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1

Space Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides in formation on past and current exploration ideas and achievements. The advances science has made in the space exploration area, such as having a permanent space station in space and the hundreds of probes, satellite, and space shuttles that have been launched. Advanced telescopes have given scientists the opportunity to see far beyond we ever imagined, and new explorations are found every day. Also featured are details about the International space station and what kinds of experiments scientists do in outer space.

Russell, Randy

2004-05-10

2

Space physics missions handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

Cooper, Robert A. (compiler); Burks, David H. (compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (editor)

1991-01-01

3

Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

1994-01-01

4

Space mission planning and operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 ISTRAC Center of ISRO at Bangalore 560 058, India Indian Space Research Organization successfully car- ried out more than 40 space missions, during the last four decades, in the area of space sciences, spacecraft tech- nologies, space applications and launch vehicle tech- nologies. Mission planning and mission design are the most important multi-disciplinary elements in realiz- ing these objectives.

V. Adimurthy; M. Y. S. Prasad; S. K. Shivakumar

5

The AGILE space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGILE is an Italian Space Agency mission dedicated to the exploration of the gamma-ray Universe. The AGILE, very innovative instrument, combines for the first time a gamma-ray imager (sensitive in the range 30MeV–50GeV) and a hard X-ray imager (sensitive in the range 18–60keV). An optimal angular resolution and very large fields of view are obtained by the use of state-of-the-art

M. Tavani; G. Barbiellini; A. Argan; A. Bulgarelli; P. Caraveo; A. Chen; V. Cocco; E. Costa; G. De Paris; E. Del Monte; G. Di Cocco; I. Donnarumma; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; T. Froysland; F. Fuschino; M. Galli; F. Gianotti; A. Giuliani; Y. Evangelista; C. Labanti; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; P. Lipari; F. Longo; M. Marisaldi; M. Mastropietro; F. Mauri; S. Mereghetti; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; M. Prest; G. Pucella; M. Rapisarda; E. Rossi; A. Rubini; P. Soffitta; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; A. Zambra; D. Zanello; P. Giommi; A. Antonelli; C. Pittori

2008-01-01

6

Space Mission: Ice Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new 21st Century Science curriculum in the UK seeks to develop all students' broad understanding of the main scientific explanations that can act as a framework for making sense of the world around us. The curricular emphases in science are transforming from content-heavy knowledge acquisition and fact recall to process-based inquiry putting more emphasis on making meaning. Space Mission:

Hans Daanen; Lyndsay Grant

2007-01-01

7

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION Finishing Touches  

E-print Network

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-132 Finishing Touches PRESS KIT/May 2010 www.nasa.gov National ....................................... 57 HISTORY OF SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS .................................................................................................. 101 #12;MAY 2010 MISSION OVERVIEW 1 STS-132/ULF4 MISSION OVERVIEW The space shuttle Atlantis' crew

8

Ulysses Space Mission Word Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ulysses Space Mission Word Search is a word search game that includes words relating to the Ulysses space mission that explored unknown regions of space above the north and south poles of the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

9

Space mission operations DBMS (SMOD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software tools for applications such as activity sequence planning, resource estimation, simulation, command preparation and verification, and resulting data analysis support space mission planning and operations. Historically, these applications have been loosely coupled via flat files in various formats usually requiring transformations between operational steps that create validity, consistency and accountability issues, slow down communication, make working with subsets of

David P. Roland

2006-01-01

10

Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

Anderson, C.

1999-01-01

11

Space Mission : Y3K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer Programme and APME, following the successful launch of "Coming of Age: plastics and space meeting the challenges to mankind" in October 1999. "Coming of Age" is a report produced by APME that brought the role of plastics in technology transfer to adult consumer audiences across Europe.

2001-01-01

12

SpaceX Demonstration Mission MISSION OBJECTIVES  

E-print Network

to the International Space Station represents an historic first, the act of berthing itself represents only one with International Space Station using SpaceX's COTS UHF Communication Unit (CUCU). Astronauts on the space station International Space Station ­ Attached Operations: o Dragon is commanded to free drift o Dragon

Waliser, Duane E.

13

Solar and heliospheric space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper provides a review of the state of the art and prospects of space research in heliophysics, in which a pivotal role belongs to magnetic measurements in the Sun and heliosphere. New space missions, such as the Interhelioprobe, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, etc., will follow the currently operating ones (Hinode, SDO, STEREO, etc.) to observe the Sun from short distances and from out-of-ecliptic positions, as well as to conduct in situ measurements in the vicinity of the Sun and outside the ecliptic. The planned coordinated observations within the framework of these missions will allow us to explore the structure and dynamics of magnetic fields in the polar regions of the Sun, to study the mechanisms of the solar dynamo and solar cycle, to gain a deeper insight into the process of corona heating and acceleration of the solar wind, and to get a response to a number of other pressing issues of heliophysics.

Kuznetsov, V. D.

2015-02-01

14

Space mission support by NASA Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal NASA operational considerations and Phase 1 of Space Network (SN) interoperability foresees S band cross support between user spacecraft and space networks or partnering agencies. A typical interoperable scenario for an S band user spacecraft of a partner space agency with the NASA SN is presented. ESA's Hermes Manned Spaceplane exemplifies a typical interoperable user. In order to demonstrate the support potential of the NASA SN, the internal and external interfaces of the TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), ATDRSS (Advanced TDRSS), and supporting elements are examined. Communications and operational requirements for a typical mission supported by the NASA SN are discussed.

Godfrey, Robert

1991-01-01

15

Compaction of Space Mission Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

2004-01-01

16

Tailoring the space station for mission operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of space station concepts is briefly discussed, taking into account Tsiolkovskii's work, von Braun's wheel-shaped space station, and NASA's Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory. Operations are discussed as a design driver. It is pointed out that Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Spacelab have demonstrated the operational utility of people in space. A description of space station mission operations is presented. It is found that science and applications missions for a space station can be divided into observational and experimental missions. Service operations are operations in which the space station does not conduct end-use missions, but instead provides services to those missions. In April of 1984, the Solar Max spacecraft was restored to full scientific operation after drifting in orbit without precision attitude control. A permanent space station provides the capability to carry out such servicing and repair missions when needed in a routine manner.

Hager, R. W.; Woodcock, G. R.

1984-10-01

17

SpaceX Demonstration Mission MISSION OVERVIEW  

E-print Network

. Working for the past six years under NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program (COTS COTS demonstration flight that SpaceX completed was in December 2010, where it proved that it could, Dragon will demonstrate the first set of tests as part of its COTS milestone requirements

Waliser, Duane E.

18

Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

Anderson, John L.

1992-01-01

19

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we present methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty

R. K. Tripathi; J. W. Wilson; F. A. Cucinotta; M. S. Clowdsley; M.-H. Y. Kim

2001-01-01

20

Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

Boyer, Roger

2014-01-01

21

NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

2009-01-01

22

National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-133 PRESS KIT/February 2011 .................................................. 51 SPACE SHUTTLE DETAILED TEST OBJECTIVES (DTO) AND DETAILED SUPPLEMENTARY OBJECTIVES (DSO).............................................................................................................................. 54 HISTORY OF SPACE SHUTTLE DISCOVERY

23

A MISSION PLANNING CONCEPT AND MISSION PLANNING SYSTEM FOR FUTURE MANNED SPACE MISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called \\

Martin Wickler

24

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

1991-01-01

25

Spaceport operations for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

Holt, Alan C.

1990-01-01

26

Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I C; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Bolzani, V S; Belasque, J; Sacramento, L V S; Ferreira, H

2013-01-01

27

Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

2013-01-01

28

Recent Progress in Bioastronomy Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioastronomy from space may be regarded as the set of technologies enabling humankind to get ``clean'' radio signals from the galactic environment. This signal detection from space may be achieved in three ways: i) By large space antennas orbiting the Earth (like the VSOP\\/HALCA mission). ii) By radiotelescopes placed in the only RFI-free spot around Earth: the far side of

Claudio Maccone

2000-01-01

29

Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Mechanical Layout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission, planned for launch in 2006, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4x10 to the power of negative six arc (about 1 billionth of a degree).

Aaron, K.; Stubbs, D.; Kroening, K.

2000-01-01

30

Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

2012-01-01

31

The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

2002-01-01

32

Responsive access to space: Space Test Program Mission S26  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Test Program Mission S26 (STP-S26) is the twenty sixth dedicated small launch vehicle mission of the Department of Defense Space Test Program. STP-S26 extends previous standard interface development efforts, implementing a number of capabilities aimed at enabling responsive access to space for small experimental satellites and payloads. The STP-S26 Minotaur-IV launch vehicle is configured in a Multi-Payload Adaptor configuration

H. Borowski; Kenneth Reese; M. Motola

2010-01-01

33

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

34

Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

O'Keefe, William

2008-01-01

35

Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy  

E-print Network

shift in space missions: Science analysis algorithms, onboard mission planning, and robust execution Science Abstract Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of space missions that acquire vast, and autonomous systems technologies present a unique opportunity for space science. Future space missions have

Schaffer, Steven

36

Procedure Visualization to Augment Space Mission Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) has been developed by the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center as a solution to some of the training and operations challenges faced by organizations like the International Space Station training facilities and Mission Control engineering teams. At present, astronaut crews are constrained by limited access to physical mockups, which themselves have a built-in 1-g limitation. Mission operations team are faced with the daunting task of controlling the operations and maintenance of an ever-changing Station in space. Many operations teams create and follow textual procedures without the ability to visualize the given actions or alternatives. The NS allows users to easily generate and view procedures to enhance training and operations. Because training and mission operations are of crucial importance to the International Space Station and other similarly sophisticated programs, this paper is focused on the NS integrated procedure tool.

McIntosh, Dawn M.; Elcott, Sharif; Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.

2003-01-01

37

Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

1989-01-01

38

Advanced power sources for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

1989-01-01

39

Benefits of slush hydrogen for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to quantify the benefits of using slush hydrogen instead of normal boiling point liquid hydrogen as a fuel for several space missions. Vehicles considered in the study included the Space Shuttle/Shuttle-C, LEO to GEO transfer vehicles, Lunar and Mars transfer vehicles, and cryogenic depots in low Earth orbit. The advantages of using slush hydrogen were expressed in terms of initial mass differences at a constant payload, payload differences at a constant tank volume, and increases in fuel storage time for cryogenic depots. Both chemical oxygen/hydrogen and hydrogen nuclear thermal rocket propulsion were considered in the study. The results indicated that slush hydrogen offers the potential for significant decreases in initial mass and increases in payload for most missions studied. These advantages increase as the mission difficulty, or energy, increases.

Friedlander, Alan; Zubrin, Robert; Hardy, Terry L.

1991-01-01

40

New ideas for affordable space missions  

PubMed

In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well. PMID:11538724

Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

1996-04-01

41

Helios mission support. [Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities of the Deep Space Network Operations organization in support of the Helios Project from 15 October 1977 through 15 December 1977 are described. Topics covered include: (1) Mark 3 data subsystem testing at the conjoint Deep Space Stations (DSS) 42/43 (Canberra, Australia); (2) MDS implementation at DSS 61/63 (Madrid, Spain); (3) Radio Science update, and (4) other mission-related activities.

Goodwin, P. S.; Rockwell, G. M.

1978-01-01

42

Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey  

E-print Network

The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S

2015-01-01

43

CITRIS Undergraduate Sustainability Research Competition  

E-print Network

CITRIS Undergraduate Sustainability Research Competition Reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Undergraduate Sustainability Research Competition, sponsored by CITRIS (the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society), provides an opportunity for talented UC Davis undergraduates

California at Davis, University of

44

STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-05-01

45

Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

46

National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

1984-01-01

47

Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

1991-01-01

48

STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

49

STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 3. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 4. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

50

Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and as the need increases for more network-oriented mission operations. Another element of increasing significance will be the increased cost effectiveness of designing, building, integrating, and operating instruments and spacecraft that will come to the fore as more missions take up the approach of using commodity-level standard communications technologies. This paper describes how an IP (Internet Protocol)-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

51

Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission  

E-print Network

MESSENGER Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission Frequently Asked Mercury's characteristics and environment during two complementary mission phases. The mission's primary goal is to increase our understanding of Mercury's density, geologic history, magnetic field, core

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

52

Psychological considerations in future space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

1980-01-01

53

The James Webb Space Telescope Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under development by NASA for launch in 2014. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, peer through dusty clouds to see AGN environments and stars forming planetary systems at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at wavelength of 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with propellant for 10 years of science operations. The instruments will provide broad- and narrow-band imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy (spectral resolution of 100 to 3,000) across the 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. Science and mission operations will be conducted from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.

Sonneborn, George

2010-01-01

54

Space Shuttle Mission Sequence-Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane.

1975-01-01

55

STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

56

Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

Johnson, C. W.

2012-01-01

57

Internet Technology for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

2002-01-01

58

Developing Fault Models for Space Mission Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the development of fault models for space mission software is shown. The topics include: 1) Goal: Improve Understanding of Technology Fault Generation Process; 2) Required Measurement; 3) Measuring Structural Evolution; 4) Module Attributes; 5) Principal Components of Raw Metrics; 6) The Measurement Process; 7) View of Structural Evolution at the System and Module Level; 8) Identifying and Counting Faults; 9) Fault Enumeration; 10) Modeling Fault Content; 11) Modeling Results; 12) Current and Future Work; and 13) Discussion and Conclusions.

Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

2003-01-01

59

Developing fault models for space mission software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, we have focused on developing fault models for space mission software. In general, these models use measurable attributes of a software system and its development process to estimate the number of faults inserted into the system during its development; their outputs can be used to better estimate the resources to be allocated to fault identification and removal for all system components.

Nikora, A. P.; Munson, J. C.

2003-01-01

60

A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

Wickler, Martin

1994-01-01

61

STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1991-01-01

62

High performance techniques for space mission scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

Smith, Stephen F.

1994-01-01

63

Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

2011-01-01

64

Future Dust Detection Experiments on Japanese Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct measurements of dust particle in space have unveiled characteristics of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. In addition to the approved PLANET-B MDC (Mars Dust Counter) in 1998, two dust detectors with mass spectrometry are proposed for Japanese future space missions: lunar and asteroid missions. A lunar orbiter mission is planned by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and

S. Sasaki; H. Ohashi; K. Nogami; H. Iglseder; A. Fujiwara; H. Yano; T. Mukai; H. Ishimoto; S. Yamamoto; K. Kobayashi; H. Shibata

1996-01-01

65

Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System

Erik N. Nilsen

2001-01-01

66

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 1998 Mars Missions  

E-print Network

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 1998 Mars Missions Press Kit December 1998 #12 ODonnell Mars 98 and 818/354-5011 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Deep Space 2 Missions Pasadena, CA Diane Ainsworth Mars 98 Missions 818/354-0850 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA John G. Watson Deep Space 2

Waliser, Duane E.

67

Training for long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

Goldberg, Joseph H.

1987-01-01

68

STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

69

Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2003-01-01

70

Space Place: LISA Space Mission Gives Humans a Sixth Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will give us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.

2011-01-01

71

The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

Weissman, Paul R.

2000-01-01

72

STS-49: Space shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

73

STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

74

STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

75

STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

76

Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

1993-01-01

77

The JEM-EUSO Space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JEM-EUSO experiment, Extreme Universe Space Observatory at the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station, is a space mission devoted to the scientific research of cosmic rays of highest energies. JEM-EUSO will address basic problems of fundamental physics and high-energy astrophysics studying the nature and origin of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). The JEM-EUSO instrument basically consists of an UHECR telescope assisted by an atmosphere monitoring device and controlled by a calibration system. Its telescope looks down from the International Space Station to detect UV photons emitted from air showers generated by UHECRs in the atmosphere. The optical system, the focal surface detectors and electronics and the infrared camera are in advanced stage of development. They will be tested and calibrated on ground (EUSO-TA) in the next months at (and with) the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, and next year on board of a stratospheric Balloon (EUSO-Balloon) in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES. 13 Countries, 76 Institutes and about 280 researchers are collaborating in JEM-EUSO, with the support of the most important International and National Space Agencies and research funding institutions.

Osteria, G.

2014-06-01

78

Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick

2009-01-01

79

Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

Bhaskaran, Shyam

2012-01-01

80

Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

Chilan, Christian Miguel

2009-01-01

81

STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

82

Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

Doyle, Richard J.

2006-01-01

83

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-03-01

84

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

85

STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

86

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

87

Space Interferometry Mission starlight and metrology subsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), planned for launch in 2009, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4.0 microarcseconds. In order to achieve this accuracy, which represents an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous astrometric measurements, a ten-meter baseline interferometer will be flown in space. NASA challenges JPL and its industrial partners, Lockheed Martin and TRW, to develop an affordable mission. This challenge will be met using a combination of existing designs and new technology. Performance and affordability must be balanced with a cost-conscious Systems Engineering approach to design and implementation trades. This paper focuses on the Lockheed Martin-led Starlight (STL) and Metrology (MET) subsystems within the main instrument of SIM. Starlight is collected by 35cm diameter telescopes to form fringes on detectors. To achieve the stated accuracy, the position of these white-light fringes must be measured to 10-9 of a wavelength of visible light. The STL Subsystem consists of siderostats, telescopes, fast steering mirrors, roof mirrors, optical delay lines and beam combiners. The MET Subsystem is used to measure very precisely the locations of the siderostats with respect to one another as well as to measure the distance traveled by starlight from the siderostat mirrors and reference corner cubes through the system to a point very close to the detectors inside the beam combiners. The MET subsystem consists of beam launchers, double and triple corner cubes, and a laser distribution system.

Ames, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Stephanie D.; Calhoon, Stuart J.; Kvamme, Eric T.; Mason, James E.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.; Pryor, Mark; Schaechter, David B.; Stubbs, David M.

2003-02-01

88

Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

Redifer, Matthew E.

1995-01-01

89

Deep Space Orbital Service Model for Virtual Planetary Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of the orbital service model, a technique for coordinating mission services between multiple spacecraft, is presented. This facilitates the creation of virtual uploadable ‘app’ missions to deep space probes.

Straub, J.

2014-06-01

90

Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical weighted figure of merit (WFoM) approach that quantifies the effectiveness of a candidate material to shield space crews from the whole of the space radiation environment. The results of the WFoM approach should prove useful to designers and engineers in seeking alternative materials suitable for the construction of spacecraft or planetary surface habitats needed for long-term space exploration missions. The dosimetric measurements in this study have confirmed the principle of good space radiation shielding design by showing that low-Z¯ materials are most effective at reducing absorbed dose and dose equivalent while high-Z¯ materials are to be avoided. The relatively high WFoMs of carbon composite and lunar- and Martian-regolith composite could have important implications for the design and construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats. The ground-based measurements conducted in this study have validated the heavy ion extension of FLUKA by producing normalized differential LET fluence spectra that are in good agreement with experiment.

DeWitt, Joel Michael

91

OUR MISSION The mission of Space@VT is to provide forefront re-  

E-print Network

#12;OUR MISSION The mission of Space@VT is to provide forefront re- search, scholarship, instruction, and educational out- reach in the broad fields of space science and engineer- ing. A key focus of the research and educational effort will be the science, technological impact, and utilization of the geo-space

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

92

STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-02-01

93

STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

94

STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

95

Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

Barret, Chris

2003-01-01

96

Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

2006-01-01

97

Space Interferometry Mission: taking the measure of the universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science convened the Space Interferometry Science Working Group to consider in more detail the science goals of a space interferometer mission to do wide-angle astrometry at optical wavelengths. In addition, the working group considered the merits of alternative mission concepts for achieving those goals. We describe the current state of

Ronald J. Allen; Deane M. Peterson; Michael Shao

1997-01-01

98

Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin Michelson interferometers with coincided bases. It consisted of 40-cm input telescopes and had baseline 4 meters long; its limiting magnitude was about 20^m and expected accuracy 2-4 mks. As this devise was proposed to be russian-american experiment for International Space Station, and NASA did not support it, the project was not move up. This is why improved conception of slightly diminished arcmeter-interferometer OSIRIS was proposed as national space project, and it is adopted to the Russian Federal Space Program for the period 2012-2015. Input optic of the OSIRIS will be of 20-cm aperture, and baseline will be 200 cm. It seems to be enough to get position accuracy of single measurement about 4-8 mks at arc range from 30 to 105 degrees, and limiting magnitude being 18^m. There are some technical invents that guarantee these parameters. The OSIRIS mission will establish referred to the ICRS inertial celestial reference frame in optic independent of epoch, that leads to new tasks of astrometry. The astrometrical instrument of new generation may be used for positioning of near-Earth probes as well as of ground objects. Using the same technology it became possible to point narrow-field telescope to any target with the same accuracy. A really desired for this aims accuracy is only milliseconds, and just for these applied experiments LIDA project was proposed last year. It will be suitable for bright sources above 12^m and it will measure instant positions with accuracy 1 mas. The LIDA will be low-mass and compact device suitable for launch by conversional rocket of light class.

Bagrov, A. V.

2006-08-01

99

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission - Duration: 5:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

100

Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

2002-01-01

101

National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

1984-01-01

102

STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-02-01

103

Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Microprobe Mission will be the second of the New Millennium Program's technology development missions to planetary bodies. The mission consists of two penetrators that weigh 2.4 kg each and are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring. The spacecraft arrive at Mars on December 3, 1999. The two identical penetrators will impact

Suzanne Smrekar; David Catling; Ralph Lorenz; Julio Magalhães; Jeffrey Moersch; Paul Morgan; Bruce Murray; Marsha Presley-Holloway; Albert Yen; Aaron Zent; Diana Blaney

1999-01-01

104

Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

2004-01-01

105

Launch of space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wide angle view of the launch of the space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pad. This view was taken from the Shuttle training aircraft by Astronaut John Young.

1984-01-01

106

Space technology three: mission overview and spacecraft concept description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Technology Three (ST3), the third NASA New Millennium Program space technology mission, is focused on validation of key technologies for future separated spacecraft interferometers, such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission. The main technologies to be demonstrated are autonomous formation flying (AFF) and separated spacecraft interferometry (SSI). This mission uses two spacecraft called the Combiner

W. D. Deininger; M. C. Noecker; D. J. Wiemer; J. S. Eterno; C. Cleven; K. C. Patel; G. H. Blackwood; L. L. Livesay

2003-01-01

107

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

1991-01-01

108

An integrated medical system for long-duration space missions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System (IMBLMS) being developed for onboard medical support of the crew and for medical research during space missions. The system is suitable for use during early extended space flights and for accommodating measurement and diagnostic apparatus as well as treatment and surgical facilities developed for later missions.

Pool, S. L.; Belasco, N.

1972-01-01

109

Voice loops as cooperative aids in space shuttle mission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In domains like air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations, and space mission control, practitioners coordinate their activities through voice loops that allow communication among groups of people who are spatially separate. Voice loops have evolved into essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in space shuttle mission control, as well as other domains. We describe how voice loops support the

Jennifer C. Watts; David D. Woods; James M. Corban; Emily S. Patterson; Ronald L. Kerr; LaDessa C. Hicks

1996-01-01

110

Polarization effects aboard the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ratio (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber. Thermal variations are one of the major contributors to this change and can lead to tight spacecraft design requirements. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimentally-validated model which predicts the polarization behavior for various distribution designs, as well as present the thermal performance of various PM components and how this levies thermal control requirements on the spacecraft.

Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

2006-05-01

111

Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

2007-01-01

112

Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

2005-01-01

113

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

Schulze, N.R.

1991-08-01

114

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

Schulze, Norman R.

1991-01-01

115

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, Palmer

1990-01-01

116

Deep space network: Mission support requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

1991-01-01

117

Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected “The Gravitational Universe” as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

Livas, Jeffrey C.

2014-08-01

118

Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

Bowman, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

119

Access to Space for Technology Validation Missions: A Practical Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology experiments and validation missions share a common dilemma with the aerospace industry in general: the high cost of access to space. Whether the experiment is a so-called university cubesat, a university measurement experiment, or a NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) technology validation mission, the access to space option can be scaled appropriately for the particular constraints. A cubesat might fly as one of a number of cubesats that negotiate a flight on an experimental vehicle. A university experiment might do the same. A NASA flight validation might partner with an Air Force experimental mission.

Herrell, Linda M.

2007-01-01

120

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1993-01-01

121

Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

1991-01-01

122

Reducing the Risk of Human Space Missions with INTEGRITY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The INTEGRITY Program will design and operate a test bed facility to help prepare for future beyond-LEO missions. The purpose of INTEGRITY is to enable future missions by developing, testing, and demonstrating advanced human space systems. INTEGRITY will also implement and validate advanced management techniques including risk analysis and mitigation. One important way INTEGRITY will help enable future missions is by reducing their risk. A risk analysis of human space missions is important in defining the steps that INTEGRITY should take to mitigate risk. This paper describes how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of human space missions will help support the planning and development of INTEGRITY to maximize its benefits to future missions. PRA is a systematic methodology to decompose the system into subsystems and components, to quantify the failure risk as a function of the design elements and their corresponding probability of failure. PRA provides a quantitative estimate of the probability of failure of the system, including an assessment and display of the degree of uncertainty surrounding the probability. PRA provides a basis for understanding the impacts of decisions that affect safety, reliability, performance, and cost. Risks with both high probability and high impact are identified as top priority. The PRA of human missions beyond Earth orbit will help indicate how the risk of future human space missions can be reduced by integrating and testing systems in INTEGRITY.

Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merill, Robin L.; Tri, Terry O.; Henninger, Donald L.

2003-01-01

123

Leisure and Recreation in Long Duration Space Missions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure activities pursued during long range space missions should not be considered by planners as merely a way of filling in time. Current astronaut selection procedure tends to favor those who in leisure time in a spacecraft will spontaneously pursue mission-oriented activities, making the most of whatever facilities are available. With provision of an appropriate climate and opportunity, encouragement can

T. M. Fraser

1968-01-01

124

Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

Staehle, R. L.

1979-01-01

125

Virtual Environments in Training: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environment (VE) technology was used to construct a model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and those elements that were replaced or serviced during the December, 1993 repair and maintenance mission conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The VE also included the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and the fixtures used for transporting replacement systems

R. Bowen Loftin; Patrick J. Kenney; Robin Benedetti; Chris Culbert; Mark Engelberg; Robert Jones; Paige Lucas; Mason Menninger; John Muratore; Lac Nguyen; Tim Saito; Robert T. Savely; Mark Voss

126

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

Azbell, James A.

2011-01-01

127

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

Azbell, Jim

2010-01-01

128

Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

Hoffman, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

129

Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

1994-01-01

130

Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

Wood, G. A.

1979-01-01

131

The computer assisted environment for space mission planning and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the characteristics of technology-density, system-complexity, and high cost and risk, to organize and run a space mission is extremely complex system engineering. The commanders must pre-planning and do some coordination arrangements detailedly and repeatedly, but still the space mission often is completed with high cost and risks. In order to solve these problems, the author does some research on

Fei Xiao; Fan Hu; Zhenyu Jiang; Weihua Zhang; Jianguang Gu

2010-01-01

132

Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

Swan, Christopher

2007-01-01

133

Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully on mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Discovery soars above billowing clouds of steam and smoke into clear blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original Mercury 7 astronauts. Glenn is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

134

Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions. Chapter 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and it is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and consider potential long-term, perhaps disruptive or revolutionary, impacts that MEMS technology may have for future civilian space applications. A general discussion of the potential for MEMS in space applications is followed by a brief showcasing of a few selected examples of recent MEMS technology developments for future space missions. Using these recent developments as a point of departure, a vision is then presented of several areas where MEMS technology might eventually be exploited in future Science and Exploration mission applications. Lastly, as a stimulus for future research and development, this chapter summarizes a set of barriers to progress, design challenges and key issues that must be overcome in order for the community to move on, from the current nascent phase of developing and infusing MEMS technology into space missions, in order to achieve its full future potential.

Dennehy, Neil

2005-01-01

135

Space mission scenario development and performance analysis tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses a new and innovative approach for a rapid spacecraft multi-disciplinary performance analysis using a tool called the Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW). To meet the needs of new classes of space missions, analysis tools with proven models were developed and integrated into a framework to enable rapid trades and analyses between spacecraft designs and operational scenarios during the formulation phase of a mission. Generally speaking, spacecraft resources are highly constrained on deep space missions and this approach makes it possible to maximize the use of existing resources to attain the best possible science return. This approach also has the potential benefit of reducing the risk of costly design changes made later in the design cycle necessary to meet the mission requirements by understanding system design sensitivities early and adding appropriate margins. This paper will describe the approach used by the Mars Science Laboratory Project to accomplish this result.

Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David

2004-01-01

136

Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

Livas, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

137

Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

1990-01-01

138

NASA Creates Space Technology Mission Directorate  

E-print Network

drew media attention and articles on 3D printing, including coverage by Popular Mechanics and website on 3D printing and prototyping technology to create parts for the Space Launch System at Marshall Space

139

Social and Cultural Issues During Shuttle/Mir Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were signficantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions.

Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

2000-07-01

140

Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Gushin, V.; Weiss, D. S.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

2000-01-01

141

Space radiation incident on SATS missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special orbital radiation study was conducted in order to evaluate mission encountered energetic particle fluxes. This information is to be supplied to the project subsystem engineers for their guidance in designing flight hardware to withstand the expected radiation levels. Flux calculations were performed for a set of 20 nominal trajectories placed at several altitudes and inclinations. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative SATS launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations ware performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.

1973-01-01

142

Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

1966-01-01

143

The International Space Station Photographed During the STS-112 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

2002-01-01

144

The International Space Station Photographed During STS-112 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

2002-01-01

145

Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100MT payload into a 1500km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space

Vincent P. Chiravalle

2008-01-01

146

An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

1995-01-01

147

Precision Laser Development for Gravitational Wave Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, such as the gravitational-wave mission LISA, and GRACE follow-on, by fully utilizing the mature wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where a simple and reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier, which are widely used for sensitive laser applications on the ground.

Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

2011-01-01

148

Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

Edwards, Jacob

149

Reliable Multicore Processors for NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current trend in commercial processors of moving to many cores (30 to100 and beyond) on a single die poses both an opportunity and a challenge for space based processing. 1 2 The opportunity is to leverage this trend for space application and thus provide an order of magnitude increase in onboard processing capability. The challenge is to provide the requisite reliability in an extremely challenging environment. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for reliable space based multicore computing and approaches being explored to deliver this capability within NASA's extremely tight power, mass, and cost constraints.

Villalpando, Carlos; Rennels, David; Some, Raphael; Cabanas-Holmen, Manuel

2011-01-01

150

Planetary mission departures from Space Station orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of orbital assembly and launch of oversized planetary (or lunar) spacecraft from a Space Station is rapidly coming of age. This prospect raises a host of new problems demanding timely resolution. The one most serious issue involved in launch from a rapidly precessing Space Station orbit (about -7.2 deg/day) is the need to cope with the generally out-of-plane orientation of the V-infinity departure vector. Methods dealing with single or multiple injection maneuvers, deep space plane changes, nodal shift caused by reboost strategy modifications, and departure window duration analysis are discussed.

Sergeyevsky, Andrey B.

1989-01-01

151

Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

1999-01-01

152

Development of a figure-of-merit for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a quantitative figure-of-merit (FOM) to evaluate different and competing options for space missions is further developed. Over six hundred individual factors are considered. These range from mission orbital mechanics to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU/ISMU) plants. The program utilizes a commercial software package for synthesis and visual display; the details are completely developed in-house. Historical FOM's are derived for successful space missions such as the Surveyor, Voyager, Apollo, etc. A cost FOM is also mentioned. The bulk of this work is devoted to one specific example of Mars Sample Return (MSR). The program is flexible enough to accommodate a variety of evolving technologies. Initial results show that the FOM for sample return is a function of the mass returned to LEO, and that missions utilizing ISRU/ISMU are far more cost effective than those that rely on all earth-transported resources.

Preiss, Bruce; Pan, Thomas; Ramohalli, Kumar

1991-01-01

153

Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications. The paper summarizes the study s lessons learned in more detail and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the technology and heritage risks inherent in the design solution.

Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

2010-01-01

154

Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

2015-01-01

155

JEM EUSO mission on the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Extreme-Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is a mission on ISS [1], led by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to investigate the nature and origin of extremely-high-energy cosmic rays (EHECRs). This is the sole window on the extreme-energy universe. JAXA has selected JEM-EUSO for study as one of two international mission candidates for installation on the

Y. Takahashi

2008-01-01

156

TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

2011-01-01

157

Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first NASA Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was launched in January 2003 and placed into a nearpolar orbit whose primary mission was the global monitoring of the Earth's ice sheet mass balance. ICESat has accumulated over 1.8 B shots in space and provided a valuable dataset in the study of ice sheet dynamics over the past few years. NASA is planning a follow-on mission ICESat-2 to be launched tentatively in 2015. In this paper we will discuss the development effort of the laser transmitters for the ICESat-2 mission.

Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Li, Steven X.; Shaw, George B.; Seas, Antonios; Dowdye, Edward; Troupaki, Elisavet; Liiva, Peter; Poulios, Demetrios; Mascetti, Kathy

2010-02-01

158

Reconfigurable Computing Concepts for Space Missions: Universal Modular Spares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computing hardware for control, data collection, and other purposes will prove many times over crucial resources in NASA's upcoming space missions. Ability to provide these resources within mission payload requirements, with the hardiness to operate for extended periods under potentially harsh conditions in off-World environments, is daunting enough without considering the possibility of doing so with conventional electronics. This paper examines some ideas and options, and proposes some initial approaches, for logical design of reconfigurable computing resources offering true modularity, universal compatibility, and unprecedented flexibility to service all forms and needs of mission infrastructure.

Patrick, M. Clinton

2007-01-01

159

Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

2015-01-01

160

Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

1984-01-01

161

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

1983-01-01

162

The LISA Pathfinder Mission. Tracing Einstein's Geodesics in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LISA Pathfinder, formerly known as SMART-2, is the second of the European Space Agency’s Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology, and is designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, by testing the core assumption of gravitational wave detection and general relativity: that free particles follow geodesics. The new technologies to be demonstrated in a space environment include: inertial sensors, high precision laser interferometry to free floating mirrors, and micro-Newton proportional thrusters. LISA Pathfinder will be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011 into a low Earth orbit. By a transfer trajectory, the sciencecraft will enter its final orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point. First science results are expected approximately 3 months thereafter. Here, we give an overview of the mission including the technologies being demonstrated.

Racca, Giuseppe D.; McNamara, Paul W.

2010-03-01

163

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

164

Habitability issues in long duration undersea and space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report reviews a number of studies in the area of habitability. Emphasis was placed on extracting from these studies that information most relevant to any long-term mission in confinement. It is concluded that, whereas the basic laws of habitability are known, there is much yet to be learned concerning development of social structures in small groups in relative isolation, planning for necessary hygiene needs, development of proper work spaces, and construction of internal and external communications systems. With respect to testing for habitability and the documentation of habitability principles, the space program was found to be considerably more advanced than was the program for undersea missions.

Parker, J. F., Jr.; Every, M. G.

1972-01-01

165

DSN co-observing operations to support space VLBI missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable radio astronomy support of space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) missions by ground radio telescopes is mandatory in order to achieve a high scientific return from the missions. The 70 m DSN antennas along with other ground radio telescopes will perform as the ground segment of the earth-space interferometer. Improvements of radio astronomy VLBI operations at the DSN to achieve higher reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and lower operations costs is a major goal in preparing for radio astronomy support of SVLBI. To help realize this goal, a remote control and monitoring mode for radio astronomy operations at the DSN has been developed.

Altunin, Valery I.; Kuiper, Thomas B.; Wolken, Pamela R.

1994-01-01

166

Propulsion trades for space science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relative benefits of proposed deep space propulsion technology improvements in three areas: advanced chemical, solar electric, and solar sail. Within each area, specific states, representing current technology (present-1999), mid-term (2000–2004), and far term (2005+), were selected for evaluation. The figures of merit used were net spacecraft mass delivered, size of the launch vehicle needed, trip time,

Robert Gershman; Calina Seybold

1999-01-01

167

Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the

T. Freeman

2009-01-01

168

Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

Galarza, Laura

1999-01-01

169

Launching lunar missions from Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative orbital motion of Space Station Freedom and the moon places practical constraints on the timing of launch/return transfer trajectories. This paper describes the timing characteristics as well as the Delta-V variations over a representative cycle of launch/return opportunities. On average, the minimum-Delta-V transfer opportunities occur at intervals of 9 days. However, there is a significant nonuniform variation in this timing interval, as well as the minimum stay time at the moon, over the short cycle (51 days) and the long cycle (18.6 years). The advantage of three-impulse transfers for extending the launch window is also described.

Friedlander, Alan; Young, Archie

1990-01-01

170

A space-based mission to characterize the IEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 the German Space Agency (DLR) initiated the Kompaktsatellit series of small satellites. With growing scientific interest in the threat of future asteroid impacts on Earth, the first mission selected for the Kompaktsatellit programme was AsteroidFinder, a mission to characterise the unknown Inner Earth Object (IEO) population. The mission is based around the AsteroidFinder Instrument (AFI), a high-performance optical telescope, with asteroids identified on-ground via their apparent motion against the fixed star background. Such a challenging mission implies significant demands on the Kompaktsatellit bus platform required to support the AFI. The tight constraints of small satellite design, namely time, finance and available mass, require innovative solutions to problems. With a launch scheduled for 2014 and the project due to enter Phase C in 2011, the challenges of achieving high science with a small satellite are already apparent.

Findlay, Ross; Eßmann, Olaf; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hoffmann, Harald; Kührt, Ekkehard; Messina, Gabriele; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Müller, Hartmut; Pedersen, Jakob Fromm

2013-09-01

171

Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

Joosten, B. Kent

2006-01-01

172

Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

2000-01-01

173

Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

Chiravalle, Vincent P.

2008-03-01

174

Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

2010-01-01

175

Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.  

PubMed

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2008-04-01

176

Composite Materials for Radiation Shielding During Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minimizing radiation exposure from the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment during deep space missions is essential to human health and sensitive instrument survivability. Given the fabrication constraints of space transportation vehicles protective shielding is, consequently, a complicated materials issue. These concerns are presented and considered in view of some novel composite materials being developed/suggested for GCR shielding applications. Advantages and disadvantages of the composites will be discussed as well as the need for coordinated testing/evaluation and modeling efforts.

Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J.; Adams, J. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

177

ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions - Duration: 7:30.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and...

178

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2012-10-01

179

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2014-10-01

180

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2013-10-01

181

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical

Edmund P. Coomes; Jeffery E. Dagle; Judith A. Bamberger; Kent E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

182

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly

E. P. Coomes; J. E. Dagle; J. A. Bamberger; K. E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

183

Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

1982-01-01

184

Probabilistic Assessment of Radiation Risk for Astronauts in Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate predictions of the health risks to astronauts from space radiation exposure are necessary for enabling future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons, (less than 100 MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include protons and heavy ions of higher energies. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the solar activity cycle, SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, phi. The risk of radiation exposure from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection, including determining the shielding and operational requirements for astronauts and hardware. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which would be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of time within a solar cycle using a nonhomogeneous Poisson model to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, (phi)30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and a lunar rover during defined space mission periods. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks for space exploration.

Kim, Myung-Hee; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2009-01-01

185

Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2001-01-01

186

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

187

Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

188

Planet-Finding Prospects for the Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will make precise astrometric measurements that can be used to detect planets around nearby stars. We have simulated SIM observations and estimated the ability of SIM to detect planets with given masses and orbital periods and measured their orbital elements. We combine these findings with an estimate of the mass and period distribution of planets

Eric B. Ford; Scott Tremaine

2003-01-01

189

Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

2005-01-01

190

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

Fugazzotto, Sam J.

2009-01-01

191

Review of Two Game Changing Technologies for Space Mission Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology continues to move forward, many new developments and products become available and can be considered for application in NASA's space missions. Two game changing technologies are high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and ionic polymer-metallic composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors. High temperature superconductors are a metal or alloy that can be cooled to above 70 K and are able to

Patricia Randazzo

2010-01-01

192

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

193

Voice Loops as Coordination Aids in Space Shuttle Mission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium

Emily S. Patterson; Jennifer Watts-perotti; David D. Woods

1999-01-01

194

Atmosphere Selection for Long-duration Manned Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph reviews the spacecraft environment for future human space exploration missions. The choice of a atmosphere mix will play a critical role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost. There are a multitude of factors involved in selection of spacecraft environments.

Hirsch, David B.

2007-01-01

195

The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

196

COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station  

E-print Network

Overview of the International Space Station 17 Overview of NASA's COTS Program 19 SpaceX Company Overview Officer International Space Station Program Lead NASA Johnson Space Center 281-483-5111 Michael Braukus that a commercial company will attempt to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, something only a few

Waliser, Duane E.

197

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

1984-01-01

198

Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Viewed from between the trees, Space Shuttle Discovery rises above the smoke as it soars into the blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Viewed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

2001-01-01

199

Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Smoke billows out from Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Discovery soars into the blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

2001-01-01

200

Perfect launch for Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-105  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Trailing a fiery-looking column of smoke, Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into a blue sky on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. Viewed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, liftoff occurred at 5:10:14 p.m. EDT on this second launch attempt. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Besides the Shuttle crew of four, Discovery carries the Expedition Three crew who will replace Expedition Two on the International Space Station. The mission includes the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Part of the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

2001-01-01

201

Space Technology 5 - A Successful Micro-Satellite Constellation Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation of three micro-satellites was launched March 22, 2006. During the three-month flight demonstration phase, the ST5 team validated key technologies that will make future low-cost micro-sat constellations possible, demonstrated operability concepts for future micro-sat science constellation missions, and demonstrated the utility of a micro-satellite constellation to perform research-quality science. The ST5 mission was successfully completed in June 2006, demonstrating high-quality science and technology validation results.

Carlisle, Candace; Webb, Evan H.

2007-01-01

202

Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

2009-04-01

203

Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

2006-01-01

204

Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2006-01-01

205

Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

Amzajerdian, Farzin

2008-01-01

206

Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

McCann, Robert S.

2010-01-01

207

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia casts ghost-like shadows on the clouds of smoke and steam surrounding it. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

208

Mission planning and data integration on the International Space Station Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several concepts of long duration mission planning for manned space exploration. Experience gathered on space station programs shows that data integration is an essential part of preparations for space flight operations and, particularly, of manned mission planning. Proper data structure as a result of the data integration is the key to successful space mission planning and operations. Ten

Alexandre Popov

2004-01-01

209

Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainties for Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Peterson, L. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.; Dicello, J. F.

2001-01-01

210

Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2 nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Weiss, Daniel S.; Gushin, Vadim; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

2001-03-01

211

Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

2001-01-01

212

Four NASA submillimeter-wavelength space-astrophysics missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For several years studies have been conducted at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on four passively-cooled submillimeter-wavelength, space observatories. Two exploratory missions were studied: a 2.5-m Submillimeter Explorer (SMME) and a more ambitious 3.7-m Submillimeter Imager and Line Survey (SMILS). Only one of these missions would actually be flown, and its goal would be to perform a high-spectral-resolution survey of several hundreds of sources at wavelengths between 100 and about 750 microns with modest angular resolution. Following either SMME or SMILS, the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and/or the Synthesis Array for Lunar Submillimeter Astronomy (SALSA) would be flown. LDR is a 10- to 20-m diameter telescope with greatly increased sensitivity and imaging capabilities compared to the exploratory missions. SALSA is a lunar-based array consisting of twelve 3.5-m diameter telescopes with a maximum baseline of nearly 1-km. With operating wavelengths between 30 and 500 microns, SALSA would achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution, and thus could explore source structure in much greater detail than the other missions. The purpose of this paper is to present the current conceptual designs for these missions, and to discuss the most recent payload analysis.

Mahoney, M. J.

1991-01-01

213

Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

1979-01-01

214

Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such as robotic missions, where human teleoperation capability is not locally available.

Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

2005-01-01

215

Potential civil mission applications for space nuclear power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the energy needs of spacecraft over the last 25 years have been met by photovoltaic arrays with batteries, primary fuel cells, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). However, it might be difficult to satisfy energy requirements for the next generation of space missions with the currently used energy sources. Applications studies have emphasized the need for a lighter, cheaper, and more compact high-energy source than the scaling up of current technologies would permit. These requirements could be satisfied by a nuclear reactor power system. The joint NASA/DOD/DOE SP-100 program is to explore and evaluate this option. Critical elements of the technology are also to be developed, taking into account space reactor systems of the 100 kW class. The present paper is concerned with some of the civil mission categories and concepts which are enabled or significantly enhanced by the performance characteristics of a nuclear reactor energy system.

Ambrus, J. H.; Beatty, R. G. G.

1985-01-01

216

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

217

Science Priorities of the RadioAstron Space VLBI Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main scientific goal of the RadioAstron Space VLBI mission is study of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Masers and other astronomical objects with unprecedented angular resolution, up to few millionths of an arc-second. The resolution achieved with RadioAstron will allow study the following phenomena and problems: * Central engine of AGN and physical processes near super massive black holes providing

Glen Langston; N. Kardashev

2006-01-01

218

Prototype Space Mission SEBAC Biological Solid Waste Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on fabrication, installation, start-up and shakedown of a full-scale prototype solid waste management system designed to be a principal component in a bio-regenerative solid waste management system to support a 6-person crew on long-term space missions. System design is based upon a patented process for odorless bioconversion of organic solid wastes to biogas and compost by anaerobic

Arthur A. Teixeira; David P. Chynoweth; John M. Owens; Elana Rich; Amy L. Dedrick; Patrick J. Haley

2004-01-01

219

Minimizing Astronauts' Risk from Space Radiation during Future Lunar Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the risk factors from space radiation for astronauts on future lunar missions. Two types of radiation are discussed, Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle events (SPE). Distributions of Dose from 1972 SPE at 4 DLOCs inside Spacecraft are shown. A chart with the organ dose quantities is also given. Designs of the exploration class spacecraft and the planned lunar rover are shown to exhibit radiation protections features of those vehicles.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Mathew; Nounu, Hatem N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

220

SP100 space reactor power system readiness and mission flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10s to 100s of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar\\/Mars surface power for

Allan T. Josloff; Donald N. Matteo; H. Sterling Bailey

1993-01-01

221

Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety standpoint. The energy beams may be either electron beam or laser, and the developments required for either energy source to achieve success in these applications will be discussed.

Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

2002-01-01

222

Stellar Imager (SI) Space Mission: Stellar Magnetic Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI'S science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI'S prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

Carpenter, K. G.

2006-01-01

223

Active Radiation Shield for Space Exploration Missions (ARSSEM)  

E-print Network

One of the major issues to be solved is the protection from the effects of ionizing radiation. Exploration mission, lasting two to three years in space, represents a very significant step from the point of view of radiation protection: both the duration (up to 5 times) and the intensity (up to 5 times) of the exposure to radiation are increased at the same time with respect to mission on the ISS reaching and sometime exceeding professional career limits. In this ARSSEM report, after reviewing the physics basis of the issue of radiation protection in space, we present results based for the first time on full physics simulation to understand the interplay among the the various factors determining the dose absorbed by the astronauts during a long duration mission: radiation composition and energy spectrum, 3D particle propagation through the magnetic field, secondary production on the spacecraft structural materia, dose sensitivity of the various parts of the human body. As first application of this approach, we use this analysis to study a new magnetic configuration based on Double Helix coil and exhibiting a number of interesting features which are suited to active shield application. The study also proposes a technology R&D roadmap for active radiation shield development which would match ESA decadal development strategy for human exploration of space.

R. Battiston; W. J. Burger; V. Calvelli; R. Musenich; V. Choutko; V. I. Datskov; A. Della Torre; F. Venditti; C. Gargiulo; G. Laurenti; S. Lucidi; S. Harrison; R. Meinke

2012-09-10

224

Writing the History of Space Missions: Rosetta and Mars Express  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Express is the first planetary mission accomplished by the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched in early June 2003, the spacecraft entered Mars's orbit on Christmas day of that year, demonstrating the new European commitment to planetary exploration. Following a failed attempt in the mid-­-1980s, two valid proposals for a European mission to Mars were submitted to ESA's decision-­-making bodies in the early 1990s, in step with renewed international interest in Mars exploration. Both were rejected, however, in the competitive selection process for the agency's Science Programme. Eventually, the Mars Express proposal emerged during a severe budgetary crisis in the mid-­-1990s as an exemplar of a "flexible mission" that could reduce project costs and development time. Its successful maneuvering through financial difficulties and conflicting scientific interests was due to the new management approach as well as to the public appeal of Mars exploration. In addition to providing a case study in the functioning of the ESA's Science Programme, the story of Mars Express discussed in this paper provides a case study in the functioning of the European Space Agency's Science Programme and suggests some general considerations on the peculiar position of space research in the general field of the history of science and technology.

Coradini, M.; Russo, A.

2011-10-01

225

Coping with space motion sickness in Spacelab missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lessons learned from Skylab are applied to methods of dealing with space sickness among crewmembers in their first orbital flight. Early experiences on Skylab 3 led to regularly scheduled scopalamine/dexedrine tablets ingestion. Subsequent experiences on the next Skylab mission established a 75% incidence of the sickness among first-time-in-orbit crewmembers, notably in periods of inactivity rather than work periods. Intramuscular injections are recommended to treat acute space sickness. Preflight transdermal scopalamine plus three or four doses of 5 mg amphetamine are chosen preventive measures, giving 12 hours of efficacy.

Graybiel, A.

1981-01-01

226

Medical support and technology for long-duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current philosophy and development directions being taken towards realization of medical systems for use on board space stations are discussed. Data was gained on the performance of physical examinations, venipuncture and blood flow, blood smear and staining, white blood cell differential count, throat culture swab and colony count, and microscopy techniques during a 28-day period of the Skylab mission. It is expected that the advent of Shuttle flights will rapidly increase the number of persons in space, create a demand for in-space rather than on-earth medical procedures, and necessitate treatments for disorders without the provision for an early return to earth. Attention is being given to pressurized environment and extravehicular conditions of treatment, the possibilities of the use of the OTV for moving injured or ill crewmembers to other space stations, and to isolation of persons with communicable diseases from station crews.

Furukawa, S.; Nicogossian, A.; Buchanan, P.; Pool, S. L.

1982-01-01

227

Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 cu m (9,464 cu ft) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

2012-01-01

228

Autonomous and autonomic systems: a paradigm for future space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will rely on concepts from autonomous systems not only in mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other space assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Autonomy facilitates not only reduced operations costs, but also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will

Walter F. Truszkowski; Michael G. Hinchey; James L. Rash; Christopher A. Rouff

2006-01-01

229

An Architecture to Promote the Commercialization of Space Mission Command and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a command and control architecture that encompasses space mission operations centers, ground terminals, and spacecraft. This architecture is intended to promote the growth of a lucrative space mission operations command and control market through a set of open standards used by both gevernment and profit-making space mission operators.

Jones, Michael K.

1996-01-01

230

Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

Orasanu, Judith M.

2009-01-01

231

Optimization of space orbits design for Earth orbiting missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth orbiting space missions, the orbit selection dictates the mission parameters like the ground resolution, the area coverage, and the frequency of coverage parameters. To achieve desired mission parameters, usually Earth regions of interest are identified and the spacecraft is maneuvered continuously to visit only these regions. This method is expensive, it requires a propulsion system onboard the spacecraft, working throughout the mission lifetime. It also requires a longer time to cover all the regions of interest, due to the very weak thrust forces compared to that of the Earth's gravitational field. This paper presents a methodology to design natural orbits, in which the regions of interest are visited without the use of propulsion systems, depending only on the gravitational forces. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem. A genetic algorithm along with a second order gradient method is implemented for optimization. The design process takes into consideration the gravitational second zonal harmonic, and hence allows for the design of repeated Sun-synchronous orbits. The field of view of the payload is also taken into consideration in the optimization process. Numerical results are presented that demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method.

Abdelkhalik, Ossama; Gad, Ahmed

2011-04-01

232

The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission  

PubMed Central

We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018.

Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Marchand, Marion; Irbah, Abdenour; Quémerais, Éric; Bekki, Slimane; Foujols, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Cessateur, Gaël; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Kuzin, Sergey; Slemzin, Vladimir; Urnov, Alexander; Bogachev, Sergey; Merayo, José; Brauer, Peter; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Paschalis, Antonis; Mahrous, Ayman; Khaled, Safinaz; Ghitas, Ahmed; Marzouk, Besheir; Zaki, Amal; Hady, Ahmed A.; Kariyappa, Rangaiah

2013-01-01

233

Searching for Planets with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. It will address a wide range of problems in stellar astrophysics and Galactic structure, delivering precision astrometry of stars down to 20 magnitude throughout the entire Galaxy. SIM uses a 10-m Michelson interferometer in Earth-trailing solar orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond (gas) precision astrometry. With a 5-year mission lifetime, SIM will be a powerful tool for discovering planets around nearby stars, through detection of the stellar reflex motion. The astrometric method complements the radial velocity technique which as already yielded many new planets, with an important benefit of directly measuring planetary masses. SIM will have a single-measurement precision of 1 microarcsecond in a frame defined by nearby reference stars, enabling searches for planets with masses as small as a few earth masses around the nearest stars. More massive planets will be detectable to much larger distances. In addition to precision astrometry SIM will also serve an important role as a technology precursor for future astrophysics missions using interferometers. Two technologies demonstrated will be high dynamic-range aperture synthesis imaging at 10-milliarcsec resolution in the optical, and fringe nulling to 10 (exp -4).

Unwin, Stephen

2000-01-01

234

Space Radiation Risk Assessment for Future Lunar Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For lunar exploration mission design, radiation risk assessments require the understanding of future space radiation environments in support of resource management decisions, operational planning, and a go/no-go decision. The future GCR flux was estimated as a function of interplanetary deceleration potential, which was coupled with the estimated neutron monitor rate from the Climax monitor using a statistical model. A probability distribution function for solar particle event (SPE) occurrence was formed from proton fluence measurements of SPEs occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23). Large proton SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice for which the fluences are greater than 2 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm for energies greater than 30 MeV, were also combined to extend the probability calculation for high level of proton fluences. The probability with which any given proton fluence level of a SPE will be exceeded during a space mission of defined duration was then calculated. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV, and representative exposure levels were analyzed at those fluences. For the development of an integrated strategy for radiation protection on lunar exploration missions, effective doses at various points inside a spacecraft were calculated with detailed geometry models representing proposed transfer vehicle and habitat concepts. Preliminary radiation risk assessments from SPE and GCR were compared for various configuration concepts of radiation shelter in exploratory-class spacecrafts.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem; Atwell, Bill; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

235

An Evolvable Space Telescope for Future Astronomical Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical flagship missions after the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will require lower cost space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures.Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance.Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8-m to 16-m telescopes that have been studied for the follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without accounting for too large of a portion of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an 'Evolvable Space Telescope' that would be 3 to 4-m when placed on orbit and then periodically augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16-m space telescope.This paper reviews the technologies required for such a mission, identifies candidate architectures, and discusses different science measurement objectives for these architectures.

Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

2015-01-01

236

International mission planning for space Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two spacecraft dedicated to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will be launched in 1996 and 1997 to make observations using baselines between the space telescopes and many of the world's ground radio telescopes. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) will launch VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) in September 1996, while the Russian Astro Space Center (ASC) is scheduled to launch RadioAstron in 1997. Both spacecraft will observe radio sources at frequencies near 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz; RadioAstron will also observe at 0.33 GHz. The baselines between space and ground telescopes will provide 3-10 times the resolution available for ground VLBI at the same observing frequencies. Ground tracking stations on four continents will supply the required precise frequency reference to each spacecraft measure the two-way residual phase and Doppler on the ground-space link, and record 128 Megabit/s of VLBI data downlinked from the spacecraft. The spacecraft data are meaningless without cross-correlation against the data from Earth-bound telescopes, which must take place at special-purpose VLBI correlation facilities. Therefore, participation by most of the world's radio observatories is needed to achieve substantial science return from VSOP and RadioAstron. The collaboration of several major space agencies and the ground observatories, which generally follow very different models for allocation of observing time and for routine operations, leads to great complexity in mission planning and in day-to-day operations. This paper describes some of those complications and the strategies being developed to assure productive scientific missions.

Ulvestad, James S.

1994-01-01

237

Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible next leap in human space exploration is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to be designed to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be 268 m3 distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison with the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concepts. In the end, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

2011-01-01

238

SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM, including copies of this report, may be obtained from the project web site, at http://sim. jpl.nasa.gov.

Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

2004-01-01

239

Deep space network enhancement for the Galileo mission to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo mission to Jupiter has unique scientific objectives never attempted before by a planetary mission. These objectives have presented technical challenges to the NASA Deep Space Network. New technologies and system concepts have been developed to meet these challenges. Major implementations are underway to equip the ground stations in the Network. Significant improvement in performance is expected. The ground-based navigation is expected to achieve an angular precision of 50 nanoradians using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). The frequency stability of the ground instrument will be 5 x 10 to the -15th for the detection of gravitational waves. The precision of the Faraday rotation angle measurement of the spacecraft signal will be better than 2 degrees.

Peng, T. K.; Armstrong, J. W.; Breidenthal, J. C.; Donivan, F. F.; Ham, N. C.

1986-01-01

240

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

2005-01-01

241

Qualifying a Bonding Process for the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission consists of three parallel Michelson interferometers that will be capable of detecting extrasolar planets with a high degree of accuracy and precision. High levels of stability must be met in order to fulfill the scientific requirements of this mission. To attain successful measurements the coefficient of thermal expansion between optics and bonding material must be minimized without jeopardizing the integrity of the bonds. Optic-to-optic bonds have been analyzed to better understand variables such as the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion differences between optics and bonding materials, and materials have been chosen for the project based on these analyses. A study was conducted to determine if a reliable, repeatable process for bonding by wicking adhesive could be obtained using a low-viscosity epoxy and ultra-low expansion glass. A process of creating a methodology of bonding fused silica optics with Z-6020 silane primer and Epo-Tek 301 epoxy will be discussed.

Joyce, Gretchen P.

2005-01-01

242

Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar exploration to support sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond. A series of robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 to prepare for human exploration as early as 2015 but no later than 2020 are anticipated. In a similar way, missions to the Moon and Mars are being planned in Europe, Japan and Russia. These space missions will require international participation to solve problems in a number of important technological areas where research is needed, including biomedical risk mitigation as well as life support and habitability on the surface of Mars. Mitigation of dust hazards is one of the most important problems to be resolved for both Lunar and Mars missions. Both Lunar and Martian regolith are unique materials and completely different from the terrestrial soils that we are exposed to on earth. The total absence of water and an atmosphere on the moon and the formation of soil and fine dust by micrometeorite impacts over billions of years resulted in a layer of soil with unique properties. The soil is primarily basaltic in composition with a high glass concentration. The depth of the soil layer varies from a few meters in the mare areas (dark areas on the Lunar near side) to tens of meters in the highland areas (the lighter mountainous areas) and the particle size distribution of this dust layer varies widely with a major mass fraction less than 10 micrometer in diameter. The hard soil from the moon which has been extensively studied by several researchers showed clearly unique properties of Lunar soil. Apollo astronauts became aware of the potentially serious threat to crew health and mission hardware that can be caused by the lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier the mass fraction of the lunar dust with particle diameter smaller than 20p.m probably represents up to 30% of the total mass of regolith. Apollo astronaut Dr. Harrison Schmidt reported that these fine dust particles were clinging to the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suits and to the visors and were limiting the activity on the surface of the moon. The dust particles that were transported with the EVA suits into the lunar module floated throughout the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust particles and noted that they smelled like gun smoke, caused a chocking sensation in the throat and eye irritation. In addition,, some of the mechanical systems were not functioning well because of the dust deposition. It appeared that the dust particles are highly charged electrostatically and Dr. Schmidt noted that future successful Lunar missions will require appropriate dust mitigation technology for protecting astronauts from inhaling toxic particles and mission's life supporting equipment from contamination with the dust particles.

Calle, Carlos I.

2005-01-01

243

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

2001-01-01

244

Earth observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 - Discovery's mission to planet earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.

Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark

1993-01-01

245

The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

2001-01-01

246

High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions.  

PubMed

Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF(2), CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF(2) show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013. PMID:22938284

Yoshioka, K; Homma, T; Murakami, G; Yoshikawa, I

2012-08-01

247

An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical flagship missions after JWST will require affordable space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures. Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance. Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8 m to 16 m telescopes that have been studied as a follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without decimating the rest of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an "Evolvable Space Telescope" that would begin as a 3 to 4 m telescope when placed on orbit and then periodically be augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16 m or larger space telescope. This paper reviews the approach for such a mission and identifies and discusses candidate architectures.

Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

2014-08-01

248

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

249

Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

Hei, Tom

2012-07-01

250

Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation IV. Ed. Fineschi, S. & Fennelly, J., Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8148, article id. 81480Z, DOI: 10.1117/12.901538

Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

251

Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

2009-01-01

252

Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a planned NASA-ESA gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Lasers are used to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard each spacecraft to the picometer level over a 5 million kilometer separation. Each spacecraft and its two laser transmit/receive telescopes must be held stable in pointing to less than 8 nanoradians per root Hertz in the frequency band 0.1-100 mHz. The pointing error is sensed in the received beam and the spacecraft attitude is controlled with a set of micro-Newton thrusters. Requirements, sensors, actuators, control design, and simulations are described.

Hyde, T. Tupper; Maghami, P. G.

2003-01-01

253

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This third semi-annual progress report covers the reporting period from August 16, 1994 through February 15, 1995 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions'. There are two major report sections: Motor Control Status/Electrical Experiment Planning and Experiment Planning and Initial Results. The primary emphasis of our efforts during the reporting period has been final construction and testing of the laboratory facilities. As a result, this report is dedicated to that topic.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1995-01-01

254

Timekeeping for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Technology 5, or better known as ST-5, is a space technology development mission in the New Millennium Program (NMP) and NASA s first experiment in the design of miniaturized satellite constellations. The mission will design, integrate and launch multiple spacecraft into an orbit high above the Earth s protective magnetic field known as the magnetosphere. Each spacecraft incorporates innovative technology and constellation concepts which will be instrumental in future space science missions. A total of three ST-5 spacecraft will be launched as secondary payloads into a highly elliptical geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and will operate as a 3-element constellation for a minimum duration of 90 days. In order to correlate the time of science measurements with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space (with respect to other objects in space) and/or with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft, accurate knowledge of spacecraft and ground time is needed. Ground time as used in the USA (known as Universal Time Coordinated or UTC) is maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Spacecraft time is maintained onboard within the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system. The science requirements for ST-5 are that spacecraft time and ground time be correlatable to each other, with some degree of accuracy. Accurate knowledge of UTC time on a spacecraft is required so that science measurements can be correlated with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space and with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft. The most crucial parameter is not the clock oscillator frequency, but more importantly, how the clock oscillator frequency varies with time or temperature (clock oscillator drift). Even with an incorrect clock oscillator frequency, if there were no drift, the frequency could be assessed by comparing the spacecraft clock to a ground clock during a few correlation events. Once the frequency is accurately known, it is easy enough to make a regular adjustment to the spacecraft clock or to calculate the correct ground time for a given spacecraft clock time. The oscillator frequency, however, is temperature dependent, drifts with age and is affected by radiation; hence, repeated correlation measurements are required.

Raphael, Dave; Luers, Phil; Sank, Victor; Jackson, George

2002-01-01

255

The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

2014-05-01

256

Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m3 six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of ‘space synthetic biology’, and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

Menezes, Amor A.; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A.; Arkin, Adam P.

2015-01-01

257

Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

2014-01-01

258

Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

2015-01-01

259

Passive ZBO storage of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen applied to space science mission concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic propulsion and storage were recently considered for application to Titan Explorer and Comet Nuclear Sample Return space science mission investigations. These missions would require up to 11 years of cryogenic storage. We modeled and designed cryogenic propellant storage concepts for these missions. By isolating the propellant tank’s view to deep space, we were able to

D. W. Plachta; R. J. Christie; J. M. Jurns; P. Kittel

2006-01-01

260

A Proposal to Study the Scientific Uses of Solar Electric Propulsion for Space Physics Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort was for the participation of Dr. William S. Kurth in the study of the application of spacecraft using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for a range of space physics missions. This effort included the participation of Dr. Kurth in the Tropix Science Definition Team but also included the generalization to various space physics and planetary missions, including specific Explorer mission studies.

Kurth, William S.

1999-01-01

261

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

2011-01-01

262

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

2012-01-01

263

Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

1994-01-01

264

Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

2010-01-01

265

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

1983-01-01

266

Science Priorities of the RadioAstron Space VLBI Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main scientific goal of the RadioAstron Space VLBI mission is study of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Masers and other astronomical objects with unprecedented angular resolution, up to few millionths of an arc-second. The resolution achieved with RadioAstron will allow study the following phenomena and problems: * Central engine of AGN and physical processes near super massive black holes providing an acceleration of cosmic rays size, velocity and shape of emitting region in the core, spectrum, polarization and variability of emitting components; * Cosmological models, dark matter and dark energy by studying dependence of above mentioned AGN's parameters with redshift, and by observing gravitational lensing; * Structure and dynamics of star and planets forming regions in our Galaxy and in AGN by studying maser and Mega maser radio emission; * Neutron (quark?) stars and black holes in our Galaxy, their structure and dynamics by VLBI and measurements of visibility scintillations, proper motions and parallaxes; * Structure and distribution of interstellar and interplanetary plasma by fringe visibility scintillations of pulsars; The RadioAstron mission uses the satellite SPECTR (astrophysical module), developed by Lavochkin Association of Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA). This module will be used in several other scientific missions. The total mass of the scientific payload is about 2500 kg, of which the unfolding parabolic 10-m radio astronomy antenna's mass is about 1500 kg, and scientific package holding the receivers, power supply, synthesizers, control units, frequency standards and data transmission radio system. The mass of the whole system (satellite and scientific payload) to be carried into orbit by the powerful "Zenit-2SB"-"Fregat-2CB" launcher is about 5000 kg. The RadioAstron project is an international collaboration between RASA and ground radio telescope facilities around the world.

Langston, Glen; Kardashev, N.; International Space VLBI Collaboration

2006-12-01

267

Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

Brinckerhoff, William

2008-01-01

268

Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

Bents, D. J.

1992-08-01

269

Mini-STAR: A small space mission testing special relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mSTAR (mini-STAR) is a proposed collaborative Saudi-USA-German small space mission to perform an advanced Kennedy-Thorndike (KT) type test of Special Relativity using the large and rapid velocity modulation available in low Earth orbit (LEO). An improvement of about a factor of 100 over present ground results is expected with an additional factor of 10 possible using more advanced technology. To date, limits on local Lorentz invariance violations (LLIV) related to boost effects are on the order of ?c/c ? 10 15. While advances in technology will undoubtedly lead to further gains, it has become clear that space experiments in low Earth orbit offer a way to obtain much better results than ground experiments. The mSTAR LLIV experiment consists of the comparison of a molecular frequency reference, 532 nm Iodine, with a length reference, an optical cavity, in a LEO flight (7 km/s orbital velocity, 90 min period). The corresponding sensitivity to boost-dependent LLIV terms is improved relative to Earth based measurements because of the high velocity modulation and the increased number of the measurements. The mSTAR approach is to develop a small-scale instrument with a high scientific output that also provides instrument and spacecraft technology for subsequent missions, which would use further improved frequency standards.

Gürlebeck, Norman

270

Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

2008-05-01

271

AN/FPS-108 COBRA DANE Space Surveillance Mission Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been ten years since the COBRA DANE radar was restored to continuous full power operations in a more dedicated role of space debris tracking. Over this time, the satellite catalog population has grown and the overall average RCS value of cataloged objects has decreased dramatically, due to a combination of breakups and collisions together with the increased sensitivity offered by COBRA DANE's support to the network. This shift in catalog composition places new challenges on COBRA DANE and other debris tracking radars (PARCS and Eglin/FPS-85) to consistently track the ever-increasing number of small objects. Space Surveillance Network radars now operate at the limits of their detection performance, tracking several thousand new objects in a size category that only the most powerful and sensitive radars can observe (i.e., < 10 cm diameter). However, for much of the last decade, COBRA DANE's inherent Spacetrack mission software functionality remained better tuned for its original support role against the larger (known) orbital objects than for its more modern role in acquiring and reporting small debris in an appreciable number -- that is, until now. Several newly-identified software changes offer promise of significantly increased data yield that will make COBRA DANE an even more important asset for this evolving mission. In the course of assisting JSpOC, AFSPC, and USSTRATCOM with the ongoing challenges of lost satellite management, it was discovered that the radar's performance is being artificially restricted by mission software, rather than by the system's overall architectural design (power-aperture envelope and radar resources). This paper captures specific opportunities to improve COBRA DANE's Spacetrack mission performance, several of which are currently implemented and slated to become operational with the next two software releases. With one of the more prominent enhancements, COBRA DANE will be capable of autonomously 'fence tasking' all newly acquired small objects. Under the current operating paradigm, the radar detects satellites in its debris fences, correlates them to known (cataloged) objects, and subsequently drops the correlated objects from track, many times per day for thousands of objects. This response occurs under the (false) premise that the known objects will be successfully reacquired later by automatic satellite acquisition searches, when the objects are expected to present more optimal data collection passes, as determined by the radar's Spacetrack mission planning algorithm. Unfortunately, for the bulk of the challenging objects in question, this opportunity seldom presents itself and most reacquisition attempts are unsuccessful, causing the radar to effectively squander valuable surveillance resources that could be better applied to other Spacetrack functions. An important new change to the mission software will allow COBRA DANE to collect a predefined number of metric observations, spaced ten seconds apart, on correlated objects whether or not they are tasked by JSpOC, if they are sufficiently small as determined by radar operator input. This change is projected to provide an enormous increase in COBRA DANE's output on the smallest objects in the satellite catalog and analyst satellite list, and will greatly improve the completeness and quality of the JSpOC small object catalog.

Chorman, P.; Boggs, J.

2013-09-01

272

Entry, descent and landing vehicle design space exploration for crewed Mars missions  

E-print Network

With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004, NASA has been preparing plans for a crewed mission to Mars in the next few decades. One challenge associated with crewed missions to the Martian surface ...

Khan, Zahra

2008-01-01

273

Packaging data products using data grid middleware for Deep Space Mission Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Mission Systems lack the capability to provide end to end tracing of mission data products. These data products are simple products such as telemetry data, processing history, and uplink data.

Mattmann, Chris A.; Ramirez, Paul M.; Chrichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven

2004-01-01

274

The SP-100 space reactor as a power source for Mars exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper argues that many of the power requirements of complex, relatively long-duration space missions such as the exploration of Mars may best be met through the use of power systems which use nuclear reactors as a thermal energy source. The development of such a power system, the SP-100, and its application in Mars mission scenarios is described. The missions addressed include a freighter mission and a mission involving exploration of the Martian surface.

Isenberg, Lon; Heller, Jack A.

1989-01-01

275

For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone, the peptide urodilatin, discovered in 1988 and its significance for the fluid volume control of the human body, an aplanation tonometer developped for hand- and selfoperation for measuring the inner eye pressure; in the technological disciplines another patent issued for a sensor based control ball in conjunction with the robotics experiment (to be manufactured under licence of an American company.

Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

276

Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Missi

1999-11-01

277

A SLAM II simulation model for analyzing space station mission processing requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station mission processing is modeled via the SLAM 2 simulation language on an IBM 4381 mainframe and an IBM PC microcomputer with 620K RAM, two double-sided disk drives and an 8087 coprocessor chip. Using a time phased mission (payload) schedule and parameters associated with the mission, orbiter (space shuttle) and ground facility databases, estimates for ground facility utilization are computed. Simulation output associated with the science and applications database is used to assess alternative mission schedules.

Linton, D. G.

1985-01-01

278

Using Phase Space Attractors to Evaluate System Safety Constraint Enforcement: Case Study in Space Shuttle Mission Control Procedure  

E-print Network

Attractors to Evaluate System Safety Constraint Enforcement: Case Study in Space Shuttle Mission Control process--referred to as Procedure Rework--used in Space Shuttle Mission Control to update procedures during in-flight operations as they are invalidated by changes in the state of the Space Shuttle and its

de Weck, Olivier L.

279

Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac), and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using

Márcia R Soares; Agda P Facincani; Rafael M Ferreira; Leandro M Moreira; Julio CF de Oliveira; Jesus A Ferro; Rogério Meneghini; Fábio C Gozzo

2010-01-01

280

Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

281

Issues that Drive Waste Management Technology Development for Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waste management technologies for space life support systems are currently at low development levels. Manual compaction of waste in plastic bags and overboard disposal to earth return vehicles are the primary current waste management methods. Particularly on future missions, continuance of current waste management methods would tend to expose the crew to waste hazards, forfeit recoverable resources such as water, consume valuable crew time, contaminate planetary surfaces, and risk return to Earth of extraterrestrial life. Improvement of waste management capabilities is needed for adequate management of wastes. Improvements include recovery of water and other resources, conversion of waste to states harmless to humans, long-term containment of wastes, and disposal of waste. Current NASA requirements documents on waste management are generally not highly detailed. More detailed requirements are needed to guide the development of waste management technologies that will adequately manage waste. In addition to satisfying requirements, waste management technologies must also recover resources. Recovery of resources such as water and habitat volume can reduce mission cost. This paper explores the drivers for waste management technology development including requirements and resource recovery.

Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

2005-01-01

282

TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

2011-01-01

283

Development of Electronics for Low-Temperature Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic systems that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures will be needed for many future NASA space missions, including deep space probes and spacecraft for planetary surface exploration. In addition to being able to survive the harsh deep space environment, low-temperature electronics would help improve circuit performance, increase system efficiency, and reduce payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low-temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic exploration. An ongoing research and development project for the design, fabrication, and characterization of low-temperature electronics and supporting technologies at NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on efficient power systems capable of surviving in and exploiting the advantages of low-temperature environments. Supporting technologies include dielectric and insulating materials, semiconductor devices, passive power components, optoelectronic devices, and packaging and integration of the developed components into prototype flight hardware. An overview of the project is presented, including a description of the test facilities, a discussion of selected data from component testing, and a presentation of ongoing research activities being performed in collaboration with various organizations.

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott S.; Overton, Eric

2001-01-01

284

Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

Hou, Arthur Y.

2007-01-01

285

Space Radiation Risks for Astronauts on Multiple International Space Station Missions  

PubMed Central

Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA’s radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members’ radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2014-01-01

286

Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.  

PubMed

Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

Cucinotta, Francis A

2014-01-01

287

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

288

Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

2010-01-01

289

New Concepts for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most astrophysically interesting sources in the gravitational wave spectrum lie in the low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz), which is only accessible from space. For two decades, the LISA concept has been the leading contender for a detector in this band. Despite a strong recommendation from Astro2010, there is strong motivation to find a less expensive concept, even at the loss of some science. We are searching for a lower cost mission concept by examining alternate orbits, less-capable measurement concepts, radically different implementations of the measurement concept and other cost-saving ideas. We report the results of our searches to date, and summarize the analyses behind them.

Stebbins, Robin T.; Baker, J. G.; Cooley, D. S.; Gallagher, R. J.; Hughes, S. P.; Livas, J. C.; Simpson, J. E.; Thorpe, J. I.; Welter, G. L.

2011-01-01

290

An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

291

Space Interferometry Mission: Dynamical Observations of Galaxies (SIMDOG)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be used to obtain proper motions for a sample of 27 galaxies; the first proper motion measurements of galaxies beyond the satellite system of the Milky Way. SIM measurements lead to knowledge of the full 6-dimensional position and velocity vector of each galaxy. In conjunction with new gravitational flow models, the result will be the first total mass measurements of individual galaxies. The project, includes developnient of powerful theoretical methods for orbital calculations. This SIM study will lead to vastly improved determinations of individual galaxy masses, halo sizes, and the fractional contribution of dark matter. Astronomers have struggled to calculate the orbits of galaxies with only position and redshift information. Traditional N-body techniques are unsuitable for an analysis backward in time from a present distribution if any components of velocity or position are not very precisely known.

Shaya, Edward J.; Borne, Kirk D.; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.; Tonry, John; Tully, Brent R.; Vogel, Stuart; Zaritsky, Dennis

2004-01-01

292

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 2: Mission definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space applications and science programs appropriate to the era beyond 1990, those user missions which can utilize the Space Station to an advantage, and user mission concepts so that requirements, which will drive the Space Stations (SS) design are addressed.

1983-01-01

293

An Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration human space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multi-filtration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP has been operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to stoichiometric maximum based on available carbon. To date, the FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater

Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pennsinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

2014-01-01

294

Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium  

PubMed Central

Space flight (SF) and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone) there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute). There was no acute renal insult. Irwin’s apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001) reductions of magnesium (Mg) required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%), endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years) and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now. PMID:21694921

Rowe, William J

2009-01-01

295

In-Space Propulsion Technology products ready for infusion on NASA's future science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant

David J. Anderson; Eric Pencil; Todd Peterson; John Dankanich; Michelle M. Munk

2012-01-01

296

Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

.The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

Prasad, Narasimha S.

2012-01-01

297

Performance assessment of planetary missions as launched from an orbiting space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results presented are intended to assist planners and the mission analysis community in assessing the performance impact (pro or con) of launching planetary missions from an orbiting space station as compared to the usual, ground-based Shuttle launch of such missions. The analyses comprising this assessment include: (1) a basic understanding and description of the space station launch problem; (2) examination of alternative injection strategies and selection of the most appropriate strategy for minimizing performance penalties; and (3) quantitative comparison of station-launched and Shuttle-launched performance over a wide energy/mass range of planetary mission opportunities. Data for each mission covers a full 360 deg of possible nodal location of the space station orbit. The main results are that planetary missions can be launched from a space station within acceptable penalty bounds, and that the station serving as a staging base/propellant depot can benefit some missions requiring large payload mass or high injection energy.

Friedlander, A.

1982-01-01

298

Crew of Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission visits Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space telescope servicing mission in December (STS-61) was a great success and the fully refurbished orbiting telescope produced absolutely remarkable first results just two weeks ago. The 7-member crew who carried out the mission will soon be in Europe to share their experience with the Press, ESA space specialists and the European space community. Public conferences will also be held in Switzerland, the home country of ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The visit of the STS-61 crew is scheduled as follows: Friday 11 February, 1994 - ESA Paris, France Presentation and Press Conference Location: ESA, 8/10 Rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris time: 16:00 hrs - 17:30 hrs contact: ESA, Public Relations Office Tel. (+33) 1 42 73 71 55 Fax. (+33) 1 42 73 76 90 Monday 14 February, 1994 - British Aerospace, Bristol, United Kingdom Presentation and Press Conference Location: British Aerospace, FPC 333, Filton, Bristol BS12 7QW time: 10:00 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: BAe, Public Relations Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 69 Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 68 Tuesday 15 February, 1994 - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Presentation and Press Conference Location: Noordwijk Space Expo, Keplerlaan 3, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands time: 09:30 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: ESTEC Public Relations Office Tel. (+31) 1719 8 3006 Fax. (+31) 1719 17 400 Wednesday 16 February, 1944 - ESO, Garching - Munich, Germany Presentation and Press Conference Location: European Southern Observatory, Karl- Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching -Munich, Germany time: to be decided contact: ESO Information Service Tel. (+49) 89 32 006 276 Fax. (+49) 89 320 23 62 Thursday 17 February, 1994 - Bern, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, 3001 Bern, Switzerland time: 09:30 hrs contact: Press & Information Service of the Federal Dept. for Education & Sciences Tel. (+41) 31 322 80 34 Fax. (+41) 31 312 30 15 b. Public conference Location: University of Bern, Institute of Physics time: 18:00 hrs - 20:00 hrs Friday 18 February, 1994 - Geneva, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Geneva Observatory, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland time: 10:00 hrs - 11:30 hrs contact: Press Service University of Geneva Tel. (+41) 22 705 77 17 Tel. (+41) 22 328 25 66 b. Public Conference Location: University of Geneva, Auditorium Piaget, Uni Dufour time: 18:00 hrs - 20:30 hrs For accreditation and further information on these events, please get in touch directly with the contact listed for each location.

1994-01-01

299

Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical experiments aboard the Space Shuttle.

Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

2011-01-01

300

Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission commanders scored higher than crew on the coping style of Accepting Responsibility. These results improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between mission commanders and crew, and suggest areas of importance for the selection and training of future commanders.

Brcic, Jelena

301

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases. PMID:22078099

2011-01-01

302

Radiation effects in space: The Clementine I mission  

SciTech Connect

The space radiation environment for the CLEMENTINE I mission was investigated using a new calculational model, CHIME, which includes the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), anomalous component (AC) species and solar energetic particle (SEP) events and their variations as a function of time. Unlike most previous radiation environment models, CHIME is based upon physical theory and is {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} with energetic particle measurements made over the last two decades. Thus, CHIME provides an advance in the accuracy of estimating the interplanetary radiation environment. Using this model we have calculated particle energy spectra, fluences and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra for all three major components of the CLEMENTINE I mission during 1994: (1) the spacecraft in lunar orbit, (2) the spacecraft during asteroid flyby, and (3) the interstate adapter USA in Earth orbit. Our investigations indicate that during 1994 the level of solar modulation, which dominates the variation in the GCR and AC flux as a function of time, will be decreasing toward solar minimum levels. Consequently the GCR and AC flux will be increasing during Y, the year and, potentially, will rise to levels seen during previous solar minimums. The estimated radiation environment also indicates that the AC will dominate the energetic particle spectra for energies below 30-50 MeV/nucleon, while the GCR have a peak flux at {approximately}300 MeV/nucleon and maintain a relatively high flux level up to >1000 MeV/nucleon. The AC significantly enhances the integrated flux for LET in the range 1 to 10 MeV/(mg/cm{sup 2}), but due to the steep energy spectra of the AC a relatively small amount of material ({approximately}50 mils of Al) can effectively shield against this component. The GCR are seen to be highly penetrating and require massive amounts of shielding before there is any appreciable decrease in the LET flux.

Guzik, T. G.; Clayton, E.; Wefel, J. P.

1994-12-20

303

Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

1991-01-01

304

Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic objective of the Space Station (SS) Mission Planning System (MPS) Development Study was to define a baseline Space Station mission plan and the associated hardware and software requirements for the system. A detailed definition of the Spacelab (SL) payload mission planning process and SL Mission Integration Planning System (MIPS) software was derived. A baseline concept was developed for performing SS manned base payload mission planning, and it was consistent with current Space Station design/operations concepts and philosophies. The SS MPS software requirements were defined. Also, requirements for new software include candidate programs for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to capture and make more effective use of mission planning expertise. A SS MPS Software Development Plan was developed which phases efforts for the development software to implement the SS mission planning concept.

Klus, W. J.

1987-01-01

305

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor for High Precision Astronomical Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the progress in developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) [1], which was first proposed as a simplified core sensor for space gravitational wave detection missions. In a modular GRS, laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from housing to proof mass is separated from the external interferometry. A double side grating may further simplify the structure and may better preserve the measurement precision. We review the recent progress in developing modular GRS at Stanford. We have further studied optical sensing design that combines advantage of high precision interferometric measurement and robust optical shadow sensing scheme. We have made critical progress in optical measurement of the center of mass position of a spherical proof mass at a precision without costing the dynamic range while spinning. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating localized grating pattern onto the dielectric and gold materials. We have conducted an initial experiment of rf heterodyne of cavity reflection and thus lowered optical power than that in the direct detection. We have further studied UV LED that will be used for AC charge management experiment. The modular GRS will be an in-time, cost effective product for the advanced Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) and the Big Bang Observatory (BBO). [1] K. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. L. Byer, “Advanced Architecture for High Precision Space Laser Interferometers”, 5th International LISA Symposium, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-16 July 2004. Class. Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) S287-S296.

Sun, Ke-Xun; Allen, G.; Buchman, S.; Byer, R. L.; Conklin, J. W.; DeBra, D. B.; Gill, D.; Goh, A.; Higuchi, S.; Lu, P.; Robertson, N.; Swank, A.

2006-12-01

306

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Framed between the branches of a tree, Space Shuttle Endeavour is hurtled into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

307

STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981 - Duration: 2:43.  

NASA Video Gallery

Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

308

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Overview and Mission Applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This paper provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, and advanced chemical thrusters. Aerocapture investments have 1) improved models

Tibor Kremic; D. J. Anderson; J. W. Dankanich

2008-01-01

309

The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, products, and mission applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project, funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This overview provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters, and systems analysis tools. Aerocapture investments

David J. Anderson; Eric Pencil; Larry Liou; John Dankanich; Michelle M. Munk; T. Kremic

2009-01-01

310

An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the

Dennis G. Pelaccio; Gerald A. Rauwolf; Gaspare Maggio; Saroj Patel; Kirk Sorensen

2002-01-01

311

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 7-2: Data book. Commercial missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of NASA's materials processing in space activities is reviewed. Market projections, support requirements, orbital operations issues, cost estimates and candidate systems (orbiter sortie flight, orbiter serviced free flyer, space station, space station serviced free flyer) for the space production of semiconductor crystals are examined. Mission requirements are identified for materials processing, communications missions, bioprocessing, and for transferring aviation maintenance training technology to spacecraft.

1983-01-01

312

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! the AGILE space mission  

E-print Network

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! the AGILE space mission Aldo Morselli INFN Roma Tor Vergata On behalf of Marco Tavani and the AGILE Team 10th INTEGRAL Workshop A Synergistic View of the High Energy Sky Annapolis Sept. 18 2014 #12;Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 2! the AGILE space mission

Morselli, Aldo

313

Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

1988-01-01

314

Studies of Relativistic Effects with Radioastron Space Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the review we discuss possible studies of GR phenomena such as gravitational microlensing and shadow analysis with the forthcoming RadioAstron space mission. It is well-known that gravitational lensing is a powerful tool in the investigation of the distribution of matter, including that of dark matter (DM). Typical angular distances between images and typical time scales depend on the gravitational lens masses. For the microlensing, angular distances between images or typical astrometric shifts are about 10^{-5}- 10^{-6} {as}^{1}. Such an angular resolution will be reached with the space-ground VLBI interferometer, Radioastron. The basic targets for microlensing searches should be bright point-like radio sources at cosmological distances. In this case, an analysis of their variability and a reliable determination of microlensing could lead to an estimation of their cosmological mass density. Moreover, one could not exclude the possibility that non-baryonic dark matter could also form microlenses if the corresponding optical depth were high enough. It is known that in gravitationally lensed systems, the probability (the optical depth) to observe microlensing is relatively high; therefore, for example, such gravitationally lensed objects, like CLASS gravitational lens B1600+434, appear the most suitable to detect astrometric microlensing, since features of photometric microlensing have been detected in these objects. However, to directly resolve these images and to directly detect the apparent motion of the knots, the Radioastron sensitivity would have to be improved, since the estimated flux density is below the sensitivity threshold, alternatively, they may be observed by increasing the integration time, assuming that a radio source has a typical core - jet structure and microlensing phenomena are caused by the superluminal apparent motions of knots. In the case of a confirmation (or a disproval) of claims about microlensing in gravitational lens systems, one can speculate about the microlens contribution to the gravitational lens mass. Astrometric microlensing due to Galactic Macho's action is not very important because of low optical depths and long typical time scales. Therefore, the launch of the space interferometer Radioastron will give excellent new facilities to investigate microlensing in the radio band, allowing the possibility not only to resolve microimages but also to observe astrometric microlensing. Shadows around supermassive black holes can be detected with the RadioAstron space interferometer.

Zakharov, A. F.

2007-06-01

315

Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

316

Development of double-stage ADR for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a development of a portable dewar with a double-stage ADR in it, and its cooling test results. The purpose of this system is to establish a cooling cycle of double-stage adiabatic demagnetization from 4.2 K to 50 mK, which is strongly desired for future space science missions. In our test dewar, two units of ADR are installed in parallel at the bottom of a liquid He tank. We used 600 g of GGG (Gadolinium Gallium Garnet) for the higher temperature stage (4 Tesla) and ˜90 g of CPA (Chromic Potassium Alum) for the lower temperature stage (3 Tesla). A passive gas-gap heat switch (PGGHS) is used between these two stages, while a mechanical heat switch between the He tank and the GGG stage. Using this system, 50 mK was achieved, and various kinds of cooling cycles with different operating temperatures and different sequences of magnetization were tested. We also evaluated the performance of the PGGHS, and interference of the magnetic field with each other during a stable temperature control.

Shinozaki, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Masui, Kensuke; Asano, Kentaro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Kosuke; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji

2010-09-01

317

Space Interferometry Mission as a Test of Special Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic tenet of special relativity is that of length contraction seen by observers in relative motion. Lorentz contraction changes the apparent relative separation of light sources, while aberration changes the apparent direction to the sources. While aberration has been confirmed, Lorentz contraction has not been tested directly, due to the negligible size of the effect. As the earth orbits the sun, Lorentz contraction offsets the apparent position of one distant source relative to another by as much as 18 micro-arcseconds per degree every three months, adding to the effects of aberration. This is because the motion of the earth, in one direction, changes from 30 km/sec to 0 km/sec in that same direction three months later. A snapshot of the heavens taken in January will appear different than one taken in April, with length contracted shifts between points of light on the order of tens of micro-arcseconds per degree, imposed on top of the aberrational shifts. The Space Interferometry Mission, (SIM) due for launch in 2008, promises a resolution of +/- 1 micro-arcsecond in a field of view of one degree, allowing for the first time the direct confirmation of Lorentz length contraction, one-hundred years after the introduction of Einstein’s special theory of relativity in 1905.

Renshaw, Curt

2001-04-01

318

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual report Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions is presented. The reporting period is 16 Aug. 1992 to 15 Aug. 1993. However, the primary focus will be work performed since submission of our semi-annual progress report in Feb. 1993. Substantial progress was made. We currently feel confident in providing guidelines for motor and control strategy selection in electromechanical actuators to be used in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. A small portion was presented in the semi-annual report. At this point, we have implemented highly detailed simulations of various motor/drive systems. The primary motor candidates were the brushless dc machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, and the induction machine. The primary control implementations were pulse width modulation and hysteresis current control. Each of the two control strategies were applied to each of the three motor choices. With either pulse width modulation or hysteresis current control, the induction machine was always vector controlled. A standard test position command sequence for system performance evaluation is defined. Currently, we are gathering all of the necessary data for formal presentation of the results. Briefly stated for TVC application, we feel that the brushless dc machine operating under PWM current control is the best option. Substantial details on the topic, with supporting simulation results, will be provided later, in the form of a technical paper prepared for submission and also in the next progress report with more detail than allowed for paper publication.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1993-01-01

319

Radial velocity simulations for the Space Interferometry Mission reference grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work involves radial velocity simulations for the SIM (Space Interferometry Mission) positional reference grid. The decision was made to use distant (D ~ 1kpc) cool red-giant stars (so-called K-giants, based on their spectral type of K) as the grid stars. The currently planned strategy is to conduct two radial velocity measurements of each candidate star, with the measurements taken one year apart. With our radial-velocity accuracy of 50m/s, if the two radial velocity determinations differ by more than 50m/s, the star is rejected from the grid star list. Our goal in this study is to simulate this observing strategy by generating a set of binary systems, incline them at random angles with respect to viewing from the Earth, and then calculating the radial velocity of the primary star as measured from the Earth at two separate time intervals one year apart. We can then determine how many binary systems would have escaped our detection, and what magnitude of reflex motion would the primary stars exhibit in these missed binary systems. It is then possible to decide if these missed binary systems would add unacceptable positional noise into the grid.

Kapoor, Vishal

320

Medical-care systems for long-duration space missions.  

PubMed

As in the opening of frontiers on Earth, human physiological maladaptation, illness, and injury--rather than defective transportation systems--are likely to be the pace-limiting variables in efforts to expand the presence of humans into the solar system. Because of the inability of individuals to return to Earth rapidly and conveniently, the capability of delivering medical care on site will be key to the success of a manned space station, lunar base, and Mars mission. Spaceflight medical care equipment must meet stringent constraints of size, weight, and power requirements, and then must function accurately in remote, self-contained, microgravity settings after extended intervals of storage, with neither expert operators nor repair technicians on site. Satisfying these unusually rigorous requirements will require sustained direct involvement of clinically up-to-date health-care providers, medical scientists, and biomedical engineers, as well as astronauts and aerospace engineers and managers. Solutions will require validation in clinical settings with real patients, as well as in simulated operational settings. PMID:8419036

Houtchens, B A

1993-01-01

321

Cassini Mission: Deep Space Telecommunications Into the Next Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the missions (Cassini's) and then show the designs of the telecommunications assemblies and systems that make this tremendous accomplishment possible.

Archer, E.; Makovsky, A.; Perret, J.; Spitz, S.

1996-01-01

322

CCD characterization for astronomy space missions at ESA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's astronomy missions make wide use of CCDs as their main photon detectors. Depending on the scientific goals of the mission, different aspects the CCD's performance may be critical for the achievement of these goals. The Payload Technology Verification section of ESA's Future Missions Preparation Office has a task to provide support on issues related to payload performance. For that purpose we operate a versatile CCD test bench. We present test results on CCDs for missions that are currently under study (PLATO) or under development (EUCLID, CHEOPS).

Verhoeve, P.; Prod'homme, T.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Duvet, L.

2014-07-01

323

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

324

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Spring leaves frame Space Shuttle Endeavour as the water captures the launch of mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

325

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Trailing a plume of smoke, Space Shuttle Endeavour pierces a small cloud, briefly lighting it from within, during launch on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

326

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off amid streaming jets of water and steam on mission STS-100. In the background is the Atlantic Ocean. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

327

Using New Technologies in Support of Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper forms a perspective of how new technologies such as onboard autonomy and internet-like protocols will change the look and feel of operations. It analyzes the concept of a lights-out mission operations control center and it's role in future mission support and it describes likely scenarios for evolving from current concepts.

Hooke, Adrian J.; Welch, David C.

1997-01-01

328

The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

2014-01-01

329

Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.

Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glabb, Louis J.; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John

2013-01-01

330

The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

Rayman, M. D.

2002-01-01

331

Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions  

SciTech Connect

The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

Gray, L.B. (NASA HQ/Code QS, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States)); Pyatt, D.W. (DOE HQ/Office of Nuclear Safety, Mail Stop NS-20, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)); Sholtis, J.A. (U.S. Air Force Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)); Winchester, R.O. (U.S. Air Force (Ret.), c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States))

1993-01-10

332

Pathfinder technologies for bold new missions. [U.S. research and development program for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Pathfinder is a proposed U.S. Space Research and Technology program intended to enable bold new missions of space exploration. Pathfinder continues the advancement of technological capabilities and extends the foundation established under the Civil Space Technology Initiative, CSTI. By filling critical technological gaps, CSTI enhances access to Earth orbit and supports effective operations and science missions therein. Pathfinder, with a longer-term horizon, looks to a future that builds on Shuttle and Space Station and addresses technologies that support a range of exploration missions including: a return to the Moon to build an outpost; piloted missions to Mars; and continued scientific exploration of Earth and the other planets. The program's objective is to develop, within reasonable time frames, those emerging and innovative technologies that will make possible both new and enhanced missions and system concepts.

Sadin, Stanley R.; Rosen, Robert

1987-01-01

333

Aquarius: A Mission to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument for measuring salinity is the radiometer. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the largest potential sources of error in the retrieval. Unique features of the sensor are the large reflector (2.5 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds), polarimetric operation, and the tight thermal control. The three feeds produce three beams arranged to image in pushbroom fashion looking to the side of the orbit away from the sun to avoid sunglint. Polarimetric operation is included to assist in correcting for Faraday rotation which can be important at L-band. The tight thermal control is necessary to meet stability requirements (less than 0.12K drift over 7 days) which have been imposed to assist in meeting the science requirements for the retrieval of surface salinity (0.2 psu). The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6ad6pm (ascending at 6 pm). The objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. To accomplish this, the measurement goals are a spatial resolution of 100 km and retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis. Aquarius is being developed by NASA and is a partnership between JPL and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the spacecraft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Pellerano, F.; Yueh, S.; Colomb, R.

2006-01-01

334

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through February 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Following the executive summary are four report sections: Motor Selection, Tests Stand Development, Health Monitoring and Fault Management, and Experiment Planning. Three specific motor types have been considered as prime movers for TVC EMA applications: the brushless dc motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the induction motor. The fundamental finding was that, in general, the primary performance issues were energy efficiency and thermal dissipation (rotor heating). In terms of all other issues, the three motor types were found to compare quite equally. Among the design changes made to the test stand since the last progress report is the addition of more mounting holes in the side beams. These additional holes allow the movable end beam to be attached in a greater number of positions than previously. With this change the movable end beam can move from full forward to full back in three inch increments. Specific mathematical details on the approach that have been employed for health monitoring and fault management (HMFM) have been reported previously. This approach is based on and adaptive Kalman filter strategy. In general, a bank of filters can be implemented for each primary fault type. Presently under consideration for the brushless dc machine are the following faults: armature winding open-circuits, armature winding short-circuits (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), bearing degradation, and rotor flux weakening. The mechanically oriented experiments include transient loading experiments, transverse loading experiment, friction experiment, motor performance experiment, and HMFM experiment.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1994-01-01

335

Volume 4 Issue 12 www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis December 2009 Space shuttle Atlantis crewmembers began their STS-129 mission to the International Space Station  

E-print Network

began their STS-129 mission to the International Space Station with a perfect, on-time launch Nov. 16, other equipment and supplies to the International Space Station. The STS-129 mission featured three. Space Shuttle Main Engines tested here lifted four shuttle missions to the space station, plus the final

336

SpaceOps 1992: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Second International Symposium featured 135 oral presentations in these 12 categories: Future Missions and Operations; System-Level Architectures; Mission-Specific Systems; Mission and Science Planning and Sequencing; Mission Control; Operations Automation and Emerging Technologies; Data Acquisition; Navigation; Operations Support Services; Engineering Data Analysis of Space Vehicle and Ground Systems; Telemetry Processing, Mission Data Management, and Data Archiving; and Operations Management. Topics focused on improvements in the productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of mission operations, ground systems, and data acquisition. Also emphasized were accomplishments in management of human factors; use of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations; and the use of telescience and teleoperations.

1993-01-01

337

The “ageing” experiment in the spanish soyuz mission to the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exploration of outer space will eventually take place. In preparation for this endeavour, it is important to establish\\u000a the nature of the biological response to a prolonged exposure to the space environment. In one of the recent Soyuz Missions\\u000a to serve the International Space Station (ISS), the Spanish Soyuz mission in October 2003, we exposed four groups of Drosophila

E. de Juan; A. Benguría; A. Villa; L. J. Leandro; R. Herranz; P. Duque; E. Horn; F. J. Medina; J. van Loon; R. Marco

2007-01-01

338

Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

2004-01-01

339

Space science reviews volume on Galileo Mission overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Mission is an extremely complex undertaking. This paper provides a brief historical overview, a discussion of broad scientific objectives, and a description of the spacecraft and trajectory characteristics.

T. V. Johnson; C. M. Yeates; R. Young

1992-01-01

340

The Development and Mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

2004-01-01

341

Precision Laser Development for Interferometric Space Missions NGO, SGO, and GRACE Follow-On  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, including the gravitational-wave missions NGO/SGO (formerly LISA) and the climate monitoring mission GRACE Follow-On, by fully utilizing the matured wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where simpler and more reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Nonplanar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier.

Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

2011-01-01

342

Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

343

A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2: Technical. Book 1: Mission requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following types of space missions were evaluated to determine those that require, or will be benefited materially, by a manned space station: (1) science and applications, (2) commercial, (3) technology development, (4) space operations, and (5) national security. Integrated mission requirements for man-operated and man-tended free-flying missions were addressed. A manned space station will provide major performance and economic benefits to a wide range of missions planned for the 1990s.

Steinbronn, O.

1983-01-01

344

A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

Frank, Michael V. [Safety Factor Associates, Inc., 1410 Vanessa Circle, Encinitas, CA , 92024 (United States)

2006-01-20

345

Operational Concept of the NEXTSat-1 for Science Mission and Space Core Technology Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1) program has been kicked off in 2012, and it will be launched in 2016 for the science missions and the verification of space core technologies. The payloads for these science missions are the Instrument for the Study of Space Storms (ISSS) and NIR Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history (NISS). The ISSS and the NISS have been developed by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Korea Astronomy and Space science Institute (KASI) respectively. The ISSS detects plasma densities and particle fluxes of 10 MeV energy range near the Earth and the NISS uses spectrometer. In order to verify the spacecraft core technologies in the space, the total of 7 space core technologies (SCT) will be applied to the NEXTSat-1 for space verification and those are under development. Thus, the operation modes for the ISSS and the NISS for space science missions and 7 SCTs for technology missions are analyzed for the required operation time during the NEXTSat-1¡¯s mission life time of 2 years. In this paper, the operational concept of the NEXTSat-1¡¯s science missions as well as the verification of space core technologies are presented considering constraints of volume, mass, and power after launch.

Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jang-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Min, Kyung-Wook; Sohn, Jong-Dae; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Moon, Bong-Gon

2014-03-01

346

The JEM-EUSO space mission @ forefront of the highest energies never observed from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic Rays Physics is one of the fundamental key issues and an essential tool of Astroparticle Physics that aims, in a unique way to address many fundamental questions of the extreme and non-thermal Universe in the Astroparticle Physics domain at the highest energies never detected so far. Moreover, Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) has witnessed a major breakthrough with the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) success. The results on UHECR by the PAO have pointed out the huge physics potential of this field that can be achieved by an upgrade of the performance of current ground-based instruments and new space-based missions, as the JEM-EUSO space observatory, to fully address the Cosmic Ray Physics potential and to achieve one of our main goals, reach the so called "Particle Astronomy Era".

Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; JEM-EUSO Consortium

347

Evaluation of Deep-Space Laser Communication under Different Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of space agencies, including NASA, are considering free-space laser communications as a means for returning higher data-rates from future space missions. In this paper, potential deep-space missions are evaluated to show that with optical communication a 10x increase relative to state-of-the art telecommunication systems could be achieved. The maximum deep-space distance where ground transmitted laser beacons could assist acquisition and tracking; and operating points where optical communication performance degrades faster than the inverse square distance are also discussed.

Biswas, Abhijit; Piazzolla, Sabino; Moision, Bruce; Lisman, Douglas

2012-01-01

348

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission  

E-print Network

Evolution Mission The MAVEN orbit will be elliptical. At its closest point to the planet, it will be 93 Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, mission will orbit Mars to explore how the sun may have stripped Goddard Space Flight Center 8800 Greenbelt Road Greenbelt, MD 20771 www.nasa.gov NASA Facts FS-2012

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

349

Planning and Representation of Joint Human-Agent Space Missions via Constraint-Based Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

During space missions, the interaction between a spacecraft's planner and ground teams is very limited due to restrictions in communication. Commonly the role of such teams is reduced to receive the current state of a spacecraft and to send sequences of activities to it. However this concept of planning tends to change with the future advent of human interplanetary missions,

Clauirton Siebra; Austin Tate; Natasha Queiroz Lino

2004-01-01

350

Roles and Needs of Laboratory Astrophysics in NASA's Space and Earth Science Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomy and astrophysics and will remain so into the foreseeable future. The mission enabling impact of laboratory astrophysics ranges from the scientific conception stage for airborne and space-based observatories, all the way through to the scientific return of these missions. It is our understanding of the under-lying physical processes and

Nancy Brickhouse; John Cowan; Paul Drake; Steven Federman; Gary Ferland; Adam Frank; Wick Haxton; Eric Herbst; Keith Olive; Farid Salama; Daniel Wolf Savin; Lucy Ziurys

2009-01-01

351

Control and navigation aspects of the new Earth observation missions of the European Space Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new space missions are under development within ESA's Earth Observation (EO) programmes. By 2009 the following satellites will be launched: Cryosat (ice altimetry); GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer); SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity); Aeolus (atmospheric winds); Swarm (magnetic field). Other prepared projects include the SPECTRA (Surface Processes and Ecosystem Changes Through Response Analysis) mission. These

Pierluigi Silvestrin

2005-01-01

352

Phosphate regulated proteins of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is the causative agent of the citrus canker, a disease that affects several citrus plants in Brazil and across the world. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of genes for infection and pathogenesis in this bacterium, there are no data related to phosphate uptake and assimilation pathways. To identify the proteins that are involved in the phosphate response, we performed a proteomic analysis of X. citri extracts after growth in three culture media with different phosphate concentrations. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, we showed that X. citri conserved orthologous genes from Pho regulon in Escherichia coli, including the two-component system PhoR/PhoB, ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter) Pst for phosphate uptake, and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. Analysis performed under phosphate starvation provided evidence of the relevance of the Pst system for phosphate uptake, as well as both periplasmic binding proteins, PhoX and PstS, which were formed in high abundance. The results from this study are the first evidence of the Pho regulon activation in X. citri and bring new insights for studies related to the bacterial metabolism and physiology. Biological significance Using proteomics and bioinformatics analysis we showed for the first time that the phytopathogenic bacterium X. citri conserves a set of proteins that belong to the Pho regulon, which are induced during phosphate starvation. The most relevant in terms of conservation and up-regulation were the periplasmic-binding proteins PstS and PhoX from the ABC transporter PstSBAC for phosphate, the two-component system composed by PhoR/PhoB and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. PMID:24846853

Pegos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Nascimento, Jéssica Faria; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes-Leme, Adriana; Balan, Andrea

2014-08-28

353

A mission design for International Manned Mars Mission - From the 1991 International Space University (ISU) Design Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space University (ISU) conducted a study of an international program to support human exploration of Mars as its annual Design Project activity during its 1991 summer session in Toulouse, France. Although an ISU Design Project strives to produce an in-depth analysis during the intense 10-week summer session, the International Mars Mission (IMM) project was conducted in a manner designed to provide a learning experience for young professionals working in an unusual multidisciplinary and multinational environment. The breadth of the IMM study exceeds that of most Mars mission studies of the past, encompassing political organization for long-term commitment, multinational management structure, cost analysis, mission architecture, vehicle configuration, crew health, life support, Mars surface infrastructure, mission operations, technology evaluation, risk assessment, scientific planning, exploration, communication networks, and Martian resource utilization. The IMM Final Report has particular value for those seeking insight into the choices made by a multinational group working in an apolitical environment on the problems of international cooperation in space.

Mendell, Wendell W.

1991-01-01

354

Use of carnauba based carrier for copper sprays reduces infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Diaporthe citri in Florida commercial grapefruit groves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), a bacterial disease of citrus, was first documented on Florida citrus in the early 1900’s. At that time the disease was managed, only to return in the 1980’s and 90’s and to finally remain uncontrolled in 2004. Xcc is most active ...

355

Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The

C. Vongsouthy; P. A Stenger-Nguyen; H. V. Nguyen; P. H Nguyen; M. C Huang; R. G Alexander

2004-01-01

356

Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses requirements for control systems in the design and production of space-based telescopes. Specific topics covered include: pointing control methods, wavefront control methods, vibration control methods and thermal control methods. Control systems on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope are reviewed. Control system requirements for future space telescopes are also mentioned.

Hyde, T. Tupper; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

357

Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and

M. Morton; T. Roberts

2011-01-01

358

Preliminary survey of 21st century civil mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to collect and categorize a forecast of civilian space missions and their power requirements, and to assess the suitability of an SP-100 class space reactor power system to those missions. A wide variety of missions were selected for examination. The applicability of an SP-100 type of nuclear power system was assessed for each of the selected missions; a strawman nuclear power system configuration was drawn up for each mission. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Space nuclear power in the 50 kW sub e plus range can enhance or enable a wide variety of ambitious civil space mission; (2) Safety issues require additional analyses for some applications; (3) Safe space nuclear reactor disposal is an issue for some applications; (4) The current baseline SP-100 conical radiator configuration is not applicable in all cases; (5) Several applications will require shielding greater than that provided by the baseline shadow-shield; and (6) Long duration, continuous operation, high reliability missions may exceed the currently designed SP-100 lifetime capabilities.

Mankins, John C.; Olivieri, J.; Hepenstal, A.

1987-01-01

359

External Resource: Taking the Measure of the Universe: Space Interferometry Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA poster and series of activities are designed to make the use of measurement and computation in mathematics visible to students as they learn about the scientists and engineers of NASA's Space Interferometry Mission. Topics: astrometry, ratio, sc

1900-01-01

360

Pointing and control system enabling technology for future automated space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future automated space missions present challenging opportunities in the pointing-and-control technology disciplines. The enabling pointing-and-control system technologies for missions from 1985 to the year 2000 were identified and assessed. A generic mission set including Earth orbiter, planetary, and other missions which predominantly drive the pointing-and-control requirements was selected for detailed evaluation. Technology candidates identified were prioritized as planning options for future NASA-OAST advanced development programs. The primary technology thrusts in each candidate program were cited, and advanced development programs in pointing-and-control were recommended for the FY 80 to FY 87 period, based on these technology thrusts.

Dahlgren, J. B.

1978-01-01

361

Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

Jones, Michael K.

1998-01-01

362

National Aeronautics and Space Administration AQUARIUS/SAC-D MISSION  

E-print Network

role in Earth's climate. The concentration of salt in the ocean, called "salinity," is a key variable that will provide an observation of salinity at the ocean surface to improve ocean and climate studies. Scheduled a measurement capability that can be applied to future operational missions. Ocean Circulation and Climate Ocean

363

Trajectory design for space missions to libration point L2.  

PubMed

This work is focused on the detection and computation of "free" transfer trajectories from parking orbits around the Earth to quasiperiodic orbits around the collinear libration point L(2), in the Sun-Earth system; no correction or insertion maneuvers into the final orbits have been considered. The circular restricted three-body problem is the mathematical model used to describe the motion of a spacecraft, in the gravitational field of the two primaries, computed by integrating the nonlinearized equations of motion. A shooting method has been designed and developed to determine the increment of velocity required for the perigee maneuver, which injects a spacecraft into its transfer trajectory: first the velocity boundary for the Earth escape/capture condition is detected and then an iterative bisection method is applied until the burnout velocity, tangential to the parking orbit, leads the spacecraft to its final Lissajous orbit. For a launch from Kourou at local noon, Ariane5 GTO and Soyuz GTO "equivalent" have been studied and compared, considering fuel minimization for the transfer maneuver and general mission constraints, as maximum excursion of the final Lissajous orbit from the ecliptic plane and eclipses avoidance during the mission. This analysis highlights advantages and drawbacks of various parking orbits. Mission goals are the key factor for the tradeoff among orbit selection, launch options, and the other constraints, fixed by mission requirements. PMID:16510417

Di Salvo, Alessio

2005-12-01

364

Electric propulsion for near-Earth space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of missions was postulated that was considered to be representative of those likely to be desirable/feasible over the next three decades. The characteristics of these missions, and their payloads, that most impact the choice/design of the requisite propulsion system were determined. A system-level model of the near-Earth transportation process was constructed, which incorporated these mission/system characteristics, as well as the fundamental parameters describing the technology/performance of an ion bombardment based electric propulsion system. The model was used for sensitivity studies to determine the interactions between the technology descriptors and program costs, and to establish the most cost-effective directions for technology advancement. The most important factor was seen to be the costs associated with the duration of the mission, and this in turn makes the development of advanced electric propulsion systems having moderate to high efficiencies ( 50 percent) at intermediate ranges of specific impulse (approximately 1000 seconds) very desirable.

Terwilliger, C. H.; Smith, W. W.

1980-01-01

365

Subsystem radiation susceptibility analysis for deep-space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific, unmanned spacecraft on mission to Jupiter and beyond will be subjected to nuclear radiation from the natural environment and onboard nuclear power sources which may be harmful to subsystems. This report postulates these environments and discusses practical considerations to ensure confidence that the spacecraft's materials and subsystems will withstand the effects of anticipated radiation. Degradation mechanisms are discussed.

West, W. S.; Poch, W.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Bilsky, H. W.; Carroll, D.

1971-01-01

366

Habitability during long-duration space missions - Key issues associated with a mission to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isolation and confinement conditions similar to those of a long-duration mission to Mars are examined, focusing on 14 behavioral issues with design implications. Consideration is given to sleep, clothing, exercise, medical support, personal hygiene, food preparation, group interaction, habitat aesthetics, outside communications, recreational opportunities, privacy, waste disposal, onboard training, and the microgravity environment. The results are used to develop operational requirements and habitability design guidelines for interplanetary spacecraft.

Stuster, Jack

1989-01-01

367

Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

2008-01-01

368

Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since September 2001 NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Also under development are several technologies for low cost sample return missions. These include a low cost Hall effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA s future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

369

Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 2; Market Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission to Mars of several years duration requires more demanding standards for all onboard instruments than a 6-month mission to the Moon or the International Space Station. In Part 1, we evaluated generic technologies and suitability to NASA needs. This prior work considered crew safety, device maturity and flightworthiness, resource consumption, and medical value. In Part 2, we continue the study by assessing the current marketplace for reliable Point-of-Care diagnostics. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a set of objective analytical tools to suggest efficient strategies for reaching specific medical targets for any given space mission as program needs, technological development, and scientific understanding evolve.

Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

2010-01-01

370

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - The brilliant exhaust of Space Shuttle Endeavour as it lifts off Launch Pad 39A reflects in the nearby water. Liftoff of STS-100 on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

371

Characterization of a variant of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that triggers a host-specific defense response.  

PubMed

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by Asiatic citrus bacterial canker (CBC), a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of CBC, 42 Xanthomonas isolates were collected from a range of Citrus spp. across 17 different orchards in Tucumán, Argentina and subjected to molecular, biochemical, and pathogenicity tests. Analysis of genome-specific X. citri markers and DNA polymorphisms based on repetitive elements-based polymerase chain reaction showed that all 42 isolates belonged to X. citri. Interestingly, pathogenicity tests showed that one isolate, which shares >90% genetic similarity to the reference strain X. citri T, has host range specificity. This new variant of X. citri subsp. citri, named X. citri A(T), which is deficient in xanthan production, induces an atypical, noncankerous chlorotic phenotype in Citrus limon and C. paradisi and weak cankerous lesions in C. aurantifolia and C. clementina leaves. In C. limon, suppression of canker development is concomitant with an oxidative burst; xanthan is not implicated in the phenotype induced by this interaction, suggesting that other bacterial factors would be involved in triggering the defense response. PMID:23268580

Chiesa, María A; Siciliano, María F; Ornella, Leonardo; Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Delgado, Natalia Pino; Sendín, Lorena N; Orce, Ingrid G; Ploper, L Daniel; Vojnov, Adrian A; Vacas, José Gadea; Filippone, María P; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María R

2013-06-01

372

Mission Effectiveness Tradeoffs for Future Military Space Access Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future military space access vehicles may include Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) launch vehicles consisting of a reusable booster stage coupled with reusable or expendable upperstages. The characteristics of such potentially responsive space launch architectures have to be matched with envisioned scenarios of future conflict that will drive program launch rates. There are publicly available assessments of notional military space plane sortie requirements.

A. Charania; J. E. Bradford

373

The crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-100 gathered in front of the shuttle Endeavour following landi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-100 gathered in front of the shuttle Endeavour following landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 9:11 am, May 1, 2001. From left to right: John L. Phillips, mission specialist (U.S.); Umberto Guidoni, mission specialist (European Space Agency); Chris A. Hadfield, mission specialist (Canadian Space Agency); Jeffrey S. Ashby, pilot (U.S.); Kent V. Rominger, commander (U.S.); Yuri V. Lonchakov, mission specialist (Russia); Scott E. Prazynski, mission specialist (U.S.).

2001-01-01

374

Selection of human consumables for future space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consumables for human spaceflight include oxygen, water, food and food packaging, personal hygiene items, and clothing. This paper deals with the requirements for food and water, and their impact on waste product generation. Just as urbanization of society has been made possible by improved food processing and packaging, manned spaceflight has benefitted from this technology. The downside of this technology is increased food package waste product. Since consumables make up a major portion of the vehicle onboard stowage and generate most of the waste products, selection of consumables is a very critical process. Food and package waste comprise the majority of the trash generated on the current shuttle orbiter missions. Plans for future missions must include accurate assessment of the waste products to be generated, and the methods for processing and disposing of these wastes.

Bourland, C. T.; Smith, M. C.

1991-01-01

375

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the design and fabrication of the interface between the MACES and the PLSS. The MACES was not designed to interface with a PLSS, hence an interface kit must accommodate the unique design qualities of the MACES and provide the necessary life support function connections to the PLSS. A prototype interface kit for MACES to PLSS has been designed and fabricated. Unmanned and manned testing of the interface will show the usability of the kit while wearing a MACES. The testing shows viability of the kit approach as well as the operations concept. The design will be vetted through suit and PLSS experts and, with the findings from the testing, the best path forward will be determined. As the Asteroid Redirect Mission matures, the suit/life support portion of the mission will mature along with it and EVA Tools & Equipment can be iterated to accommodate the overall mission objectives and compromises inherent in EVA Suit optimization. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is to continue to build on the previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and accomplish the ARCM EVAs while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations.

Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

2015-01-01

376

Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

2011-01-01

377

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Looking like a bird with its tail is on fire, Space Shuttle Endeavour, atop solid rocket boosters and an external tank, soars into a Florida blue sky as it heads for space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

378

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Through a cloud-brushed blue sky, Space Shuttle Endeavour is hurled into space on mission STS-100. Photographers crowd the bank of the turn basin near the flag pole to capture the image on film and video. Liftoff occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT on the ninth flight to the International Space Station. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

379

On Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.

Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.

2012-01-01

380

The MOST Asteroseismology Mission: Ultraprecise Photometry from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Microvariablity and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) mission is a low-cost microsatellite designed to detect low-degree acoustic oscillations (periods of minutes) with micromagnitude precision in solar-type stars and metal-poor subdwarfs. There are also plans to detect light reflected from giant, short-period, extrasolar planets and the oscillations of roAp stars and the turbulent variability in the dense winds of Wolf-Rayet stars.

Gordon Walker; Jaymie Matthews; Rainer Kuschnig; Ron Johnson; Slavek Rucinski; John Pazder; Gregory Burley; Andrew Walker; Kristina Skaret; Robert Zee; Simon Grocott; Kieran Carroll; Peter Sinclair; Don Sturgeon; John Harron

2003-01-01

381

Radiological health risks for exploratory class missions in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation risks to crewmembers on missions to the moon and Mars are studied. A graph is presented of the cross section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for cell inactivation and neoplastic cell transformation. Alternatives to conventional approaches to radiation protection using dose and Q are presented with attention given to a hybrid of the conventional system for particles with LET less than 100 keV/micron.

Nachtwey, D. Stuart; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

1991-01-01

382

Development of Shelf Stable Tortillas for Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flour tortillas are a favorite bread item for the Shuttle astronauts and have been used on most Shuttle missions since 1985. Spoilage problems were encountered with commercial tortillas on missions longer than 7 days. A shelf stable tortilla with a shelf life of 6 months was developed by modifying the formulation to reduce the water activity (a(sub w)) below 0.90 and packaging them in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. The water activity was reduced by substituting glycerin for some of the water in the basic tortilla formula. Reduction of the oxygen content was accomplished by packaging in a high-barrier container with a nitrogen atmosphere and including an oxygen scavenger in the package. Additional chemicals were added to the formula to lower the pH and further inhibit mold growth. The shelf life was verified by storage studies at 22 deg. C. The shelf stable tortillas have been well accepted by astronauts and have been used on eight Shuttle missions with durations beyond 7 days.

Bourland, Charles T.; Kloeris, Vickie L.; Fohey, Michael F.; Glaus-Late, Kimberly D.

1994-01-01

383

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard

2015-01-01

384

Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase survivability of microorganisms under irradiation of heavy ion beam and other radiation. In this paper, we discuss current status of exposure experiment of microorganisms defined for the Tanpopo mission.

Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

385

The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

1988-01-01

386

Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

1985-01-01

387

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been

Ahmadi Tara

2010-01-01

388

The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

2008-01-01

389

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

Schulze, Norman R.

1991-01-01

390

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

Schulze, N.R.

1991-08-01

391

Community Participation in the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty percent of the observing time on SIRTF will be available to the general astronomical community through Legacy Project (LP), Guest Observer (GO), Target of Opportunity (ToO), and Director's Discretionary Observations (DDO) programs. We describe the organization of the community of potential SIRTF observers under the auspices of the SIRTF Community Task Force (CTF) and summarize the recent activities of the CTF and its Working Groups (WGs). The WGs enable the SIRTF Project to draw on broad community representation to explore issues related to the definition of the LP, GO, and ToO Programs. Additional WGs are studying SIRTF Solar System Science and Data Archiving and Analysis. Working documents of the CTF and white papers delineating the major issues currently before the WGs can be read on the SIRTF homepage at http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/SIRTF. An interactive forum on the homepage will enable the community to participate actively during the mission definition phase. Community members can use the time-estimator tool on the homepage to assist with planning for SIRTF observations. A current version of the SIRTF Science Activities Timeline (SSAT) is presented. The SSAT defines the schedule for community activities that are necessary to conduct the SIRTF mission through its design, development, construction, preflight testing, and flight phases. Major milestones to be described include a series of workshops to define the LP program, NASA Research Announcement (NRA) releases for the LP and GO Programs, and NRA releases for flight-phase data archiving and analysis activities. An estimate of the fractional distribution of SIRTF observing time among Guaranteed Time Observations (GTOs), LPS, GOs, ToOs, and DDOs during the flight phase is presented. Further information regarding community activities in support of this NASA mission can be found on the SIRTF-homepage.

Gehrz, R. D.; Beichman, C. A.; Bicay, M. D.; Christian, C. A.; Clemens, D. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cutri, R. M.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Hanner, M. S.; Jones, T. J.; Miller, R. B.; Rieke, M. J.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Weiler, E. J.; Werner, M. W.; Woodward, C. E.

1997-12-01

392

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces  

E-print Network

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces Mark spaces, and associated route planning for a variety of effects based tasks taking into account commander preferences in effects routing, facilitates cooperative command planning, and analysis of opponent

Witkowski, Mark

393

Quantitative Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of countermeasures (CM) for the effects of space travel on humans for long term space missions. An example of bone mineral density (BMD) is examined to show specific quantitative measures for failure and success.

Feiveson, Alan H.

2000-01-01

394

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) -2006  

E-print Network

NASA Science Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) - 2006) (formerly REASoN) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Earth Science Data Systems, supports the NASA Earth Science research community in providing Earth science data products

Christian, Eric

395

The Integrated Medical Model - A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to space flight mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM employs an evidence-based, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach within the operational constraints of space flight.

Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles G.; Saile, Lynn; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Lopez, Vilma

2010-01-01

396

Views of the launch of Space Shuttle Challenger for the STS-6 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the launch of Space Shuttle Challenger for the STS-6 mission. Views include the shuttle orbiter headed toward space trailing a line of smoke (30106,30107); The entire launch complex is visible in this view of the STS-6 launch (30108); all views were shot from the Shuttle training aircraft (STA) by Astronaut John W. Young.

1983-01-01

397

The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

2015-01-01

398

Behavioral, psychiatric, and sociological problems of long-duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature search was conducted in an effort to isolate the problems that might be expected on long-duration space missions. Primary sources of the search include short-term space flights, submarine tours, Antarctic expeditions, isolation-chamber tests, space-flight simulators, and hypodynamia studies. Various stressors are discussed including weightlessness and low sensory input; circadian rhythms (including sleep); confinement, isolation, and monotony; and purely psychiatric and sociological considerations. Important aspects of crew selection are also mentioned. An attempt is made to discuss these factors with regard to a prototype mission to Mars.

Kanas, N. A.; Fedderson, W. E.

1971-01-01

399

The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-75 LAUNCH VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule at 3:18:00 p.m. (EST), February 22, 1996. Visible at left is the White Room on the orbiter access arm through which the flight crew had entered the orbiter. Onboard Columbia for the scheduled two-week mission were astronauts Andrew M. Allen, commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and astronauts Maurizio Cheli, Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni. Cheli and Nicollier represent the European Space Agency (ESA), while Guidioni represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

1996-01-01

400

Transmission of Spiroplasma citri to Carrots by Circulifer tenellus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma citri is a wall-less bacterium that causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and brittle root in horseradish. Recently, carrot purple disease was reported in Washington State, and attributed to S. citri, but the mechanisms of transmission and fulfillment of Koch’s postulates were not complet...

401

Automation study for space station subsystems and mission ground support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automation concept for the autonomous operation of space station subsystems, i.e., electric power, thermal control, and communications and tracking are discussed. To assure that functions essential for autonomous operations are not neglected, an operations function (systems monitoring and control) is included in the discussion. It is recommended that automated speech recognition and synthesis be considered a basic mode of man/machine interaction for space station command and control, and that the data management system (DMS) and other systems on the space station be designed to accommodate fully automated fault detection, isolation, and recovery within the system monitoring function of the DMS.

1985-01-01

402

A Record of NASA Space Missions Since 1958  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dedicated men and women together with a unique team of industries and universities created the U.S. space program. They provided the ideas, developed the hardware, launched the satellites, safely returned our astronauts, and successfully retrieved hard-won data from outer space. In an attempt to document, between two covers, the accomplishments of the 1958-1981 period, this report has been compiled. It is a record of an exciting and often dramatic period in the history of the United States. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration is proud to have been permitted to play such an important role in challenging man's spirit.

Rosenthal, Alfred (compiler)

1982-01-01

403

Modeling of Radiation Risks for Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to any human space flight, calculations of radiation risks are used to determine the acceptable scope of astronaut activity. Using the supercomputing facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Ames researchers have determined the damage probabilities of DNA functional groups by space radiation. The data supercede those used in the current Monte Carlo model for risk assessment. One example is the reaction of DNA with hydroxyl radical produced by the interaction of highly energetic particles from space radiation with water molecules in the human body. This reaction is considered an important cause of DNA mutations, although its mechanism is not well understood.

Fletcher, Graham

2004-01-01

404

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

1999-09-01

405

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration For Long Duration In-Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high specific impulse of cryogenic propellants can provide a significant performance advantage for in-space transfer vehicles. The upper stages of the Saturn V and various commercial expendable launch vehicles have used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants; however, the application of cryogenic propellants has been limited to relatively short duration missions due to the propensity of cryogens to absorb environmental heat resulting in fluid losses. Utilizing advanced cryogenic propellant technologies can enable the efficient use of high performance propellants for long duration missions. Crewed mission architectures for beyond low Earth orbit exploration can significantly benefit from this capability by developing realistic launch spacing for multiple launch missions, by prepositioning stages and by staging propellants at an in-space depot. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Office of the Chief Technologist is formulating a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission to mitigate the technical and programmatic risks of infusing these advanced technologies into the development of future cryogenic propellant stages or in-space propellant depots. NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. This mission will test and validate key cryogenic technological capabilities and has the objectives of demonstrating advanced thermal control technologies to minimize propellant loss during loiter, demonstrating robust operation in a microgravity environment, and demonstrating efficient propellant transfer on orbit. The status of the demonstration mission concept development, technology demonstration planning and technology maturation activities in preparation for flight system development are described.

Meyer, Michael L.; Motil, Susan M.; Kortes, Trudy F.; Taylor, William J.; McRight, Patrick S.

2012-01-01

406

Earth observations during Space Shuttle Flight STS-46: Atlantis' Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photographic and videographic documentation of the Earth during STS-46 mission has enhanced the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. Increasing numbers of scientists are using this database; many are downloading the imagery from our electronic database for specific scientific analyses. We believe the scientific returns of the Earth Observations photography from this mission will add to the global change databases and will contribute to the better understanding of our home planet. The use of manned space flights in understanding the global process first hand is a vital component in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The following are discussed along with photographs from the mission: landforms and geologic observation; environmental observations; meteorological/atmospheric observation; and oceanographic observations.

Lulla, Kamlesh; Amsbury, David; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Shriver, Loren J.; Allen, Andrew M.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Nicollier, Claude

1993-01-01

407

Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope- GLAST Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), and the instrumentation that will be on the spacecraft: Large Area Telescope (LAT) and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The presentation revierws in detail the LAT instrument.

Moiseev, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

408

Benchmark experiments for space Reactor neutron shielding of mission electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments and calculations simulating the neutron shadow shield for a reactor-powered space vehicle are described, including calculations for a variety of shield configurations and materials, and an experimental benchmark test using a bare fast reactor.

John G. Williams; Insoo Jun; Wesley W. Sallee; Michael Cherng

2004-01-01

409

Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications. The paper summarizes the study's lessons learned in more detail and offers suggestions for improving the project's ability to identify and manage the technology and heritage risks inherent in the design solution.

Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

2010-01-01

410

Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2012-01-01

411

Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

1988-01-01

412

Space Radiation Organ Doses for Astronauts on Past and Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review methods and data used for determining astronaut organ dose equivalents on past space missions including Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station (ISS). Expectations for future lunar missions are also described. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, or a related quantity, the lineal energy (y) spectra that is measured by a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). These data are used in conjunction with space radiation transport models to project organ specific doses used in cancer and other risk projection models. Biodosimetry data from Mir, STS, and ISS missions provide an alternative estimate of organ dose equivalents based on chromosome aberrations. The physical environments inside spacecraft are currently well understood with errors in organ dose projections estimated as less than plus or minus 15%, however understanding the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons for which there are no human data to estimate risks. The accuracy of projections of organ dose equivalents described here must be supplemented with research on the health risks of space exposure to properly assess crew safety for exploration missions.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

413

Colloid Micro-Newton Thrusters for the space technology 7 mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two flight-qualified clusters of four Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) systems have been delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and subsequently delivered to ESA for spacecraft integration. The clusters will provide precise spacecraft control for the drag-free technology demonstration mission, Space Technology 7 (ST7). The ST7 mission is sponsored by the NASA New Millennium Program and will demonstrate precision formation

John K. Ziemer; Thomas M. Randolph; Garth W. Franklin; Vlad Hruby; Douglas Spence; Nathaniel Demmons; Thomas Roy; Eric Ehrbar; Jurg Zwahlen; Roy Martin; William Connolly

2010-01-01

414

A CSP-Based Interactive Decision Aid for Space Mission Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes an innovative application of AI technology in the area of space mission planning. A system called Mexar\\u000a has been developed to synthesize spacecraft operational commands for the memory dumping problem of the ESA mission called\\u000a Mars Express. The approach implemented in Mexar is centered on constraint satisfaction techniques enhanced with flexible user\\u000a interaction modalities. This paper describes

Amedeo Cesta; Gabriella Cortellessa; Angelo Oddi; Nicola Policella

2003-01-01

415

Multi-Satellite Mission Planning for Integrated Space and Ground System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-satellite mission planning can be considered as the process to allocate the space and ground resources, and to plan and schedule the activities of information acquiring, transferring and processing, based on the requirements of satellite application, such as observing earth and downloading data etc., under the condition of multi-satellite, multi-task and multi-objective. In fact, there are various mission planning methods,

CHEN Yingwu; TAN Yuejin; LIU Yang; LI Jufang; FANG Yanshen

416

The Space Mission PLATO 2.0, a Medium Class ESA Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO 2.0) is a space mission that has been proposed in the framework of the ESA Cosmic vision 2015 - 2025 program as an M3 candidate mission for launch in 2022/24. PLATO 2.0 will do very high precision photometric measurements over a large sample of bright stars in order to discover exoplanets through transits and to characterize planets and their host stars using seismology.

Barban, C.; Goupil, M. J.; Rauer, H.; Plato 2. 0 Team

2013-12-01

417

Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

Rozenfeld, Pawel

1993-01-01

418

Atlas of nuclear emulsion micrographs from personnel dosimeters of manned space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of micrographs is presented taken from nuclear emulsions of personnel dosimeter packs carried by the astronauts on near-earth orbital and lunar missions. It is intended as a pictorial record and illustration of the radiation environment in space and as a supplement to earlier reports and publications of the laboratory in which the emulsion findings have been presented in detail for individual missions. A complete list of those earlier accounts precedes the picture sections.

Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

1976-01-01

419

The Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Contamination Control Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After nearly 10 years on-orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) external thermal control materials and paint have degraded due to exposure to the low Earth orbit environment. This presented a potentially large on-orbit contamination source (particles and/or debris). Contamination mitigation techniques were developed to augment existing on-orbit servicing contamination controls. They encompassed mission management, crew training, and crew aids and tools. These techniques were successfully employed during the HST Servicing Mission 3A, December 1999.

Hansen, Patricia A.

2000-01-01

420

Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign entities. Continued success in JMS depends on continued support from across the space community. Key activities where community participation is essential include the C2 SSA Community of Interest (COI) development and refinement, creative strategies for faster, better, cheaper development, and defining the next set of capabilities.

Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

2011-09-01

421

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

422

Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Society, a private non profit organisation devoted to promote the red planet exploration, decided to implement simulated Mars habitat in two locations on Earth: in northern Canada on the rim of a meteoritic crater (2000), in a US Utah desert, location of a past Jurassic sea (2001). These habitats have been built with large similarities to actual planned habitats for first Mars exploration missions. Participation is open to everybody either proposing experimentations or wishing only to participate as a crew member. Participants are from different organizations: Mars Society, Universities, experimenters working with NASA or ESA. The general philosophy of the work conducted is not to do an innovative scientific work on the field but to learn how the scientific work is affected or modified by the simulation conditions. Outside activities are conducted with simulated spacesuits limiting the experimenter abilities. Technology or procedures experimentations are also conducted as well as experimentations on the crew psychology and behaviour.

Souchier, Alain

2010-06-01

423

Automating Mission Scheduling for Space-Based Observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe the use of our planning and scheduling framework, HSTS, to reduce the complexity of science mission planning. This work is part of an overall project to enable a small team of scientists to control the operations of a spacecraft. The present process is highly labor intensive. Users (scientists and operators) rely on a non-codified understanding of the different spacecraft subsystems and of their operating constraints. They use a variety of software tools to support their decision making process. This paper consi