicillium sp. was capable of eight fold increase in efficiency while the colchicine- and EMS-induced variants were 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. The variants were characterised with respect to changes in colony morphology, spore dimension, DNA content, and products formed, viz. verbenol and verbenone. PMID:10099602

Agrawal, R; Deepika, N U; Joseph, R

1999-04-20

222

Transcriptional Repression of Telomerase RNA Gene Expression by c-Jun-NH2Kinase and Sp1\\/Sp3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomerase is essential for immortalization of most human cancer cells. Expression of the core telomerase RNA (hTR) and reverse transcriptase (hTERT) subunits is mainly regulated by transcription. However, hTR transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood. We previously showed that the core hTR promoter is activated by Sp1 and is repressed by Sp3. Here, we show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

Alan E. Bilsland; Katrina Stevenson; Stuart Atkinson; Walter Kolch; W. Nicol Keith

2006-01-01

223

Role of cyclooxygenase-2 induction by transcription factor Sp1 and Sp3 in neuronal oxidative and DNA damage response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been im- plicated in neuronal survival and death. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in COX-2 func- tion are unclear. In the present study we found that COX-2 is induced in response to glutathione depletion- induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neurons. Two proximal specific Sp1 and Sp3 binding sites are responsi- ble for the COX-2 promoter

Junghee Lee; Bela Kosaras; Hossein Aleyasin; Jeong A. Han; David S. Park; Rajiv R. Ratan; Neil W. Kowall; Robert J. Ferrante; Sam W. Lee; Hoon Ryu

2006-01-01

224

Interaction of lipid vesicles with monomolecular layers containing lung surfactant proteins SP-B or SP-C.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant contains two families of hydrophobic proteins, SP-B and SP-C. Both proteins are thought to promote the formation of the phospholipid monolayer at the air-fluid interface of the lung. The Wilhelmy plate method was used to study the involvement of SP-B and SP-C in the formation of phospholipid monolayers. The proteins were either present in the phospholipid vesicles which were injected into the subphase or included in a preformed phospholipid monolayer. In agreement with earlier investigators, we found that SP-B and SP-C, present in phospholipid vesicles, were able to induce the formation of a monolayer, as became apparent by an increase in surface pressure. However, when the proteins were present in a preformed phospholipid monolayer (20 mN/m) at similar lipid to protein ratios, the rate of surface pressure increase after injection of pure phospholipid vesicles into the subphase at similar vesicle concentrations was 10 times higher. The process of phospholipid insertion from phospholipid vesicles into the protein-containing monolayers was dependent on (1) the presence of (divalent) cations, (2) the phospholipid concentration in the subphase, (3) the size of the phospholipid vesicles, (4) the protein concentration in the preformed monolayer, and (5) the initial surface pressure at which the monolayers were formed. Both in vesicles and in preformed monolayers, SP-C was less active than SP-B in promoting the formation of a phospholipid monolayer. The use of preformed monolayers containing controlled protein concentrations may allow more detailed studies on the mechanism by which the proteins enhance phospholipid monolayer formation from vesicles. PMID:1868098

Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M A; Haagsman, H P; van Golde, L M; Demel, R A

1991-08-20

225

The Production of the Antifungal Antibiotic Substance by Streptomyces sp. No. 121 (Produkcja Przeciwdrozdzowej Substancji Antybiotycznej przez Streptomyces sp. Nr. 121).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isolated Streptomyces sp. No. 121 showed strong antibiotical properties against many different species of yeasts and absence of such action against bacteria and moulds. An attempt to classify Streptomyces sp. No. 121 revealed a certain similarity to S...

I. Szajer

1974-01-01

226

Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1?11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. ?-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T). PMID:24478212

Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2014-05-01

227

Chryseobacterium gwangjuense sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, THG-A18(T), was isolated from soil of Gwangju province in South Korea. Strain THG-A18(T) grew optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Strain THG-A18(T) displayed ?-glucosidase activity, which enabled it to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain THG-A18(T) was shown to belong to the genus Chryseobacterium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium ginsenosidimutans THG 15(T) (97.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similariity), C. defluvii B2(T) (97.7?%), C. daeguense K105(T) (97.6?%), C. taiwanense BCRC 17412(T) (97.5?%), C. indoltheticum LMG 4025(T) (97.4?%), C. gregarium P 461/12(T) (97.4?%) and C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) (97.3?%), but DNA-DNA relatedness values between these strains and strain THG-A18(T) were below 41.9?%. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.4 mol%. The major respiratory quinone (MK-6) and fatty acids [iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c) and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17?:?1?9c and/or 10-methyl C16?:?0)] supported the affiliation of strain THG-A18(T) with the genus Chryseobacterium. The polar lipids of strain THG-A18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids and seven unidentified lipids. A number of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain THG-A18(T) from recognized species of the genus Chryseobacterium. The name Chryseobacterium gwangjuense sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-A18(T) (?=?KACC 16227(T)?=?LMG 26579(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23907230

Park, Yong Jin; Son, Heung-Min; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ju Han; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Choi, Ki Ju; Shin, Hun-Sub; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-12-01

228

Pneumocystis sp. in bats evaluated by qPCR.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques have revealed a high prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization in wild mammals. Accurate quantification of Pneumocystis sp. is essential for the correct interpretation of many research experiments investigating this organism. The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Pneumocystis sp. in bats by qPCR, and to distinguish colonization from infection. Probes and primers for real time PCR (qPCR) were designed based on the gene of major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis sp., in order to analyze 195 lung tissue samples from bats captured (2007-2009). All samples were also analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (mtSSU rRNA) to confirm the results. The qPCR assay was standardized using a standard curve made with the DNA extracted from bronchoalveolar lavage positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The average Ct was found to be between 13 and 14 (calibration curve) for the detection of infection with Pneumocystis sp. and above these values for colonization. It was considered as negative samples the ones that had Ct values equal to 50. Out of the total 195 samples, 47 (24.1%) bat lung DNA samples were positive for Pneumocystis sp. by qPCR. The most common bat species found were: Tadarida brasiliensis (23.4%), Histiotus velatus (17.0%), Desmodus rotundus (14.9%) and Molossus molossus (8.5%). The average cycle threshold of the positive samples (bats) was 25.8 and standard deviation was 1.7. The DNA samples with Ct values greater than 14 suggest that these animals might be colonized by Pneumocystis sp. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the usefulness of the qPCR procedure for identification of Pneumocystis sp. and for distinction between its colonizing or infectious status in bats. PMID:23380373

Cavallini Sanches, E M; Ferreiro, L; Andrade, C P; Pacheco, S M; Almeida, L L; Spanamberg, A; Wissmann, G

2013-03-01

229

Sumoylation differentially regulates Sp1 to control cell differentiation.  

PubMed

The mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are actively involved in regulating differentiation of different cell types. However, the functional differences between SUMO isoforms and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Using the ocular lens as a model system, we demonstrate that different SUMOs display distinct functions in regulating differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells. During lens differentiation, SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 displayed different expression, localization, and targets, suggesting differential functions. Indeed, overexpression of SUMO2/3, but not SUMO1, inhibited basic (b) FGF-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3, also inhibited bFGF action. Mechanistically, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a major transcription factor that controls expression of lens-specific genes such as ?-crystallins, was positively regulated by SUMO1 but negatively regulated by SUMO2. SUMO2 was found to inhibit Sp1 functions through several mechanisms: sumoylating it at K683 to attenuate DNA binding, and at K16 to increase its turnover. SUMO2 also interfered with the interaction between Sp1 and the coactivator, p300, and recruited a repressor, Sp3 to ?-crystallin gene promoters, to negatively regulate their expression. Thus, stable SUMO1, but diminishing SUMO2/3, during lens development is necessary for normal lens differentiation. In support of this conclusion, SUMO1 and Sp1 formed complexes during early and later stages of lens development. In contrast, an interaction between SUMO2/3 and Sp1 was detected only during the initial lens vesicle stage. Together, our results establish distinct roles of different SUMO isoforms and demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Sp1 acts as a major transcription factor target for SUMO control of cell differentiation. PMID:24706897

Gong, Lili; Ji, Wei-Ke; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Wen-Feng; Tang, Xiang-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Li, Ling; Liu, Mugen; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Wu, Erxi; Woodward, Zachary; Liu, Yi-Zhi; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Li, David Wan-Cheng

2014-04-15

230

On the Fourth Diadema Species (Diadema-sp) from Japan  

PubMed Central

Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema -sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the “D. savignyi-like” samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

2014-01-01

231

Effect of mixed inoculations with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi on the phenols content of tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forms ofFusarium oxysporum specific on hosts other than tomato induce in this plant greater initial increases of the phenols content than the pathogenic f. sp.lycopersici. Mixed inoculations of f. sp.lycopersici and f. sp.dianthi are on the contrary no more effective in inducing the phenol accumulation 24 h after the infection than f. sp.lycopersici alone. This observation suggests that the pathogen

A. Matta; Irene Gentile; Isa Giai

1970-01-01

232

Methylation of halogenated phenols and thiophenols by cell extracts of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. [Rhodococcus sp. ; Pseudomonas sp. ; Acinetobacter sp  

SciTech Connect

O-methylation of 2,6-dibromophenol was studied in cell extracts prepared from Rhodococcus sp. strain 1395. O-methylation activity was also demonstrated in extracts from two other Rhodococcus sp. strains, an Acinetobacter sp. strain, and a Pseudomonas sp. strain. A diverse range of chloro- and bromophenols, chlorothiophenols, chloro- and bromoguaiacols, and chloro- and bromocatechols were assayed as the substrates by using extracts prepared from strain 1395; all of the compounds were methylated to the corresponding anisoles, veratroles, or guaiacols. The specific activity of the enzyme towards the thiophenols was significantly higher than it was towards all the other substrates-high activity was found with pentafluorothiophenol, although the activity with pentafluorophenol was undetectable with the incubation times used. For the chlorophenols, the position of the substituents was of cardinal importance. The enzyme had higher activity towards the halogenated catechols than towards the corresponding guaiacols, and selective O-methylation of the 3,4,5-trihalogenocatechols yielded predominantly the 3,4,5-trihalogenoguaiacols. Neither 2,4-dinitrophenol, hexachlorophene, nor 5-chloro- or 5-bromovanillin was O-methylated. The results showed conclusively that the methylation reactions were enzymatic and confirmed the conclusion from extensive studies using whole cells that methylation of halogenated phenols may be a significant alternative to biodegradation.

Neilson, A.H.; Lindgren, C.; Hynning, P.A.; Remberger, M.

1988-02-01

233

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.  

PubMed

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-07-01

234

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

235

Bacteroides chinchillae sp. nov. and Bacteroides rodentium sp. nov., isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces.  

PubMed

Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces and three strains, ST170(T), ST180 and ST28(T), were investigated taxonomically. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the three strains belonged to the genus Bacteroides. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains ST170(T) and ST180 formed a single cluster and a distinct line of descent. Strain ST170(T) exhibited 99.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain ST180 and 95.1, 94.6 and 94.4?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides massiliensis JCM 13223(T), Bacteroides dorei JCM 13471(T) and Bacteroides vulgatus JCM 5826(T), respectively. Strain ST28(T) also formed a distinct line of descent and exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides uniformis JCM 5828(T) (98.1?%). Low DNA-DNA relatedness (1?%) between strain ST28(T) and B. uniformis JCM 5828(T) clearly indicated that they belonged to different species. Analysis of hsp60 sequences also supported these relationships. The DNA G+C contents of strains ST170(T) and ST28(T) were 45.2 and 41.0 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, two novel species, Bacteroides chinchillae sp. nov. (type strain ST170(T) ?=?JCM 16497(T) ?=?CCUG 59335(T)) and Bacteroides rodentium sp. nov. (type strain ST28(T) ?=?JCM 16496(T) ?=?CCUG 59334(T)), are proposed. PMID:20495039

Kitahara, Maki; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Kawasumi, Koh; Amao, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Benno, Yoshimi; Ohkuma, Moriya

2011-04-01

236

Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., from the bumblebee digestive tract.  

PubMed

Our previous study, based primarily on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, focused on the isolation of four bifidobacterial groups from the digestive tract of three bumblebee species. In that study, we proposed that these isolated groups potentially represented novel species of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. One of the four, Bifidobacterium bombi, has been described recently. Strains representing two of the other groups have been classified as members of the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of positive results for fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity and analysis of partial 16S rRNA and heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequences. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities revealed that the isolates of the first group were affiliated to Bifidobacterium asteroides YIT 11866(T), B. indicum JCM 1302(T) and B. coryneforme ATCC 25911(T) (96.2, 96.0 and 95.9 % sequence similarity, respectively), together with other bifidobacteria showing lower sequence similarity. Additional representatives of the second group were found to be affiliated to Bifidobacterium minimum YIT 4097(T) and B. coryneforme ATCC 25911(T) (96.0 and 96.3 % sequence similarity) and also to other bifidobacteria with lower sequence similarity. These results indicate that the isolates of the two groups belong to novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium. This observation was further substantiated by the results of partial sequencing of hsp60. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses and analysis of 16S rRNA and partial hsp60 gene sequences, we propose two novel species, Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. (type strain LISLUCIII-P2(T) ?=?DSM 22766(T) ?=?CCM 7728(T)) and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov. (type strain JEMLUCVIII-4(T) ?=?DSM 22767(T) ?=?CCM 7729(T)). PMID:20656822

Killer, J; Kope?ný, J; Mrázek, J; Koppová, I; Havlík, J; Benada, O; Kott, T

2011-06-01

237

Idiomarina fontislapidosi sp. nov. and Idiomarina ramblicola sp. nov., isolated from inland hypersaline habitats in Spain.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, F23T and R22T, have been isolated from hypersaline habitats in Málaga (S. Spain) and Murcia (E. Spain). The novel strains, similar to previously described Idiomarina species, are slightly curved rods, Gram-negative, chemo-organotrophic, strictly aerobic and motile by a single polar flagellum. Both strains produce catalase and oxidase. They hydrolyse aesculin, gelatin, casein, Tween 20, Tween 80 and DNA but not starch or tyrosine. The strains differ from the hitherto described Idiomarina species in their capacity to produce extracellular polysaccharides and their different patterns of carbon sources and antimicrobial susceptibility. They are moderate halophiles capable of growing in NaCl concentrations of 0.5 to 25 % w/v, the optimum being 3-5 % w/v. Cellular fatty acids are predominantly iso-branched. The main fatty acids in strain FP23T are 15 : 0 iso (26.75 %), 16 : 1omega7c (11.33 %) and 16 : 0 (11.73 %) whilst 15 : 0 iso (24.69 %), 17 : 0 iso (12.92 %) and 17 : 1omega9c (11.03 %) are predominant in strain R22T. The DNA G + C composition is 46.0 mol% in strain FP23T and 48.7 mol% in strain R22T. Phylogenetic analyses indicate conclusively that the two strains belong to the genus Idiomarina. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that they represent novel species. In the light of the polyphasic evidence accumulated in this study, it is proposed that they be classified as novel species of the genus Idiomarina, with the names Idiomarina fontislapidosi sp. nov. (type strain F23T = CECT 5859T = LMG 22169T) and Idiomarina ramblicola sp. nov. (type strain R22T = CECT 5858T = LMG 22170T). PMID:15388745

Martínez-Cánovas, M José; Béjar, Victoria; Martínez-Checa, Fernando; Páez, Rafael; Quesada, Emilia

2004-09-01

238

Providencia sneebia sp. nov. and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Multiple isolates of the genus Providencia were obtained from the haemolymph of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Sixteen isolates were distinguished from the six previously described species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. These isolates belonged to two distinct groups, which we propose each comprise previously undescribed species. Two isolates, designated A(T) and B(T), were characterized by DNA sequences of the fusA, lepA, leuS, gyrB and ileS housekeeping genes, whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridizations with their nearest relatives and utilization of substrates for metabolism. The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain A(T) are strain B(T) (86.9 % identity for the housekeeping genes) and Providencia stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.0 % identity). The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain B(T) are strain A(T) (86.9 % identity) and P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.6 % identity). The type strains of described species in this genus shared between 84.1 and 90.1 % identity for these sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization between the strain pairs A(T)-B(T), A(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) and B(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) all resulted in less than 25 % relatedness. In addition, patterns of utilization of amygdalin, arbutin, aesculin, salicin, d-sorbitol, trehalose, inositol, d-adonitol and d-galactose distinguish strains A(T) and B(T) from other members of this genus. Strains A(T) and B(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Providencia sneebia sp. nov. (type strain A(T) =DSM 19967(T) =ATCC BAA-1589(T)) and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov. (type strain B(T) =DSM 19968(T) =ATCC BAA-1590(T)) are proposed. PMID:19406801

Juneja, Punita; Lazzaro, Brian P

2009-05-01

239

Sejongia antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Sejongia jeonii sp. nov., isolated from the Antarctic.  

PubMed

Two yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative and aerobic bacterial strains, designated AT1013T and AT1047T, were isolated from terrestrial samples of the Antarctic. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the two Antarctic strains shared 97.7 % sequence similarity and showed moderate relationships to the genera Chryseobacterium (92.5-95.3 %), Riemerella (92.3-93.5 %), Bergeyella (92.5-92.6 %) and Kaistella (92.5-93.3 %). In phylogenetic analyses, the two isolates formed a robust monophyletic clade and represented a distinct phyletic line that equated to novel generic status. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and psychrotolerant with an optimum growth temperature of about 20 degrees C. Flexirubins were absent. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 15 : 0 iso, 15 : 0 anteiso and 17 : 1 iso omega9c. DNA G+C contents were 34-36 mol%. The two isolates shared low genomic relatedness (27 %) and were differentiated from each other by several phenotypic characteristics. The polyphasic data presented in this study indicated that these isolates should be recognized as two separate novel species in a novel genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae. The name Sejongia gen. nov. is therefore proposed for the Antarctic isolates, with the type species Sejongia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain AT1013T=IMSNU 14040T=KCTC 12225T=JCM 12381T) and Sejongia jeonii sp. nov. (type strain AT1047T=IMSNU 14049T=KCTC 12226T=JCM 12382T). PMID:15653910

Yi, Hana; Yoon, Ho Il; Chun, Jongsik

2005-01-01

240

Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.  

PubMed

Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93?% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32?% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93?%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0 and anteiso-C17?:?0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2013003(T)?=?NRRL B-59998(T)?=?KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2013004(T)?=?NRRL B-24927(T)?=?KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

2014-07-01

241

Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov. and Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov., two novel species isolated from leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Two Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rods, strains C5(T) and T8(T), were isolated from the phyllospheres of Cerastium holosteoides and Trifolium repens, respectively, and were studied in detail for their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated both isolates clearly to the genus Rhodococcus. Isolate C5(T) was most closely related to Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus yunnanensis, showing 99.2?% gene sequence similarity to both species. Strain T8(T) revealed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides (98.8?%) and Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii (98.6?%). The quinone system of both strains was composed of dihydrogenated menaquinones with eight (major amount) as well as nine, seven and six isoprenoid units (MK-8H2, MK-9H2 MK-7H2 MK-6H2).The polar lipid profiles of strains C5(T) and T8(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unknown phospholipid. Additionally, strain C5(T) contained one unknown glycolipid, and strain T8(T) three unknown aminolipids. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and 10-methyl C18?:?0, which supported the grouping of the two isolates in the genus Rhodococcus. Physiological/biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of both strains. For this reason, we propose strain C5(T) (?=?LMG 26203(T) ?=?CCM 7906(T)) as the type strain of a novel species with the name Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov., and strain T8(T) (?=?LMG 26204(T) ?=?CCM 7905(T)) as the type strain of a second novel species with the name Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov. PMID:22685110

Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Lohse, K; Lodders, N; Martin, K

2013-03-01

242

Dietzia schimae sp. nov. and Dietzia cercidiphylli sp. nov., from surface-sterilized plant tissues.  

PubMed

Two actinobacterial strains, YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T), were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues collected from Yunnan Province, south-west China, and their taxonomic positions were determined by using a polyphasic approach. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) were 71.9 and 72.6 mol%, respectively. The two strains had chemotaxonomic markers that were consistent with their classification in the genus Dietzia. Phylogenetic analysis based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 65001(T) was related most closely to Dietzia maris DSM 43672(T) and that strain YIM 65002(T) was related most closely to Dietzia natronolimnaea CBS 107.95(T). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Dietzia were 95.8-99.8 %. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed the separate genomic status of strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T). Strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) showed significant phenotypic differences between each other and their closest recognized neighbours. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the two novel isolates were identified as representing two novel species of the genus Dietzia, for which the names Dietzia schimae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 65001(T)=CCTCC AA 207015(T)=DSM 45139(T)) and Dietzia cercidiphylli sp. nov. (type strain YIM 65002(T)=CCTCC AA 207016(T)=DSM 45140(T)) are proposed. PMID:18984691

Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Qin, Sheng; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2008-11-01

243

Pontibacter ruber sp. nov. and Pontibacter deserti sp. nov., isolated from the desert.  

PubMed

Two strains of bacteria, JC213(T) and JC215(T), were isolated from desert soil. Colonies were red to pink and cells Gram-stain-negative. Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive and hydrolysed casein. In both strains, phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid, iso-C15?:?0 was the major fatty acid and the bacteriohopane derivative, BHD1, was the major hopanoid. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains JC213(T) and JC215(T) were 52.7 and 46.3 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that both strains belong to the genus Pontibacter within the family Cytophagaceae and the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain JC213(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to Pontibacter populi HLY7-15(T) (96.6?%) and with other species of the genus Pontibacter sequence similarity was less than 96?%. Strain JC215(T) exhibited highest sequence similarity with Pontibacter lucknowensis DM9(T) (95.1?%) and shared 95?% or less sequence similarity with other species of the genus Pontibacter. The sequence similarity between strains JC213(T) and JC215(T) was 95.8?%. Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support JC213(T) and JC215(T) being representatives of two novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the names Pontibacter ruber sp. nov. and Pontibacter deserti sp. nov. are proposed and the type strains are JC213(T) (?=?KCTC 32442(T)?=?LMG 27669(T)) and JC215(T) (?=?KCTC 32443(T)?=?LMG 27670(T)), respectively. PMID:24425823

Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2014-03-01

244

Massilia niabensis sp. nov. and Massilia niastensis sp. nov., isolated from air samples.  

PubMed

Two bacterial isolates, designated strains 5420S-26(T) and 5516S-1(T), were recovered from air samples collected in Suwon, Korea. Cells of both strains were aerobic, Gram-negative, motile rods. Phylogenetically, these strains were positioned within the radius of the genus Massilia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strains shared 97.3 % sequence similarity and had sequence similarities of 94.9-98.1 % with respect to type strains of species belonging to the genus Massilia. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the two strains showed <39 % relatedness with respect to strains of closely related species of the genus Massilia and 27 % relatedness to each other. Both strains contained Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and possessed summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) as the major fatty acid. Strain 5516S-1(T) was found to contain the fatty acid C(20 : 0) (in small amounts), a feature that served to distinguish it from both 5420S-26(T) and recognized members of the genus Massilia. The DNA G+C contents of 5420S-26(T) and 5516S-1(T) were 67.8 and 66.6 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data accumulated in this study revealed that 5420S-26(T) and 5516S-1(T) represent novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the names Massilia niabensis sp. nov. (type strain 5420S-26(T) =KACC 12632(T) =DSM 21312(T)) and Massilia niastensis sp. nov. (type strain 5516S-1(T) =KACC 12599(T) =DSM 21313(T)) are proposed, respectively. PMID:19542125

Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Yong; Hong, Seung-Beom; Jeon, Young-Ah; Koo, Bon-Sung; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

2009-07-01

245

Agromyces iriomotensis sp. nov. and Agromyces subtropicus sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Three novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria, designated IY07-20(T), IY07-56(T) and IY07-113, were isolated from soil samples from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the three isolates were closely related to the members of the genus Agromyces, with similarity range of 95.6-98.7%. The isolates contained l-2,4-diaminobutylic acid, d-alanine, d-glutamic acid and glycine in their peptidoglycans. The predominant menaquinone was MK-12 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C contents were 70.9-72.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates matched those described for members of the genus Agromyces. The results of phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, along with differences in phenotypic characteristics between strains IY07-20(T), IY07-56(T) and IY07-113 and the species of the genus Agromyces with validly published names, indicate that the three isolates merit classification as representatives of two novel species of the genus Agromyces, for which the names Agromyces iriomotensis sp. nov. and Agromyces subtropica sp. nov. are proposed; the type strains are IY07-20(T) (?=?NBRC 106452(T)?=?DSM 26155(T)) and IY07-56(T) (?=?NBRC 106454(T)?=?DSM 26153(T)), respectively. PMID:24243967

Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Ishida, Yuumi; Tamura, Tomohiko; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

2014-03-01

246

Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with the species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from pasteurized milk from Bavaria, Germany. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities indicated that strain WSBC 24001(T) was most closely related to Virgibacillus species (95.3-96.1 %), Oceanobacillus species (95.6-95.7 %), Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T) (95.5 %) and Bacillus niacini IFO 15566(T) (95.2 %). However, strain WSBC 24001(T) showed the highest level of sequence similarity to an unnamed strain, MB-9(T) (97.6 %), which was isolated from coastal surface sediments in California. Hence, this strain was included in our study. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) were 36.4 mol and 40.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both strains was menaquinone MK-7 and the peptidoglycan type was A4beta (L-orn<--D-Asp). The polar lipid profiles of these strains contained a predominance of diphosphatidylglycerol and moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown aminophospholipid. However, strain WSBC 24001(T) could be distinguished from strain MB-9(T) by the presence of an unknown lipid. The fatty acid profiles of the two strains comprised mainly iso- and anteiso-branched acids, but showed some significant quantitative differences in the amounts of certain acids. The DNA-DNA relatedness value (15.5 %) clearly demonstrated that strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) are representatives of two different species. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel genus is proposed, Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with two novel species, the type species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. (type strain WSBC 24001(T) = DSM 15681(T) = CCM 7096(T)) and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov. (type strain MB-9(T) = DSM 16628(T) = CCM 7237(T)). PMID:16738118

Mayr, R; Busse, H-J; Worliczek, H L; Ehling-Schulz, M; Scherer, S

2006-06-01

247

Haloarcula salaria sp. nov. and Haloarcula tradensis sp. nov., isolated from salt in Thai fish sauce.  

PubMed

Two red-pigmented, strictly aerobic, pleomorphic rod-shaped and extremely halophilic archaea, designated strains HST01-2R(T) and HST03(T), were isolated from salt in a fish sauce sample from Thailand. The novel strains grew optimally at 37 °C, pH 7.0, and in the presence of 20-25?% (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C contents of the isolates were 61.6-62.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on a comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains HST01-2R(T) and HST03(T) were placed in the radiation of species of the genus Haloarcula. The chemotaxonomic properties of the two strains, i.e. the presence of MK-8 and MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone components and C(20)C(20) derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and a triglycosyl diether as major polar lipids, supported the assignment of the two strains to the genus Haloarcula. Nevertheless, several phenotypic features and the low DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains and related species of the genus Haloarcula (13.4-46.9?%) enabled the strains to be distinguished from each other and from recognized species. Therefore, strains HST01-2R(T) and HST03(T) represent two novel species in the genus Haloarcula, for which the names Haloarcula salaria sp. nov. and Haloarcula tradensis sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. The type strains are HST01-2R(T) (=BCC 40029(T)=JCM 15759(T)=PCU 313(T)) and HST03(T) (=BCC 40030(T)=JCM 15760(T)=PCU 314(T)). PMID:20207809

Namwong, Sirilak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kudo, Takuji; Itoh, Takashi

2011-02-01

248

Regulation of fibrillin-1 gene expression by Sp1.  

PubMed

Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) cause Marfan Syndrome (MFS), a hereditary disorder of connective tissue. The transcription of FBN1 has been reported to be driven by a short ultraconserved region (SUPR) in the 5' untranslated exon A of FBN1, but the nature of other factors involved in FBN1 gene regulation has not been clarified. In this study, we characterized the transcription factors involved in FBN1 gene regulation. The results show that Sp1 protein binds to two putative binding sites in the promoter of FBN1. Overexpression of Sp1 resulted in a significant increase in both promoter activity and FBN1 mRNA level in HEK 293 cells, whereas inhibition or knockdown of Sp1 decreased FBN1 gene expression. In addition, we found that Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) binds to the palindromic sequence TCTCGCGAGA in the ultraconserved region of the FBN1 promoter and that the regulation of FBN1 expression by PARP1 is dependent on Sp1. These results indicate that both Sp1 and PARP1 contribute to FBN1 gene expression. These observations add to our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of FBN1 gene expression. PMID:23860323

Guo, Gao; Rödelsperger, Christian; Digweed, Martin; Robinson, Peter N

2013-09-25

249

Oil productivity of the tropical marine diatom Thalassiosira sp.  

PubMed

To understand the potential of cultivating tropical marine diatom Thalassiosira sp. to produce biofuel, biodiesel product properties and growth characteristics of Thalassiosira sp. in three different media were investigated. After medium evaluation, significant Thalassiosira sp. cell growth was observed in both Walne and enriched seawater media, but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in alkaline condition (pH range of 8.0-8.8). The average biomass density cultured in Walne and enriched seawater media on the 6th day was 4.36 and 2.50 g L(-1), respectively. Based on ESI-IT-MS spectra, the TAGs of algal oil were identified as POP, POO, and SOO, and the FAMEs as oleic acid methyl ester. The oil productivity of Thalassiosira sp. cultured in Walne and enriched seawater media were 150 and 290 ?L L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The density and kinematic viscosity of Thalassiosira sp. biodiesel were 0.857 g mL(-1) and 1.151 mm(2) s(-1). PMID:22264432

Nurachman, Zeily; Hartati; Anita, Syahfitri; Anward, Etsuroyya Ewidyasari; Novirani, Gestria; Mangindaan, Bill; Gandasasmita, Suryo; Syah, Yana Maolana; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty; Suantika, Gede

2012-03-01

250

Sp1 modifies leg-to-wing transdetermination in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

During Drosophila development, the transcription factor Sp1 is necessary for proper leg growth and also to repress wing development. Here we test the role of Sp1 during imaginal disc regeneration. Ubiquitous expression of wg induces a regeneration blastema in the dorsal aspect of the leg disc. Within this outgrowth, the wing selector gene vg is activated in some cells, changing their fate to wing identity in a process known as transdetermination. In this report we demonstrate that reducing the gene copy number of Sp1 significantly increases both the frequency and the area of transdetermination in regenerating leg discs. By examining the expression of known Sp1 target genes, we also show that the proximo-distal patterning gene dachshund is downregulated dorsally, leading to a break in its normal ring-shaped expression pattern. We further report that transdetermination, as evidenced by Vg expression, is only observed when there is a broken ring of Dachshund expression. Combined, these studies establish a role for Sp1 in leg-to-wing transdetermination.

Ing, Thomas; Tseng, Alexander; Sustar, Anne; Schubiger, Gerold

2012-01-01

251

Surfactant Protein A (SP-A)-mediated Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Involves Binding of SP-A to the Staphylococcal Adhesin Eap and the Macrophage Receptors SP-A Receptor 210 and Scavenger Receptor Class A*  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap+) but not Eap-deficient (Eap?) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap+ S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap+ but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap+ S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap? S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210L and SP-R210S. The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210L, whereas SR-A?/? alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210L expressing only SP-R210S. Accordingly, SR-A?/? mice were highly susceptible to both Eap+ and Eap? S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210L mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C.

2011-01-01

252

Surface-area cycling of different surfactant preparations: SP-A and SP-B are essential for large-aggregate integrity.  

PubMed Central

Surface-area cycling is an in vitro procedure for the conversion of large into small surfactant aggregates. In this procedure a tube containing a surfactant suspension is rotated end-over-end at 37 degrees C so that the surface area of the suspension changes twice each cycle. We have utilized this method to study the mechanisms involved in aggregate conversion. Several different surfactant preparations were analysed: (1) bovine natural surfactant, a sucrose-gradient-purified material containing surfactant phospholipid and surfactant-associated proteins (SP-) SP-A, SP-B and SP-C; (2) bovine lipid-extract surfactant, which contains the surfactant phospholipids and SP-B and SP-C; (3) mixtures of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (7:3, w/w) reconstituted with one or more surfactant proteins. Aggregate conversion was measured by phosphorus analysis of a 40,000 g supernatant (small aggregate) and pellet (large aggregates) before and after surface-area cycling. Surface-area cycling of lipid extract surfactant or lipids plus SP-B or SP-C resulted in rapid aggregate conversion. Lipids alone were not converted. Only a small percentage of purified natural surfactant was converted into small aggregates. Addition of SP-A to lipid extract surfactant could inhibit aggregate conversion of this material, but this was only observed when an additional 1% (w/w) of SP-B was added to the lipid extract. It is concluded that SP-A is important for large-aggregate integrity. It appears that SP-A acts in conjunction with SP-B. The presence of SP-B and/or SP-C is required for aggregate conversion; it is proposed that this reflects the necessity for lipid adsorption in aggregate conversion. Images Figure 2

Veldhuizen, R A; Hearn, S A; Lewis, J F; Possmayer, F

1994-01-01

253

sp 3 versus sp 2 C–H bond activation chemistry of 2-picoline by Th(IV) and U(IV) metallocene complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thorium alkyl complex (C5Me5)2Th(CH3)2 and 2-picoline react to give preferential sp3 C–H bond activation in the presence of a more reactive sp2 C–H bond, while the analogous uranium complex, (C5Me5)2U(CH3)2, reacts with only the ortho 2-picoline sp2 C–H bond, as originally expected. Herein, we describe this competitive sp3 versus sp2 C–H bond activation chemistry with 2-picoline and (C5Me5)2An(CH3)2 (An=Th,

Jaqueline L. Kiplinger; Brian L. Scott; Eric J. Schelter; Jaime A. Pool Davis Tournear

2007-01-01

254

SP1 protein-based nanostructures and arrays.  

PubMed

Controlled formation of complex nanostructures is one of the main goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stable Protein 1 (SP1) is a boiling-stable ring protein complex, 11 nm in diameter, which self-assembles from 12 identical monomers. SP1 can be utilized to form large ordered arrays; it can be easily modified by genetic engineering to produce various mutants; it is also capable of binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and thus forming protein-GNP chains made of alternating SP1s and GNPs. We report the formation and the protocols leading to the formation of those nanostructures and their characterization by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrostatic force microscopy. Further control over the GNP interdistances within the protein-GNP chains may lead to the formation of nanowires and structures that may be useful for nanoelectronics. PMID:18193911

Medalsy, Izhar; Dgany, Or; Sowwan, Mukhles; Cohen, Hezy; Yukashevska, Alevtyna; Wolf, Sharon G; Wolf, Amnon; Koster, Abraham; Almog, Orna; Marton, Ira; Pouny, Yehonathan; Altman, Arie; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

2008-02-01

255

Biodegradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Micrococcus sp. strain SMN-1.  

PubMed

A bacterial consortium capable of degrading nitroaromatic compounds was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil samples by selective enrichment on 2-nitrotoluene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The three different bacterial isolates obtained from bacterial consortium were identified as Bacillus sp. (A and C), Bacillus flexus (B) and Micrococcus sp. (D) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics and by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The pathway for the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Micrococcus sp. strain SMN-1 was elucidated by the isolation and identification of metabolites, growth and enzymatic studies. The organism degraded 2-nitrotoluene through 3-methylcatechol by a meta-cleavage pathway, with release of nitrite. PMID:20582618

Mulla, Sikandar I; Hoskeri, Robertcyril S; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ninnekar, Harichandra Z

2011-02-01

256

SP-100 program users handbook basic configurational tradeoffs  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses basic configurational tradeoffs associated with the SP-100 class of nuclear space power systems. In the SP-100 project, the three reference designs, fallback, baseline, and advanced, employ thermoelectric power conversion with different thermoelectric materials. This issue of the document presents results generated for the thermoelectric design as of the end of 1985. Emphasis is placed on showing general trends and the range of possibilities that could result from selection of a particular design. This document, which reflects efforts on 100-kWe reference designs as of the end of 1985, will be extended and updated to reflect progress in the design studies of the follow-on ground engineering phase for which a 300-kWe size has been selected. THere is a considerable flexibility to the SP-100 power system so that it will generally be most advantageous to tailor it to meet user requirements.

Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

1986-03-15

257

Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.  

PubMed

It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon. PMID:22490007

Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

2012-05-01

258

SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes. We will conclude with a discussion of planned extensions to SpF that will provide pseudospectral applications with additional flexibility with regard to time integration, linear solvers, and discretization in the radial direction.

Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.

2013-12-01

259

Intestinal Cryptosporidium sp. infection in the Egyptian tortoise, Testudo kleinmanni.  

PubMed

An adult Egyptian tortoise (Testudo kleinmanni) presented with clinical signs of enteritis and died 5 weeks after initiation of antibiotic therapy. Histological examination of the small intestine revealed heavy infection with Cryptosporidium sp.; over 80% of epithelial cells harboured the pathogen. No Cryptosporidium developmental stages were present in the stomach or the lungs. The intestinal lamina propria and mucosa were infiltrated by heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. The present study constitutes the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. infection in T. kleinmanni, and the first histological documentation of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in Chelonia. PMID:9925268

Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Mann, J; Strandberg, J D

1998-12-01

260

Fuels irradiation testing for the SP-100 program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program is well on the way to providing data for performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the fuel system of the compact lithium-cooled reactor. Key SP-100 fuel performance issues addressed are the need for low fuel swelling and low fission gas release to minimize cladding strain, and the need for barrier integrity to prevent fuel/cladding chemical interaction. This paper provides a description of the irradiation test program that addresses these key issues and summarizes recent results of posttest examinations including data obtained at 6 atom percent goal burnup.

Makenas, Bruce J.; Hales, Janell W.; Ward, Alva L.

1991-01-01

261

Rhodovulum salis sp. nov. and Rhodovulum viride sp. nov., phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria isolated from marine habitats.  

PubMed

Two strains (JA746(T) and JA756(T)) having yellowish brown-to-green pigment were isolated from a solar saltern and a pink pond, respectively. While both strains were non-motile and shared the presence of bacteriochlorophyll-a, major cellular fatty acids (C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0, C18?:?0), quinone (Q-10), polar lipids and hopanoids, they differed from each other in their carotenoid composition. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains JA746(T) and 756(T) was 62.4 and 63.3 mol%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene-based EzTaxon-e blast search analysis of strains JA746(T) and 756(T) indicated highest sequence similarity with members of the genus Rhodovulum in the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Strain JA746(T) has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181(T) (97.3?%), Rhodovulum steppense A-20s(T) (97.3?%), Rhodovulum phaeolacus JA580(T) (97?%), Rhodovulum strictum MB-G2(T) (97?%) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97?%). Strain JA756(T) has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181(T) (99.8?%), Rhodovulum sulfidophilum Hansen W4(T) (99.1?%), Rhodovulum kholense JA297(T) (97.9?%) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97?%). The sequence similarity between strains JA746(T) and JA756(T) was 97.5?%. However, these strains are not closely related to each other or to their phylogenetic neighbours since the DNA-DNA reassociation values were less than 56?%. The genomic information was also supported by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results, leading us to classify strains JA746(T) (?=?NBRC 108898(T)?=?KCTC 15180(T)) and JA756(T) (?=?NBRC 109122(T)?=?KCTC 15223(T)) as the type strains of two novel species of the genus Rhodovulum, for which the names Rhodovulum salis sp. nov. and Rhodovulum viride sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. PMID:24425825

Srinivas, A; Vinay Kumar, B; Divya Sree, B; Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2014-03-01

262

Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from air samples.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria (strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T) were isolated from air samples collected in the Jeju Island and Suwon region of Korea, respectively. Phylogenetically, strain 5317J-18T was grouped with the genus Massilia with Massilia brevitalea byr23-80T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). Strain 5414S-25T was affiliated with the genus Naxibacter with Naxibacter haematophilus CCUG 38318T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 5317J-18T and M. brevitalea DSM 18925T and Massilia aurea DSM 18055T were 43 and 36%, respectively. The mean DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 5414S-25T and N. haematophilus KACC 13771T, M. brevitalea DSM 18925T, Massilia timonae DSM 16850T, Naxibacter varians KACC 13770T, M. aurea DSM 18055T, Massilia lutea DSM 17473T and Massilia albidiflava DSM 17472T ranged from 33 to 42%. Both novel strains had ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 omega7c) and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. Both strains also showed similar polar lipid profiles with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T were 66.1 and 67.8%, respectively. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new strains represent novel species in the genera Massilia and Naxibacter. Strain 5317J-18T (=KACC 12634T=DSM 21309T) is proposed as the type strain of Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and strain 5414S-25T (=KACC 12635T=DSM 21311T) is proposed as the type strain of Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov. PMID:19783608

Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

2010-08-01

263

Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.  

PubMed

Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6?% 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5?% sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16?:?0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15?:?0 (65?%), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T)?=?DSM 23947(T)?=?LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T)?=?DSM 23948(T)?=?LMG 27602(T)) are proposed. PMID:24021730

Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

2014-01-01

264

Functional interactions between Sp1 or Sp3 and the helicase-like transcription factor mediate basal expression from the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene.  

PubMed

Basal expression of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is mediated by a promoter element named B box that binds the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), homologous to SNF/SWI proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on a set of B box point mutants demonstrated two HLTF sites flanking and partially overlapping with a GT box binding Sp1 and Sp3. Mutations affecting either the Sp1/Sp3 or the two HLTF sites inhibited by 6- and 2.5-fold, respectively, transient expression in HeLa cells of a reporter gene fused to the PAI-1 promoter. In Sp1/Sp3-devoid insect cells, co-expression of PAI-1-lacZ with Sp1 or Sp3 led to a 14-26-fold induction while HLTF had no effect. Simultaneous presence of Sp1 or Sp3 and the short HLTF form (initiating at Met-123) provided an additional 2-3-fold synergistic activation suppressed by mutations that prevented HLTF binding. Moreover, a DNA-independent interaction between HLTFMet123 and Sp1/Sp3 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation from HeLa cell extracts and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments. The interaction domains were mapped to the carboxyl-terminal region of each protein; deletion of the last 85 amino acids of HLTFMet123 abolished the synergy with Sp1. This is the first demonstration of a functional interaction between proteins of the Sp1 and SNF/SWI families. PMID:10391891

Ding, H; Benotmane, A M; Suske, G; Collen, D; Belayew, A

1999-07-01

265

A novel myeloid differentiation factor 88 homolog, SpMyD88, exhibiting SpToll-binding activity in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.  

PubMed

Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential regulator in the Toll or Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. In the current study, we characterized a novel crustacean MyD88 homolog, SpMyD88, and analyzed its binding activity with SpToll. The full-length cDNA sequence of SpMyD88 is 2933 bp, with a 1419 bp open reading frame encoding a 472-amino acid protein. No signal peptide was predicted. A death domain (residues 19-103), a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (residues 156-297), and a C-terminal extension (CTE) domain (residues 298-472) were also found. In a phylogenetic tree constructed with MyD88 homologs from both invertebrates and vertebrates, arthropod MyD88s including SpMyD88 formed a cluster containing a unique CTE domain. SpToll shared the highest identity with human TLR4. These two receptors were grouped into a cluster of a tree constructed based on the conserved TIR domains. SpToll also had a close relationship with other shrimp TLRs that possess potential antibacterial activity. SpMyD88 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, gills, hepatopancreas, and eye stalks. Upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi, both SpMyD88 and SpToll were significantly increased in the hemocytes, whereas only SpMyD88 was elevated by Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, a pull-down assay demonstrated that SpMyD88 showed a binding activity with SpToll. These results suggest that SpMyD88 and SpToll are involved in the defense system of mud crabs against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23280154

Li, Xin-Cang; Zhu, Lei; Li, Lin-Gui; Ren, Qian; Huang, Yan-Qing; Lu, Jian-Xue; Fang, Wen-Hong; Kang, Wei

2013-04-01

266

Interactions of hydrophobic lung surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol bilayers studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic surfactant-associated proteins SP-B and SP-C have been isolated from porcine lungs and reconstituted in multilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) containing different phospholipid spin probes, in order to characterize the lipid--protein interactions by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both proteins caused a significant increase in the outer hyperfine splittings of all the ESR spectra, indicating that SP-B and SP-C reduce the mobility of the phospholipid acyl chains. The more hydrophobic SP-C had greater effects on phospholipid bilayers than did SP-B. The effect was saturated at protein/lipid ratios of 20% and 30% (w/w) for SP-B and SP-C, respectively, in bilayers of DPPC. SP-B and SP-C increased the ordering and decreased the mobility of the lipid acyl chains in both DPPC and DPPG bilayers in the fluid phase, without affecting the gel phase on the convention ESR time scale. On the other hand, both proteins induced a more homogeneous distribution of the phospholipid spin probes in the gel phase of DPPC. The selectivity of the interaction of SP-B and SP-C with different phospholipid species was determined from the ESR spectra of spin-labeled phospholipids with different headgroups in host bilayers of either DPPC or DPPG. SP-B showed a general preference to interact with negatively charged phospholipids, which was modulated in an ionic strength-dependent manner. At near-physiological ionic strength, SP-B showed selectivity for phosphatidylglycerol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7696261

Pérez-Gil, J; Casals, C; Marsh, D

1995-03-28

267

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

268

Two new yeasts, Trichosporon debeurmannianum sp. nov. and Trichosporon dermatis sp. nov., transferred from the Cryptococcus humicola complex.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus humicola, as currently defined, shows intraspecific rRNA gene sequence differences. Three strains of this species produced arthroconidia on cornmeal agar and belonged to the genus Trichosporon in a molecular phylogeny. They clustered with the species possessing Q10 as the major ubiquinone and were serotype I. Sequence analyses clearly revealed that they were two new Trichosporon species. The names Trichosporon dermatis sp. nov. (= CBS 2043T) and Trichosporon debeurmannianum sp. nov. (= CBS 1896T) are proposed for these strains. PMID:11411691

Sugita, T; Takashima, M; Nakase, T; Ichikawa, T; Ikeda, R; Shinoda, T

2001-05-01

269

SP-1 regulation of MMP-9 expression requires serine-586 in the PEST domain  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Rac1, a small GTPase, regulates macrophage matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in an ERK- and SP-1-dependent manner. SP-1 contains a PEST domain that may modulate protein stability. We hypothesize that T578, S586, and/or S587 in the PEST domain are required for SP-1 stability and MMP-9 expression secondary to activation of ERK, a serine/threonine kinase. We determined the effects of Rac1 and ERK on MMP-9 expression driven by SP-1WT and SP-1 mutants, T578A, S586A and S587A. Expression of WT and mutant SP-1 increased MMP-9 promoter activity in alveolar macrophages. However, constitutively active Rac1 suppressed MMP-9 promoter activity in cells expressing SP-1WT, SP-1T578A, and SP-1S587A, but not SP-1S586A. Furthermore, constitutive ERK activation, which was inhibited by Rac1, significantly increased MMP-9 transcription in cells expressing SP-1WT but not SP-1S586A. Because Rac1 activation and ERK inactivation increased degradation of SP-1WT and not SP-1S586A, our results suggest that SP-1 stability mediated at S586 regulates MMP-9 transcription.. In vivo, alveolar macrophages obtained from asbestosis patients had less MMP-9 that was associated with decreased SP-1 expression and ERK activation. These observations demonstrate that S586 in the PEST domain of SP-1 is important for MMP-9 gene expression in alveolar macrophages and highlight the importance of these proteins in pulmonary fibrosis.

Murthy, Shubha; Ryan, Alan J.; Carter, A. Brent

2013-01-01

270

Transcription factor Sp3 is silenced through SUMO modification by PIAS1  

PubMed Central

Sp3 is a ubiquitous transcription factor closely related to Sp1. Here we show that Sp3 is a target for SUMO modification in vivo and in vitro. SUMO modification of Sp3 occurs at a single lysine located between the second glutamine-rich activation domain and the DNA-binding domain. Mutational analyses identified the sequence IKXE as essential for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. We identified the protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as an interaction partner of Sp3 and Ubc9. Moreover, PIAS1 strongly stimulated SUMO conjugation to Sp3, thus acting as an E3 ligase for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. All mutations that prevented SUMO modification in vitro strongly enhanced the transcriptional activity of Sp3, showing that SUMO modification silences Sp3 activity. SUMO-modified Sp3 bound to DNA with similar specificity and affinity as unmodified Sp3. However, DNA-bound Sp3 did not act as a substrate for SUMO modification.

Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Rischitor, Grigore; Braun, Harald; Doll, Andreas; Schergaut, Marion; Melchior, Frauke; Suske, Guntram

2002-01-01

271

Low SP1 Expression Differentially Affects Intestinal-Type Compared with Diffuse-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05) in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05). The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

Oh, Ensel; Erkin, Ozgur Cem; Jung, Hun Soon; Cho, Mi-Hyun; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Wang, Li-Hui; Park, Min-Jeong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Yang, Ho Bin; Jia, Lina; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

2013-01-01

272

The collagen-like region of surfactant protein A (SP-A) is required for correction of surfactant structural and functional defects in the SP-A null mouse.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant isolated from gene-targeted surfactant protein A null mice (SP-A(-/-)) is deficient in the surfactant aggregate tubular myelin and has surface tension-lowering activity that is easily inhibited by serum proteins in vitro. To further elucidate the role of SP-A and its collagen-like region in surfactant function, we used the human SP-C promoter to drive expression of rat SP-A (rSPA) or SP-A containing a deletion of the collagen-like domain (DeltaG8-P80) in the Clara cells and alveolar type II cells of SP-A(-/-) mice. The level of the SP-A in the alveolar wash of the SP-A(-/-,rSP-A) and SP-A(-/-,DeltaG8-P80) mice was 6.1-and 1.3-fold higher, respectively, than in the wild type controls. Tissue levels of saturated phosphatidylcholine were slightly reduced in the SP-A(-/-,rSP-A) mice compared with SP-A(-/-) littermates. Tubular myelin was present in the large surfactant aggregates isolated from the SP-A(-/-,rSP-A) lines but not in the SP-A(-/-,DeltaG8-P80) mice or SP-A(-/-) controls. The equilibrium and minimum surface tensions of surfactant from the SP-A(-/-,rSP-A) mice were similar to SP-A(-/-) controls, but both were markedly elevated in the SP-A(-/-,DeltaG8-P80) mice. There was no defect in the surface tension-lowering activity of surfactant from SP-A(+/+,DeltaG8-P80) mice, indicating that the inhibitory effect of DeltaG8-P80 on surface activity can be overcome by wild type levels of mouse SP-A. The surface activity of surfactant isolated from the SP-A(-/-,rSP-A) but not the SP-A(-/-,DeltaG8-P80) mice was more resistant than SP-A(-/-) littermate control animals to inhibition by serum proteins in vitro. Pressure volume relationships of lungs from the SP-A(-/-), SP-A(-/-,rSP-A), and SP-A(-/-,DeltaG8-P80) lines were very similar. These data indicate that expression of SP-A in the pulmonary epithelium of SP-A(-/-) animals restores tubular myelin formation and resistance of isolated surfactant to protein inhibition by a mechanism that is dependent on the collagen-like region. PMID:11504713

Ikegami, M; Elhalwagi, B M; Palaniyar, N; Dienger, K; Korfhagen, T; Whitsett, J A; McCormack, F X

2001-10-19

273

Caridina fijiana n.sp. (Decapoda: Atyidae) from Nadarivatu, Fiji  

Microsoft Academic Search

C. fijiana n.sp., from montane streams at an altitude of 640 m, can be distinguished from other Caridina species by the shape of the appendix interna on the first pleopod of the male, the large size and small numbers of eggs carried by the female, the shape and spinulation of the posterior margin of the telson, and the proportions of

S. C. Choy

1983-01-01

274

Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in 'Brevibacterium' sp. KY-4313.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biosynthesis of 4-keto and 4,4'-kideto carotenoids in Brevibacterium sp. KY-4313 was studied. Echinenone and canthaxanthin were isolated from the cultures grown on a medium containing several n-alkanes. When glutathione was added to the bacterial cult...

L. K. Hsieh T. C. Lee C. O. Chichester K. L. Simpson

1974-01-01

275

Steroid biotransformation by different strains of Micrococcus sp.  

PubMed

A strain of Micrococcus sp. was isolated for its capability of side chain degradation of cholesterol. This strain was characterized and identified as Micrococcus roseus. It was found to be the best strain for the production of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione and androst-4-ene-3,17-dione compared with other Micrococcus strains. PMID:11501468

Dogra, N; Qazi, G N

2001-01-01

276

Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

Mamay, S. H.

1972-01-01

277

Products of anaerobic phloroglucinol degradation by Coprococcus sp. Pe15.  

PubMed

Under anaerobic conditions, resting cell suspensions of Coprococcus sp. Pe15 degraded 1 molecule of phloroglucinol to 2 molecules of acetic acid and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide. The organism metabolized the flavonoids rhamnetin and quercetin anaerobically in 20% rumen fluid medium but failed to grow under similar conditions at the expense of any of 39 other aromatic or flavonoid compounds tested. PMID:944077

Tsai, C G; Gates, D M; Ingledew, W M; Jones, G A

1976-02-01

278

Sequence of ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a.  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding biodegradative ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a was isolated from a genomic DNA library and sequenced. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription initiation sites. The deduced amino acid sequence is compared with the amino acid sequences of five previously reported bacterial decarboxylases, and conserved pyridoxal phosphate motif residues are identified.

Hackert, M L; Carroll, D W; Davidson, L; Kim, S O; Momany, C; Vaaler, G L; Zhang, L

1994-01-01

279

Colonization and degradation of rubber pieces by Nocardia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of a Nocardia sp. occurs essentially on the insoluble rubber substrate and the cells are tightly bound to the rubber in the initial stage of the growth in spite of vigorous stirring of the cultures. The colonization of rubber pieces was followed by staining with Schiff reagent, and it was revealed that not only the thickness of rubber

Akio Tsuchii; Kiyoshi Takeda; Tomoo Suzuki; Yutaka Tokiwa

1996-01-01

280

Modes of water manipulation by the lobate ctenophore Leucothea sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the lobate ctenophore Leucothea sp. has revealed new patterns of swimming and water manipulation in addition to the typical ctenophore mode of slow swimming with ctene plate (comb) ciliary propulsion. We distinguish between slow ctene propulsion and rapid ctene propulsion; the latter is accomplished by an increased ciliary beat that produces a coupled vortex wake, resulting in jet

G. I. Matsumoto; W. M. Halnner

1988-01-01

281

New Sesquicillins, Insecticidal Antibiotics Produced by Albophoma sp. FKI-1778  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new antibiotics, sesquicillins B to E were isolated from the culture broth of Albophoma sp. FKI-1778 together with known sesquicillin (sesquicillin A in this paper). The structures of sesquicillins were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including various NMR experiments. All sesquicillins have a common pyrano-diterpene skeleton. Sesquicillins showed moderate inhibitory activity against the growth of Artemia salina (brine shrimps) and

Ryuji Uchida; Rie Imasato; Yuichi Yamaguchi; Rokuro Masuma; Kazuro Shiomi; Hiroshi Tomoda; Satoshi ?mura

2005-01-01

282

A new antifouling hexapeptide from a Palauan sponge, Haliclona sp.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. provided a known hexapeptide, waiakeamide (1), and a new sulfone derivative (2). The structures of hexapeptides 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses and the advanced Marfey's method with LC/MS. These compounds showed repellent activity against the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis. PMID:12762818

Sera, Yutaka; Adachi, Kyoko; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

2003-05-01

283

Binary Black Hole Mergers in SpEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caltech-Cornell spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) is now able to robustly and accurately evolve binary black hole systems through the inspiral, merger and ringdown phases. This is attributed to new gauge conditions as well as a robustly stable numerical algorithm. The talk will highlight the key new elements of our algorithm. )

Szilagyi, Bela

2010-02-01

284

Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.  

PubMed

The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54 g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124 ?L L(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299 mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347 g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90 kJ/mL. PMID:22926527

Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

2012-11-01

285

[Xylose(glucose) isomerase reactivity of immobilized Arthrobacter sp].  

PubMed

The study of the xylose/glucose isomerase-containing Arthrobacter sp. B-5 cells immobilized in cobalt hydroxide gel showed that immobilization increases the substrate affinity of the enzyme, its thermo- and pH-optima of action and stability, and makes unnecessary the addition of stabilizing cobalt ions to the isomerization medium. PMID:12901016

Sapunova, L I; Lobanok, A G; Parakhnia, E V; Kazakevich, I O

2003-01-01

286

Complete Genome Sequence of Antarctic Bacterium Psychrobacter sp. Strain G.  

PubMed

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Psychrobacter sp. strain G, isolated from King George Island, Antarctica, which can produce lipolytic enzymes at low temperatures. The genomics information of this strain will facilitate the study of the physiology, cold adaptation properties, and evolution of this genus. PMID:24051316

Che, Shuai; Song, Lai; Song, Weizhi; Yang, Meng; Liu, Guiming; Lin, Xuezheng

2013-01-01

287

Nonsymmetrical beta-carboline dimers from an Ascidian, Didemnum sp.  

PubMed

In addition to the previously reported symmetrical beta-carboline dimer 1, an ascidian Didemnum sp. yielded trace amounts of beta-carboline and the nonsymmetrical beta-carboline dimers 2, 3, and 5. The structures of the nonsymmetrical dimers were confirmed by nonselective synthesis of 2 and 3 from beta-carboline, which also yielded additional dimers 4 and 6. PMID:18547113

Kearns, Philip S; Rideout, John A

2008-07-01

288

Pandoraea sp. RB-44, A Novel Quorum Sensing Soil Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at the C-3 position. We have isolated a bacterium, RB-44, from a site which was formally a landfill dumping ground. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis, this isolate was identified as a Pandoraea sp.which was then screened for AHL production using biosensors which indicated its quorum sensing properties. To identify the AHL profile of Pandoraea sp. RB-44, we used high resolution tandem mass spectrometry confirming that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that showed quorum sensing activity exhibited by Pandoraea sp. Our data add Pandoraea sp. to the growing number of bacteria that possess QS systems.

Han-Jen, Robson Ee; Wai-Fong, Yin; Kok-Gan, Chan

2013-01-01

289

Building the first steps into SP research [signal processing education  

Microsoft Academic Search

When young students begin to wonder about their career's future, research spirit is not always awake. Some of them will choose a path that is away from their vocations without even knowing. As undergraduate SP course's professors, we found a way to widen their options, with a research assignment. This paper explains what the objectives of such a task are,

Roxana Saint-Nom; Daniel Jacoby

2005-01-01

290

Metabolism of 2-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate by Moraxella sp. strain VS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterium, designated as Moraxella sp., was enriched with 2-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate (2HPGA) as sole source of carbon and energy. Identified metabolites and enzyme activities determined with whole cells and extracts indicated that 2HPGA was degraded by an inducible sequence of enzymes via salicylaldehyde, salicylate, and gentisate; only minute amounts of salicylate were converted to catechol. Further evidence was obtained that permeases

Verona Schmidt; Rolf-Michael Wittich; Peter Fortnagel

1991-01-01

291

Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

Not Available

1987-06-29

292

Production of extracellular water-insoluble polysaccharide from Pseudomonas sp.  

PubMed

Curdlan is a microbial polysaccharide composed exclusively of ?-(1,3)-linked glucose residues. Until now only bacteria belonging to the Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce Curdlan. In this study, a bacterium capable of producing extracellular Curdlan, identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from soil samples. From the HPLC, permethylation linkage analysis, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analytical data, the polysaccharide consisted exclusively of glucose; the most prominent sugar was 1,3-linked glucose, and most glycosidic bonds joining these sugar residues were of the ?-type. This also supported that the exopolysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. was actually Curdlan. In addition, the Pseudomonas sp. was studied for the production of Curdlan by conventional "one-factor-at-a-time technique" and response surface methodology (RSM). It was observed that glucose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for Curdlan production, respectively. By using RSM, Curdlan production was increased significantly by 188%, from 1.25 to 2.35 g/L, when the strain was cultivated in the optimal condition developed by RSM, and the highest Curdlan production rate of 0.81 g/(L h) was obtained. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on Curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp. PMID:22533491

Cui, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Ji Qing

2012-05-16

293

Larinus berti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Larinus berti sp. n. is described from Morocco and assigned to subgenus Cryphopus Petri, 1907 (Curculionidae: Lixinae; Lixini). Diagnostic characters of the new species are large size, elongate-ovate body, bisulcate sub-quadrangular rostrum, triangularly raised dorsum of rostrum, flat subgena and submentum, Y-shaped apodeme of sternite VIII of female and thin nodulus of spermatheca.

Gultekin, Levent; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

294

Cell differentiation inducers from a marine sponge Biemna sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pyridoacridines closely related to the known isocystodamine were isolated from the marine sponge Biemna sp. together with isocystodamine. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. They induce the erythroid differentiation of human leukemia K562 cells with an ED50 value of 5 nM each.

Reiko Ueoka; Yuji Ise; Shigeru Okada; Shigeki Matsunaga

2011-01-01

295

Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 isolated from leatherback turtle blood.  

PubMed

A newly described bacterial isolate, Acinetobacter sp. HM746599, has been obtained from leatherback sea turtle hatchling blood. The implication is that the hatchling was infected during development in the egg, which is substantiated by other studies to be reported by us in the future. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium (GenBank accession number: HM746599) showed the greatest similarity to the identified species, Acinetobacter beijerinckii (97.6-99.78%) and Acinetobacter venetianus (99.78%). Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 are gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacilli and are hemolytic/cytotoxic to human and sea turtle red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis is not the result of any detectable soluble toxin. Acinetobacter beijerinckii and A. venetianus hemolyze sheep RBCs while Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 does not, and unlike A. venetianus, the growth of Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 and A. beijerinckii is not supported by l-arginine. Many Acinetobacter species, especially hemolytic ones, are pathogenic to immunologically compromised humans and it is possible that, in addition to sea turtles, this bacterium might also be a danger to susceptible humans who handle infected hatchlings. The bacteria are available from CCUG (Culture Collection, University Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden) and from NRRL (Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection, Peoria, IL). PMID:21707734

Soslau, Gerald; Russell, Jacob A; Spotila, James R; Mathew, Andrew J; Bagsiyao, Pamela

2011-09-01

296

Delayed haemolytic activity by the freshwater puffer Tetraodon sp. toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the toxin composition of the freshwater puffer in Bangladesh, about 230 specimens of Tetraodon sp. were collected from 1997 to 1999 and extracted. After partitioning the toxins between an aqueous layer and a 1-butanol layer, the toxin in the aqueous layer was characterized as paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) (data not shown), while the toxin in the

S Taniyama; Y Mahmud; M. B Tanu; T Takatani; O Arakawa; T Noguchi

2001-01-01

297

Improved Adhesives Containing CNT\\/SP1 Nano Fillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have stimulated research due to their wide range of applications. However, their existence as aggregates and the difficulty in debundling and dispersion limits the improvement of properties when used as fillers. Many techniques have been employed to obtain such dispersions including mechanical, ultrasonic, and solution mixing, resulting in limited effect. Attaching a protein moiety such as SP1

A. Wolf; A. Buchman; A. Eitan; T. Fine; Y. Nevo; A. Heyman; O. Shoseyov

2012-01-01

298

A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

1993-07-01

299

Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov., Spathaspora suhii sp. nov., Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov., four novel (D)-xylose-fermenting yeast species from Brazilian Amazonian forest.  

PubMed

Four new D-xylose fermenting yeast species of the clade Spathaspora were recovered from rotting-wood samples in a region of Amazonian forest, Northern Brazil. Three species produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends. These species are described as Spathaspora brasiliensis, Spathaspora suhii and Spathaspora roraimanensis. Two isolates of an asexually reproducing species belonging to the Spathaspora clade were also obtained and they are described as Spathaspora xylofermentans. All these species are able to ferment D-xylose during aerobic batch growth in rich YP (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone and 2 % D-xylose) medium, albeit with differing efficiencies. The type strains are Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov UFMG-HMD19.3 (=CBMAI 1425=CBS 12679), Spathaspora suhii sp. nov. UFMG-XMD16.2 (=CBMAI 1426=CBS 12680), Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. UFMG-XMD23.2 (CBMAI 1427=CBS 12681) and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov. UFMG-HMD23.3 (=CBMAI 1428=CBS 12682). PMID:23053696

Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Mouro, Adriane; Prompt, Alice H; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2013-02-01

300

International Business Machines Corporation VM/SP with RACF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The security protection provided by the International Business Machines Corporation VM/SP with RACF operating system software as described in Appendix B, running on one of the IBM 370 processors listed in Appendix A and configured in an appropriately trus...

D. L. Gill K. D. Vane M. J. Oehler R. A. Willinghan R. L. Brown

1989-01-01

301

Heterocyst formation and nitrogenase synthesis in Anabaena sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

When filaments from a culture of Anabaena sp. growing photoautotrophically with nitrate as a nitrogen source are placed in a nitrate-free mineral medium and incubated anaerobically in the light, the formation of heterocysts and the synthesis of nitrogenase both begin after a lag of about 24 hours. During the lag period, about 70% of the phycocyanin is destroyed. Under an

Alasdair Neilson; Rosmarie Rippka; Riyo Kunisawa

1971-01-01

302

Ring B aromatic norpimarane glucoside from a Xylaria sp.  

PubMed

A novel 20-norpimarane glucoside, xylopimarane (1), together with the known sphaeropsidin C (2) and clonostachydiol (3), was isolated from the fungus Xylaria sp. BCC 4297. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines KB, MCF-7, and NCI-H187 with respective IC(50) values of 1.0, 13, and 65 ?M. PMID:21226484

Isaka, Masahiko; Yangchum, Arunrat; Auncharoen, Patchanee; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert

2011-02-25

303

Benzofuran derivatives from the mangrove endophytic Fungus Xylaria sp. (#2508).  

PubMed

Three metabolites, named xyloketal J (1), xyloester A (2), and xyloallenolide B (3), together with the known substituted dihydrobenzofuran (4) were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. (#2508). Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:18500842

Xu, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jiajun; Pang, Jiyan; Huang, Caihuan; Wu, Xiongyu; She, Zhigang; Vrijmoed, L L P; Jones, E B Gareth; Lin, Yongcheng

2008-07-01

304

THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

305

Aberrant processing forms of lung surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The mutation (g.1286T>C) of the pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C gene (SFTPC) leads to the I73T substitution in the precursor protein (pro-SP-C) and results in interstitial lung disease with the histological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Central for the disease is the abnormal processing of the SP-C pro-protein to mature SP-C; however little is known about the nature of intermediates and processing products. We report here the application of high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry to the characterization of processing intermediates of hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in intra- alveolar surfactant material of a patient with I73T mutation. SP-C and SP-B processing forms were separated from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid using chloroform/methanol extraction and sodium dodecyl sulfate poly acrylamide gel electrophoreis, detected by Western blot and identified by electrospray- and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric and immuno-analytical results show the intra-alveolar accumulation of an aberrant C-terminal SP-C processing products in which the mature SP-C protein part is missing and aberrant processing intermediates of SP-B. PMID:19136726

Galetskiy, Dmitry; Woischnik, Markus; Ripper, Jan; Griese, Matthias; Przybylski, Michael

2008-01-01

306

Sp1 and Sp3 control constitutive expression of the human NHE2 promoter by interactions with the proximal promoter and the transcription initiation site  

PubMed Central

We have previously cloned the human Na+/H+ exchanger NHE2 gene and its promoter region. In the present study, the regulatory elements responsible for the constitutive expression of NHE2 were studied. Transient transfection assays revealed that the ?40/+150 promoter region contains the core promoter responsible for the optimal promoter activity. A smaller fragment, ?10/+40, containing the TIS (transcription initiation site) showed minimal activity. We identified a palindrome that overlaps the TIS and binds to the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Mutations in the 5? flank of the palindrome abolished the Sp1/Sp3 interaction and reduced promoter activity by approx. 45%. In addition, a conserved GC-box centered at ?25 was found to play a critical role in basal promoter activity and also interacted with Sp1 and Sp3. An internal deletion in the GC-box severely reduced the promoter activity. Sp1/Sp3 binding to these elements was established using gel-mobility shift assays, confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and co-transfections in Drosophila SL2 cells. Furthermore, we identified two positive regulatory elements in the DNA region corresponding to the 5?-UTR (5?-untranslated region). The results in the present study indicate that Sp1 and Sp3 are required for constitutive NHE2 expression and that the positive regulatory elements of the 5?-UTR may co-operate with the 5?-flanking region to achieve the optimal promoter activity.

Pearse, Ian; Zhu, Ying X.; Murray, Eleanor J.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Malakooti, Jaleh

2007-01-01

307

An Insight into the Diverse Roles of Surfactant Proteins, SP-A and SP-D in Innate and Adaptive Immunity  

PubMed Central

Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are hydrophilic, collagen-containing calcium-dependent lectins, which appear to have a range of innate immune functions at pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary sites. These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens, and apoptotic cells, via C-terminal homotrimeric carbohydrate recognition domains, while the collagen region brings about the effector functions via its interaction with cell surface receptors. SP-A and SP-D deal with various pathogens, using a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and killing mechanisms by phagocytic cells and direct growth inhibition. SP-A and SP-D have also been shown to be involved in the control of pulmonary inflammation including allergy and asthma. Emerging evidence suggest that SP-A and SP-D are capable of linking innate immunity with adaptive immunity that includes modulation of dendritic cell function and helper T cell polarization. This review enumerates immunological properties of SP-A and SP-D inside and outside lungs and discusses their importance in human health and disease.

Nayak, Annapurna; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Tsolaki, Anthony George; Kishore, Uday

2012-01-01

308

Mice Deficient in Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and SP-D or in TLR2 Manifest Delayed Parturition and Decreased Expression of Inflammatory and Contractile Genes  

PubMed Central

Previously we obtained compelling evidence that the fetus provides a critical signal for the initiation of term labor through developmental induction of surfactant protein (SP)-A expression by the fetal lung and secretion into amniotic fluid (AF). We proposed that interactions of AF macrophage (M?) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with SP-A, at term, or bacterial components, at preterm, result in their activation and migration to the pregnant uterus. Herein the timing of labor in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice was compared with mice homozygous null for TLR2, SP-A, SP-D, or doubly deficient in SP-A and SP-D. Interestingly, TLR2?/? females manifested a significant (P < 0.001) delay in timing of labor compared with WT as well as reduced expression of the myometrial contraction-associated protein (CAP) gene, connexin-43, and M? marker, F4/80, at 18.5 d postcoitum (dpc). Whereas in first pregnancies, SP-A?/?, SP-D?/?, and SP-A/D?/? females delivered at term (?19.5 dpc), in second pregnancies, parturition was delayed by approximately 12 h in SP-A?/? (P = 0.07) and in SP-A/D?/? (P <0.001) females. Myometrium of SP-A/D?/? females expressed significantly lower levels of IL-1?, IL-6, and CAP genes, connexin-43, and oxytocin receptor at 18.5 dpc compared with WT. F4/80+ AF M?s from TLR2?/? and SP-A/D?/? mice expressed significantly lower levels of both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory activation markers (e.g. IL-1?, IL-6, ARG1, YM1) compared with gestation-matched WT AF M?s. These novel findings suggest that the pulmonary collectins acting via TLR2 serve a modulatory role in the timing of labor; their relative impact may be dependent on parity.

Montalbano, Alina P.; Hawgood, Samuel

2013-01-01

309

Characterization of two isoforms of antiliopolysacchride factors (Sp-ALFs) from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.  

PubMed

In the previous study of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) hemocyte proteins, which interacted with a bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a protein known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (Sp-ALF) was isolated in addition to a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) protein. In the present study, we further reported the characterization of two isoforms of the mud crab ALF - Sp-ALFs genes (designated as Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2, respectively) based on our previous result. The Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 cDNA contained 1070 bp and 731 bp, respectively, with 123 deduced amino acid residues. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences showed that Sp-ALFs possessed high identity with other known ALFs from crustaceans and exhibited an overall similarity of 57.7% to those of ALFs compared. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a clear group of each species and also suggested that ALFs from Scylla genus and those from Portunus genus were closely related. Tissue distribution analysis in adult crab implied that both Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 were mainly expressed in hemocytes. The mRNA transcripts were also found in embryo (I, II, III and V), zoea-I and juvenile crab, but were rarely observed in the megalopa stage. To further identify the biological activity of Sp-ALFs, recombinant proteins (rSp-ALFs: designated as rSp-ALF1 and rSp-ALF2, respectively) were obtained by expression in Pichia pastris, and the synthetic peptide fragments (sSp-ALFs: designated as sSp-ALF1 and sSp-ALF2, respectively) including the putative LPS binding loop were also prepared for antimicrobial test. The results indicated that both rSp-ALFs and sSp-ALFs were highly effective against most of the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria tested. In contrast to cecropin P1, a membrane integrity assay revealed that Sp-ALFs did not affect the Escherichia coli by disruption of membrane integrity. Additionally, the recombinant Sp-ALFs proteins exhibited strong antiviral activity against an important aquaculture pathogen, white spot syndrome virus, in crustaceans. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-ALFs might play a key role in immune defense against microbial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain. PMID:22538350

Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Wang, Qiao-yang; Li, Cong-ru; Peng, Hui; Cai, Ling; Zheng, Chao-qun; Wang, Ke-jian

2012-07-01

310

A Novel SP1/SP3 Dependent Intronic Enhancer Governing Transcription of the UCP3 Gene in Brown Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Uncoupling protein (UCP) 3 is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein implicated in lipid handling and metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Its transcription is mainly regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), a family of nuclear hormone receptors. Employing bandshift assays, RNA interference and reporter gene assays we examine an intronic region in the UCP3 gene harboring a cis-element essential for expression in brown adipocytes. We demonstrate binding of SP1 and SP3 to this element which is adjacent to a direct repeat 1 element mediating activation of UCP3 expression by PPAR? agonists. Transactivation mediated by these elements is interdependent and indispensable for UCP3 expression. Systematic deletion uncovered a third binding element, a putative NF1 site, in close proximity to the SP1/3 and PPAR? binding elements. Data mining demonstrated binding of MyoD and Myogenin to this third element in C2C12 cells, and, furthermore, revealed recruitment of p300. Taken together, this intronic region is the main enhancer driving UCP3 expression with SP1/3 and PPAR? as the core factors required for expression.

Hoffmann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Anika; Hinney, Anke; Volckmar, Anna-Lena; Jarrett, Harry W.; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin

2013-01-01

311

INTERACTION BETWEEN AN AMMONIUM-OXIDIZER, 'NITROSOMONAS' SP., AND TWO HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA, 'NOCARDIA ATLANTICA' AND 'PSEUDOMONAS' SP.: A NOTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Closed culture experiments showed that the ability of an estuarine chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizer, Nitrosomonas sp., to convert ammonium to nitrite was substantially increased by as much as 150% and 50% when grown in the presence of two heterotrophs isolated from the same en...

312

Nanosecond UV laser graphitization and delamination of thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with different sp 3\\/sp 2 content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with different densities and Young's modulus by coating silicon with a filtered vacuum arc under different angles. The films were modified with a pulsed laser (wavelength 355nm) into sp2 rich amorphous carbon and nano crystalline carbon films. The graphitization threshold of the films depends on the film thickness as well as on

T. Roch; A. Lasagni; E. Beyer

2011-01-01

313

Neotobrilus nicsmolae n. sp. (Tobrilidae: Nematoda) and Chronogaster carolinensis n. sp. (Chronogasteridae: Nematoda) from Lake Phelps, North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Two new species, Neotobrilus nicsmolae n. sp. and Chronogaster carolinensis n. sp. are described from a small, acidic, temperate, natural lake in North Carolina. N. nicsmolae n. sp. comes close to three members of the genus reported from North America, N. filipjevi, N. longus, and N. hopei. However, N. nicsmolae is unique with in the genus in having a combination of characters: size smaller than 1,700 ?m, shorter outer labial and cephalic setae, tail shorter than 250 ?m, last ventromedian supplement close (about 5 ?m) to cloacal opening, spicule length of 61 to 85 ?m, flagelloid sperm, and possession of subterminal setae. Assessment of relationships among clades within the Triplonchida using DNA sequences of the D2D3 expansion segment of the LSU rDNA showed that the family Trichodoridae and the genus Tripyla were recovered as monophyletic. The genus Tobrilus was recovered as monophyletic in the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood trees, but that was not so in the maximum-parsimony tree. The separation among genera of the Trichodoridae, i.e., Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus, was not clear-cut in all phylograms. Chronogaster carolinensis n. sp. in having one ventral mucro with no spine and vacuolated lateral glandular bodies comes close to C. typica and C. ethiopica but differs from all hitherto known species in a combination of characteristics: in having long cephalic setae, long stoma, crystalloid bodies, vacuolated lateral glandular bodies, and a tail terminus with blunt ventral mucro, and its lack of lateral line.

Abebe, Eyualem; Ferebee, Briana; Taylor, Tarreyca; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Mekete, Tesfamariam; De Ley, Paul

2013-01-01

314

Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112.  

PubMed

Surimi wastewater (SWW) is an industrial wastewater, released during the washing step of surimi preparation from minced fish, that causes environmental problem. In this study, SWW produced from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) was hydrolysed and used to cultivate Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112 for the production of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, EC 2.3.2.13). The SWW was repeatedly used to wash the fish mince that gained a final protein content of 3.20% (w/v). The commercial protease, Delvolase was the most appropriate protease used to produce fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from SWW. The FPH at 40% degree of hydrolysis was used instead of a peptone portion in the SPY medium (3.0% starch, 2.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.2% MgSO(4), 0.2% K(2)HPO(4) and 0.2% KH(2)HPO(4), pH 7.0) to cultivate the tested strains at 37°C, shaking speed at 150rpm. Providencia sp. C1112 produced higher MTGase activity (1.78±0.05U/ml) than Streptoverticillium mobaraense (1.61±0.02U/ml) at 18h of cultivation in FPH medium. On the other hand, the Enterobacter sp. C2361 produced lower MTGase activity (1.18±0.03U/ml). PMID:22953841

H-Kittikun, Aran; Bourneow, Chaiwut; Benjakul, Soottawat

2012-12-01

315

Novel chemolithotrophic, thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov.  

PubMed

Three thermophilic strains of chemolithoautotrophic Fe(III)-reducers were isolated from mixed sediment and water samples (JW/KA-1 and JW/KA-2(T): Calcite Spring, Yellowstone N.P., WY, USA; JW/JH-Fiji-2: Savusavu, Vanu Levu, Fiji). All were Gram stain positive rods (approximately 0.5 x 1.8 microm). Cells occurred singly or in V-shaped pairs, and they formed long chains in complex media. All utilized H(2) to reduce amorphous iron (III) oxide/hydroxide to magnetite at temperatures from 50 to 75 degrees C (opt. approximately 73 degrees C). Growth occurred within the pH(60C) range of 6.5-8.5 (opt. pH(60C) 7.1-7.3). Magnetite production by resting cells occurred at pH(60C) 5.5-10.3 (opt. 7.3). The iron (III) reduction rate was 1.3 mumol Fe(II) produced x h(-1) x ml(-1) in a culture with 3 x 10(7) cells, one of the highest rates reported. In the presence or absence of H(2), JW/KA-2(T) did not utilize CO. The G + C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain is 52.7 +/- 0.3 mol%. Strains JW/KA-1 and JW/KA-2(T) each contain two different 16S rRNA gene sequences. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from JW/KA-1, JW/KA-2(T), or JW/JH-Fiji-2 possessed >99% similarity to each other but also 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene sequence from the anaerobic, thermophilic, hydrogenogenic CO-oxidizing bacterium 'Carboxydothermus restrictus' R1. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain JW/KA-2(T) and strain R1(T) yielded 35% similarity. Physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strains represent two novel species and are placed into the novel genus Thermolithobacter within the phylum 'Firmicutes'. In addition, the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the lineage containing the Thermolithobacter and well-established members of the three existing classes of the 'Firmicutes' is less than 85%. Therefore, Thermolithobacter is proposed to constitute the first genus within a novel class of the 'Firmicutes', Thermolithobacteria. The Fe(III)-reducing Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. is designated as the type species with strain JW/KA-2(T) (ATCC 700985(T), DSM 13639(T)) as its type strain. Strain R1(T) is the type strain for the hydrogenogenic, CO-oxidizing Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov. (DSM 7242(T), VKM 2359(T)). PMID:17021657

Sokolova, T; Hanel, J; Onyenwoke, R U; Reysenbach, A-L; Banta, A; Geyer, R; González, J M; Whitman, W B; Wiegel, J

2007-01-01

316

Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. and Micrococcus terreus sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.  

PubMed

Two bacterial strains, DNG5T and V3M1T, isolated from forest soil of the Changbai mountains in China, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains DNG5T and V3M1T were phylogenetically related to members of the genus Agrococcus (96.0-98.4% similarity) and Micrococcus (96.7-98.0% similarity), respectively, within the order Actinomycetales. Strains DNG5T and V3M1T were Gram-stain-positive and strictly aerobic and formed yellow colonies on LB agar. Cells of strain DNG5T were short, non-motile rods, 0.4-0.5x0.8-1.0 microm. Strain DNG5T contained MK-10 and MK-11 as the major respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (49.2%) and iso-C16:0 (22.4%) as the major fatty acids. The diamino acid in the peptidoglycan of strain DNG5T was 2,4-diaminobutyric acid and the murein was of the acetyl type. Cells of strain V3M1T were cocci, 0.6-0.7 microm in diameter. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain V3M1T contained the amino acids lysine, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Strain V3M1T contained MK-7, MK-7(H2), MK-8 and MK-8(H2) as respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (78.2%) and iso-C15:0 (13.1%) as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DNG5T and V3M1T were 75.9 and 67.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DNG5T to Agrococcus jejuensis DSM 22002T, A. jenensis JCM 9950T, A. baldri JCM 12132T and A. citreus JCM 12398T was 58.3, 43.9, 36.1 and 54.1%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain V3M1T to Micrococcus luteus CGMCC 1.2299T, M. antarcticus CGMCC 1.2373T and M. lylae CGMCC 1.2300T was 57.5, 45.4 and 39.0%, respectively. Combining phenotypic and genotypic traits, strain DNG5T represents a novel species of the genus Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. is proposed, with DNG5T (=CGMCC 1.6960T =NBRC 104260T) as the type strain. Strain V3M1T represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus terreus sp. nov. is proposed, with V3M1T (=CGMCC 1.7054T =NBRC 104258T) as the type strain. PMID:19783614

Zhang, Jia-Yue; Liu, Xing-Yu; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2010-08-01

317

Blastobotrys serpentis sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a Trinket snake (Elaphe sp., Colubridae).  

PubMed

Asporogenus yeast strains W113AT and W113B were isolated from the intestine of a dead Trinket snake. The two isolates showed 100% sequence similarity in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region and mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase II gene sequence and also showed similar phenotypic characteristics. The nearest phylogenetic neighbors of W113AT and W113B based on the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene were Blastobotrys chiropterorum NRRL Y-17017T and Blastobotrys terrestris NRRL Y-17704T with about 98% similarity. The close affiliation of W113AT and W113B with B. chiropterorum NRRL Y-17017T and B. terrestris NRRL Y-17704T was also evident from the high similarity observed in the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (96-97.8%) and the cytochrome oxidase II (95.5-95.6%) genes. In the neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees constructed based on the D1/D2 domain or cytochrome oxidase gene, the isolates clustered with the above-mentioned species. However, the isolates showed a number of differences in their phenotypic properties with B. chiropterorum NRRL Y-17017T and B. terrestris NRRL Y-17704T and hence are regarded as representing a novel member of the genus Blastobotrys, for which the name Blastobotrys serpentis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:18284448

Bhadra, Bhaskar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Rao, Ravella Sreenivas; Shivaji, Sisinthy

2008-05-01

318

Transcription Factor SP4 Is a Susceptibility Gene for Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sp4 transcription factor plays a critical role for both development and function of mouse hippocampus. Reduced expression of the mouse Sp4 gene results in a variety of behavioral abnormalities relevant to human psychiatric disorders. The human SP4 gene is therefore examined for its association with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in European Caucasian and Chinese populations respectively. Out of

Xianjin Zhou; Wei Tang; Tiffany A. Greenwood; Shengzhen Guo; Lin He; Mark A. Geyer; John R. Kelsoe

2009-01-01

319

SP Coseismic Signals observed on an electrodes array in an underground quarry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric self-potentials (SP) and strains were measured on the surface of a pillar of the abandoned underground Meriel limestone quarry (France). The time variations of strains and SP are interpreted in terms of crack instability. The dynamic mapping technique shows that the most intensive SP variations, corresponding to maximum stress variations estimated from strain data, occur in the vicinity of

Olivier Gensane; Boris Konyukhov; Jean-Louis Le Mouël; Pierre Morat

1999-01-01

320

N-terminal amino acid sequence of mutant strain Brevibacterium sp. adipamidase.  

PubMed

The adipamidase of a mutant strain Brevibacterium sp. R312 involved in the degradation of adiponitrile to adipic acid was purified. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was shown to be identical to Brevibacterium sp. R312 enantio selective amidase and Rhodococcus sp. N-774 amidase. PMID:8274001

Azza, S; Moreau, J L; Chebrou, H; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1993-01-01

321

Subterminal oxidation of n-alkanes in achlorophyllous alga Prototheca sp.  

PubMed

Some Prototheca sp. are known to be involved in n-hexadecane degradation. Two derivatives derived from n-hexadecane in such Prototheca sp. were identified as 5-hexadecanone and 5-hexadecanol. n-Hexadecane was assumed to be converted to 5-hexadecanol and then to 5-hexadecanone through a unique subterminal oxidation pathway in such Prototheca sp. PMID:23651808

Sakuradani, Eiji; Natsume, Yusuke; Takimura, Yasushi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu

2013-10-01

322

Failure to establish infection with Tetratrichomonas sp. in the reproductive tracts of heifers and bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infection of the reproductive tracts of heifers and bulls with Tetratrichomonas sp. isolated from preputial smegma of virgin bulls was attempted. Nine heifers and four bulls were challenged by inoculation of 7×106Tetratrichomonas sp. into the vaginal lumen and preputial cavity, respectively. Vaginal mucus and preputial smegma samples were collected and cultured for Tetratrichomonas sp. Heifers were slaughtered in groups

Eduardo Rubén Cobo; Germán Cantón; Eleonora Morrell; Dora Cano; Carlos Manuel Campero

2004-01-01

323

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS SP22, A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION IN MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT SP22 is a protein that has been characterized in rats where it has been related with fertility. SP22 homologues have been studied in mouse and man and a definitive role for the protein has not been assigned yet. By means of a polyclonal IgG to recombinant rat SP22...

324

Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

A dansylated form of porcine surfactant-associated protein C (Dns-SP-C), bearing a single dansyl group at its N-terminal end, has been used to characterize the lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-C reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers, using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence emission spectrum of Dns-SP-C in phospholipid bilayers is similar to the spectrum of dansyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and indicates that the N-terminal end of the protein is located at the surface of the membranes and is exposed to the aqueous environment. In membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the fluorescence of Dns-SP-C shows a 3-fold increase with respect to the fluorescence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), suggesting that electrostatic lipid-protein interactions induce important effects on the structure and disposition of the N-terminal segment of the protein in these membranes. This effect saturates above 20% PG molar content in the bilayers. The parameters for the interaction of Dns-SP-C with PC or PG have been estimated from the changes induced in the fluorescence emission spectrum of the protein. The protein had similar K(d) values for its interaction with the different phospholipids tested, of the order of a few micromolar. Cooling of Dns-SP-C-containing dipalmitoyl PC bilayers to temperatures below the phase transition of the phospholipid produced a progressive blue-shift of the fluorescence emission of the protein. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of the transfer of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers and monolayers. Potential SP-B-SP-C interactions have been explored by analysing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (RET) from the single tryptophan in porcine SP-B to dansyl in Dns-SP-C. RET has been detected in samples where native SP-B and Dns-SP-C were concurrently reconstituted in PC or PG bilayers. However, the analysis of the dependence of RET on the protein density excluded specific SP-B-Dns-SP-C associations.

Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C; Perez-Gil, J

2001-01-01

325

Microfibril-associated protein 4 binds to surfactant protein A (SP-A) and colocalizes with SP-A in the extracellular matrix of the lung.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis for phagocytes. Here we describe the molecular interaction between the extracellular matrix protein microfibril-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and SP-A. MFAP4 is a collagen-binding molecule containing a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain and a N-terminal located integrin-binding motif. We produced recombinant MFAP4 with a molecular mass of 36 and 66 kDa in the reduced and unreduced states respectively. Gel filtration chromatography and chemical crosslinking showed that MFAP4 forms oligomers of four dimers. We demonstrated calcium-dependent binding between MFAP4 and human SP-A1 and SP-A2. No binding was seen to recombinant SP-A composed of the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A indicating that the interaction between MFAP4 and SP-A is mediated via the collagen domain of SP-A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MFAP4 and SP-A were used for immunohistochemical analysis, which demonstrates that the two molecules colocalize both on the elastic fibres in the interalveolar septum and in elastic lamina of pulmonary arteries of chronically inflamed lung tissue. We conclude, that MFAP4 interacts with SP-A via the collagen region in vitro, and that MFAP4 and SP-A colocates in different lung compartments indicating that the interaction may be operative in vivo. PMID:16867155

Schlosser, A; Thomsen, T; Shipley, J M; Hein, P W; Brasch, F; Tornře, I; Nielsen, O; Skjřdt, K; Palaniyar, N; Steinhilber, W; McCormack, F X; Holmskov, U

2006-08-01

326

Cloning and characterization of biotin biosynthetic genes of Kurthia sp.  

PubMed

The biotin biosynthesis genes of Kurthia sp., which is an aerobic gram-positive bacterium, were cloned from Kurthia sp. 538-KA26 and characterized. Eleven biotin biosynthetic genes have been identified in Kurthia sp. Kurthia sp. has two genes coding for KAPA synthase, bioF and bioFII, and also has two genes coding for BioH protein, bioH and bioHII. In addition, three genes, orf1, orf2, and orf3, whose functions are unknown, were found in the biotin gene clusters of Kurthia sp. The bioA, bioD, and orf1 genes are arranged in a gene cluster in the order orf1bioDA, and the bioB, bioF, and orf2 genes are arranged in a gene cluster in the order orf2bioFB. These gene clusters proceed to both directions; the face to face promoters and two 40-bp of palindrome sequences exist upstream of the orf1 and orf2 genes. The bioC, bioFII, and bioHII genes are arranged in a gene cluster in the order bioFIIHIIC; a 40-bp of palindrome sequence exists upstream of the bioFII gene. The bioH and orf3 genes are arranged in a gene cluster in the order bioHorf3; a palindrome sequence was not found upstream of the bioH gene. These palindrome sequences are extremely similar to each other, suggesting that the orf1bioDA, orf2bioFB, and bioFIIHIIC gene clusters are regulated by biotin. Kurthia sp. does not have the bioW gene coding pimeloyl-CoA synthase, suggesting that pimeloyl-CoA may be produced by a different pathway than that of gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis or B. sphaericus, further suggesting a modified fatty acid synthesis pathway via acetyl-CoA instead as E. coli has. PMID:11255013

Kiyasu, T; Nagahashi, Y; Hoshino, T

2001-03-01

327

Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov., Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. and Shewanella sairae sp. nov., novel eicosapentaenoic-acid-producing marine bacteria isolated from sea-animal intestines.  

PubMed

Three novel Shewanella species are described on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies. A total of six novel halophilic, aerobic organisms with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were isolated from various sea animals in Japan. Cells of all six isolates were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to produce large amounts of EPA (about 20% of the total fatty acids) and had isoprenoid quinones Q-7 and Q-8 as major components. Analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed that they are very close phylogenetically (sequence similarity > 99%) and the closest species was Shewanella pealeana, with 97% sequence similarity. However, analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that the novel isolates were divided into three groups at sufficient phylogenetic distance to indicate that they are different species (< 90% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments supported this conclusion. The first group (three strains) had positive reactions for lipase, DNase, ONPG and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) reduction and had G + C contents of 43 mol% (determined by HPLC). The second group (two strains) was positive for urease, DNase, ONPG and TMAO reduction but not lipase. Their G + C content was 45 mol%. The third group (one strain) was negative for ONPG, DNase and TMAO reduction and had a G + C content of 43 mol%. Strains of the second group, but not those of the first or third groups, grew at 32 degrees C. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, the novel strains isolated from intestines of sea animals are placed in three novel species of the genus Shewanella: Shewanella marinintestina sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11558T =LMG 21403T), Shewanella schlegeliana sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11561T =LMG 21406T) and Shewanella sairae sp. nov. (type strain: JCM 11563T =LMG 21408T). PMID:12710618

Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

2003-03-01

328

Gluconacetobacter tumulisoli sp. nov., Gluconacetobacter takamatsuzukensis sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter aggeris sp. nov., isolated from Takamatsuzuka Tumulus samples before and during the dismantling work in 2007.  

PubMed

Ten strains of Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from the burial mound soil collected before the dismantling and samples collected during the dismantling work on the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus in Asuka village, Nara Prefecture, Japan in 2007. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates, they were accommodated in the genus Gluconacetobacter (class Alphaproteobacteria) and can be separated into four groups within the cluster containing the genus Gluconacetobacter. One of the groups demonstrated a phylogenetic position identical to that of Gluconacetobacter asukensis, which was isolated from small holes on plaster walls of the stone chamber interior of Kitora Tumulus in Asuka village, Nara Prefecture, Japan. The remaining three groups consisted of novel lineages within the genus Gluconacetobacter. A total of four isolates were selected from each group and carefully identified using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were characterized on the basis of their possessing Q-10 as the major ubiquinone system and C18?:?1?7c (58.5-65.2?%) as the predominant fatty acid. A DNA-DNA hybridization test was used to determine that the three lineages represented novel species, for which the names Gluconacetobacter tumulisoli sp. nov., Gluconacetobacter takamatsuzukensis sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter aggeris sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are T611xx-1-4a(T) (?=?JCM 19097(T)?=?NCIMB 14861(T)), T61213-20-1a(T) (?=?JCM 19094(T)?=?NCIMB 14859(T)) and T6203-4-1a(T) (?=?JCM 19092(T)?=?NCIMB 14860(T)), respectively. PMID:23793855

Nishijima, Miyuki; Tazato, Nozomi; Handa, Yutaka; Tomita, Junko; Kigawa, Rika; Sano, Chie; Sugiyama, Junta

2013-11-01

329

Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of different agroforestry legume trees.  

PubMed

A total of 18 strains, representing members of the genus Mesorhizobium, obtained from root nodules of woody legumes growing in Ethiopia, have been previously shown, by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes, to form three novel genospecies. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship between representative strains of these three genospecies and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours Mesorhizobium plurifarium, Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium huakuii was further evaluated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. In line with our earlier MLSA of other housekeeping genes, the phylogenetic trees derived from the atpD and glnII genes grouped the test strains into three well-supported, distinct lineages that exclude all defined species of the genus Mesorhizobium. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative strains of genospecies I-III and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours was low (?59?%). They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by the presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The strains belonging to genospecies I, II and III therefore represent novel species for which we propose the names Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov. The isolates AC39a(T) (?=?LMG 26966(T)?=?HAMBI 3295(T)), AC99b(T) (?=?LMG 26968(T)?=?HAMBI 3301(T)) and AC98c(T) (?=?LMG 26967(T)?=?HAMBI 3306(T)) are proposed as type strains for the respective novel species. PMID:22941297

Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Liu, Binbin; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Willems, Anne; Frostegĺrd, Ĺsa

2013-05-01

330

Flavobacterium degerlachei sp. nov., Flavobacterium frigoris sp. nov. and Flavobacterium micromati sp. nov., novel psychrophilic bacteria isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies were performed on 36 strains that were isolated from microbial mats in Antarctic lakes of the Vestfold Hills, the Larsemann Hills and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains are related to members of the genus Flavobacterium; sequence similarity values with their nearest phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 96.8 to 98.5%. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of repetitive extragenic palindromic DNA-PCR fingerprinting patterns revealed that these strains are members of three distinct species. Genotypic results, together with phenotypic characteristics, allowed the differentiation of these species from related Flavobacterium species with validly published names. The isolates are Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, rod-shaped cells that are psychrophilic and moderately halotolerant; their DNA G+C contents range from 33.1 to 34.5 mol%. Their whole-cell fatty acid profiles are similar and include C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:1)omega6c, iso-C(16:0), iso-C(16:0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (which comprises iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, C(16:1)omega7c or both) as major fatty acid components. On the basis of these results, three novel species are proposed, namely Flavobacterium degerlachei sp. nov. (consisting of 14 strains, with LMG 21915T=DSM 15718T as the type strain), Flavobacterium micromati sp. nov. (consisting of three strains, with LMG 21919T=CIP 108161T as the type strain) and Flavobacterium frigoris sp. nov. (consisting of 19 strains, with LMG 21922T=DSM 15719T as the type strain). PMID:14742463

Van Trappen, Stefanie; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean

2004-01-01

331

Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Causes Degradation of Sp100 Proteins That Suppress Viral Gene Expression?  

PubMed Central

The interferon-inducible Sp100 proteins are thought to play roles in the chromatin pathway and in transcriptional regulation. Sp100A, the smallest isoform, is one of the major components of PML nuclear bodies (NBs) that exhibit intrinsic antiviral activity against several viruses. Since PML NBs are disrupted by the immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the modulation of Sp100 protein expression or activity during infection has been suggested. Here, we show that Sp100 proteins are lost largely in the late stages of HCMV infection. This event required viral gene expression and involved posttranscriptional control. The mutant virus with deletion of the sequence for IE1 (CR208) did not have Sp100 loss. In CR208 infection, PML depletion by RNA interference abrogated the accumulation of SUMO-modified Sp100A and of certain high-molecular-weight Sp100 isoforms but did not significantly affect unmodified Sp100A, suggesting that the IE1-induced disruption of PML NBs is not sufficient for the complete loss of Sp100 proteins. Sp100A loss was found to require proteasome activity. Depletion of all Sp100 proteins by RNA silencing enhanced HCMV replication and major IE (MIE) gene expression. Sp100 knockdown enhanced the acetylation level of histones associated with the MIE promoter, demonstrating that the repressive effect of Sp100 proteins may involve, at least in part, the epigenetic control of the MIE promoter. Sp100A was found to interact directly with IE1 through the N-terminal dimerization domain. These findings indicate that the IE1-dependent loss of Sp100 proteins during HCMV infection may represent an important requirement for efficient viral growth.

Kim, Young-Eui; Lee, Jin-Hyoung; Kim, Eui Tae; Shin, Hye Jin; Gu, Su Yeon; Seol, Hyang Sook; Ling, Paul D.; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

2011-01-01

332

The effect of aspect ratio and sp2/sp3 content on the field emission properties of carbon films grown by Ns-spiked PECVD  

SciTech Connect

The authors have deposited carbon films from mixtures of methane and N{sub 2} using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. By changing the percentage of N{sub 2} in the feed gas, they were able to produce films that have various aspect ratios and sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} contents. The film with the highest field emission contains spears of aspect ratio of 10:1. They also found that in their sp{sup 3}-rich films, higher sp{sup 2} content enhanced field emission. This is ascribed to improved charge transport to the field emission sites.

Tong, W.; Felter, T.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Pan, L.S. [Candescent Technologies Corp., San Jose, CA (United States); Anders, S.; Cossy-Facre, A.; Stammler, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

1998-04-01

333

Influence of heavy metals on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the metal resistant strains of Ochrobactrum and Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Three bacterial strains, a cadmium resistant Ochrobactrum sp. designated as CdSP9 and two strains of Bacillus sp. named PbSP6 and AsSP9 resistant to lead and arsenate, respectively were characterized here with respect to their oxidative enzyme activities. The bacterial strains were grown in basal medium supplemented with 50 microg ml(-1) of respective elements to determine the changes in the level of oxidative enzymes. The superoxide dismutase activity increased in all three isolates, but the catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were relatively more in CdSP9 than PbSP6 and AsSP9. The glutathione peroxidase, however, remained almost uninduced in CdSP9 but was enhanced in PbSP6 and AsSP9. A possible role of these enzymes in metal tolerance is evident from these results. PMID:24555333

Pandey, Sanjeev; Barai, Prabir Kumar; Maiti, Tushar K

2013-11-01

334

Microbulbifer gwangyangensis sp. nov. and Microbulbifer pacificus sp. nov., isolated from marine environments.  

PubMed

Two novel Gram-stain-negative, chemoheterotrophic and strictly aerobic bacteria, strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T), were isolated from a tidal flat at Gwangyang Bay in Korea and a marine sponge sample from the Pacific Ocean, respectively. The two strains were halotolerant, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and non-motile rods. Optimum temperature and pH for growth of both strains were observed to be 35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, but optimum salinity for strain SPO729(T) [2-3?% (w/v)] was slightly higher than that for strain GY2(T) (1-2?%). The major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0, iso-C17?:?1?9c, C18?:?1?7c, iso-C11?:?0 and iso-C11?:?0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) were 55.1 and 57.9 mol%, respectively, and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) was detected as the sole respiratory quinone from the two strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) formed tight phyletic lineages with members of the genus Microbulbifer. Strain GY2(T) was closely related to Microbulbifer okinawensis ABABA23(T) (98.2?%), strain SPO729(T) (98.0?%) and Microbulbifer donghaiensis CN85(T) (97.0?%); strain SPO729(T) was closely related to M. okinawensis ABABA23(T) (98.3?%) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) (98.2?%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain GY2(T) with M. okinawensis ABABA23(T), strain SPO729(T) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) were 40.0±2.1?%, 13.1±3.9?% and 16.2±5.8?%, respectively, whereas those of strain SPO729(T) with M. okinawensis ABABA23(T) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) were 48.0±4.0?% and 34.6±9.3?%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular features, it is concluded that the two strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) represent two novel species of the genus Microbulbifer, for which the names Microbulbifer gwangyangensis sp. nov. and Microbulbifer pacificus are proposed; the type strains are GY2(T) (?=?KACC 16189(T)?=?JCM 17800(T)) and SPO729(T) (?=?KCCM 42667(T)?=?JCM 14507(T)), respectively. PMID:22798656

Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Jeon, Che Ok

2013-04-01

335

Biological effect of the Planktothrix sp. FP1 cyanobacterial extract.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are common and potentially harmful inhabitants of freshwater and marine environments worldwide. Some waterbloom-forming cyanobacteria are toxic and they may cause animal death and adversely affect human health. A filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium, Planktothrix sp. FP1, was found to be responsible for a toxic algal bloom in Lake Varese (Italy) during August of 1997. In the present study, the biological effects of the Planktothrix sp. FP1 cell extract on Xenopus embryos and on human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were investigated. FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus) showed that the cyanobacterial extract had no teratogenic potential, though embryotoxicity was detected (LC(50) 2.944g/l wet weight). The same extract inhibited the proliferation of PBMC stimulated in vitro by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and strongly interfered with the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). PMID:11711123

Prati, M; Molteni, M; Pomati, F; Rossetti, C; Bernardini, G

2002-03-01

336

Cretevania bechlyi sp. nov., from Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae).  

PubMed

The fossil evaniid wasp Cretevania bechlyi sp. nov., is described based on a well preserved female specimen from Creta-ceous Burmese amber. The new species is placed in the genus Cretevania Rasnitsyn, 1975 based on the elongation of the mid and hind trochantellus, the fore wing venation (e.g. first marginal cell triangular and broad, 2m-cu absent, second sub-marginal cell separated from first discal cell), the shape of the petiole (subcylindrical with distal extension) and other dis-tinct morphological features. Cretevania bechlyi sp. nov. differs from all previously described species in having just 10 flagellomeres (11 in other members of the genus) and in the presence of notauli (absent in other species). The new species represents the first species of Cretevania from Burmese amber and significantly expands the known morphological diver-sity of Mesozoic Evaniidae. PMID:24699575

Jennings, John T; Krogmann, Lars; Mew, Steven L

2013-01-01

337

Responses of Rhodotorula sp. Y11 to cadmium.  

PubMed

Some aspects of the cellular responses to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Rhodotorula sp. Y11. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that accumulation of cadmium in the Y11 did not cause any visible effects on cell morphology. More than 20% yeast cells still showed viability after 15 h of cadmium accumulation under 100 mg l(-1) cadmium concentration, and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that plasmolysis and thickened cell wall were not observed in all of the cells. In the presence of cadmium, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were all greater than the control, but the increase was in a dose-independent manner. Changes in SOD and CAT activities were also dependent on the time of exposure. Therefore, it suggests that antioxidative defenses play an important role in cadmium tolerance in Rhodotorula sp. Y11. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels revealed only one SOD isoforms in Y11 even under exposure to cadmium. PMID:18509594

Li, Zhijian; Yuan, Hongli

2008-12-01

338

Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by the identification of genes and characterization of encoded enzymes and has been further defined by the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome, which we describe. In addition to genes implicated in the utilization of ?-1,4-xylan, genes have also been identified for the utilization of other hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The genome of Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 contains 7,184,930 bp in a single replicon with 6,288 protein-coding and 122 RNA genes. Uniquely prominent are 874 genes encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The prevalence and organization of these genes support a metabolic potential for bioprocessing of hemicellulose fractions derived from lignocellulosic resources. PMID:22675593

Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; St John, Franz J; Rice, John D; Dickstein, Ellen; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Martin, Joel; Copeland, Alex; Land, Miriam L; Goodwin, Lynne; Jones, Jeffrey B; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T; Preston, James F

2012-03-19

339

Helicobacter sp. Flexispira Bacteremia in an Immunocompetent Young Adult  

PubMed Central

A young immunocompetent patient was admitted for a febrile illness with malaise, arthralgias, painful leg swelling, and polyserositis. Shortly prior to becoming ill, the patient had traveled to the Northern African desert. The symptoms disappeared during treatment with antibiotics (doxycycline and ceftriaxone) but recurred twice after stopping therapy. A motile gram-negative fusiform rod was isolated from a blood culture taken on the first admission. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the blood culture isolate revealed close similarity with Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (99.9% identity), a species that was previously reported as “Flexispira rappini.” This is the first reported case of a recurrent Helicobacter sp. flexispira bacteremia in an adult, immunocompetent patient.

Iten, Anne; Graf, Susanne; Egger, Martin; Tauber, Martin; Graf, Joerg

2001-01-01

340

Dechlorination of Atrazine by a Rhizobium sp. Isolate  

PubMed Central

A Rhizobium sp. strain, named PATR, was isolated from an agricultural soil and found to actively degrade the herbicide atrazine. Incubation of PATR in a basal liquid medium containing 30 mg of atrazine liter(sup-1) resulted in the rapid consumption of the herbicide and the accumulation of hydroxyatrazine as the only metabolite detected after 8 days of culture. Experiments performed with ring-labeled [(sup14)C]atrazine indicated no mineralization. The enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of atrazine was partially purified and found to consist of four 50-kDa subunits. Its synthesis in PATR was constitutive. This new atrazine hydrolase demonstrated 92% sequence identity through a 24-amino-acid fragment with atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

Bouquard, C.; Ouazzani, J.; Prome, J.; Michel-Briand, Y.; Plesiat, P.

1997-01-01

341

Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.  

PubMed

Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415

Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N

2014-01-01

342

Description of Goffartia phalacra n. sp. (Diplogastridae: Nematoda) from India  

PubMed Central

A new species, Goffartia phalacra n. sp. is described and illustrated. The body is thin and slender with L = 511 to 646 ?m; a = 37.1 to 47.4; b = 4.8 to 6; c = 2.6 to 4.8; c? = 13.6 to 32.8; V = 40% to 49% in females. Males are smaller but similar to females and the posterior region is strongly curved. The species is characterized by a tubular stoma, a smooth round lip region, anterior pharynx much smaller than posterior pharynx, two pairs of unicellular glands associated with the vagina, and males with a broad keel-shaped gubernaculum. G. phalacra n. sp. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus by its lip region and the structure of the gubernaculum. This is the first instance of a species of Goffartia occurring in a terrestrial habitat and the first report of a species from India.

Singh, Gaurav K.; Yousuf, Gazala; Kumar, Puneet; Ahmad, Irfan

2014-01-01

343

Abscesos cerebelosos secundarios a infección de seno dérmico occipital  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dermal sinus is a congenital defect arising from a closure failure of the neural tube that results in different degrees of communication between the skin and the central nervous system. A dermal sinus can occur anywhere from the root of the nose to the conus medullaris, and the occipital location is the second most common. Dermal sinuses are often

A. García Galera; M. I. Martínez León; S. Pérez da Rosa; B. Ros López

344

Steroid biotransformation by different strains of Micrococcus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain ofMicrococcus sp. was isolated for its capability of side chain degradation of cholesterol. This strain was characterized and identified\\u000a asMicrococcus roseus. It was found to be the best strain for the production of androsta-1,4-diene-3, 17-dione and androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione compared\\u000a with otherMicrococcus strains.

N. Dogra; G. N. Qazi

2001-01-01

345

[A case of human infection with Clinostomum sp].  

PubMed

The genus Clinostomum is a cause of parasitic laryngo-pharyngitis. We report the 15th case of Clinostomum sp. infection in Japan. A 29-year-old female visited our hospital because of throat discomfort and expectoration of a worm by sneezing on November 17, 1997. The pharyngitis was caused by the worm. The worm was morphologically identified as the adult of the genus Clinostomum. PMID:9884513

Shirai, R; Matsubara, K; Ohnishi, T; Nishiyama, H; Miyamoto, J; Watanabe, A; Harada, R; Kadota, J; Kohno, S

1998-11-01

346

Rhinoleucophenga joaquina sp. nov. (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from the Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The genus Rhinoleucophenga Hendel comprises 18 nominal species and has a Neotropical and Nearctic distribution. A new species was found in a collection in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, and is described as Rhinoleucophenga joaquina sp. nov. The specimens found were reared from flowers of Dyckia encholirioides (Bromeliaceae), collected in a region of restinga on the dunes. The use of flowers as breeding site for Rhinoleucophenga has never been reported before. PMID:20098925

Schmitz, Hermes J; Gottschalk, Marco S; Valente, Vera L S

2009-01-01

347

AFLP assessment of genetic variability among velvetbean (Mucuna sp.) accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velvetbean (Mucuna sp.) is a self-pollinated crop classified within the Leguminosae. Using AFLP markers, gene diversity and phenetic relationships\\u000a were estimated in a collection of 40 velvetbean accessions from cultivated species and different eco-geographic regions. Eleven\\u000a selective primer combinations generated a total of 508 amplification products. The average number of scorable fragments was\\u000a 23 per primer combination. A total of

L. J. A. Capo-chichi; D. B. Weaver; C. M. Morton

2001-01-01

348

Antimicrobial isoflavonoids from Erythrina crista galli infected with Phomopsis sp.  

PubMed

The isoflavonoids coumestrol, genistein and daidzein have been isolated and identified by bioassay-guided fractionation from the acetone extract of Erythrina crista galli young twigs infected with Phomopsis sp. These compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus brevis (MIC values 16.3, 64.8 and 137.8 microM, respectively). This is the first time that coumestrol, besides lutein and n-nonacosane, are reported in this species. PMID:17542479

Redko, Flavia; Clavin, María L; Weber, Daniela; Ranea, Fernando; Anke, Timm; Martino, Virginia

2007-01-01

349

New chlamydosporol derivatives from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001.  

PubMed

Two new chlamydosporol derivatives, fusarilactone A (1) and fusarilactone B (2), together with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from the crude extract of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed mild cytotoxicities against three tumor cell lines (SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7). PMID:24717139

Chen, Zi-Ming; Dong, Wen-Bin; Li, Zheng-Hui; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

2014-05-01

350

Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of novel glucoamylase from Humicola sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra-cellular glucoamylase of Humicola sp. produced under submerged growth condition (10.44Umg?1 protein) was purified to homogeneity level by using three-step purification procedure. Crude enzyme was subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation, Hiload anion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction column chromatography on FPLC purification system. The purified glucoamylase was monomeric in nature because native molecular mass on gel column chromatography and sub-unit

Muhammad Riaz; Raheela Perveen; Muhammad Rizwan Javed; Habibullah Nadeem; Muhammad Hamid Rashid

2007-01-01

351

Tributyl phosphate degradation by immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tributyl phosphate (TBP), a plasticizer and solvent, is used in nuclear fuel reprocessing, generating TBP wastes laden with\\u000a residual uranium. ACitrobacter sp. accumulated heavy metals via a phosphohydrolase(s) that precipitated metals with inorganic phosphate liberated from an\\u000a organic phosphate “donor” molecule (TBP). Mutant analysis suggested that TBP hydrolysis was not attributable to a previously\\u000a documented acid phosphatase (monoesterase). Purified monoesterase

S. Owen; B. C. Jeong; P. S. Poole; L. E. Macaskie

1992-01-01

352

STREPTOMYCES NODOSUS SP. N., THE AMPHOTERICIN-PRODUCING ORGANISM  

PubMed Central

Trejo, William (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and Ralph E. Bennett. Streptomyces nodosus sp. n., the amphotericin-producing organism. J. Bacteriol. 85:436–439. 1963.—Streptomyces nodosus, the amphotericin-producing organism, is described as a new species in conformity with the rules of nomenclature as applied to streptomycetes. The relationship between S. nodosus and S. rutgersensis is discussed, and the basis for separation of the species is presented. Images

Trejo, William H.; Bennett, R. E.

1963-01-01

353

Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CSâ, FeSâ, and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide,

Toshio Omori; L. Monna; Yuko Saiki; Tohru Kodama

1992-01-01

354

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by diverse Diaphorobacter sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight bacterial isolates closely related to Diaphorobacter sp. were isolated from activated biomass surviving on wastewater laden with dyes and nitro-substituted chemicals and were\\u000a identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed sequence similarity of 99–100% to other Diaphorobacter strains such as ZY 2006b, F2, NA5, PCA039, D. nitroreducens KSP4, and KSP3 and 98–99% sequence homology to D. nitroreducens

Anshuman A. Khardenavis; Atya Kapley; Hemant J. Purohit

2007-01-01

355

Characterization of cadmium removal by Rhodotorula sp. Y11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted studying the removal of Cd2+ from water via biosorption using Rhodotorula sp. Y11. The effects of temperature and initial pH of the solution on biosorption were studied. Caustic and heat treatments showed different influences on the biosorption capacity, and the highest metal uptake value (19.38 mg g?1) was obtained by boiling treated yeast cells. The presence of competing

Zhijian Li; Hongli Yuan

2006-01-01

356

Beta-carboline alkaloids derived from the ascidian Synoicum sp.  

PubMed

Six ?-carboline alkaloids (1-6) of the eudistomin Y class were isolated from the Korean ascidian Synoicum sp. These compounds were chemically converted to a known compound, eudistomin Y(1) (7) and six new derivatives, designated eudistomins Y(8)-Y(13) (8-13). Several of these natural and synthetic compounds exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activity, weak cytotoxic activity, and inhibitory activities toward sortase A, isocitrate lyase, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Structure-activity relationships were also deduced. PMID:22652254

Won, Tae Hyung; Jeon, Ju-Eun; Lee, So-Hyoung; Rho, Boon Jo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

2012-07-01

357

Characterization of Clostridium sp. RKD producing botulinum-like neurotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gram positive, motile, rod-shaped, strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from intestine of decaying fish was identified as Clostridium sp. RKD and produced a botulinum type B-like neurotoxin as suggested by mouse bioassay and protection with anti botulinum antibodies. The neurotoxicity was functionally characterized by the phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm assay. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence, placed it at a

Aparna Dixit; Ram Kumar Dhaked; Syed Imteyaz Alam; Lokendra Singh

2005-01-01

358

Isolation of promoter sequences from Brevibacterium sp. R312.  

PubMed

Promoter sequences recognized by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were isolated from Brevibacterium sp. R312, a coryneform strain producing nitrile hydratase and amidase. Ten Escherichia coli clones containing promoter sequences were selected for their ability to grow with chloramphenicol concentrations of up to 1500 micrograms/ml. The strength of these promoter sequences was determined. We carried out a preliminary study of the strongest promoter having a chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase/beta-lactamase activities ratio of 18.4. PMID:1471439

Duran, R; Chion, C K; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1992-11-01

359

Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov., Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov., Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. and Candida manassasensis sp. nov., novel yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, and their ecological and biofuel implications.  

PubMed

During a survey of yeasts associated with wood-ingesting insects, 69 strains in the Scheffersomyces clade and related taxa were isolated from passalid and tenebrionid beetles and the decayed wood inhabited by them. The majority of these yeasts was found to be capable of fermenting xylose, and was recognized as Scheffersomyces stipitis or its close relative Scheffersomyces illinoinensis, which are known to be associated with wood-decaying beetles and rotten wood. Yeasts in 'Scheffersomyces' (?=?Candida) ergatensis and 'Scheffersomyces' (?=?Candida) coipomoensis were also frequently isolated. The remaining six strains were identified as representing four novel species in the genera Scheffersomyces and Candida based on multilocus sequence analyses of nuclear rRNA genes and four protein-coding genes, as well as other taxonomic characteristics. Two xylose-fermenting species, Scheffersomyces parashehatae f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4653(T)?=?CBS 12535(T)?=?EH045(T); MycoBank MB805440) and Scheffersomyces xylosifermentans f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4859(T)?=?CBS 12540(T)?=?MY10-052(T); MycoBank MB805441), formed a clade with Scheffersomyces shehatae and related Scheffersomyces species. Interestingly, S. xylosifermentans can survive at 40 °C, which is a rare property among xylose-fermenting yeasts. Candida broadrunensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4650(T)?=?CBS 11838(T)?=?EH019(T); MycoBank MB805442) is a sister taxon of C. ergatensis, while Candida manassasensis sp. nov. (type strain ATCC MYA-4652(T)?=?CBS 12534(T)?=?EH030(T); MycoBank MB805443) is closely related to Candida palmioleophila in the Candida glaebosa clade. The multilocus DNA sequence comparisons in this study suggest that the genus Scheffersomyces needs to be circumscribed to the species near S. stipitis (type species) and S. shehatae that can be characterized by the ability to ferment xylose. PMID:24014624

Suh, Sung-Oui; Houseknecht, Janice L; Gujjari, Pushpa; Zhou, Jianlong J

2013-11-01

360

SP-100 reactor disassembly remote handling test program  

SciTech Connect

This paper is presented as an overview of the remote handling equipment validation testing, which will be conducted before installation and use in the ground engineering test facility. This equipment will be used to defuel the SP-100 reactor core after removing it from the Test Assembly following nuclear testing. A series of full scale mock-up operational tests will be conducted at a Hanford Site facility to verify equipment design, operation, and capabilities.

Maiden, G.E.; Potter, J.D.; Vader, D.P.; Wilson, C.E.

1990-05-01

361

CELL RENEWAL AND APOPTOSIS IN MACROSTOMUM SP. [ LIGNANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In platyhelminths, all cell renewal is accomplished by totipotent stem cells (neoblasts). Tissue maintenance is achieved in a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is known that in Macrostomum sp. the epidermis undergoes extensive cell renewal. Here we show that parenchymal cells also exhibit a high rate of cell turnover. We demonstrate cell renewal using continuous 5?bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) exposure.

K. Nimeth; P. Ladurner; R. Gschwentner; W. Salvenmoser; R. Rieger

2002-01-01

362

Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from Fujian Coast, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoglossum fujianensis sp. nov. is an epiphytic alga in the intertidal zone. Plants are light red, 0.9 2 cm high. Margin of branches gives rise to uniseriate hair-like rhizoids, formed outward from the fusion of the second-and third-order cells. Blades are single layered (except the midrib) and uncorticated. Tetrasporangial sori are formed on the middle part of blades. The globular tetrasporangia are developed from lateral pericentral cells.

Zheng, Yi

1998-12-01

363

Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran.  

PubMed

A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

2013-01-01

364

XPS and XANES studies of uranium reduction by Clostridium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speciation of uranium in cultures of Clostridium sp. by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the National Synchrotron Light Source and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that U(VI) was reduced to U(IV). In addition to U(IV), a lower oxidation state of uranium, most probably U(III), was detected by XANES in the bacterial cultures. Reduction of uranium occurred only in

Arokiasamy J. Francis; Cleveland J. Dodge; Fulong Lu; Gary P. Halada; Clive R. Clayton

1994-01-01

365

Screening and characterization of bioflocculant produced by isolated Klebsiella sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen strains of polymer-producing bacteria were isolated from the activated sludge samples taken from two seafood processing\\u000a plants in Southern Thailand. Their culture broths possessed the ability to flocculate kaolin suspension in the presence of\\u000a 1% CaCl2. Based on the flocculating activity, the strain S11 was selected and identified to be a Klebsiella sp. using the partial 16S rRNA sequencing

W. Dermlim; P. Prasertsan; H. Doelle

1999-01-01

366

Natural transformation of Thermotoga sp. strain RQ7  

PubMed Central

Background Thermotoga species are organisms of enormous interest from a biotechnological as well as evolutionary point of view. Genetic modifications of Thermotoga spp. are often desired in order to fully release their multifarious potentials. Effective transformation of recombinant DNA into these bacteria constitutes a critical step of such efforts. This study aims to establish natural competency in Thermotoga spp. and to provide a convenient method to transform these organisms. Results Foreign DNA was found to be relatively stable in the supernatant of a Thermotoga culture for up to 6 hours. Adding donor DNA to T. sp. strain RQ7 at its early exponential growth phase (OD600 0.18?~?0.20) resulted in direct acquisition of the DNA by the cells. Both T. neapolitana chromosomal DNA and Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors effectively transformed T. sp. strain RQ7, rendering the cells resistance to kanamycin. The kan gene carried by the shuttle vector pDH10 was detected by PCR from the plasmid extract of the transformants, and the amplicons were verified by restriction digestions. A procedure for natural transformation of Thermotoga spp. was established and optimized. With the optimized method, T. sp. strain RQ7 sustained a transformation frequency in the order of 10-7 with both genomic and plasmid DNA. Conclusions T. sp. strain RQ7 cells are naturally transformable during their early exponential phase. They acquire DNA from both closely and distantly related species. Both chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA serve as suitable substrates for transformation. Our findings lend a convenient technical tool for the genetic engineering of Thermotoga spp.

2014-01-01

367

Aerobic degradation of diethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobic diethyl phthalate (DEP) degrading bacterium, DEP-AD1, was isolated from activated sludge. Based on its 16S rDNA sequence, this isolate was identified belonging to Sphingomonas genus with 99% similarity to Sphingomonas sp. strain C28242 and 98% similarity to S. capsulate. The specific degradation rate of DEP was concentration dependent with a maximum of 14mg-DEP\\/(Lh). Results of degradation tests showed

Herbert H. P. Fang; Dawei Liang; Tong Zhang

2007-01-01

368

Short Communication Aerobic degradation of diethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobic diethyl phthalate (DEP) degrading bacterium, DEP-AD1, was isolated from activated sludge. Based on its 16S rDNA sequence, this isolate was identified belonging to Sphingomonas genus with 99% similarity to Sphingomonas sp. strain C28242 and 98% similarity to S. capsulate. The specific degradation rate of DEP was concentration dependent with a maximum of 14 mg-DEP\\/ (L h). Results of

Herbert H. P. Fang; Dawei Liang; Tong Zhang

369

Metal ion accumulation by immobilised cells of Brevibacterium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

  This paper explores the use of an experimental system based on polyacrylamide-entrapped cells of Brevibacterium sp strain PBZ for the removal of metal ions from solutions. Experiments were performed in columns filled with the immobilised\\u000a cells and challenged with influents containing 20?mg L?1 of lead and 10?mg L?1 of cadmium. The cells were able to accumulate lead (about 40?mg g?1

D Di Simine; C Finoli; A Vecchio; V Andreoni

1998-01-01

370

Reduction of Cr(VI) by a Bacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bacillus sp. RE was resistant to chromium and reduced Cr(VI) without accumulating chromium inside the cell. When Cr(VI) was 10 and 40 l gm l )1, >95% of the total Cr(VI) was reduced in 24 and 72 h of growth, respectively, whereas at 80 lg Cr(VI) ml)1 only 50% of Cr(VI) was reduced. However growth was not affected; the

R. Elangovan; S. Abhipsa; B. Rohit; P. Ligy; K. Chandraraj

2006-01-01

371

Biodegradation of p -nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol by Stenotrophomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterium named LZ-1 capable of utilizing high concentrations of p-nitrophenol (PNP) (up to 500mgL1) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy was isolated from an activated sludge. Based on the results of phenotypic features and phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain LZ-1 was identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. Other p-substituted phenols such as 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)

Zheng Liu; Chao Yang; Chuanling Qiao

372

Interaction of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A with DPPC/Egg-PG Bilayers  

PubMed Central

In the mixture of lipids and proteins which comprise pulmonary surfactant, the dominant protein by mass is surfactant protein A (SP-A), a hydrophilic glycoprotein. SP-A forms octadecamers that interact with phospholipid bilayer surfaces in the presence of calcium. Deuterium NMR was used to characterize the perturbation by SP-A, in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+, of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) properties in DPPC/egg-PG (7:3) bilayers. Effects of SP-A were uniformly distributed over the observed DPPC population. SP-A reduced DPPC chain orientational order significantly in the gel phase but only slightly in the liquid-crystalline phase. Quadrupole echo decay times for DPPC chain deuterons were sensitive to SP-A in the liquid-crystalline mixture but not in the gel phase. SP-A reduced quadrupole splittings of DPPC choline ?-deuterons but had little effect on choline ?-deuteron splittings. The observed effects of SP-A on DPPC/egg-PG bilayer properties differ from those of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C. This is consistent with the expectation that SP-A interacts primarily at bilayer surfaces.

Morrow, Michael R.; Abu-Libdeh, Nidal; Stewart, June; Keough, Kevin M. W.

2003-01-01

373

Purification of surfactant protein D (SP-D) from pooled amniotic fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein SP-D is a multimeric collagenous lectin, called collectin. SP-D is a multifunctional, pattern recognition innate immune molecule, which binds in a calcium dependent manner to an array of carbohydrates and lipids, thus offering resistance to invading pathogens, allergen challenge, and pulmonary inflammation. SP-D is predominantly found in the endoplasmic reticulum of type 2 pneumocytes and in the secretory granules of Clara or non-ciliated bronchiolar cells. The highest expression of SP-D is observed in the distal airways and alveoli. There is also an extra pulmonary existence of SP-D. The common sources of native full-length human SP-D are bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) washings from normal or preferably patients suffering from alveolar proteinosis who overproduce SP-D in the lungs. Amniotic fluid collected at the term during parturition is another reasonable source. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method of purifying native SP-D away from SP-A which is also present in the same source. We also describe procedures of expressing and purifying a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) comprising trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domains that has been shown to have therapeutic effects in murine models of allergy and infection. PMID:24218267

Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Qaseem, Asif S; Karbani, Najmunisa; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Waters, Patrick; Madan, Taruna; Kishore, Uday

2014-01-01

374

Interaction of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-A with DPPC/egg-PG bilayers.  

PubMed

In the mixture of lipids and proteins which comprise pulmonary surfactant, the dominant protein by mass is surfactant protein A (SP-A), a hydrophilic glycoprotein. SP-A forms octadecamers that interact with phospholipid bilayer surfaces in the presence of calcium. Deuterium NMR was used to characterize the perturbation by SP-A, in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+), of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) properties in DPPC/egg-PG (7:3) bilayers. Effects of SP-A were uniformly distributed over the observed DPPC population. SP-A reduced DPPC chain orientational order significantly in the gel phase but only slightly in the liquid-crystalline phase. Quadrupole echo decay times for DPPC chain deuterons were sensitive to SP-A in the liquid-crystalline mixture but not in the gel phase. SP-A reduced quadrupole splittings of DPPC choline beta-deuterons but had little effect on choline alpha-deuteron splittings. The observed effects of SP-A on DPPC/egg-PG bilayer properties differ from those of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C. This is consistent with the expectation that SP-A interacts primarily at bilayer surfaces. PMID:14507703

Morrow, Michael R; Abu-Libdeh, Nidal; Stewart, June; Keough, Kevin M W

2003-10-01

375

Interactions between NF-?B and SP3 Connect Inflammatory Signaling with Reduced FGF-10 Expression*  

PubMed Central

Inflammation inhibits normal lung morphogenesis in preterm infants. Soluble inflammatory mediators present in the lungs of patients developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia disrupt expression of multiple genes critical for development. However, the mechanisms linking innate immune signaling and developmental programs are not clear. NF-?B activation inhibits expression of the critical morphogen FGF-10. Here, we show that interactions between the RELA subunit of NF-?B and SP3 suppress SP1-mediated FGF-10 expression. SP3 co-expression reduced SP1-mediated Fgf-10 promoter activity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between SP1 and SP3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of LPS-treated primary mouse fetal lung mesenchymal cells detected increased interactions between SP3, RELA, and the Fgf-10 promoter. Expression of a constitutively active I?B kinase ? mutant not only decreased Fgf-10 promoter activity but also increased RELA-SP3 nuclear interactions. Expression of a dominant-negative I?B, which blocks NF-?B nuclear translocation, prevented inhibition of FGF-10 by SP3. The inhibitory functions of SP3 required sequences located in the N-terminal region of the protein. These data suggested that inhibition of FGF-10 by inflammatory signaling involves the NF-?B-dependent interactions between RELA, SP3, and the Fgf-10 promoter. NF-?B activation may therefore lead to reduced gene expression by recruiting inhibitory factors to specific gene promoters following exposure to inflammatory stimuli.

Carver, Billy J.; Plosa, Erin J.; Stinnett, Amanda M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Prince, Lawrence S.

2013-01-01

376

Transcriptional regulation by post-transcriptional modification--role of phosphorylation in Sp1 transcriptional activity.  

PubMed

Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including housekeeping genes as well as actively regulated genes. Although Sp1 was discovered nearly three decades ago, its functional diversity is still not completely understood. One of the ways that make Sp1 versatile in transcriptional regulation is its post-transcriptional modification, which alters Sp1 structure in different cells and at different times. Compared to other types of modifications of the Sp1 protein, phosphorylation has been studied far more extensively. This review focuses on the inducers, pathways, enzymes, and biological effects of Sp1 phosphorylation. Recent data are beginning to reveal the biological significance and universal presence of Sp1 phosphorylation-related cell/molecular responses. Studies in this field provide a quick glance at how a simple chemical modification of a transcription factor could produce significant functional diversity of the protein. PMID:22835698

Chu, Shijian

2012-10-15

377

Functional role of post-translational modifications of Sp1 in tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Specific protein 1 (Sp1), the first transcription factor to be isolated, regulates the expression of numerous genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Recent studies found that an increase in Sp1 transcriptional activity is associated with the tumorigenesis. Moreover, post-translational modifications of Sp1, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination, and methylation, regulate Sp1 transcriptional activity and modulate target gene expression by affecting its DNA binding activity, transactivation activity, or protein level. In addition, recent studies have investigated several compounds with anti-cancer activity that could inhibit Sp1 transcriptional activity. In this review, we describe the effect of various post-translational modifications on Sp1 transcriptional activity and discuss compounds that inhibit the activity of Sp1.

2012-01-01

378

SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

Mason, Lee S.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Mansfield, Brian C.

1992-01-01

379

Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.  

PubMed

Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-05-01

380

Metabolism of glyphosate in an Arthrobacter sp. GLP-1.  

PubMed

The metabolism of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] in a bacterium tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp., capable of growth on this herbicide as its sole phosphorus source, has been investigated using solid-state NMR techniques as well as radiotracer analysis. The pathway involves the conversion of glyphosate to glycine, a C1 unit and phosphate. The phosphonomethyl carbon is specifically incorporated into the amino acids serine, cysteine, methionine, and histidine, as well as into purine bases and thymine, indicating the involvement of tetrahydrofolate in single-carbon transfer reactions. Glycine derived from glyphosate is utilized in purine and protein biosynthesis. This pathway for glyphosate degradation in a gram-positive bacterium is similar to that previously reported for Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 [Jacob et al. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5899-5905] and is distinct from that reported for soil metabolism of glyphosate where aminomethylphosphonic acid has been shown to be a major metabolite. Preliminary evidence is presented which indicates that the conversion of glyphosate to glycine and the C1 unit involves the intermediate formation of sarcosine. Thus, the primary event in glyphosate degradation by Arthrobacter sp. GLP-1 is the cleavage of its C-P bound. This report constitutes the first demonstration of the metabolism of glyphosate in a gram-positive bacterium. PMID:2439330

Pipke, R; Amrhein, N; Jacob, G S; Schaefer, J; Kishore, G M

1987-06-01

381

Users guide to the Argonne SP scheduling system  

SciTech Connect

During the past five years scientists discovered that modern UNIX workstations connected with ethernet and fiber networks could provide enough computational performance to compete with the supercomputers of the day. As this concept became increasingly popular, the need for distributed queuing and scheduling systems became apparent. Today, supercomputers, such as Argonne National Laboratory`s IBM SP system, can provide more CPU and networking speed than can be obtained from these networks of workstations. These modern supercomputers look like clusters of workstations, however, so developers felt that the scheduling systems that were previously used on clusters of workstations should still apply. After trying to apply some of these scheduling systems to Argonne`s SP environment, it became obvious that these two computer environments have very different scheduling needs. Recognizing this need and realizing that no one has addressed it, we developed a new scheduling system. The approach taken in creating this system was unique in that user input and interaction were encouraged throughout the development process. Thus, a scheduler was built that actually worked the way the users wanted it to work. This document serves a dual purpose. It is both a user`s guide and an administrator`s guide for the ANL SP scheduling system. Look for revisions to this guide that will be appearing.

Lifka, D.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois Inst. of Technology, IL (United States); Henderson, M.W.; Rayl, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-05-01

382

Isolation and Characterization of a Cyclohexane-Metabolizing Xanthobacter sp  

PubMed Central

An unusual Xanthobacter sp., capable of independent growth on cyclohexane as the sole source of carbon and energy, has been isolated from soil by using classical enrichment techniques. The mean generation time for growth on cyclohexane was 6 h. The microorganism showed a limited ability to utilize hydrocarbons, with only alicyclic hydrocarbons closely related to cyclohexane supporting growth. Ultrastructural studies indicated the presence of electron-transparent vesicles in the cyclohexane-grown Xanthobacter sp., but the presence of complex intracytoplasmic membranes could not be identified. A soluble inducible enzyme capable of oxidizing cyclohexane was identified in cell extracts. This enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5, an absolute specificity for NADPH, and a stoichiometric requirement for molecular O2 which was consistent with the formation of cyclohexanol. The enzyme showed no activity towards straight chain alkanes and only a limited activity towards unsaturated ring compounds. Enzymatic studies with cell extracts have indicated the main route of metabolism of cyclohexane by this Xanthobacter sp. to proceed via cyclohexane ? cyclohexanol ? cyclohexanone ? 1-oxa-2-oxocycloheptane (?-caprolactone) ? 6-hydroxyhexanoate (6-hydroxycaproate) ? ? adipic acid. Alternative routes involving initial double hydroxylation of the cyclohexane ring may operate fortuituously but are unlikely to represent major pathways for the dissimilation of cyclohexane by this microorganism.

Trower, Michael K.; Buckland, R. Martin; Higgins, Raymond; Griffin, Martin

1985-01-01

383

Putative Porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) Bacteroids Induced by Glyphosate?  

PubMed Central

Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

de Maria, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M. Teresa; Garcia-Luque, Isabel; Gonzalez-Sama, Alfonso; de Lacoba, Mario Garcia; de Felipe, M. Rosario; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes

2007-01-01

384

Multifocal myositis associated with Sarcocystis sp in a horse.  

PubMed

Multifocal myositis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding on the basis of history and findings on physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and microscopic examination of frozen sections of muscle biopsy specimens. Histologic examination of the muscle specimen revealed multifocal accumulations of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, with attendant myofiber degeneration and necrosis. Parasitic cysts with morphologic characteristics of Sarcocystis sp were found in regions of myocyte degeneration and necrosis, and in regions of normal muscle. Based on a tentative diagnosis of Sarcocystis sp-induced myositis, the horse was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine for 28 days, phenylbutazone for 5 days, and paddock rest for 30 days. At the end of treatment, the horse had gained 35 kg, its appetite had returned to normal, and muscle mass was returning to normal. Sarcocystis fayeri is the only Sarcocystis sp reported in equine muscle in the United States and is rarely associated with acute myositis or muscle atrophy. The development of clinical signs in this horse could have been the result of an underlying immunosuppression or infection with a particularly pathogenic strain or large infective dose of S fayeri. PMID:7730127

Traub-Dargatz, J L; Schlipf, J W; Granstrom, D E; Ingram, J T; Shelton, G D; Getzy, D M; Lappin, M R; Baker, D C

1994-12-01

385

Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).  

PubMed

To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators. PMID:24102740

Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

2014-01-01

386

ARSENIC TRIOXIDE DOWNREGULATES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND INHIBITS BLADDER CANCER CELL AND TUMOR GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Arsenic trioxide exhibits antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activity in cancer cells, and many genes associated with these responses are regulated by specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. Treatment of cancer cells derived from urologic (bladder and prostate) and gastrointestinal (pancreas and colon) tumors with arsenic trioxide demonstrated that these cells exhibited differential responsiveness to the antiproliferative effects of this agent and this paralleled their differential repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins in the same cell lines. Using arsenic trioxide responsive KU7 and non-responsive 253JB-V bladder cancer cells as models, we show that in KU7 cells, ? 5 ?M arsenic trioxide decreased Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and several Sp-dependent genes and responses including cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor, bcl-2, survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas at concentrations up to 15 ?M, minimal effects were observed in 253JB-V cells. Arsenic trioxide also inhibited tumor growth in athymic mice bearing KU7 cells as xenografts, and expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was significantly decreased. Inhibitors of oxidative stress such as glutathione or dithiothreitol protected KU7 cells from arsenic trioxide-induced antiproliferative activity and Sp repression, whereas glutathione depletion sensitized 253JB-V cells to arsenic trioxide. Mechanistic studies suggested that arsenic trioxide-dependent downregulation of Sp and Sp-dependent genes was due to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of reactive oxygen species, and the role of peroxides in mediating these responses was confirmed using hydrogen peroxide.

Jutooru, Indira; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Lei, Ping; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Safe, Stephen

2010-01-01

387

Enhancing lipid productivity by co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10.  

PubMed

To improve lipid productivity, co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 for lipid production was studied. Compared with mono-cultivations, co-cultivation of the two microalgae significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield, and enhanced the lipid productivity (29.52 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Fatty acid compositions significantly varied in different cultivations. The content of C18 fatty acids in co-cultivation significantly increased, especially for oleic acid (32.45%) and linolenic acid (10.03%) compared with that in mono-cultivation. Moreover, high saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (55.85%) were obtained in co-cultivation, which suggests their potential as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:24491914

Zhao, Peng; Yu, Xuya; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianhua; Huang, Zunxi

2014-07-01

388

Description of Afipia birgiae sp. nov. and Afipia massiliensis sp. nov. and recognition of Afipia felis genospecies A.  

PubMed

On the basis of phenotypic characterization and DNA relatedness, two novel species are proposed, Afipia birgiae sp. nov. (type strain 34632T = CIP 106344T = CCUG 43108T) and Afipia massiliensis sp. nov. (type strain 34633T = CIP 107022T = CCUG 45153T). A new genospecies is described, named Afipia felis genospecies A, closely related to Afipia felis. The complexity encountered in the taxonomy of the Bradyrhizobiaceae group within the alpha-2 subgroup of the Proteobacteria is discussed and the description of these novel species highlights the need for new tools for phylogenetic analysis in the group. The novel species herein described are fastidious bacteria isolated from a hospital water supply in co-culture with amoebae. It is hypothesized that this group of bacteria are a potential cause of nosocomial infections. PMID:12361286

La Scola, Bernard; Mallet, Marie-Noëlle; Grimont, Patrick A D; Raoult, Didier

2002-09-01

389

Inhibition of xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. by a peptidic aspartic protease inhibitor from Penicillium sp. VM24.  

PubMed

A bifunctional inhibitor from Penicillium sp VM24 causing inactivation of xyloglucanase from Thermomonospora sp and an aspartic protease from Aspergillus saitoi was identified. Steady state kinetics studies of xyloglucanase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive, two-step inhibition mechanism with IC(50) and K(i) values of 780 and 500nM respectively. The interaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPTA)-labeled xyloglucanase with the inhibitor revealed that the inhibitor binds to the active site of the enzyme. Far- and near-UV spectrophotometric analysis suggests that the conformational changes induced in xyloglucanase by the inhibitor may be due to irreversible denaturation of enzyme. The bifunctional inhibitor may have potential as a biocontrol agent for the protection of plants against phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:22940347

Menon, Vishnu; Rao, Mala

2012-11-01

390

Enterococcus ureilyticus sp. nov. and Enterococcus rotai sp. nov., two urease-producing enterococci from the environment.  

PubMed

A set of 25 urease-producing, yellow-pigmented enterococci was isolated from environmental sources. Phenotypic classification divided the isolates into two phena. Both phena were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA base composition, rep-PCR fingerprinting and automated ribotyping. The obtained data distinguished the isolates from all members of the genus Enterococcus with validly published names and placed them in the Enterococcus faecalis species group. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, pheS and rpoA sequencing and whole-cell protein electrophoresis provided conclusive evidence for the classification of each phenon as a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the names Enterococcus ureilyticus sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4629(T) ?=?LMG 26676(T) ?=?CCUG 48799(T)), inhabiting water and plants, and Enterococcus rotai sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4630(T) ?=?LMG 26678(T) ?=?CCUG 61593(T)), inhabiting water, insects (mosquitoes) and plants, are proposed. PMID:22523160

Sedlá?ek, Ivo; Holochová, Pavla; Mašla?ová, Ivana; Kosina, Marcel; Spröer, Cathrin; Bryndová, Hana; Vandamme, Peter; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Švec, Pavel

2013-02-01

391

Sulfurospirillum barnesii sp. nov. and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum sp. nov., new members of the Sulfurospirillum clade of the ?-Proteobacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two strains of dissimilatory arsenate-reducing vibrio-shaped bacteria are assigned to the genus Sulfurospirillum. These two new species, Sulfurospirillum barnesii strain SES-3(T) and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum strain MIT-13(T), in addition to Sulfurospirillum sp. SM-5, two strains of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, and Sulfurospirillum arcachonense, form a distinct clade within the ?? subclass of the Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA analysis.

Stolz, J. F.; Ellis, D. J.; Blum, J. S.; Ahmann, D.; Lovley, D. R.; Oremland, R. S.

1999-01-01

392

Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.  

PubMed

Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

2012-01-01

393

Natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp. and Eimeria leuckarti in three groups of equines with different handlings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp. and Eimeria leuckarti in horses, fecal samples were collected from three different handling horse groups from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Group A was composed of “Mangalarga Marchador” pure breed horses, Group B was formed by horses of a Military Corporation and Group C by stray horses captured by the Center of

P. N. B. De Souza; T. C. B. Bomfim; F. Huber; L. C. S. Abboud; R. S. Gomes

2009-01-01

394

Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163  

PubMed Central

Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and ?-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

395

Geographic distribution of Theileria sp. (buffalo) and Theileria sp. (bougasvlei) in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa: implications for speciation.  

PubMed

Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (?25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (?10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections. PMID:24229841

Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

2014-03-01

396

[Two new species of the genus Nematodirus, parasites of steinboks and chamois: Nematodirus ibicis sp. n. and Nematodirus rupicaprae sp. n].  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Nematodirus are described. The nematodes were collected from the gastro-intestinal tract of steinboks (Capra ibex) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) of Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso (Italian Western Alps). The names Nematodirus ibicis sp. n. and Nematodirus rupicaprae sp. n. are proposed. PMID:6926928

Biocca, E; Balbo, T; Costantini, R

1982-12-01

397

Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163.  

PubMed

Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and ?-carboline derivatives 1-10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamide (11), 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12) and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a). When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes. PMID:24857962

Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute; Quinn, Ronald J

2014-01-01

398

Two New Species of Pristionchus (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae): P. fissidentatus n. sp. from Nepal and La Réunion Island and P. elegans n. sp. from Japan.  

PubMed

Pristionchus fissidentatus n. sp., isolated from soil in Nepal, and P. elegans n. sp., isolated from Phelotrupes auratus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan, are described. The two new species are recognized as basal within the genus and thus occupy an important position for macroevolutionary studies that center on the model P. pacificus. Pristionchus fissidentatus n. sp. is distinguished by its unique stegostomatal morphology: in the stenostomatous form, the right subventral ridge has three prominent cusps and the left subventral sector has, in addition to a plate with two cusps, a prominent denticle slightly left of ventral; in the eurystomatous form, the right subventral stegostomatal sector shows both a tooth and a ridge with several cusps. Diagnostic of P. elegans n. sp. is the structure of the stenostomatous cheilostom, which bulges medially and is underlain by a large vacuolated ring. No eurystomatous form has been observed in P. elegans n. sp. Reproductive modes of P. fissidentatus n. sp. and P. elegans n. sp. are hermaphroditic and gonochoristic, respectively. The additional isolation of P. fissidentatus n. sp. from soil and two species of scarab beetle on La Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean suggests a broad geographic range for this species. PMID:23483847

Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Herrmann, Matthias; Sommer, Ralf J

2012-03-01

399

75 FR 42411 - Orders Finding That the SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Day...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time LMP-Peak Daily Contract; NP-15 Financial...contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time LMP-Peak Daily (``SRP'') contract...an ECM with respect to a SPDC; at that time such an ECM becomes subject to all...

2010-07-21

400

Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C induce pore formation in planar lipid membranes: evidence for proteolipid pores.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and specific surfactant proteins, including the hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C, in charge of stabilizing the respiratory surface of mammalian lungs. The combined action of both proteins is responsible for the proper structure and dynamics of membrane arrays in the pulmonary surfactant network that covers the respiratory surface. In this study, we explore the possibility that proteins SP-B and SP-C induce the permeabilization of phospholipid membranes via pore formation. To this end, electrophysiological measurements have been carried out in planar lipid membranes prepared with different lipid/protein mixtures. Our main result is that channel-like structures are detected in the presence of SP-B, SP-C, or the native mixture of both proteins. Current traces show a high variety of conductance states (from pS to nS) that are dependent both on the lipid composition and the applied potential. We also show that the type of host lipid crucially determines the ionic selectivity of the observed pores: the anionic selectivity observed in zwitterionic membranes is inverted to cationic selectivity in the presence of negatively charged lipids. All those results suggest that SP-B and SP-C proteins promote the formation of proteolipid channels in which lipid molecules are functionally involved. We propose that proteolipidic membrane-permeabilizing structures may have an important role to tune ionic and lipidic flows through the pulmonary surfactant membrane network at the alveolar surfaces. PMID:23332067

Parra, Elisa; Alcaraz, Antonio; Cruz, Antonio; Aguilella, Vicente M; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

2013-01-01

401

Hydrophobic surfactant-associated polypeptides: SP-C is a lipopeptide with two palmitoylated cysteine residues, whereas SP-B lacks covalently linked fatty acyl groups.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant contains two hydrophobic polypeptides, SP-B and SP-C, with known amino acid sequences and with truncated subforms lacking the N-terminal residues. Treatment of SP-C with KOH releases fatty acids (palmitic acid to more than 85%) in molar ratios of 1.8-2.0 relative to the polypeptide. Furthermore, plasma-desorption mass spectrometry shows native SP-C of both the intact and truncated types to be monomers with masses about 500 units higher than those expected for the polypeptide chains. After treatment with KOH, trimethylamine, or dithioerythritol, the polypeptide masses are obtained. These results prove that native SP-C is a lipopeptide with two palmitoyl groups covalently linked to the polypeptide chain. The deacylation conditions, the presence of two cysteine residues in the polypeptide, and the absence of other possible attachment sites establish that the palmitoyl groups are thioester-linked to the two adjacent cysteine residues. In contrast, the major form of porcine SP-B is a dimer without fatty acid components. That SP-C is a true lipopeptide with covalently bound palmitoyl groups suggests possibilities for functional interactions. It gives a direct physical link between SP-C and surfactant phospholipid components. Long-chain acylation may constitute a means for association of proteins with membranes and could conceivably modulate the stability and biological activity of surfactant films. PMID:2326260

Curstedt, T; Johansson, J; Persson, P; Eklund, A; Robertson, B; Löwenadler, B; Jörnvall, H

1990-04-01

402

Microbacterium agarici sp. nov., Microbacterium humi sp. nov. and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov., isolated from the base of the mushroom Agaricus blazei.  

PubMed

Three Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria (strains CC-SBCK-209( T), CC-12309(T) and CC-5209(T)) were isolated from the stalk of the edible mushroom Agaricus blazei grown in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that all three isolates clearly belonged to the genus Microbacterium. Strains CC-SBCK-209( T) and CC-12309(T) were most related closely to the type strain of Microbacterium halotolerans (95.9 and 96.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). These two novel strains shared 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Levels of similarity to the type strains of all other recognized Microbacterium species were lower than 95.5 %. The third strain (CC-5209( T)) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Microbacterium resistens (97.6 %); levels of similarity to the type strains of all other recognized Microbacterium species were lower than 96 %. The quinone systems of strains CC-SBCK-209(T), CC-12309(T) and CC-5209(T) consisted of MK-11/MK-12, MK-11/MK-10 and MK-13 as major compounds, respectively. All three strains contained ornithine in their peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The polyamine pattern consisted of spermidine and spermine as predominant components. Fatty acid profiles (anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0 ) as major components) supported the affiliation of all three strains to the genus Microbacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments allowed the clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strains CC-SBCK-209(T) and CC-12309( T) from M. halotolerans and other closely related Microbacterium species. Strain CC-5209(T) could be differentiated clearly from M. resistens both genotypically and phenotypically. Based on these data, the novel strains are considered to represent three novel species of the genus Microbacterium. The names proposed for these organisms are Microbacterium agarici sp. nov. [type strain CC-SBCK-209( T) (=DSM 21798(T)=CCM 7686(T))], Microbacterium humi sp. nov. [type strain CC-12309(T) (=DSM 21799(T)=CCM 7687(T))] and Microbacterium pseudoresistens sp. nov. [type strain CC-5209(T) (=DSM 22185(T)=CCM 7688(T))]. PMID:19661494

Young, C-C; Busse, H-J; Langer, S; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Schumann, P; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D; Kämpfer, P

2010-04-01

403

Inhibition of Sp1 Functions by Its Sequestration into PML Nuclear Bodies  

PubMed Central

Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are comprised of PML and a striking variety of its associated proteins. Various cellular functions have been attributed to PML NBs, including the regulation of gene expression. We report here that induced expression of PML recruits Sp1 into PML NBs, leading to the reduction of Sp1 transactivation function. Specifically, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that induced expression of PML significantly diminishes the amount of Sp1 binding to its target gene promoter, immunofluorescence staining showed dramatic increase in the co-localization between PML and Sp1 upon induction of PML expression, moreover, PML and Sp1 co-fractionated in the core nuclear matrix. Our study further showed that PML promotes SUMOylation of Sp1 in a RING-motif-dependent manner, SUMOylation of Sp1 facilitates physical interaction between Sp1 and PML and recruitment of Sp1 into the PML NBs, the SUMO binding motif of PML was also important for its interaction with Sp1. The results of this study demonstrate a novel mechanism by which PML regulates gene expression through sequestration of the transcription factor into PML NBs.

Li, June; Zou, Wen-Xin; Chang, Kun-Sang

2014-01-01

404

An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains.  

PubMed Central

Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed human transcription factor closely related to Sp1 and Sp4. All three proteins contain a highly conserved DNA binding domain and two glutamine-rich regions, suggesting that they possess similar activation functions. In our previous experiments, however, Sp3 failed to activate transcription. Instead, it repressed Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation, suggesting that it is an inhibitory member of this family of regulatory factors. Here we show that Sp3 can also act as a positive regulator of transcription. The glutamine-rich domains on their own have a strong activation function and interact with the TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor dTAFII110. However, in full-length Sp3 as well as in Gal4-Sp3 fusion proteins, both activation domains are silenced by an inhibitory domain located between the second glutamine-rich region and the DNA binding domain. The inhibitory domain completely suppressed transcriptional activation when fused to a heterologous glutamine-rich domain but only moderately suppressed transcription when linked to an acidic activation domain. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a stretch of highly charged amino acid residues essential for inhibitor function. Substitution of the amino acid triplet KEE by alanine residues within this region changed the almost transcriptionally inactive Sp3 into a strong activator. Our results suggest that the transcriptional activity of Sp3 might be regulated in vivo by relief of inhibition. Images

Dennig, J; Beato, M; Suske, G

1996-01-01

405

Follicular dendritic cell secreted protein FDC-SP controls IgA production.  

PubMed

Follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP) is a secreted peptide predominantly expressed in mucosal tissues. We previously reported that FDC-SP transgenic mice have altered B-cell responses to systemic immunization; however, the role of FDC-SP in mucosal immunity is unknown. Here, we report that FDC-SP functions in regulating immunoglobulin A production. FDC-SP transgenic mice show decreased IgA levels in serum, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Reciprocally, FDC-SP-deficient mice show significantly increased IgA levels in serum and intestinal lavage, associated with accumulation of IgA+ cells in blood, bone marrow, Peyer's patches, and lymph nodes. FDC-SP-deficient mice generated higher titers of antigen-specific IgA but normal IgG1 responses upon immunization. Purified FDC-SP transgenic B cells generated decreased IgA responses to transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)+interleukin 5 (IL5) stimulation. Consistent with a direct effect of FDC-SP on B cells, recombinant FDC-SP suppressed B-cell IgA production in vitro. Six- to 14-month-old FDC-SP-deficient mice show IgA deposition in kidney glomeruli, which was associated with proteinuria and pathology consistent with mild IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Our results demonstrate a novel biological activity of FDC-SP in controlling B-cell IgA production and identify FDC-SP-deficient mice as a novel mouse model of IgAN. PMID:24399151

Hou, S; Landego, I; Jayachandran, N; Miller, A; Gibson, I W; Ambrose, C; Marshall, A J

2014-07-01

406

In vivo rescue of alveolar macrophages from SP-A knockout mice with exogenous SP-A nearly restores a wild type intracellular proteome; actin involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Mice lacking surfactant protein-A (SP-A-/-; knockout; KO) exhibit increased vulnerability to infection and injury. Although many bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein differences between KO and wild-type (WT) are rapidly reversed in KO after infection, their clinical course is still compromised. We studied the impact of SP-A on the alveolar macrophage (AM) proteome under basal conditions. Male SP-A KO mice were SP-A-treated (5 micrograms/mouse) and sacrificed in 6 or 18 hr. The AM proteomes of KO, SP-A-treated KO, and WT mice were studied by 2D-DIGE coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF and AM actin distribution was examined by phalloidon staining. Results We observed: a) significant differences from KO in WT or exogenous SP-A-treated in 45 of 76 identified proteins (both increases and decreases). These included actin-related/cytoskeletal proteins (involved in motility, phagocytosis, endocytosis), proteins of intracellular signaling, cell differentiation/regulation, regulation of inflammation, protease/chaperone function, and proteins related to Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway; b) SP-A-induced changes causing the AM proteome of the KO to resemble that of WT; and c) that SP-A treatment altered cell size and F-actin distribution. Conclusions These differences are likely to enhance AM function. The observations show for the first time that acute in vivo SP-A treatment of KO mice, under basal or unstimulated conditions, affects the expression of multiple AM proteins, alters F-actin distribution, and can restore much of the WT phenotype. We postulate that the SP-A-mediated expression profile of the AM places it in a state of "readiness" to successfully conduct its innate immune functions and ensure lung health.

2011-01-01

407

High-yield purification of lung surfactant proteins sp-b and sp-c and the effects on surface activity.  

PubMed

Several protocols for purification of milligram quantities of lung surfactant proteins (SP)-B and SP-C were studied for separation efficiency and surface activity of the isolated proteins recombined with synthetic phospholipids (SPL). SP-B and SP-C were obtained from calf lung surfactant extract by C8 chromatography with isocratic elution by either of three solvent systems: 7:1:0.4 MeOH/CHCl(3)/5% 0.1 M HCl (solvent A), 7:1 MeOH/CHCl(3)+ 0.1% TFA (solvent B), and 7:1:0.4 MeOH/CHCl(3)/H(2)O + 0.1% TFA (solvent C). Solvents A and C yielded pure apoprotein in a single pass, with estimated total protein recoveries of >85 and >90%, respectively. Solvent B was less effective in purifying SP-B and SP-C, had a lower recovery efficiency, and gave isolates with less surface activity. Mixtures of SPL plus SP-B eluted with solvents A and C adsorbed to equilibrium surface tensions of 21-22 mN/m and reached minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m during dynamic cycling. Mixtures of SPL with SP-C obtained with solvents A and C had equilibrium surface tensions of 26-27 mN/m and minimum dynamic values of 2-7 mN/m. The ability to obtain milligrams of virtually lipid-free SP-B and SP-C in a single column pass will facilitate research on their biological, structural, and biophysical properties. PMID:11570861

Baatz, J E; Zou, Y; Cox, J T; Wang, Z; Notter, R H

2001-10-01

408

Five additions to the list of Sepsidae Diptera for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869  

PubMed Central

Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude with a discussion of the distribution of Perochaeta and the three Sepsis species.

Ang, Yuchen; Meier, Rudolf

2010-01-01

409

Solvent-Augmented Mineralization of Pyrene by a Mycobacterium sp  

PubMed Central

The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants is constrained, in part, by their solid physical state and very low water solubility. Searching for ways to overcome these limitations, we isolated from soil a bacterium capable of growing on pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. Acid-fast stain, morphology, and fatty acid profile identified it as a Mycobacterium sp. In a mineral salts solution, the isolate mineralized 50% of a 250-(mu)g/ml concentration of [(sup14)C]pyrene in 2 to 3 days. Detergent below the critical micelle concentration increased the pyrene mineralization rate to 154%, but above the critical micelle concentration, the detergent severely inhibited pyrene mineralization. The water-miscible solvent polyethylene glycol was inhibitory. The hydrophobic solvents heptamethylnonane, decalin, phenyldecane, and diphenylmethane were also inhibitory at several concentrations tested, but the addition of paraffin oil, squalene, squalane, tridecylcyclohexane, and cis-9-tricosene at 0.8% (vol/vol) doubled pyrene mineralization rates by the Mycobacterium sp. without being utilized themselves. The Mycobacterium sp. was found to have high cell surface hydrophobicity and adhered to the emulsified solvent droplets that also contained the dissolved pyrene, facilitating its mass transfer to the degrading bacteria. Cells physically adhering to solvent droplets metabolized pyrene 8.5 times as fast as cells suspended in the aqueous medium. An enhanced mass transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds to microorganisms by suitable hydrophobic solvents might allow the development of solvent-augmented biodegradation techniques for use in aqueous or slurry-type bioreactors.

Jimenez, I. Y.; Bartha, R.

1996-01-01

410

Multicenter evaluation of Neurelec Digisonic® SP cochlear implant reliability.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the adoption of universal hearing screening in newborns has led to earlier detection of hearing problems and significant lowering of the age of first cochlear implantation. As a consequence, recipients are now expected to keep their cochlear implants (CIs) for a longer period of time. Comprehensive longitudinal information on CI reliability is essential for device choice. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability (in children and adults) of the latest generation of the Digisonic(®) SP CI launched in 2006 by Neurelec. Failure rate (FR) and cumulative survival rate (CSR) for a 5-year period were calculated. This survey is a multicenter retrospective study. A questionnaire was sent to nine CI centers requesting information about patients implanted with Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP CIs. FR and CSR over a 5-year period were calculated on this group. Collaborating centers collected data on 672 patients (362 children and 310 adults) implanted between March 2006 and March 2011. The overall rate of explantation was 2.23 % (15 cases): six devices were explanted due to device failure (0.89 %) and nine were explanted for medical reasons (1.34 %). Four patients were lost to follow-up. The CSR at 5 years was 98.51 % on all patients, 98.48 % for children and 98.57 % for adults. FR was 0.97 % for adults and 0.83 % for children. This first independent study that assesses FR and CSR on the current