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Sample records for space citris mission

  1. The First Absolute TEC Measurements Using the Scintillation and Ionospheric TEC Receiver in Space (CITRIS)*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    The space-based multi-band CITRIS receiver records total electron content (TEC) and radio scintillations from satellite beacons in low-earth-orbit plus the global network of ground DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The measurement of ionospheric TEC provides inputs for space-weather models over remote regions of the Earth and allows for tracking of ionospheric disturbances. The CITRIS satellite-to-satellite TEC measurement uses the differential phase technique. The CITRIS receiver is currently in orbit at 560 km altitude on the STPSat1 satellite at 35 degrees inclination. CITRIS records TEC and radio scintillations from beacon transmitters on the Taiwan FORMOSAT3 at 150/400/1067 MHz, DMSP/F15, RADCAL, GFO and COSMOS at 150/400 MHz plus other satellites in low earth orbit. The ground-based DORIS geodesy beacons operate at 401/2036 MHz. The innovative satellite-to-satellite measurements provide new capacities. Satellite-to-satellite measurements have three stages: 1) ionospheric occultation at large separations, 2) minimum distance TEC sampling when the beacon passes directly over the receiver and 3) a second occultation. Absolute TEC is obtained by extrapolation to zero satellite separations. In such cases, it is possible to retrieve absolute TEC with less than 0.1 TECU errors. Initial tests using CITRIS data in data-assimilation space weather models shows the value of the technique. We will report on the first year of measurements from the CITRIS receiver. Future space missions would benefit from flying CITRIS receivers to give global radio measurements of the ionosphere at 150, 400, 1067, and 2036 MHz. *Supported by ONR

  2. Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space (CITRIS)Instrument for Ionospheric Research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Global ionospheric measurements of total electron content and radio scintillations provide direct inputs for space-weather models and for tracking of ionospheric disturbances. These measurements require propagation from transmitter beacons and receivers through large portions of the F- and E-region plasma. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) CITRIS receiver is currently in orbit at 560 km altitude on the STPSat1 satellite in a 35 degree inclination. CITRIS records TEC and radio scintillations from the global network of French DORIS beacons and from 150/400 MHz beacon transmitters on the Taiwan ROCSAT3, DMSP/F15, RADCAL, GFO and other satellites in low earth orbit. CITRIS also provides ionospheric TEC and radio scintillations in remote regions of the Earth because of the distribution of the 56 DORIS beacons around the globe. The CITRIS satellite- to-satellite measurement capability is new and exciting. A pass can go through three stages: 1) an ionospheric occultation geometry (at large distances), then 2) a nearly vertical sounding as the radio beacon passes directly over the receiver and 3) a second occultation. In such cases, it is possible to retrieve absolute TEC with less than 0.1 TECU errors. Another new capability for CITRIS is the ability to use three frequencies (150, 400, and 1067 MHz) for TEC measurements, which can also help resolve 2π ambiguities. We will report on the first six months of measurements for the CITRIS receiver. Future missions in space would benefit from flying CITRIS receivers to give global radio measurements of the ionosphere at 150, 400, 1067, and 2036 MHz. *The research was supported at NRL by ONR

  3. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  4. Dosimetry during space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Comparative radiation hazards due to various sources of radiation in several prominent manned space missions are surveyed, along with techniques for coping with the hazards. Cosmic radiation of solar and galactic origin, and Van Allen belt radiation, are the major hazards outside the earth's geomagnetic shield, and were a major problem in the Apollo missions. The Skylab missions, while within the geomagnetic field, were subject to extensive exposure to the trapped radiation belts (Van Allen belts), while the Soyuz-Apollo test project involved orbiting at a lower altitude, with lower exposure. No solar particle bursts affected Apollo missions, and the Solar Particle Alert Network devised to help cope with the problem is described. Dosimetry practices and devices are described. Radiation experience and dose readings logged with the various missions are reported.

  5. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  6. The Space Shuttle and deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of deep space missions being planned for launch on the Space Shuttle, one element of the Space Transportation System (STS). A comparison is made between mission requirements and the planned capabilities of the STS. Finally, a potential evolution of the STS in order to accomodate these missions with adequate mass margins is discussed.

  7. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects; imaging the narrow-line regions of AGNs in the optical; direct distance determination of a half dozen nearby spiral galaxies using rotational kinematics, thereby sidestepping reddening and metallicity issues in the calibration of distance estimators like Tully-Fisher; imaging exozodiacal dust disks (when operating in its nulling mode, SIM will be sensitive, at a distance of (beta) Pic (20 pc), to scales ranging from 0.2 to 5 AU).

  8. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  9. The Space Technology 8 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

  10. The SNAP space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebek, Chris

    2007-09-01

    The SNAP space mission concept is designed to explore dark energy with Type Ia supernova distance luminosity measurements and with weak lensing angular distance correlation power spectrum. The supernova program uses photometric discovery and detailed follow-up observations of at least 2000 Type Ia supernovae with redshifts ranging from 0.3 to 1.7. The weak lensing program uses a deep small field survey and a shallower large field survey with photometry, position and shape measurement of several million galaxies. The instrument sits at the focus of a ˜2-m diameter three-mirror anastigmat telescope with a 1.4 deg2 field of view. It consists of an imager that instruments 0.7 deg2 of the field of view, and a low-resolution spectrograph. Both the photometer and spectrograph use visible and near-infrared detectors to span the wavelength range 400 1700 nm. Wavelength is covered with two detector materials implemented with different readout architectures—CCDs for the visible and HgCdTe hybrid pixel detectors for the near-infrared. While these detector technologies are familiar in HEP experiments, they used in a very different manner, namely photon counting. The physics, architecture and characteristics of these detectors and how they are used will be presented.

  11. The AGILE space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; de Paris, G.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Evangelista, Y.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Pontoni, C.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rossi, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Giommi, P.; Antonelli, A.; Pittori, C.

    2008-04-01

    AGILE is an Italian Space Agency mission dedicated to the exploration of the gamma-ray Universe. The AGILE, very innovative instrument, combines for the first time a gamma-ray imager (sensitive in the range 30 MeV 50 GeV) and a hard X-ray imager (sensitive in the range 18 60 keV). An optimal angular resolution and very large fields of view are obtained by the use of state-of-the-art Silicon detectors integrated in a very compact instrument. AGILE was successfully launched on April 23, 2007 from the Indian base of Sriharikota and was inserted in an optimal low-particle background equatorial orbit. AGILE will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources, galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE Cycle-1 pointing program started on 2007 December 1, and is open to the international community through a Guest Observer Program.

  12. Advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr.; Healy, T. J.; Long, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE Summer Study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: (1) An intelligent earth-sensing information system, (2) an autonomous space exploration system, (3) an automated space manufacturing facility, and (4) a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by century's end.

  13. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  14. Deep Space 1 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    Deep Space 1 (DS1), launched on October 24, 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program. This program is chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. Twelve advanced technologies were chosen for validation on DS1. These include solar electric propulsion, high-power solar concentrator arrays, autonomous on-board optical navigation, two low-mass science instrument packages, and several telecommunications and microelectronics devices. The encounter of the DS1 spacecraft with the asteroid Braille on July 29,1999 represented the conclusion of the technology validation phase of the mission and the first encounter of the spacecraft with a deep space target. The validation of technologies has been completed. The presentation will describe the mission, science and technology objectives and results to date, and future plans for the project.

  15. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  16. Space Mission : Y3K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer Programme and APME, following the successful launch of "Coming of Age: plastics and space meeting the challenges to mankind" in October 1999. "Coming of Age" is a report produced by APME that brought the role of plastics in technology transfer to adult consumer audiences across Europe.

  17. Adaptive structures. [for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the adaptive structures concept and its applications to current and planned space missions are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. An adaptive structure is defined as one which can be modified to meet mission requirements, either by remote commands or automatically in response to external stimuli. Topics addressed include the need for adaptive structures, analytical models, ground testing, sensor/actuator-structure interactions, structural concepts, active damping, wave propagation in large structures, the selection of active member locations, and on-orbit system identification. Particular attention is given to adaptive structures being developed for the NASA Large Deployable Reflector and Optical Interferometer projects.

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

  19. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  20. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  1. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  2. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  3. Possible Space Missions for Solar Research After Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brown, J. C.; Canfield, R. C.; Harvey, J.; Holzer, T. E.; Hoyng, T. E.; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.; Linsky, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    This ad hoc panel met in February 1977 to consider the needs of solar physics for space missions after the scheduled flight of Solar Maximum Mission in 1979. We were concerned only with scientific needs and opportunities. Neither budgetary implications nor payload feasibility were considered. This report on the panel deliberations therefore makes suggestions only. We hope it will be a useful input to the more extensive and careful analysis of the appropriate committees, such as the Solar Physics Working Group. We have made no attempt to prioritize our proposed mission. The following possible missions are describes briefly: A Solar Terrestrial Environment Mission; two versions of a Stereo Mission; a Large Scale Solar Structure Mission; a Solar Atmosphere Mission; a Solar Particle Acceleration Mission; and a Solar Pinhole Mission. We also append a brief account of the proposed Solar Probe Mission.

  4. Low Latitude Observations of Ionospheric Irregularities from Low Earth Orbit with the CITRIS Instrument on STPSat1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul; Siefring, Carl L.

    After two years of operation, the scintillation and TEC receiver in space (CITRIS) instrument on STPSat1 has completed its mission to demonstrate remote acquisition of ionospheric data from low-earth-orbit. Using 150/400/1067 MHz transmissions from low earth orbit, CERTO beacons on the DMSP/F15, Taiwan COSMIC satellites and C/NOFS, as well as 400.125 and 2036.15 MHz signals from the French DORIS beacons on the ground, CITRIS has recorded ionospheric irregularities in the ionosphere below 35 degrees latitude. The accomplishments of CITRIS include (1) the highest recorded accuracy for satellite-to-satellite TEC measurements yielding better than 0.02 TECU on selected propagation paths, (2) the highest time resolution measurements of equatorial scintillations from the DORIS beacons, and (3) direct comparison of radio scintillations from CITRIS with in situ observations from C/NOFS and ground radar backscatter from Jicamarca, Peru.

  5. System Engineering Challenges of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristam Tupper

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the system engineering challenges that face NASA's future space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Future Space Missions; 2) Trends; and 3) Developing System Engineers.

  6. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  7. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  8. Space tug geosynchronous mission simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Near-optimal three dimensional trajectories from a low earth park orbit inclined at 28.5 deg to a synchronous-equatorial mission orbit were developed for both the storable (thrust = 28,912 N (6,500 lbs), I sub sp = 339 sec) and cryogenic (thrust = 44,480 N (10,000 lbs), I sub sp = 470 sec) space tug using the iterative cost function minimization technique contained within the modularized vehicle simulation (MVS) program. The finite burn times, due to low thrust-to-weight ratios, and the associated gravity losses are accounted for in the trajectory simulation and optimization. The use of an ascent phasing orbit to achieve burnout in synchronous orbit at any longitude is investigated. The ascent phasing orbit is found to offer the additional advantage of significantly reducing the overall delta velocity by splitting the low altitude burn into two parts and thereby reducing gravity losses.

  9. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  10. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  11. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  12. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  13. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  14. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  15. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  16. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  17. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    PubMed Central

    Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

  19. STS-81 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 was the fifth of nine planned missions to dock with the Russian Mir Space Station and the fourth crewmember transfer mission. The double Spacehab module was carried for the second time, and it housed experiments that were performed by the crew and logistics equipment that was transferred to the Mir.

  20. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  1. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug{close_quote}s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3{endash}7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from {dollar_sign}32 M to {dollar_sign}34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from {dollar_sign}39 M to {dollar_sign}42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme 'Space Mission Success Through Testing.'

  3. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  4. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  5. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  6. A Second Space Gravitational Wave Observation Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2010-02-01

    The scientific case for early flight of a first space GW mission to observe the signals from massive black hole mergers throughout the universe and from inspirals of stellar mass black holes into galactic center black holes appears to be strong. But, the justification for a second space GW mission will depend strongly on what the first one finds. The Big Bang Observer and DECIGO missions have been proposed, with their objectives including looking for primordial GW signals and helping to determine the cosmological distance scale. However, these missions are extremely challenging, so whether they will be scientifically justified in the future is quite uncertain. Future progress toward achieving similar objectives appears likely from ground observations and from one of the several Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization missions that have been proposed. Two much more modest missions have been suggested for study, in addition to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and the LISA and DECIGO pathfinder missions. One is called pre-DECIGO, which would combine looking for NS-NS inspirals out to 300 Mpc with technology demonstrations for DECIGO. The other is called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna (ALIA), and would extend observations of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole mergers out to considerably larger redshifts. The suggested baselines are 100 km and 500,000 km, and the required spurious acceleration limits are 1x10-17 and 3x10-16 m/s2/sqrt Hz, respectively.

  7. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP (User Datagram Protocol)-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990s, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD (Department of Defense). This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Nack Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) standard.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's purpose is to spend 20 years probing the farthest and faintest reaches of the cosmos. Crucial to fulfilling this objective is a series of on-orbit servicing missions. Hubble was placed in orbit on April 25, 1990, by the shuttle Discovery and subsequent servicing followed in December 1993 and February 1997. The third in the series of planned servicing missions for the Hubble Space Telescope was scheduled for June 2000. This third Servicing Mission has been separated into two flights. The first of these flights, Servicing Mission 3A, is scheduled for December 1999, and the second, Servicing Mission 3B, is scheduled for 2001. The fourth Servicing Mission is scheduled for 2003 with a "close-out" Mission in 2010. Three instruments are currently in active scientific use on Hubble - the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, and Fine Guidance Sensor I R, which has been designated as the prime FGS for astrometric science. Other instrument bays are occupied by the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which is now dormant due to the depletion of its solid nitrogen cryogen, the Faint Object Camera, which has been decommissioned, and the corrective optical device called COSTAR, which is no longer needed.

  9. The deep space 1 extended mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Varghese, Philip

    2001-03-01

    The primary mission of Deep Space 1 (DS1), the first flight of the New Millennium program, completed successfully in September 1999, having exceeded its objectives of testing new, high-risk technologies important for future space and Earth science missions. DS1 is now in its extended mission, with plans to take advantage of the advanced technologies, including solar electric propulsion, to conduct an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly in September 2001. During the extended mission, the spacecraft's commercial star tracker failed; this critical loss prevented the spacecraft from achieving three-axis attitude control or knowledge. A two-phase approach to recovering the mission was undertaken. The first involved devising a new method of pointing the high-gain antenna to Earth using the radio signal received at the Deep Space Network as an indicator of spacecraft attitude. The second was the development of new flight software that allowed the spacecraft to return to three-axis operation without substantial ground assistance. The principal new feature of this software is the use of the science camera as an attitude sensor. The differences between the science camera and the star tracker have important implications not only for the design of the new software but also for the methods of operating the spacecraft and conducting the mission. The ambitious rescue was fully successful, and the extended mission is back on track.

  10. Beamed laser power for advanced space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; De Young, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced civil space missions may benefit substantially from beamed laser power. Recent advances in solar-pumped lasers and electrically driven diode lasers are discussed. Two laser-beamed power applications, for an advanced space station and in support of a high power lunar base, are summarized.

  11. Optical communication for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firtmaurice, M.

    1991-01-01

    Activities performed at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) related to direct detection optical communications for space applications are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) requirements for optical communication systems (data rates and channel quality; spatial acquisition; fine tracking and pointing; and transmit point-ahead correction); (2) component testing and development (laser diodes performance characterization and life testing; and laser diode power combining); (3) system development and simulations (The GSFC pointing, acquisition and tracking system; hardware description; preliminary performance analysis; and high data rate transmitter/receiver systems); and (4) proposed flight demonstration of optical communications.

  12. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  13. Mission Success Driven Space System Sparing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the maintenance resources, the spare parts are the most difficult to predict. Items in the space systems are very different from the point of view of reliability, cost, weight, volume, etc. The different combinations of spares make different contribution to the: mission success, spare investment, volume occupied and weight. Hence, the selection of spares for a mission planned must take into account all of these features. This paper presents the generic mission success driven sparing model developed, for the complex space systems. The mathematical analysis used in the model enables the user to select the most suitable selection of the spare package for the mission planned. The illustrative examples presented clearly demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of the model introduced.

  14. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  15. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  16. Blast-Off on Mission: SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Part of NASA's mission is to inspire the next generation of explorers. NASA often reaches children - the inventors of tomorrow - through teachers, reporters, exhibit designers, and other third-party entities. Therefore, when Walt Disney Imagineering, the creative force behind the planning, design, and construction of Disney parks and resorts around the world, approached NASA with the desire to put realism into its Mission: SPACE project, the Agency was happy to offer its insight.

  17. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  18. Procedure Visualization to Augment Space Mission Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn M.; Elcott, Sharif; Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) has been developed by the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center as a solution to some of the training and operations challenges faced by organizations like the International Space Station training facilities and Mission Control engineering teams. At present, astronaut crews are constrained by limited access to physical mockups, which themselves have a built-in 1-g limitation. Mission operations team are faced with the daunting task of controlling the operations and maintenance of an ever-changing Station in space. Many operations teams create and follow textual procedures without the ability to visualize the given actions or alternatives. The NS allows users to easily generate and view procedures to enhance training and operations. Because training and mission operations are of crucial importance to the International Space Station and other similarly sophisticated programs, this paper is focused on the NS integrated procedure tool.

  19. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  20. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  1. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope - First Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Space Shuttle mission STS-61 was the first of several planned servicing missions for HST, intended to periodically replace failed components and upgrade scientific instruments with improved versions to keep the telescope viable and productive throughout its planned 15-year lifetime. This First Servicing Mission was also intended to correct several design flaws that were detected shortly after the launch of HST. There were three overall mission objectives for the STS-61 repair mission: 1) To Restore the Planned Scientific Capabilities: One complexity of the First Servicing Mission was the necessity for adding optical elements in the light path to correct the spherical aberration. These corrective optics were required to provide the quantitative science capability to enable key scientific programs to be carried out as originally planned. The addition of the COSTAR and the installation of WFPC2 both contributed to recovering these capabilities. 2) To Restore the Reliability of Vehicle Systems: Failed or degraded components had depleted some of the original subsystem redundancy, which had to be restored to allow continued science operations until the next servicing mission in 1997. Anomalous components that required servicing included the solar arrays, gyroscope sensing units, gyroscope electronics, magnetometers, solar array drive electronics, and electrical fuses. 3) To Validate the On-Orbit Servicing Concept for HST: Validation of the concept of on-orbit servicing as the way to achieve HST's full 15-year life was required to provide a foundation for future servicing missions.

  3. Life sciences space missions. Overview.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M

    1996-07-01

    It has been known for many years that weightlessness induces changes in numerous physiological systems: the cardiovascular system declines in both aerobic capacity and orthostatic tolerance; there is a reduction in fluid and electrolyte balance, hematocrit, and certain immune parameters; bone and muscle mass and strength are reduced; various neurological responses include space motion sickness and posture and gate alterations. These responses are caused by the hypokinesia of weightlessness, the cephalic fluid shift, the unloading of the vestibular system, stress, and the altered temporal environment. PMID:8828641

  4. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  5. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  6. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  7. Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2007-01-01

    Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

  8. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  9. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  10. Benefits of slush hydrogen for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Zubrin, Robert; Hardy, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the benefits of using slush hydrogen instead of normal boiling point liquid hydrogen as a fuel for several space missions. Vehicles considered in the study included the Space Shuttle/Shuttle-C, LEO to GEO transfer vehicles, Lunar and Mars transfer vehicles, and cryogenic depots in low Earth orbit. The advantages of using slush hydrogen were expressed in terms of initial mass differences at a constant payload, payload differences at a constant tank volume, and increases in fuel storage time for cryogenic depots. Both chemical oxygen/hydrogen and hydrogen nuclear thermal rocket propulsion were considered in the study. The results indicated that slush hydrogen offers the potential for significant decreases in initial mass and increases in payload for most missions studied. These advantages increase as the mission difficulty, or energy, increases.

  11. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well. PMID:11538724

  12. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  13. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  14. Optical Communications for Extreme Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles

    1996-01-01

    A recent study of deep space telecommunications systems was performed in support of NASA's Mission to the Solar System planing activity. The results show that high bandwidth communications (greater than 1Mbps) are feasible at high-value planetary targets provided there are investments in the ground and spacecraft communication infrastructure.

  15. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  16. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  17. STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-77 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 11. The Government Fumished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table II. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET). The six-person crew for STS-77 consisted of John H. Casper, Col., U. S. Air Force, Commander; Curtis L. Brown, Jr., Lt. Col., U. S. Air Force, Pilot; Andrew S. W. Thomas, Civilian, Ph.D., Mission Specialist 1; Daniel W. Bursch, CDR., U. S. Navy, Mission Specialist 2; Mario Runco, Jr., Civilian, Mission Specialist 3; and Marc Gameau, Civilian, PhD, Mission Specialist 4.

  18. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  19. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  20. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  1. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  2. Psychological considerations in future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

  3. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  4. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  5. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  6. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  7. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  8. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 3. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 4. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  9. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and as the need increases for more network-oriented mission operations. Another element of increasing significance will be the increased cost effectiveness of designing, building, integrating, and operating instruments and spacecraft that will come to the fore as more missions take up the approach of using commodity-level standard communications technologies. This paper describes how an IP (Internet Protocol)-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  10. Planetary mission applications for space storable propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.; Cork, M. J.; Young, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare space-storable with earth-storable spacecraft propulsion systems, space-storable with solid kick stages, and several space-storable development options on the basis of benefits received for cost expenditures required. The results show that, for a launch vehicle with performance less than that of Shuttle/Centaur, space-storable spacecraft propulsion offers an incremental benefit/cost ratio between 1.0 and 5.5 when compared to earth-storable systems for three of the four missions considered. In the case of VOIR 83, positive benefits were apparent only for a specific launch vehicle-spacecraft propulsion combination. A space-storable propulsion system operating at thrust of 600 lbf, 355 units of specific impulse, and with blowdown pressurization, represents the best choice for the JO 81 mission on a Titan/Centaur if only spacecraft propulsion modifications are considered. For still higher performance, a new solid-propellant kick stage with space-storable spacecraft propulsion is preferred over a system which uses space-storable propellants for both the kick stage and the spacecraft system.

  11. Space Shuttle Mission Sequence-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under development by NASA for launch in 2014. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, peer through dusty clouds to see AGN environments and stars forming planetary systems at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at wavelength of 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with propellant for 10 years of science operations. The instruments will provide broad- and narrow-band imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy (spectral resolution of 100 to 3,000) across the 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. Science and mission operations will be conducted from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.

  13. Manned Mars missions using propellant from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. ); Redd, L.R. )

    1993-01-10

    .A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

  14. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software development techniques lays the foundation for delivery of product-oriented flight software modules and models. Software can then be readily applied to support the on-board autonomy required for mission self-management. An on-board intelligent system, based on advanced scripting languages, facilitates the mission autonomy required to offload ground system resources, and enables the spacecraft to manage itself safely through an efficient and effective process of reactive planning, science data acquisition, synthesis, and transmission to the ground. Autonomous ground systems in turn coordinate and support schedule contact times with the spacecraft. Specific autonomy software modules on-board include mission and science planners, instrument and subsystem control, and fault tolerance response software, all residing within a distributed computing environment supported through the flight LAN. Autonomy also requires the minimization of human intervention between users on the ground and the spacecraft, and hence calls for the elimination of the traditional operations control center as a funnel for data manipulation. Basic goal-oriented commands are sent directly from the user to the spacecraft through a distributed internet-based payload operations "center". The ensuing architecture calls for the use of spacecraft as point extensions on the Internet. This paper will detail the system architecture implementation chosen to enable cost-effective autonomous missions with applicability to a broad range of conditions. It will define the structure needed for implementation of such missions, including software and hardware infrastructures. The overall architecture is then laid out as a common thread in the mission life cycle from formulation through implementation and flight operations.

  15. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  16. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  17. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  18. The Infrared Telescope in Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/Japanese Space Agency Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission was one of seven experiments on the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). This satellite was launched on a Japanese H-2 expendable launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center on March 18, 1995 and was retrieved by the NASA space shuttle the following January for refurbishment and reuse. The IRTS itself consisted of a super-fluid liquid helium-cooled telescope with four infrared focal plane science instruments that operated simultaneously. During its one-month lifetime before the liquid helium was exhausted the IRTS mapped 7% of the sky. These data are now being released to the general astronomical community through IPAC at the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this activity is to assist in the set-up of phase noise instrumentation, assist in the process of automated wire bonding, assist in the design and optimization of tunable microwave components, especially phase shifters, based on thin ferroelectric films, and learn how to use commercial electromagnetic simulation software.

  20. Innovative Explorer Mission to Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gold, R. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Roelof, E. C.; Leary, J. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Koehn, P. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Oleson, S. R.; Fiehler, D.

    A mission to interstellar space has been under discussion for over 25 years. Many fundamental scientific questions about the nature of the surrounding galactic medium and its interaction with the solar system can only be answered by in situ measurements that such a mission would provide. The technical difficulties and budgetary and programmatic realities have prevented implementation of previous studies based on the use of a near-Sun perihelion propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and large fission-reactor-powered nuclear electric propulsion systems. We present an alternative approach - the Innovative Interstellar Explorer - based on Radioisotope Electric Propulsion. A high-energy, current-technology launch of the small spacecraft is followed by long-term, lowthrust, continuous acceleration enabled by a kilowatt-class ion thruster powered by Pu-238 Stirling radioisotope generators. We describe the science, payload, and mission and spacecraft design. We also discuss the role such a mission plays in assessing heliospheric space climate, knowledge of which is vital for human exploration to Mars and beyond.

  1. Control Architecture for the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Shames, P.; Schell, R.

    2000-01-01

    As NASA moves int an era of flying more missions at much lower cost and shorter development duration, the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) has been redesigned to provide services to approximately 50 missions during the next 10 years.

  2. Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

  3. Internet Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  4. High performance techniques for space mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

  5. High performance techniques for space mission scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

  6. STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

  7. Symbiotic structures to significantly enhance space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Arritt, Brandon J.

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Defense is actively pursuing a Responsive Space capability that will dramatically reduce the cost and time associated with getting a payload into space. In order to enable that capability, our space systems must be modular and flexible to cover a wide range of missions, configurations, duty cycles, and orbits. This places requirements on the entire satellite infrastructure: payloads, avionics, electrical harnessing, structure, thermal management system, etc. The Integrated Structural Systems Team at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, has been tasked with developing structural and thermal solutions that will enable a Responsive Space capability. This paper details a "symbiotic" solution where thermal management functionality is embedded within the structure of the satellite. This approach is based on the flight proven and structurally efficient isogrid architecture. In our rendition, the ribs serve as fluidic passages for thermal management, and passively activated valves are used to control flow to the individual components. As the paper will explain, our analysis has shown this design to be structurally efficient and thermally responsive to a wide range of potential satellite missions, payloads, configurations, and orbits.

  8. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  9. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  10. The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) Space Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  11. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  12. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  13. The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

  14. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  15. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  16. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  17. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  18. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-07-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  19. Habitability in long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.

    1987-01-01

    The research (both in progress and completed) conducted for the U.S. Space Station in relation to the crew habitability and crew productivity is discussed. Methods and tasks designed to increase the data base of the man/system information are described. The particular research areas discussed in this paper include human productivity, on-orbit maintenance, vewing requirements, fastener types, and crew quarters. This information (along with data obtained on human interaction with command/control work station, anthropometic factors, crew equipment, galley/wardroom, restraint systems, etc) will be integrated into the common data base for the purpose of assisting the design of the Space Station and other future manned space missions.

  20. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  1. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  2. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  3. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  4. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  5. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  6. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  7. Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    In earlier years, Indian scientists carried out studies of ionosphere and cosmic rays phenomena primarily using ground based radio techniques and balloon borne detectors. With the advent of the space era, parallel efforts in the indigenous design and development of different sounding rockets for electrojet and x-ray astronomy related research, satellite launch vehicles and satellites were undertaken. While these developments are primarily oriented to realise the application goals in the fields of satellite communication, broadcasting, weather forecasting, remote survey of resources such as agricultural and forest cover, water reserves, land-use pattern etc., recent space science research opportunities were provided on board ISRO's SROSS-C2 (Retarding Potential Analyser, RPA & Gamma Ray Burst Experiment, GRB), IRS-P3 (Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment, IXAE) and GSAT-2 (Solar X-ray Spectrometers, SOXS & Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment, CRABEX) satellites. These scientific experiments are providing important results to the understanding of ionospheric thermal structure (RPA), ionisation irregularities (RPA) & diffraction tomography (CRABEX), detailed characterisation of gamma ray bursts (GRB), phenomena of x-ray emitting stellar objects and solar x-ray variability (IXAE). Owing to very rewarding scientific outcome of IXAE in observing numerous x-ray emitting stellar objects such as pulsars, neutron stars, black hole binaries etc. and based on interest of the astronomy community, ISRO has formulated a plan to launch a dedicated Astronomy satellite (called ASTROSAT) with a unique feature of enabling simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of stellar objects covering optical, EUV, UV, soft and hard x-ray wavelengths. ASTROSAT carrying a compendium of 4 different x-ray and two UV imaging telescope payloads is planned to be launched using ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The orbit of ASTROSAT is preferred to be ˜ 20 at an altitude of 600-700 km with a mission life of ˜ 5 years. Based on an expert report, ISRO has announced its plan to launch the first moon mission (Chandrayaan-1), which could be realised with the existing ISRO capabilities of launch vehicle, satellite and related technologies. The mission has specific scientific goals to study the three-dimensional lunar surface geological features and distribution of elemental and mineralogical species to help understand the origin and evolution of lunar system. The mission goal is to place a lunar-craft, weighing about 525 kg and carrying ˜ 55 kg payload mass, at ˜ 100 km polar orbit of moon for high spatial resolution (5-20 km) mapping. The rationale for selecting these and other future space science missions along with the expected scientific results would be discussed.

  8. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  9. STS-42 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-42 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the fourteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-52 (LWT-45); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-048. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L020A for the left SRM and 360Q020B for the right SRM. The primary objective of the STS-42 mission was to complete the objectives of the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1). Secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR); Student Experiment 81-09 (Convection in Zero Gravity); Student Experiment 83-02 (Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media); the Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads carried on the GAS Beam Assembly.

  10. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  11. Positive psychological effects of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C.; Kanas, Nick

    2005-07-01

    Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

  12. The JEM-EUSO Space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osteria, G.

    2014-06-01

    The JEM-EUSO experiment, Extreme Universe Space Observatory at the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station, is a space mission devoted to the scientific research of cosmic rays of highest energies. JEM-EUSO will address basic problems of fundamental physics and high-energy astrophysics studying the nature and origin of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). The JEM-EUSO instrument basically consists of an UHECR telescope assisted by an atmosphere monitoring device and controlled by a calibration system. Its telescope looks down from the International Space Station to detect UV photons emitted from air showers generated by UHECRs in the atmosphere. The optical system, the focal surface detectors and electronics and the infrared camera are in advanced stage of development. They will be tested and calibrated on ground (EUSO-TA) in the next months at (and with) the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, and next year on board of a stratospheric Balloon (EUSO-Balloon) in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES. 13 Countries, 76 Institutes and about 280 researchers are collaborating in JEM-EUSO, with the support of the most important International and National Space Agencies and research funding institutions.

  13. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  14. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  15. STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  16. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  17. Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick

    2009-01-01

    XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

  18. Space missions orbits around small worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Space missions under study to visit icy moons and small worlds in our solar system will requires orbits with low-altitude and high inclinations. These orbits provides a better coverage to map the surface and to analyse the gravitational and magnetic fields. In this context, obtain these orbits has become important in planning of these missions. Celestial bodies like Haumea, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the objects under study study to receive missions in a near future. In order to obtain low-altitude and high inclined orbits for future exploration of these bodies, this work aims to present an analytical study to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecraft's orbit around a minor body. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented. Perturbations due to the non-sphericity of the minor body are considered. The effects on spacecraft's orbital elements are analyzed to provide the the more useful and desired orbits. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results present good accordance with the literature.

  19. Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

  20. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  1. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  2. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-05-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  3. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  4. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  5. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  6. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  7. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  9. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The Command researched and identified a course of action that has maximized operationally responsive space for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) to develop the operationally responsive spacelift capability for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. The LTS created and executed a space enterprise strategy to place small payloads (1500 pounds), at low cost (less than 28M to 30M per launch), repeatable and rapidly into 100 - 255 nautical miles orbits. In doing so, the squadron provides scalable launch support services including program management support, engineering support, payload integration, and post-test evaluation for space systems. The Air Force, through the SDTW/LTS, will continue to evolve as the spacelift execution arm for Space Situational Awareness by creating small, less-expensive, repeatable and operationally responsive space launch capability.

  10. Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

  11. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  12. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical weighted figure of merit (WFoM) approach that quantifies the effectiveness of a candidate material to shield space crews from the whole of the space radiation environment. The results of the WFoM approach should prove useful to designers and engineers in seeking alternative materials suitable for the construction of spacecraft or planetary surface habitats needed for long-term space exploration missions. The dosimetric measurements in this study have confirmed the principle of good space radiation shielding design by showing that low-Z¯ materials are most effective at reducing absorbed dose and dose equivalent while high-Z¯ materials are to be avoided. The relatively high WFoMs of carbon composite and lunar- and Martian-regolith composite could have important implications for the design and construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats. The ground-based measurements conducted in this study have validated the heavy ion extension of FLUKA by producing normalized differential LET fluence spectra that are in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  14. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving

  15. Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

  16. Space-time dynamics estimation from space mission tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, and will require a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Methods: We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual correlations between the signatures of the two are automatically identified. We perform a covariance analysis using our proposed method with simulated laser data from Earth-based stations to both a Mars and Mercury lander. Results: Using four years of tracking data for the Mars lander simulations, we find a difference between our results using the simultaneous space-time dynamics estimation and the classical analysis technique (with an a priori time ephemeris) of around 0.1% in formal errors and correlation coefficients. For a Mercury lander this rises to around 1% for a one-month mission and 10% for a four-year mission. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find that using an a priori time ephemeris of representative accuracy will result in estimation errors that are orders of magnitude above the formal error when processing highly accurate laser time transfer data.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  18. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  19. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  20. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  1. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  2. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  3. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  4. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  5. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  6. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  7. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  8. Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

  9. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  10. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  11. Deep Space Mission Emergency Mode Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates telecommunications between a deep space mission satellite and the ground station during an emergency mode. Once emergency is detected, spacecraft is put into a safe mode, i.e., antenna to be used for emergency mode communications is pointed towards the sun and use total available power to transmit. There are many parameters affecting communications in this mode and these should be properly balanced to produce desired results. This paper explores the effectiveness of spacecraft antenna gain pattern in the emergency mode with respect to positions of the spacecraft, earth, Sun Earth Probe (SEP) angle at the receiving antenna, and the range of the spacecraft with respect to the ground station. The paper also provides parabolic reflector antenna diameter that should be used for emergency mode as a function of the satellite to sun range in the solar system.

  12. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  13. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  14. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  15. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  16. Sensor technology for advanced space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, N. M.; Depaula, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability and applications of two sensors, Spatial, High-Accuracy, Position-Encoding Sensor (SHAPES) and Fiber Optics Rotation Sensor (FORS), for advanced missions are discussed. The multiple target, 3-D position sensing capability of SHAPES meets a critical technology need for many developing applications. A major milestone of the SHAPES task was completed on schedule on May 30, 1986, by demonstrating simultaneous ranging to eight moving targets at a rate of 10 measurements per second. The range resolution to static target was shown to be 25 microns. SHAPES scheduled technology readiness will support the sensor needs of a number of early users. The next phase in the development of SHAPES is to incorporate an angular measurement CCD to provide the full 3-dimensional sensing. A flight unit design and fabrication can be complete by FY89. FORS, with its significant improvement over present technology in lifetime, performance, weight, power, and recurrent cost, will be an important technology for future space systems. Technology readiness will be demonstrated with a FORS brassboard with fully integrated IO chips by FY88. The unique capability of miniature remote sensing heads, connected to a central system, will open up new areas in control and stability of large space structures. This application requires additional study.

  17. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  18. Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

  19. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  20. The Space Time Asymmetry Research Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey; Goebel, John; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert; Sun, Ke-Xun; Lipa, John; Chu-Thielbar, Lisa; Hall, John

    We will use precision molecular iodine stabilized Nd:YAG laser interferometers to search for small deviations from Lorentz Invariance, a cornerstone of relativity and particle physics, and thus our understanding of the Universe. A Lorentz violation would have profound implications for cosmology and particle physics. An improved null result will constrain theories attempting to unite particle physics and gravity. Science Objectives: Measure the absolute anisotropy of the velocity of light to 10-18 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Michelson-Morley coefficient to 10-12 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Kennedy-Thorndyke coefficient to 7x10-10 (400-fold improvement) Derive the coefficients of Lorentz violation in the Standard Model Extension, in the range 7x10-18 to 10-14 (50 to 500-fold improvement) Thermal control, stabilization and uniformitization are great concerns, so new technology has been devised that keeps these parameters within strict specified limits. Thereby STAR is able to operate effectively in all possible orbits. The spacecraft is based on a bus development by NASA Ames Research Center. STAR is designed to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta IV launch vehicle with an ESPA ring into an 850 km circular orbit. It will have a one-year mission and is capable of even longer duration. Other orbit options are possible depending on the launch opportunities available. The STAR project is a partnership between Stanford University, NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  1. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  2. Launch of space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Wide angle view of the launch of the space shuttle Challenger on the 41-C mission from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pad. This view was taken from the Shuttle training aircraft by Astronaut John Young.

  3. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

  4. Results from the Deep Space One Technology Validation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M.; Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.

    1999-01-01

    Launched on October 25, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium Program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs.

  5. Advanced thermal control technologies for space science missions at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, G. C.; O'Donnell, T.

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of deep space science missions are planned by NASA for the future. Many of these missions are being planned under strict cost caps and advanced technologies are needed in order to enable these challenging mssions. Because of the wide range of thermal environments the spacecraft experience during the mission, advanced thermal control technologies are the key to enabling many of these missions.

  6. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  7. Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

  8. An integrated medical system for long-duration space missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; Belasco, N.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System (IMBLMS) being developed for onboard medical support of the crew and for medical research during space missions. The system is suitable for use during early extended space flights and for accommodating measurement and diagnostic apparatus as well as treatment and surgical facilities developed for later missions.

  9. International standards for cost-optimized space missions and infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Merle

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of international standards is essential for the success of multiagency space missions. Here, two key areas for international standardization are proposed: the development of standards for infrastructure and the development of multiagency standards. Such standards will ultimately enable cost-optimized small missions as well as a cost-optimized superset of space infractructures.

  10. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

  11. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  12. Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

  13. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  14. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  15. Cost Estimating of Space Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitten, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Estimating the cost of NASA's science missions is a very difficult task. Anticipating how a system concept may evolve over time is challenging to say the least. Historical data, however, can help to estimate how the design may grow and how the schedules may change over time. An overall approach for costing such system relies on utilizing multiple methods based on historical technical, cost and schedule data to provide a robust range of estimates for future missions. This approach and other considerations for costing NASA science missions will be discussed.

  16. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  17. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  18. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  19. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  20. Active Refrigeration for Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of cryogen dewars limits mission lifetime, increases sensor mass, and increases program engineering and launch costs on spacebased low-background, precision-pointing instruments, telescopes and interferometers.

  1. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  2. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  4. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  5. Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

  6. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

  7. Access to Space for Technology Validation Missions: A Practical Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrell, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Space technology experiments and validation missions share a common dilemma with the aerospace industry in general: the high cost of access to space. Whether the experiment is a so-called university cubesat, a university measurement experiment, or a NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) technology validation mission, the access to space option can be scaled appropriately for the particular constraints. A cubesat might fly as one of a number of cubesats that negotiate a flight on an experimental vehicle. A university experiment might do the same. A NASA flight validation might partner with an Air Force experimental mission.

  8. Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

  9. Handbook for Using IP Protocols for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of a handbook developed at GSFC last year that contains concepts and guidelines for using Internet protocols for space missions. It will include topics on: Lessons learned from current Space IP mission. General architectural issues related to use of IP in space. Operational scenarios for common space data transfer applications. Security issues. A general review of protocols applicable for use with IP in space. The presentation will also pose questions on what sort of information would be useful in future versions of the document.

  10. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riel, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Space station missions and their requirements are discussed. Analyses of the following four mission categories are summarized: (1) commercial, (2) technology, (3) operation, and (4) science and applications. The requirements determined by the study dictate a very strong need for a manned space station to satisfy the majority of the missions. The station is best located at a 28.5-deg inclination and initially (1992 era) requires a crew of four (three for mission payloads) and a mission power of 25 kW. A space platform in a polar orbit is needed to augment the station capability; it initially would be a 15-kW system, located in a sun-synchronous orbit.

  11. Ares V: an Enabling Capability for Future Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  12. Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

  13. Ares V an Enabling Capability for Future Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  14. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

  15. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  16. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  17. Mission design for deep space 1: A low-thrust technology validation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Chadbourne, Pamela A.; Culwell, Jeffery S.; Williams, Steven N.

    1999-11-01

    Deep Space 1 (DS1), currently scheduled for launch in July or August 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. DS1's payload of technologies will be rigorously exercised during the two-year mission. Several features of the project present unique or unusual opportunities and challenges in the design of the mission that are likely to be encountered in future missions. The principal mission-driving technology is solar electric propulsion (SEP); this will be the first mission to rely on SEP as the primary source of propulsion. Another important technology for the mission design is the autonomous on-board navigation system, which requires frequent (at least weekly) intervals of several hours during which it collects visible images of distant asteroids and stars for its use in orbit determination and maneuver planning. The mission design accommodates the needs of these and other technologies for operational use and for acquiring sufficient validation data to assess their viability for future missions. DS1's mission profile includes encounters with an asteroid and a comet.

  18. Reducing the Risk of Human Space Missions with INTEGRITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merill, Robin L.; Tri, Terry O.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRITY Program will design and operate a test bed facility to help prepare for future beyond-LEO missions. The purpose of INTEGRITY is to enable future missions by developing, testing, and demonstrating advanced human space systems. INTEGRITY will also implement and validate advanced management techniques including risk analysis and mitigation. One important way INTEGRITY will help enable future missions is by reducing their risk. A risk analysis of human space missions is important in defining the steps that INTEGRITY should take to mitigate risk. This paper describes how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of human space missions will help support the planning and development of INTEGRITY to maximize its benefits to future missions. PRA is a systematic methodology to decompose the system into subsystems and components, to quantify the failure risk as a function of the design elements and their corresponding probability of failure. PRA provides a quantitative estimate of the probability of failure of the system, including an assessment and display of the degree of uncertainty surrounding the probability. PRA provides a basis for understanding the impacts of decisions that affect safety, reliability, performance, and cost. Risks with both high probability and high impact are identified as top priority. The PRA of human missions beyond Earth orbit will help indicate how the risk of future human space missions can be reduced by integrating and testing systems in INTEGRITY.

  19. Classical variables in the era of space photometric missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The space photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler transformed our view of pulsating stars, including the well-known RR Lyrae and Cepheid classes. The K2, TESS and PLATO missions will expand these investigations to larger sample sizes and to specific stellar populations.

  20. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  1. Assessment and control of electrostatic charges. [hazards to space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, M.

    1974-01-01

    The experience is described of NASA and DOD with electrostatic problems, generation mechanisms, and type of electrostatic hazards. Guidelines for judging possible effects of electrostatic charges on space missions are presented along with mathematical formulas and definitions.

  2. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  3. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  4. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The baseline mission model used to develop the space station mission-related requirements is described as well as the 90 civil missions that were evaluated, (including the 62 missions that formed the baseline model). Mission-related requirements for the space station baseline are defined and related to space station architectural development. Mission-related sensitivity analyses are discussed.

  5. Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

  6. Rapid Turnaround of Costing/Designing of Space Missions Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudrle, Paul D.; Welz, Gregory A.; Basilio, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    The Ground Segment Team (GST), at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provides high-level mission operations concepts and cost estimates for projects that are in the formulation phase. GST has developed a tool to track costs, assumptions, and mission requirements, and to rapidly turnaround estimates for mission operations, ground data systems, and tracking for deep space and near Earth missions. Estimates that would often take several weeks to generate are now generated in minutes through the use of an integrated suite of cost models. The models were developed through interviews with domain experts in areas of Mission Operations, including but not limited to: systems engineering, payload operations, tracking resources, mission planning, navigation, telemetry and command, and ground network infrastructure. Data collected during interviews were converted into parametric cost models and integrated into one tool suite. The tool has been used on a wide range of missions from small Earth orbiters, to flagship missions like Cassini. The tool is an aid to project managers and mission planners as they consider different scenarios during the proposal and early development stages of their missions. The tool is also used for gathering cost related requirements and assumptions and for conducting integrated analysis of multiple missions.

  7. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  9. Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

  10. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  11. Space radiation incident on SATS missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A special orbital radiation study was conducted in order to evaluate mission encountered energetic particle fluxes. This information is to be supplied to the project subsystem engineers for their guidance in designing flight hardware to withstand the expected radiation levels. Flux calculations were performed for a set of 20 nominal trajectories placed at several altitudes and inclinations. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative SATS launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations ware performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  12. Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and it is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and consider potential long-term, perhaps disruptive or revolutionary, impacts that MEMS technology may have for future civilian space applications. A general discussion of the potential for MEMS in space applications is followed by a brief showcasing of a few selected examples of recent MEMS technology developments for future space missions. Using these recent developments as a point of departure, a vision is then presented of several areas where MEMS technology might eventually be exploited in future Science and Exploration mission applications. Lastly, as a stimulus for future research and development, this chapter summarizes a set of barriers to progress, design challenges and key issues that must be overcome in order for the community to move on, from the current nascent phase of developing and infusing MEMS technology into space missions, in order to achieve its full future potential.

  13. Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

    2005-01-01

    The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

  14. Laser Propulsion for LOTV Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezunkov, Yuri A.

    2004-03-01

    Advanced Space Propulsion-Investigation Committee (ASPIC) of the Japan Society for Aeronautics and Space Sciences (JSASS) selected the Laser Orbital Transfer Vehicle (LOTV) project for development of non-chemical space propulsion systems that have a capability to sustain expanded human space activities in the 21st century. This talk is presenting an analysis of the laser propulsion researches made within the frames of the ISTC Project 1801 as applied to the LOTV Project. The study includes the development of techniques for low-thrust maneuvers of the spacecraft to achieve geostationary orbits.

  15. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  16. Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

    Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

  17. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

  18. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  19. Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Gushin, V.; Weiss, D. S.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  1. Analysis of Space Coherent LIDAR Wind Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of a coherent Doppler lidar proposed by a team comprising the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Company, University of Wisconsin and Los Alamos National Laboratory to NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program was performed. The design went through several iterations and only the performance of the final design is summarized here.

  2. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  3. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 3: Configurations for extended duration missions. [mission planning and project planning for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission planning, systems analysis, and design concepts for the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system for extended manned operations are described. Topics discussed are: (1) payloads, (2) spacecraft docking, (3) structural design criteria, (4) life support systems, (5) power supplies, and (6) the role of man in long duration orbital operations. Also discussed are the assembling of large structures in space. Engineering drawings are included.

  4. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis blasts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, it lights up the nearby water. Billows of smoke and steam fill Launch Pad 39A. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  5. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-98, clouds of smoke and steam appear to surround it. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  6. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Space Shuttle Atlantis spews clouds of smoke and steam over Launch Pad 39A as it blasts into the sky on mission STS-98. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1 p.m. EST.

  7. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  8. Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klus, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    The process and existing software used for Spacelab payload mission planning were studied. A complete baseline definition of the Spacelab payload mission planning process was established, along with a definition of existing software capabilities for potential extrapolation to the Space Station. This information was used as a basis for defining system requirements to support Space Station mission planning. The Space Station mission planning concept was reviewed for the purpose of identifying areas where artificial intelligence concepts might offer substantially improved capability. Three specific artificial intelligence concepts were to be investigated for applicability: natural language interfaces; expert systems; and automatic programming. The advantages and disadvantages of interfacing an artificial intelligence language with existing FORTRAN programs or of converting totally to a new programming language were identified.

  9. Primary electric propulsion for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.; Terdan, F. F.; Myers, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    A general methodology is presented which allows prediction of the overall characteristics of thrust systems employing electron-bombardment ion thrusters. Elements of the thrust system are defined and their characteristics presented in a parametric fashion. Two system approaches are evaluated where power management and control elements and thruster characteristics were substantially different. For an assumed system approach, the methodology presented predicts overall system properties, such as input power and mass, when major mission and thrust system parameters, such as trip time and specific impulse, are assumed.

  10. Space Tug - Mission and program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, J. W.; Culbertson, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    An additional propulsive stage, carried in the payload bay, will be necessary for delivery of payloads to orbits beyond those which can be reached by the Shuttle alone. The concept of a reusable third stage, or Space Tug, has been under study for several years. Aspects of space tug operations planning are discussed together with payload studies, shuttle third stage program options, expendable stage studies, growth stage studies, and engine studies. Studies concerning reusable space tugs are considered, giving attention to a minimum development cost tug, a direct developed tug for 1983 operational capability, and a phased developed tug. Payload requirements are examined along with shuttle interface requirements, ground operations, and program options.

  11. Reliable Multicore Processors for NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos; Rennels, David; Some, Raphael; Cabanas-Holmen, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in commercial processors of moving to many cores (30 to100 and beyond) on a single die poses both an opportunity and a challenge for space based processing. 1 2 The opportunity is to leverage this trend for space application and thus provide an order of magnitude increase in onboard processing capability. The challenge is to provide the requisite reliability in an extremely challenging environment. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for reliable space based multicore computing and approaches being explored to deliver this capability within NASA's extremely tight power, mass, and cost constraints.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture telescope that will extend humanities’ high angular resolution view of the universe into the infrared spectrum to reveal early epochs of the universe that the Hubble cannot see. The Webb’s science instrument payload includes four cryogenic near-infrared sensors that provide imagery, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy over the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  13. Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    2001-02-01

    The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme, several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006, the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE), planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper belt, is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However, if this unit is unavailable, the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa, with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions, ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations, ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn's rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn's moon Titan, with both orbital operations and landed operations enabled by ARPS technologies. All of these missions would be enabled by ARPS technology. This paper presents the current status of ongoing studies of future ESS mission concepts and the design assumptions and capabilities required from ARPS technologies. Where specific capabilities have been assumed in the studies, the results are presented along with a discussion of the implementation alternatives. No decision on power sources would be made until after completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for each project. .

  14. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  15. Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

  16. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  17. Mission College. Part 3, Preliminary Instructional Strategies and Space Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley Joint Community Coll. District, Campbell, CA.

    The purpose of this document is to transform the educational program planned for Mission College into instructional and service space. This study of physical facilities and use of space is organized into four support systems required for the development of college programs: instructional support system, individual support system, activity support…

  18. Precision Laser Development for Gravitational Wave Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, such as the gravitational-wave mission LISA, and GRACE follow-on, by fully utilizing the mature wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where a simple and reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier, which are widely used for sensitive laser applications on the ground.

  19. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  20. The International Space Station Photographed During the STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  1. The International Space Station Photographed During STS-112 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  2. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  3. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

  4. The suitability of various spacecraft for future space applications missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, C. W.; Bernstein, R.; Maclellan, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Applications Advisory Committee (SAAC) of NASA's Advisory Council was asked by the Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications to consider the most suitable future means for accomplishing space application missions. To comply with this request, SAAC formed a Task Force whose report is contained in this document. In their considerations, the Task Force looked into the suitability of likely future spacecraft options for supporting various types of application mission payloads. These options encompass a permanent manned space station, the Space Shuttle operating in a sortie mode, unmanned platforms that integrate a wide variety of instruments or other devices, and smaller free fliers that accommodate at most a few functions. The Task Force also recognized that the various elements could be combined to form a larger space infrastructure. This report summarizes the results obtained by the Task Force. It describes the approach utilized, the findings and their analysis, and the conclusions.

  5. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis erupts from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it climbs into the early evening sky. Nearby, pelicans also launch from their perches at the roar of the liftoff. Launch occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  6. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Rising from clouds of smoke and steam, Space Shuttle Atlantis rushes into the night sky as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A. The glare of the flames and clouds is captured in the water near the pad. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  7. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, re-use and or re-purpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  8. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  9. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains. PMID:12269347

  10. The Challenge of Configuring Model-Based Space Mission Planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy D.; Clement, Bradley J.; Chachere, John M.; Smith, Tristan B.; Swanson, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Mission planning is central to space mission operations, and has benefited from advances in model-based planning software. Constraints arise from many sources, including simulators and engineering specification documents, and ensuring that constraints are correctly represented in the planner is a challenge. As mission constraints evolve, planning domain modelers need help with modeling constraints efficiently using the available source data, catching errors quickly, and correcting the model. This paper describes the current state of the practice in designing model-based mission planning tools, the challenges facing model developers, and a proposed Interactive Model Development Environment (IMDE) to configure mission planning systems. We describe current and future technology developments that can be integrated into an IMDE.

  11. Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications. The paper summarizes the study s lessons learned in more detail and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the technology and heritage risks inherent in the design solution.

  12. A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

  13. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  14. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The progress and results are summarized for mission/system requirements database; mission analysis; GN and C (Guidance, Navigation, and Control), aeroheating, Mars landing; radiation protection; aerobrake mass analysis; Shuttle-Z, TMIS (Trans-Mars Injection Stage); Long Duration Habitat Trade Study; evolutionary lunar and Mars options; NTR (Nuclear Thermal Rocket); NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) update; SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) update; orbital and space-based requirements; technology; piloted rover; programmatic task; and evolutionary and innovative architecture.

  15. A new paradigm for space astrophysics mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Atkinson, Charles; Breckinridge, Jim; Conti, Alberto; Feinberg, Lee; Lillie, Charles; MacEwen, Howard; Polidan, Ronald; Postman, Marc; Matthews, Gary; Smith, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship "mission after next" appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation's science ambitions requires a new paradigm of system design, development and manufacture. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future.

  16. Risks of radiation cataracts from interplanetary space missions.

    PubMed

    Lett, J T; Lee, A C; Cox, A B

    1994-11-01

    Recognition of the human risks from radiation exposure during manned missions in deep space has been fostered by international co-operation; interagency collaboration is facilitating their evaluation. Further co-operation can lead, perhaps by the end of this decade, to an evaluation of one of the three major risks, namely radiation cataractogenesis, sufficient for use in the planning of the manned mission to Mars. PMID:11538452

  17. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  18. Reconfigurable Computing Concepts for Space Missions: Universal Modular Spares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, M. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Computing hardware for control, data collection, and other purposes will prove many times over crucial resources in NASA's upcoming space missions. Ability to provide these resources within mission payload requirements, with the hardiness to operate for extended periods under potentially harsh conditions in off-World environments, is daunting enough without considering the possibility of doing so with conventional electronics. This paper examines some ideas and options, and proposes some initial approaches, for logical design of reconfigurable computing resources offering true modularity, universal compatibility, and unprecedented flexibility to service all forms and needs of mission infrastructure.

  19. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  20. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  1. Space missions to the exoplanets: Will they ever be possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo

    There is no doubt that the discovery of exoplanets has made interstellar space mission much more interesting than they were in the past. The possible discovery of a terrestrial type plane at a reasonable distance will give a strong impulse in this direction. However, there are doubts that such long range space mission will ever become feasible at all and, in case they will be, it is impossible to forecast a timeframe for them. At present, precursor interstellar missions are planned, but they fall way short from yielding interesting information about exoplanets, except perhaps in the case of missions to the focal line of the Sun’s gravitational lens, whose usefulness in this context is still to be demonstrated. They are anyway an essential step in the roadmap toward interstellar missions. Often the difficulties linked with interstellar missions are considered as related with the huge quantity of energy required for reaching the target star system within a reasonable timeframe. While this may well be a showstopper, it is not the only problem to be solved to make them possible. Two other issues are those linked with the probe’s autonomy and the telecommunications required to transmit large quantities of information at those distances. Missions to the exoplanets may be subdivided in the following categories: 1) robotic missions to the destination system, including flybys; 2) robotic missions including landing on an exoplanet; 3) robotic sample return missions; 4) human missions. The main problem to be solved for missions of type 1 is linked with propulsion and with energy availability, while autonomy (artificial intelligence) and telecommunication problems are more or less manageable with predictable technologies. Missions of type 2 are more demanding for what propulsion is concerned, but above all require a much larger artificial intelligence and also will generate a large amount of data, whose transmission back to Earth may become a problem. The suggestion of using a spacecraft to physically transfer back the information on a support of some type (the so called data clippers) may make missions of type 2 to be only marginally less complex than missions of type 3. Missions of type 3 are at least twice as demanding than those of type 2 for what propulsion is required, and are also much more demanding also from the viewpoint of autonomy. On the contrary, they may be simpler from the viewpoint of communications. Finally, missions of type 4 are often regarded as belonging to the science fiction domain more than to that of feasible realities. However, they might be the only possibility if the progress in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence will fall short from making it possible to proceed with robotic missions. As a conclusion, we can assess that, short of unpredictable technological breakthroughs, missions to the exoplanets are still far away in the future and educated guesses can set them centuries away from now. What can be done is to identify critical technologies and assess a roadmap to increase their technological readiness. This effort is really worthwhile, since aiming at a very difficult task like interstellar missions, will yield a positive fallout on space exploration in general. --- This paper is meant for the Panel on Exoplanetary Exploration (PEPE) which is not included in the list above, so it was included in PEX.1

  2. Results from the Deep Space 1 Technology Validation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Varghese, Philip; Lehman, David H.; Livesay, Leslie L.

    2000-07-01

    Launched on October 24, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program, chartered to validate in space high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. The advanced technology payload that was tested on DS1 comprises solar electric propulsion, solar concentrator arrays, autonomous on-board navigation and other autonomous systems, several telecommunications and microelectronics devices, and two low-mass integrated science instrument packages. The technologies were rigorously exercised so that subsequent flight projects would not have to incur the cost and risk of being the first users of these new capabilities. The performances of the technologies are described as are the general execution of the mission and plans for future operations, including a possible extended mission that would be devoted to science.

  3. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  4. Solar and heliospheric physics space missions for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed space missions or observing facilities for the late 1980s and early 1990s that would enable research on specific problems in solar and heliospheric physics are reviewed. For studies of the sun's interior, mission possibilities include the Solar Internal Dynamics Mission (SIDM) or the Solar Beacon to provide continuous monitoring of solar oscillations, and the Starprobe grazing encounter flyby. Visible surface atmospheres of the sun may be studied by the repair of the Solar Maximum Mission, and an Advanced Solar Observatory making observations from the X-ray to the IR. Possible missions investigating the inner corona would involve the proposed Solar Interplanetary Satellite (SIS), which would complement the single-spacecraft International Solar Polar Mission, the Solar Corona Diagnostics Mission (SCDM), and Starprobe. The SIS, Interplanetary Physics Laboratory and SCDM missions would also permit measurement of the solar wind. Experiments of opportunity based on the SMM, SIS, SCDM and SIDM projects may be used for studies of solar-terrestrial interactions, together with dedicated programs such as the Solar Terrestrial Observatory.

  5. Science operations for future space astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegler, Guenther H.

    1990-01-01

    Plans for astrophysics science operations during the decade of the nineties are described from the point of view of a scientist who wishes to make a space-borne astronomical observation or to use archival astronomical data. In the process of preparing a proposal making an observation, and carrying out data processing, analysis, and dissemination of results, the scientist will be able to use a variety of services and infrastructure, including the 'Astrophysics Data System'. The current status and plans for these science operations services are described.

  6. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  8. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will demonstrate, SLS is making strong progress toward first launch, and represents a unique new capability for spaceflight, and an opportunity to reinvent space by developing out-of-the-box missions and mission designs unlike any flown before.

  9. Spacelab-1 Mission Onboard Photograph-Vestibular Experiment in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this Spacelab-1 mission onboard photograph, astronaut Byron Lichtenberg performs a drop experiment, one of the Vestibular Experiments in Space investigations. The experiment examined spinal reflexes to determine whether they changed in microgravity. In Earth's environment, the otoliths signal the muscles to prepare for jolts associated with falling. During the flight, the normal reflex between the otoliths and the muscles was partially inhibited early in flight, declined further as the flight progressed, and returned to normal immediately after landing, suggesting that the brain ignored or reinterpreted otolith signals during space flight. Crewmembers reported a lack of awareness of position and location of feet, difficulty in maintaining balance, and a perception that falls were more sudden, faster, and harder than similar drops experienced in preflight. Crewmembers experienced illusions as they performed prescribed movement tests. When crew members viewed various targets and then pointed at them while blindfolded, their perception of target location and position of their own limbs was inaccurate in flight compared with similar tests on the ground. The Spacelab-1 was a multidisciplinary mission; that is, investigations were performed in several different fields of scientific research. The overall goal of the mission was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments. The Spacelab-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for the STS-9 mission on November 28, 1983. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities for the mission.

  10. The EUNEOS mission: A European NEO space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinot, Vincent; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2006-10-01

    In the work frame of a recent ESA funded study on the preparation of space missions related to NEOs [EUNEOS, an European NEO Space Observatory Mission in the frame of ESA Study Near-Earth Objects Space Mission Preparation—AO/1-4137/01/F/IZ, March 2003], Alcatel Space in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur proposed an innovative concept of space-based observatory aiming at discovering a significant fraction (˜80%) of the PHO population with H<20.5 in 5 years (the EUNEOS goal). To achieve such a level of completeness, a medium size optical telescope on an orbit totally interior to Venus is proposed performing a systematic survey of the selected band of the sky. To reach the proposed operational orbit with virtually no additional manoeuvre after leaving the Earth, a gravitational assist by Venus is envisaged. The paper describes in more detail the proposed architecture of the EUNEOS mission. It reuses as much as possible existing components/entities to keep low the cost of the proposed mission, for example for the user and mission segments. Concerning the space segment, the satellite design takes advantage of the technological developments and studies performed in the frame of BepiColombo and the proposed optical instrument is inspired from the CNES Corotel instrument. This approach allows to propose a relatively mature instrument and spacecraft designs for an answer to a call for ideas. The most complete simulations of the detection process show that the EUNEOS goal is achievable with the proposed system, making it possible in a limited time frame to estimate the risk represented by NEOs of sizes down to a few hundreds of meters.

  11. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  12. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Clouds of smoke and steam roll out from the launch pad as Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  13. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  14. DSN co-observing operations to support space VLBI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, Valery I.; Kuiper, Thomas B.; Wolken, Pamela R.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable radio astronomy support of space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) missions by ground radio telescopes is mandatory in order to achieve a high scientific return from the missions. The 70 m DSN antennas along with other ground radio telescopes will perform as the ground segment of the earth-space interferometer. Improvements of radio astronomy VLBI operations at the DSN to achieve higher reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and lower operations costs is a major goal in preparing for radio astronomy support of SVLBI. To help realize this goal, a remote control and monitoring mode for radio astronomy operations at the DSN has been developed.

  15. Electromagnetically launched micro spacecraft for space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of using very small spacecraft launched by an electromagnetic launcher located in low earth orbit to perform space science missions. This paper includes a discussion of flight time versus distance performance, potential missions, electromagnetic launchers, micro spacecraft concepts, high G technology and a conceptual launcher design. It is suggested that the present is an especially good time to investigate the subject concept due to the current launch vehicle crisis for space science, and due to the large amounts of resources that the SDIO is spending on the development of the technology for electromagnetic launchers and projectiles.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-118 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the colorful Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of supplies.

  17. Habitability issues in long duration undersea and space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Every, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The report reviews a number of studies in the area of habitability. Emphasis was placed on extracting from these studies that information most relevant to any long-term mission in confinement. It is concluded that, whereas the basic laws of habitability are known, there is much yet to be learned concerning development of social structures in small groups in relative isolation, planning for necessary hygiene needs, development of proper work spaces, and construction of internal and external communications systems. With respect to testing for habitability and the documentation of habitability principles, the space program was found to be considerably more advanced than was the program for undersea missions.

  18. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security, and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  19. Sensor and actuator ASICs for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerns, Douglas

    2007-09-01

    Advanced photonic devices and systems typically include electronic components for signal transduction, signal processing, and actuation. Mature and stable silicon microfabrication technologies offer a generous menu of options for building application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for reasonable dollar costs. An ASIC device can compress complex electronic functions into a single silicon chip, greatly reducing the size and mass of the electronic portion of the system. We discuss the use of mature-technology silicon ASICs for electronic interface to cutting-edge-technology optical sensors and actuators, including considerations of how the space environment impacts the ASIC design, and noting the interesting fact that consideration of silicon area is nearly irrelevant to the present-day economics of low-volume ASIC fabrication.

  20. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  1. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Max

    2011-01-01

    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  2. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  3. Next Generation Simulation Framework for Robotic and Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Kuo, Calvin; Lim, Christopher; Myint, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Dartslab team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has a long history of developing physics-based simulations based on the Darts/Dshell simulation framework that have been used to simulate many planetary robotic missions, such as the Cassini spacecraft and the rovers that are currently driving on Mars. Recent collaboration efforts between the Dartslab team at JPL and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have led to significant enhancements to the Dartslab DSENDS (Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing) software framework. The new version of DSENDS is now being used for new planetary mission simulations at JPL. JSC is using DSENDS as the foundation for a suite of software known as COMPASS (Core Operations, Mission Planning, and Analysis Spacecraft Simulation) that is the basis for their new human space mission simulations and analysis. In this paper, we will describe the collaborative process with the JPL Dartslab and the JSC MOD team that resulted in the redesign and enhancement of the DSENDS software. We will outline the improvements in DSENDS that simplify creation of new high-fidelity robotic/spacecraft simulations. We will illustrate how DSENDS simulations are assembled and show results from several mission simulations.

  4. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Curtis, Kelly D.

    1999-01-01

    During the relatively short-duration Space Shuffle missions, a psychological support program for the astronauts has not been required. Such missions primarily require providing occasional communication with family members by means of audio, video or e-mail, and some diversions such as CD players. During the NASA-Mir Program, conducted from March 1995 through June 1998, mission duration increased to 4-6 months. As a result of these changes it was necessary for NASA to establish an operational Human Behavior and Performance Group (HBPG) to develop and implement a comprehensive program of psychological support. The Mir experience provided the opportunity to develop and implement a psychological support program for long-duration space missions. Many factors influence the support program, including individual preferences, mission duration, and environmental factors such as habitable and personal areas. Lessons learned from the Mir experience are being applied to improve the ISS psychological support program plan. This presentation will address which includes various preflight, in-flight, and post-flight support activities and tools that NASA's HBPG will provide to astronauts and their families for ISS missions.

  5. Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

  6. Dawn Discovery Mission: A Journey in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C.

    In December 2001, NASA announced the selection of the Dawn mission to Vesta and Ceres as the next mission to be undertaken in the Discovery series. Dawn examines the role of size and water content in planetary evolution, contrasting the primitive and apparently wet protoplanet, Ceres, with its dry and highly evolved neighbor, Vesta. Dawn maps the surface in visible and infrared wavelengths to determine its mineralogical composition and crustal properties, uses gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy to determine its elemental composition and magnetometry and radio science to probe the interior and laser altimetry to provide precise topography. Dawn is a partnership between UCLA, representing the science team members, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Orbital Sciences Corporation, the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the Italian Institute for Space Astrophysics, IAS. The mission uses ion propulsion to fly to Vesta, orbit it at a variety of altitudes for close to a year, leave Vesta orbit, fly to Ceres and orbit it similarly. The spacecraft carries a framing camera provided by DLR's Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration in Berlin; a mapping spectrometer provided by the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale in Roma, a gamma ray and neutron spectrometer provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a laser altimeter provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a magnetometer provided by UCLA. This paper summarizes the mission goals, and the trajectory, orbits, and instruments that enable the mission to attain those goals.

  7. Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2006-01-01

    Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

  8. The Space Tug mission role and program planning.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnyer, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    More than half of the planned payload programs require a velocity increment beyond that nominally provided by the Space Shuttle. The reusable Space Tug system can satisfy this placement requirement and, in addition, can provide other, vital operational services for payloads in the 1980s. To realize maximum operational and economic benefits, it is desired that an orbital propulsive stage such as the Space Tug be available concurrently with Space Shuttle initial operations. Potential tug missions, significant interfaces, system characteristics, and configuration alternatives are discussed in conjunction with salient program planning factors.

  9. Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity and resilience of microorganisms makes them unavoidable in most environments including space habitats. The impaired immune system of astronauts in flight raises the level of concern about disease risk during human space missions and additionally these biological contaminants may affect life support systems and hardware. In this review, the microbial contamination observed in manned space stations and in particular the International Space Station ISS will be discussed, demonstrating that it is a microbiologically safe working and living habitat. Microbial contamination levels were in general below the implemented quality standards, although, occasional contamination hazard reports indicate that the current prevention and monitoring strategies are the strict minimum.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  11. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia lights up the night sky as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39-B on mission STS-93. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  12. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia changes night into day as it roars into the sky after a successful liftoff from launch Pad 39-B on mission STS-93. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  13. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia lights up the night sky on its successful liftoff from Launch Pad 39-B on mission STS-93. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  14. Navigation of space VLBI missions: Radioastron and VSOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jordan

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Russian and Japanese space agencies will each place into highly elliptic earth orbit a radio telescope consisting of a large antenna and radio astronomy receivers. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques will be used to obtain high resolution images of radio sources observed by the space and ground based antennas. Stringent navigation accuracy requirements are imposed on the space VLBI missions by the need to transfer an ultra-stable ground reference frequency standard to the spacecraft and by the demands of the VLBI correlation process. Orbit determination for the mission will be the joint responsibility of navigation centers in the U.S., Russia, and Japan with orbit estimates based on combining tracking data from NASA, Russian, and Japanese sites. This paper describes the operational plans, the inter-agency coordination, and data exchange between the navigation centers required for space VLBI navigation.

  15. Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, S. D.

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  16. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Billowing clouds of smoke and steam rise with the roaring Space Shuttle Columbia as it launches into the night sky on mission STS-93. After two unsuccessful attempts on previous nights, liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Space Shuttle. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  17. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flaming exhaust spews from beneath one of the two solid rocket boosters on Space Shuttle Columbia as it roars into the night sky on mission STS-93. After two unsuccessful attempts on previous nights, liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Space Shuttle. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  18. Coherent Lidar Design and Performance for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1999-01-01

    This report represents the final report for three years of research in the performance of coherent Doppler lidar for use during space missions and the effectiveness of its use for research into wind turbulence. Included are summaries of each year's results, and the publications derived from that years research. The research for year one determined the performance of coherent Doppler Lidar in the weak signal regime, and improved algorithms for extracting the performance velocity estimators with wind turbulence. Year two reviewed the performance of coherent Doppler Lidar for a shuttle mission, worked to improve a maximum likelihood velocity estimator which permits more accurate measurements when the signal level is not known, and in situ atmospheric measurements were conducted. Using a computer simulation the performance of the coherent Doppler lidar for space missions was determined during the third year's research.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-117 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by the blackness of space, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  20. Tropospheric Wind Measurements from Space: The SPARCLE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  1. Earth science space missions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grofic, B.

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, 2007” , commonly known as the “ Decadal Survey” . This report called for a balanced set of Earth Science Missions across the Earth Science research spectrum. In response, in February 2008, NASA's Earth Science Division reorganized into two program offices: The Earth Systematic Missions Program Office (ESM PO) at Goddard Space Flight Center which includes satellites making continuous measurements of the Earth's climate, and the Earth System Science Pathfinder Program Office (ESSP PO) at Langley Research Center which develops pathfinder missions through Announcements of Opportunity. In June 2010 NASA published its plan to achieve the goals of the Decadal Survey, “ Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space.” This plan includes support for the Decadal Survey missions as well as a set of “ climate continuity missions” to address the scientific need for data continuity of key climate observations. In 2011 the NRC revisited the Decadal Survey report and published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey” . This report notes that progress on the Decadal Survey plan has been slower than planned due to budget shortfalls and launch vehicle failures, and stresses that the goals of the Decadal Survey are as important as ever and must still yield a scientifically-balanced program. This paper will discuss the current status of the mission/mission study portfolios of the ESMP Program and the Earth Venture solicitations of the ESSP Program and how the Programs support the goals established and reiterated by the NRC, and will discuss the risks and challenges faced by t- e Programs as together they strive to meet these goals.

  2. Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2008-04-01

    The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

  3. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  4. Probabilistic Assessment of Radiation Risk for Astronauts in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the health risks to astronauts from space radiation exposure are necessary for enabling future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons, (less than 100 MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include protons and heavy ions of higher energies. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the solar activity cycle, SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, phi. The risk of radiation exposure from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection, including determining the shielding and operational requirements for astronauts and hardware. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which would be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of time within a solar cycle using a nonhomogeneous Poisson model to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, (phi)30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and a lunar rover during defined space mission periods. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks for space exploration.

  5. Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Criag E.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

  6. Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

  7. Use of Concurrent Engineering in Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, conceptual-phase (proposal level) design of space missions has been improved considerably. Team structures, tool linkage, specialized facilities known as design centers and scripted processes have been demonstrated to cut proposal-level engineering design time from a few months to a few weeks.

  8. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  9. Atmosphere Selection for Long-duration Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph reviews the spacecraft environment for future human space exploration missions. The choice of a atmosphere mix will play a critical role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost. There are a multitude of factors involved in selection of spacecraft environments.

  10. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  11. Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugazzotto, Sam J.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

  12. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

  13. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is clearing the cargo bay during its deployment on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery STS-31 mission. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four space walks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. A total of four HST servicing missions have taken place since its deployment: STS-61 in December 1993, STS-82 in February 1997, STS-103 in December 1999, and STS-109 in March 2002. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  14. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  15. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2012-01-01

    NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

  16. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

  17. Role of Lidar Technology in Future NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2008-01-01

    The past success of lidar instruments in space combined with potentials of laser remote sensing techniques in improving measurements traditionally performed by other instrument technologies and in enabling new measurements have expanded the role of lidar technology in future NASA missions. Compared with passive optical and active radar/microwave instruments, lidar systems produce substantially more accurate and precise data without reliance on natural light sources and with much greater spatial resolution. NASA pursues lidar technology not only as science instruments, providing atmospherics and surface topography data of Earth and other solar system bodies, but also as viable guidance and navigation sensors for space vehicles. This paper summarizes the current NASA lidar missions and describes the lidar systems being considered for deployment in space in the near future.

  18. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  19. Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

  20. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B, spewing clouds of smoke and steam, a majestic heron soars over the nearby water and Endeavour'''s reflection. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  1. MICROSCOPE: A Space Mission to Test the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Meike; Bremen, S.; Selig, H.; Lämmerzahl, C.

    2009-05-01

    MICROSCOPE is a French space mission for testing the Equivalence Principle (EP). The mission goal is the determination of the Eötvös parameter eta with an accuracy of 10e-15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) is developed and built by the french institute ONERA. It consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers. One accelerometer is used as reference sensor with two test masses of platinum, the science sensor contains a platinum and a titanium proof mass. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM performs free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE differential accelerometers at the Bremen drop tower. The project concepts and current results of the free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE accelerometer engineering model will be presented.

  2. Microscope - A space mission to test the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Meike; Selig, Hanns; Bremer, Stefanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2010-01-01

    MICROSCOPE is a ESA/CNES space mission for testing the validity of the weak equivalence principle. The mission's goal is to determine the Eötvös parameter η with an accuracy of 10-15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for designing the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers and is developed and built by the French institute ONERA. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM performs free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE differential accelerometers at the Bremen drop tower. The project's concepts and current results of the free fall tests are shortly presented.

  3. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  4. ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions - Duration: 7 minutes, 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and...

  5. Space Students Visit MSFC During STS-35 Astro-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. This photo is of Space classroom students in the Discovery Optics Lab at MSFC during STS-35, ASTRO-1 mission payload operations.

  6. Maximizing Science Capability for Far-Infrared Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Leisawitz, Dave; Moseley, Harvey; Staguhn, Johannes; Voellmer, George

    2004-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (20 microns-800 microns) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, mapping speed, and sensitivity. In this 5-dimensional parameter space, the far-IR is substantially be-hind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be well-suited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory. Ultimately, a long baseline submillimeter interferometer is necessary to provide sensitivity and angular resolution.

  7. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micrometers-750 micrometers) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the fares is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80 - 100 micrometers. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 micrometers. Existing and planned survey missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, survey area, and sensitivity. In this 4-dimensional parameter space, the flares is found to be substantially behind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be wellsuited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  8. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micron-750 micron) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts, this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, survey speed, and sensitivity. In this parameter space, the opportunity for future far-IR and submillimeter missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will answer fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  9. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other astronauts. This technology will be described and discussed in the context of future exploration missions and the major new capabilities enabled by such systems. Finally, plans and directions for the future of autonomous systems will be presented.

  10. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  11. The role of clocks in operating deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Operation of deep space missions requires stable frequency references and clocks to perform several mission critical functions. These references are used in generating the telecommunication links to maintain communications between earth and spacecraft, in generating accurate doppler, range, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observables for determining the spacecraft's time varying position, and to generate on-board timing information for clocking out timed commands and time tagging instrument data. In addition, science applications exist, particularly those utilizing radio instrumentation, which can require additional functions and levels of performance. The design necessary to support these functions affects both the spacecraft and the ground tracking stations.

  12. Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA, approximates optimal control histories by incorporating boundary conditions explicitly using a conditional penalty function. The second method, feasible region analysis, is based on GA and NLP; the GA approximates the optimal boundary points of low-thrust arcs while NLP finds the required control histories. The solution of two representative multiphase space mission design problems shows the effectiveness of the methods developed.

  13. Space Technology 5 - A Successful Micro-Satellite Constellation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Candace; Webb, Evan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation of three micro-satellites was launched March 22, 2006. During the three-month flight demonstration phase, the ST5 team validated key technologies that will make future low-cost micro-sat constellations possible, demonstrated operability concepts for future micro-sat science constellation missions, and demonstrated the utility of a micro-satellite constellation to perform research-quality science. The ST5 mission was successfully completed in June 2006, demonstrating high-quality science and technology validation results.

  14. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  15. Space Shuttle to deploy Magellan planetary science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-30 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-30 is to successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled to its Venus trajectory by an Inertial Upper Stage booster. The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic map, and near-global gravity field data. Secondary STS-30 payloads include the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE).

  16. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  17. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  18. Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; De Angelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-04-01

    Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle, the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, ϕ. The risk of radiation exposure to astronauts as well as to hardware from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which could be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of solar cycle phase using a non-homogeneous Poisson model [1] to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy>30 MeV, Φ30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses, for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and for a lunar rover during space missions of defined durations. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning for future manned space exploration missions. Internal documentation of NASA Constellation Trade Study (F.A. Cucinotta, personal communication).

  19. The scientific basis for the space interferometry mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Deane; Shao, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The space interferometry mission (SIM), for launch in 2004, is expected to determine the positions of point sources to a global accuracy of 4 microarcsec, and an accuracy of 1 microarcsec over small angles. The instrument will reach 200 mag in 3 x 10(exp 4) s and has a nominal lifetime of five years. A nulling capability will be provided and synthesis imaging and near-infrared capabilities are being considered. These capabilities will extend those of the Hipparcos mission by almost three orders of magnitude in every sense. The NASA's expectation for the scientific return from the SIM mission is outlined in terms of the areas of stellar physics, galactic structure and extragalactic astrophysics, including the distance scale problem.

  20. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  1. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia casts ghost-like shadows on the clouds of smoke and steam surrounding it. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  2. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  3. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In a burst of light and flames, Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Launch Pad 39-B at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  4. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Shrubbery and palmettos frame the fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  5. Space power system requirements for future NASA missions

    SciTech Connect

    Piszczor, M.F.; Hirschbein, M.

    1995-12-31

    NASA, like other government agencies, is in the midst of change. Spurred by a number of factors, changes emphasizing smaller, quicker, less expensive missions are now being emphasized in NASA programs. To meet the needs for these future missions, NASA must develop advanced technology to support these missions and their new goals. With a renewed emphasis on the ``customer``, NASA has initiated a number of new initiatives that stress the development and demonstration of a variety of advanced space power technologies. In an effort to further push satellite performance and capabilities, there has been a recent effort in developing synergistic programs, where various subsystem technologies are developed with a common goal to achieve overall spacecraft level benefits.

  6. Space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties for Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Schimmerling, W; Wilson, J W; Peterson, L E; Badhwar, G D; Saganti, P B; Dicello, J F

    2001-11-01

    Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks. PMID:11604093

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainties for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Peterson, L. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.; Dicello, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency's Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle's evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  9. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  10. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration Class Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The US-based health care system of the International Space Station (ISS) contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for the ISS is designed to enable a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the Moon are similar to LEO class missions with the additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DCMF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. NASA has identified five Levels of Care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. In order to implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new Crew Medical Officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

  11. Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

  12. Large size greenhouse for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    Crew space flights require on-going delivery of food, air and water from Earth. A long time missions in far space cannot be realized without self-supported life system, when food, air and water will be reused. For ecological self-regulated life support system a large volume of green house is needed. An inflatable construction of composite materials cured directly in free space environment is a way for development of large greenhouse. The rigidization of the frame by the way of chemical reaction of polymerization is viewed as real way. The large volume greenhouse created on Earth orbit is proposed. The construction and material of space greenhouse are considered based on results of biological investigations in space flights.

  13. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  14. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  15. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Performance During Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wyatt, James K.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Hughes, Rod J.

    2003-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms may be disturbed during spaceflight, and these disturbances can affect crewmembers' performance during waking hours. The mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in space are not well understood, and effective countermeasures are not yet available. We investigated sleep, circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, and light-dark cycles in five astronauts prior to, during, and after the 16-day STS-90 mission and the IO-day STS-95 mission. The efficacy of low-dose, alternative-night, oral melatonin administration as a countermeasure for sleep disturbances was evaluated. During these missions, scheduled rest activity cycles were 20-35 minutes shorter than 24 hours. Light levels on the middeck and in the Spacelab were very low; whereas on the flight deck (which has several windows), they were highly variable. Circadian rhythm abnormalities were observed. During the second half of the missions, the rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared to be delayed relative to the sleep-wake schedule. Performance during wakefulness was impaired. Astronauts slept only about 6.5 hours per day, and subjective sleep quality was lower in space. No beneficial effects of melatonin (0.3 mg administered prior to sleep episodes on alternate nights) were observed. A surprising finding was a marked increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep upon return to Earth. We conclude that these Space Shuttle missions were associated with circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and alterations in REM sleep homeostasis. Shorter than 24-hour rest-activity schedules and exposure to light-dark cycles inadequate for optimal circadian synchronization may have contributed to these disturbances.

  16. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  17. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis surpasses the full moon for beauty as it roars into the early evening sky trailing a tail of smoke. The upper portion catches the sun'''s rays as it climbs above the horizon and a flock of birds soars above the moon. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  18. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  19. The DSCOVR Solar Wind Mission and Future Space Weather Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, M. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Reinard, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission, scheduled for launch in mid-2014, will provide real-time solar wind thermal plasma and magnetic measurements to ensure continuous monitoring for space weather forecasting. DSCOVR will orbit L1 and will serve as a follow-on mission to NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), which was launched in 1997. DSCOVR will have a total of six instruments, two of which will provide real-time data necessary for space weather forecasting: a Faraday cup to measure the proton and alpha components of the solar wind, and a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to measure the magnetic field in three dimensions. Real-time data provided by DSCOVR will include Vx, Vy, Vz, n, T, Bx, By, and Bz. Such real-time L1 data is used in generating space weather applications and products that have been demonstrated to be highly accurate and provide actionable information for customers. We evaluate current space weather products driven by ACE and discuss future products under development for DSCOVR. New space weather products under consideration include: automated shock detection, more accurate L1 to Earth delay time, and prediction of rotations in solar wind Bz within magnetic clouds. Suggestions from the community on product ideas are welcome.

  20. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  1. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Weiss, Daniel S.; Gushin, Vadim; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2001-03-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2 nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  2. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or gross primary production — an important topic of research. An overview of the FLEX mission concept, applications of SIF, scientific challenges and opportunities will be presented.

  3. Four NASA submillimeter-wavelength space-astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    For several years studies have been conducted at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on four passively-cooled submillimeter-wavelength, space observatories. Two exploratory missions were studied: a 2.5-m Submillimeter Explorer (SMME) and a more ambitious 3.7-m Submillimeter Imager and Line Survey (SMILS). Only one of these missions would actually be flown, and its goal would be to perform a high-spectral-resolution survey of several hundreds of sources at wavelengths between 100 and about 750 microns with modest angular resolution. Following either SMME or SMILS, the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and/or the Synthesis Array for Lunar Submillimeter Astronomy (SALSA) would be flown. LDR is a 10- to 20-m diameter telescope with greatly increased sensitivity and imaging capabilities compared to the exploratory missions. SALSA is a lunar-based array consisting of twelve 3.5-m diameter telescopes with a maximum baseline of nearly 1-km. With operating wavelengths between 30 and 500 microns, SALSA would achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution, and thus could explore source structure in much greater detail than the other missions. The purpose of this paper is to present the current conceptual designs for these missions, and to discuss the most recent payload analysis.

  4. Selection criteria for waste management processes in manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Doll, S; Cothran, B; McGhee, J

    1991-10-01

    Management of waste produced during manned space exploration missions will be an important function of advanced life support systems. Waste materials can be thrown away or recovered for reuse. The first approach relies totally on external supplies to replace depleted resources while the second approach regenerates resources internally. The selection of appropriate waste management processes will be based upon criteria which include mission and hardware characteristics as well as overall system considerations. Mission characteristics discussed include destination, duration, crew size, operating environment, and transportation costs. Hardware characteristics include power, mass and volume requirements as well as suitability for a given task. Overall system considerations are essential to assure optimization for the entire mission rather than for an individual system. For example, a waste management system designed for a short trip to the moon will probably not be the best one for an extended mission to Mars. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify and compare viable waste management options for selection of an appropriate waste management system. PMID:11537685

  5. Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

    2005-01-01

    NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such as robotic missions, where human teleoperation capability is not locally available.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-118 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by the blue Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies.

  7. Capability Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Merida, Sofia; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future missions are ready as needed. The responsibilities include development of a Strategic Plan (Antonsson, E., 2005). As part of the planning effort, a structured approach to technology prioritization, based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) (Weisbin, C.R., 2004) team, was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this approach and present its current status relative to the JPL technology investment.

  8. Review of Two Game Changing Technologies for Space Mission Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randazzo, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    As technology continues to move forward, many new developments and products become available and can be considered for application in NASA's space missions. Two game changing technologies are high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and ionic polymer-metallic composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors. High temperature superconductors are a metal or alloy that can be cooled to above 70 K and are able to conduct an electric flow with zero resistance. Ionic polymer-metal composites actuators and sensors are synthetic composites that display artificial muscle behavior under an applied voltage. By conducting research to review papers, attending lectures and conferences, and interviewing and meeting with developers and researchers many products and applications for specific use in space missions were found. HTSC technology is being integrated into rocket propulsion and acceleration, radiation shielding, energy storage and medical diagnostic tools. IPMC technology is being integrated into extreme environment robotics, avionics and motion detection.

  9. A space-to-space microwave wireless power transmission experiential mission using small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsrud, Corey; Straub, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    A space solar microwave power transfer system (SSMPTS) may represent a paradigm shift to how space missions in Earth orbit are designed. A SSMPTS may allow a smaller receiving surface to be utilized on the receiving craft due to the higher-density power transfer (compared to direct solar flux) from a SSMPTS supplier craft; the receiving system is also more efficient and requires less mass and volume. The SSMPTS approach also increases mission lifetime, as antenna systems do not degrade nearly as quickly as solar panels. The SSMPTS supplier craft (instead) can be replaced as its solar panels degrade, a mechanism for replacing panels can be utilized or the SSMPTS can be maneuvered closer to a subset of consumer spacecraft. SSMPTS can also be utilized to supply power to spacecraft in eclipse and to supply variable amounts of power, based on current mission needs, to power the craft or augment other power systems. A minimal level of orbital demonstrations of SSP technologies have occurred. A mission is planned to demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of space-to-space microwave wireless power transfer. This paper presents an overview of this prospective mission. It then discusses the spacecraft system (comprised of an ESPA/SmallSat-class spacecraft and a 1-U CubeSat), launch options, mission operations and the process of evaluating mission outcomes.

  10. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-117 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by our colorful Earth, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  12. Radiometer mission requirements for large space antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Swanson, P.; Eckerman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements are defined for Earth observational microwave radiometry using large space antenna systems with apertures in the 50 to 200 meter range. General Earth observational needs, specific measurement requirements, orbital mission guidelines and constraints, and general radiometric requirements are defined. Specific measurements include soil moisture, water surface temperature, water roughness, ice boundaries, salinity, and water pollutants. Measurements with 10 to 1 km spatial resolution and 3 to 1 day temporal resolution are required.

  13. Customer and mission influence on space station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Overall Space Station architecture is presented in schematic outlines and plans. How the customer and mission needs influence this design is studied. The uses, occupants, activities, interfaces, utilities, locomotion, environments, and technological costs are all factors which influence the architecture. User and system functions are profiled, interfaces are characterized and functions are grouped. These lead to packaging of functions into modules and the design of system and user accommodations.

  14. Minimizing Astronauts' Risk from Space Radiation during Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Mathew; Nounu, Hatem N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the risk factors from space radiation for astronauts on future lunar missions. Two types of radiation are discussed, Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle events (SPE). Distributions of Dose from 1972 SPE at 4 DLOCs inside Spacecraft are shown. A chart with the organ dose quantities is also given. Designs of the exploration class spacecraft and the planned lunar rover are shown to exhibit radiation protections features of those vehicles.

  15. New space vehicle archetypes for human planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Contemporary, archetypal, crew-carrying spacecraft concepts developed for NASA are presented for: a lunar transportation system, two kinds of Mars landers, and five kinds of Mars transfer vehicles. These cover the range of propulsion technologies and mission modes of interest for the Space Exploration Initiative, and include both aerobraking and artificial gravity as appropriate. They comprise both upgrades of extant archetypes and completely new ones. Computer solid models, configurations and mass statements are presented for each.

  16. Oxygen sensor optimization for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Van Valkenburg, E. S.; Cusick, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of oxygen sensor is being developed for potential use in future manned space missions. This sensor incorporates two independent measurement schemes using dual electrochemical cells formed in a common body of solid electrolyte-zirconia. A combination of potentiometric and coulometric measurements yields accurate and fast response to cabin atmosphere oxygen. Means for self-calibration, fault detection and diagnosis by computer operation are discussed.

  17. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  18. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

  19. Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety standpoint. The energy beams may be either electron beam or laser, and the developments required for either energy source to achieve success in these applications will be discussed.

  20. Writing the History of Space Missions: Rosetta and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, M.; Russo, A.

    2011-10-01

    Mars Express is the first planetary mission accomplished by the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched in early June 2003, the spacecraft entered Mars's orbit on Christmas day of that year, demonstrating the new European commitment to planetary exploration. Following a failed attempt in the mid-­-1980s, two valid proposals for a European mission to Mars were submitted to ESA's decision-­-making bodies in the early 1990s, in step with renewed international interest in Mars exploration. Both were rejected, however, in the competitive selection process for the agency's Science Programme. Eventually, the Mars Express proposal emerged during a severe budgetary crisis in the mid-­-1990s as an exemplar of a "flexible mission" that could reduce project costs and development time. Its successful maneuvering through financial difficulties and conflicting scientific interests was due to the new management approach as well as to the public appeal of Mars exploration. In addition to providing a case study in the functioning of the ESA's Science Programme, the story of Mars Express discussed in this paper provides a case study in the functioning of the European Space Agency's Science Programme and suggests some general considerations on the peculiar position of space research in the general field of the history of science and technology.

  1. Stellar Imager (SI) Space Mission: Stellar Magnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI'S science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI'S prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

  2. Long-duration space mission regenerative life support.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, N M; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Novikov, V M; Farafonov, N S; Grigoriev, J I; Zaitsev, E N; Romanov, S J; Grogoriev, A I; Sinjak, J E

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of physical/chemical life support systems of orbiting space station Mir and the Russian segment of the international space station (ISS). Based on experience gained in development and long-term operation of systems for water recovery and air revitalization balance and energy/mass characteristics of promising life support systems (LSS) are analyzed. Physical/chemical life support systems with regenerative systems updated as a result of the operation on the ISS may be used at an initial phase of manned interplanetary missions. PMID:11708365

  3. Long-duration Space Mission Regenerative Life Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Gavrilov, L. I.; Novikov, V. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Grigoriev, Ju. I.; Zaitsev, E. N.; Romanov, S. Ju.; Grogoriev, A. I.; Sinjak, Ju. E.

    2000-07-01

    The paper deals with the construction of physical/chemical life support systems of orbiting space station Mir and the Russian segment of the international space station (ISS). Based on experience gained in development and long-term operation of systems for water recovery and air revitalization balance and energy/mass characteristics of promising life support systems (LSS) are analyzed. Physical/chemical life support systems with regenerative systems updated as a result of the operation on the ISS may be used at an initial phase of manned interplanetary missions.

  4. Coping with space motion sickness in Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1981-01-01

    Lessons learned from Skylab are applied to methods of dealing with space sickness among crewmembers in their first orbital flight. Early experiences on Skylab 3 led to regularly scheduled scopalamine/dexedrine tablets ingestion. Subsequent experiences on the next Skylab mission established a 75% incidence of the sickness among first-time-in-orbit crewmembers, notably in periods of inactivity rather than work periods. Intramuscular injections are recommended to treat acute space sickness. Preflight transdermal scopalamine plus three or four doses of 5 mg amphetamine are chosen preventive measures, giving 12 hours of efficacy.

  5. Space Debris Removal Using Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savioli, L.; Francesconi, A.; Maggi, F.; Olivieri, L.; Lorenzini, E.; Pardini, C.

    2013-08-01

    The study and development of ADR missions in LEO have become an issue of topical interest to the attention of the space community since the future space flight activities could be threatened by collisional cascade events. This paper presents the analysis of an ADR mission scenario where modular remover kits are employed to de-orbit some selected debris in SSO, while a distinct space tug performs the orbital transfers and rendezvous manoeuvres, and installs the remover kits on the client debris. Electro-dynamic tether and electric propulsion are considered as de-orbiting alternatives, while chemical propulsion is employed for the space tug. The total remover mass and de-orbiting time are identified as key parameters to compare the performances of the two de-orbiting options, while an optimization of the ΔV required to move between five selected objects is performed for a preliminary design at system level of the space tug. Final controlled re-entry is also considered and performed by means of a hybrid engine.

  6. Visiting the International Space Station--my mission diary.

    PubMed

    Guidoni, G

    2001-08-01

    Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle 'Endeavour', with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed 'Raffaello' logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US 'Destiny' module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main tasks during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station. PMID:15008205

  7. Geospace Missions for Space Weather and the Next Scientific Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is an active international flotilla of spacecraft that continuously observe and measure the dynamic space environment that surrounds our planet. These spacecraft have remote sensors for photons and particles, and in situ instruments for plasmas, fields and particles. They provide the data input to guide, motivate, and validate predictive space weather models used by decision makers and for a myriad of scientific investigations. This talk will briefly survey the current Geospace missions relevant to space weather, what they observe, and why. This talk will conclude with the description of two most significant scientific challenges that must be met in order to advance our understanding and prediction of space weather, and its impacts to society. They are the genesis and evolution of ionospheric variability and the interplanetary magnetic field. Concepts of possible solutions for these two challenges will be discussed.

  8. Medical support and technology for long-duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, S.; Nicogossian, A.; Buchanan, P.; Pool, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The current philosophy and development directions being taken towards realization of medical systems for use on board space stations are discussed. Data was gained on the performance of physical examinations, venipuncture and blood flow, blood smear and staining, white blood cell differential count, throat culture swab and colony count, and microscopy techniques during a 28-day period of the Skylab mission. It is expected that the advent of Shuttle flights will rapidly increase the number of persons in space, create a demand for in-space rather than on-earth medical procedures, and necessitate treatments for disorders without the provision for an early return to earth. Attention is being given to pressurized environment and extravehicular conditions of treatment, the possibilities of the use of the OTV for moving injured or ill crewmembers to other space stations, and to isolation of persons with communicable diseases from station crews.

  9. Ongoing and Planned Space Missions for High Energy Astrophysics in China: How to Reduce the Cost?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2014-08-01

    In this talk, I will introduce the ongoing and planned space missions, dedicated to high energy astrophysics in China, including X-ray missions e.g. HXMT, POLAR, and Einstein Probe, and gamma-ray missions e.g. DAMPE and HERD. I will briefly talk about the budget situation and possible ways to reduce the cost of space mission learned from the limited experience out of these space missions.

  10. Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 cu m (9,464 cu ft) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  11. Microbial Risk and Control During Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As human explore space, they will be accompanied by microorganisms. Historically, the approach to microbial control on spacecraft has been to minimize the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for short duration missions; however, habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has reinforced the importance of inflight microbial monitoring. Current ISS inflight monitoring evaluates potable water sources and vehicle air and surfaces. The hardware uses media-based growth and is designed for microbial enumeration during spaceflight followed by microbial identification after return of samples to Earth. For future missions beyond Earth orbit, microbial monitoring capabilities will need to be improved to enable rapid inflight identification of viable microorganisms. Inflight monitoring may also need to be expanded beyond ISS targets to include food grown in the habitat, food preparation areas, and/or clinical samples. Establishing requirements for many of these samples remains a major gap in implementing this type of next-generation approach to risk assessment and control. An additional consideration in assessment of microbial risk is research that indicates that the spaceflight environment alters crewmember immune function, microbial diversity, and molecular-genetic and phenotypic responses of microorganism, including virulence and antibiotic resistance. Taken together, in preparation for long duration space exploration missions, NASA faces new challenges in microbial risk assessment, monitoring and control that must be understood and addressed to mitigate threats to crew health and mission success.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Mission instruments and other equipment were repaired and updated. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) replaced the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). Servicing mission 3A The original Servicing Mission 3 (initially planned for June 2000) has been split into two missions - SM3A and SM3B - due in part to its complexity, and in part to the urgent need to replace the failed gyroscopes on board. Three gyroscopes must function to meet the telescope's very precise pointing requirements. With only two new operational, observations have had to be suspended, but the telescope will remain safely in orbit until the servicing crew arrives. During this servicing mission * all six gyroscopes will be replaced, * a Fine Guidance Sensor will be replaced, * the spacecraft's computer will be replaced by a new one which will reduce the burden of flight software maintenance and significantly lower costs, * six voltage/temperature kits will be installed to protect spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating if the spacecraft enters safe mode, * a new S-Band Single Access Transmitter will replace a failed spare currently aboard the spacecraft, * a solid-state recorder will be installed to replace the tape recorder, * degraded telescope thermal insulation will be replaced if time allows; this insulation is necessary to control the internal temperature on HST. For the mission to be fully successful the gyroscopes, the Fine Guidance Sensor, the computer and the voltage/temperature kits must be installed. The minimum mission success criterion is that HST will have 5 operational gyros after the mission, 4 of them newly installed. The Future During SM3B (presently scheduled for 2001) the astronauts will replace the Faint Object Camera with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), install a cooling system for NICMOS enabling it to resume operation, and install a new set of solar panels. Replacement of the thermal insulation will continue and the telescope will be reboosted to a higher orbit. The plans for the fourth Servicing Mission are preliminary at this time, but two new science instruments are being developed for that mission: Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), which will replace COSTAR, and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), which will replace WFPC2. It is planned to retrieve Hubble at the end of its life (around 2010) and bring it back to Earth. In the future ESA may have the opportunity to continue its collaboration with NASA on the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), which in many ways can be seen as Hubble's successor. The plan is to launch NGST in 2008, and ESA is currently considering a possible role in the project. Piero Benvenuti concludes: "The European Space Agency, in deciding to join NASA on the HST Project, made a very successful investment on behalf of European science. Today, NASA would not consider proceeding alone on the continued operation of HST or on the design of NGST. Not just because of the benefit of shared cost, but mainly because of the intellectual contribution by the European astronomers, who have made such effective scientific use of HST." Hubble Space Telescope - Fact sheet Description The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a co-operation between ESA and NASA. It is a long-term space-based observatory. Its observations are carried out in visible, infrared and ultraviolet light. HST has in many ways revolutionised modern astronomy, being a highly efficient tool for making new discoveries, but also by driving astronomical research in general. Objective HST was designed to take advantage of being above the Earth's disturbing atmosphere, and thereby providing astronomers with observations of very high resolution - opening new windows on planets, stars and galaxies. HST was designed as a flagship mission of the highest standard, and has served to pave the way for other space-based observatories. How the mission was named Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), who was one of the great pioneers of modern astronomy. Industrial Involvement The ESA contribution to HST included the Solar Panels and the Faint Object Camera (FOC). Prime contractors for the FOC were Dornier (now DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Germany), and Matra (France); for the Solar Panels British Aerospace (UK). Launch date: April 25, 1990 Launcher: Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31) Launch mass: 11 110 kg Dimensions Length: 15.9 m, diameter: 4.2 m. In addition two solar panels each 2.4 x 12.1 m. Payload (current) A 2.4 m f/24 Ritchey-Chretien telescope with four main instruments, currently WFPC2, STIS, NICMOS and FOC. In addition the three fine-guidance sensors are used for astrometric observations (positional astronomy). WFPC2 - Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 is an electronic camera working at two magnifications. It has four CCD detectors with 800 x 800 pixels. One of these (called Planetary Camera) has a higher resolution (<0.1 arcsecond). STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph uses so-called MAMAs and CCDs to provide images and spectra. It is sensitive to a wide range of light from UV to Infrared. NICMOS - Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer provides images and spectra in the infrared. NICMOS uses cooled HgCdTe detectors. Currently NICMOS is dormant and awaits a new cooler to be provided during Servicing Mission 3B. FOC - Faint Object Camera - a very high resolution camera built by ESA. FOC is no longer in use and will be replaced by the new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) during Servicing Mission 3B. Orbit Circular, 593 km with a 28.5 degree inclination. Operations Science operations are co-ordinated and conducted by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. Overall management of daily on-orbit operations is carried out by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt. Ground stations The data from HST are transmitted to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). From TDRSS they are sent to the TDRSS ground stations and on to Goddard Space Flight Center, from where the science data are sent to STScI. Foreseen operational lifetime : 20 years Costs ESA's financial contribution to the Hubble Space Telescope amounts to EUR 593m at 1999 economic conditions (including development of the Faint Object Camera and the Solar Arrays, participation in operations and in servicing missions).

  13. Space missions to small bodies: asteroids and cometary nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Dotto, E.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2011-11-01

    The knowledge of the physical and dynamical properties, distribution, formation, and evolution of small bodies is fundamental to understand how planet formation occurred and, even more importantly, if and how these objects have played a role in the apparition of life on Earth. In the last century, asteroids began to no longer appear as starlike points of light in our telescopes, but to be resolved worlds with distinctly measurable sizes, shapes, and surface morphologies. Only in the last 25 years, the exploration of small bodies by spacecraft has begun and revealed objects widely diverse in formation region, evolution and properties (e.g. shape, albedo density, gravity, regolith size distribution, and porosity). In this paper we will provide a chronological analysis of comet nuclei and asteroids as revealed by space missions. The real breakthrough began with the ESA Giotto mission in 1986 to the comet Halley, while the latest JAXA Hayabusa mission was devoted to hover above the small asteroid Itokawa with a touch-and-go for a sample return of asteroidal regolith. Comet and asteroid science stands at the threshold of a new exceptional era, with many new missions to be devoted to these widely diverse and still poorly known small bodies.

  14. Distributed decision support for the 21st century mission space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuay, William K.

    2002-07-01

    The past decade has produced significant changes in the conduct of military operations: increased humanitarian missions, asymmetric warfare, the reliance on coalitions and allies, stringent rules of engagement, concern about casualties, and the need for sustained air operations. Future mission commanders will need to assimilate a tremendous amount of information, make quick-response decisions, and quantify the effects of those decisions in the face of uncertainty. Integral to this process is creating situational assessment-understanding the mission space, simulation to analyze alternative futures, current capabilities, planning assessments, course-of-action assessments, and a common operational picture-keeping everyone on the same sheet of paper. Decision support tools in a distributed collaborative environment offer the capability of decomposing these complex multitask processes and distributing them over a dynamic set of execution assets. Decision support technologies can semi-automate activities, such as planning an operation, that have a reasonably well-defined process and provide machine-level interfaces to refine the myriad of information that is not currently fused. The marriage of information and simulation technologies provides the mission commander with a collaborative virtual environment for planning and decision support.

  15. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  16. International mission planning for space Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Two spacecraft dedicated to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will be launched in 1996 and 1997 to make observations using baselines between the space telescopes and many of the world's ground radio telescopes. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) will launch VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) in September 1996, while the Russian Astro Space Center (ASC) is scheduled to launch RadioAstron in 1997. Both spacecraft will observe radio sources at frequencies near 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz; RadioAstron will also observe at 0.33 GHz. The baselines between space and ground telescopes will provide 3-10 times the resolution available for ground VLBI at the same observing frequencies. Ground tracking stations on four continents will supply the required precise frequency reference to each spacecraft measure the two-way residual phase and Doppler on the ground-space link, and record 128 Megabit/s of VLBI data downlinked from the spacecraft. The spacecraft data are meaningless without cross-correlation against the data from Earth-bound telescopes, which must take place at special-purpose VLBI correlation facilities. Therefore, participation by most of the world's radio observatories is needed to achieve substantial science return from VSOP and RadioAstron. The collaboration of several major space agencies and the ground observatories, which generally follow very different models for allocation of observing time and for routine operations, leads to great complexity in mission planning and in day-to-day operations. This paper describes some of those complications and the strategies being developed to assure productive scientific missions.

  17. Space research activities during missions of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    For over 30 yr, men and women have lived for various periods of time in a weightless (or free-fall) environment while orbiting the Earth. During these years, we have learned that humans function quite well for short periods of weightlessness, that is, for up to a little more than a year. Some space flight missions have provided physiologic data, including cardiovascular data, from the spacefarers. In fact, some missions have provided laboratories for systematic study of cardiovascular responses and adaptation to space flight. However, the opportunity to obtain physiologic data from people in space is a rarity. It is important to remember that the population sample sizes are small, other stresses may confound the effects of weightlessness, and in some situations the crewmembers are subjects for several experiments at the same time. Furthermore, comparison of cardiovascular data from space flight to data obtained on the ground is sometimes difficult because the subject's posture on the ground is not always reported; in a gravity environment, posture influences the hydrostatic gradient. This over view describes what we have learned about cardiovascular function during flight and after return to Earth.

  18. An Evolvable Space Telescope for Future Astronomical Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will require lower cost space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures.Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance.Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8-m to 16-m telescopes that have been studied for the follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without accounting for too large of a portion of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an 'Evolvable Space Telescope' that would be 3 to 4-m when placed on orbit and then periodically augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16-m space telescope.This paper reviews the technologies required for such a mission, identifies candidate architectures, and discusses different science measurement objectives for these architectures.

  19. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission.

    PubMed

    Damé, Luc

    2013-05-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018. PMID:25685424

  20. Observational Model for Precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Milman, Mark H.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10-m baseline Michelson optical interferometer operating in the visible waveband that is designed to achieve astrometric accuracy in the single digits of the microarcsecond domain. Over a narrow field of view SIM is expected to achieve a mission accuracy of 1 microarcsecond. In this mode SIM will search for planetary companions to nearby stars by detecting the astrometric "wobble" relative to a nearby reference star. In its wide-angle mode, SIM will provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars, with parallaxes to comparable accuracy, at the end of its 5-year mission. The expected proper motion accuracy is around 3 microarcsecond/year, corresponding to a transverse velocity of 10 m/ s at a distance of 1 kpc. The basic astrometric observable of the SIM instrument is the pathlength delay. This measurement is made by a combination of internal metrology measurements that determine the distance the starlight travels through the two arms of the interferometer, and a measurement of the white light stellar fringe to find the point of equal pathlength. Because this operation requires a non-negligible integration time, the interferometer baseline vector is not stationary over this time period, as its absolute length and orientation are time varying. This paper addresses how the time varying baseline can be "regularized" so that it may act as a single baseline vector for multiple stars, as required for the solution of the astrometric equations.

  1. OCEANSAT_2 : an Indian space mission devoted to Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Rao, M.; de Cosmo, V.; Vespe, F.

    The first OCEANSAT a satellite devoted to Ocean applications was launched in May 1999 and had a lifetime of 6 years It carried two Payloads the Ocean Color Monitor OCM and Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer MSMR These payloads provided valuable data which were used for various applications helpful for India as well as by International users The main applications of the OCM were the identification of Potential Fishery Zones PFZ while from the sea surface field of temperatures got by the MSMR the prediction of Monsoon arrival The second OCEANSAT mission is exactly a follow on of the first but with improved releases of the payloads The OCM is 8-narrow Band multi-spectral camera with 360 m Resolution 1420 Kms Swath and 2 days revisiting time The scatterometer is a Ku-band 13 515GHz radar with V H polarization and works with two-beam conical scanning On last October a memorandum of Understanding between the Indian and the Italian qSpace Agencies ISRO ASI was signed just to enrich the mission with another payload developed by ASI the space-borne GPS receiver devoted to radio occultation ROSA The goals of the mission the payloads and their applications will be described in detail

  2. Space Radiation Risk Assessment for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem; Atwell, Bill; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    For lunar exploration mission design, radiation risk assessments require the understanding of future space radiation environments in support of resource management decisions, operational planning, and a go/no-go decision. The future GCR flux was estimated as a function of interplanetary deceleration potential, which was coupled with the estimated neutron monitor rate from the Climax monitor using a statistical model. A probability distribution function for solar particle event (SPE) occurrence was formed from proton fluence measurements of SPEs occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23). Large proton SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice for which the fluences are greater than 2 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm for energies greater than 30 MeV, were also combined to extend the probability calculation for high level of proton fluences. The probability with which any given proton fluence level of a SPE will be exceeded during a space mission of defined duration was then calculated. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV, and representative exposure levels were analyzed at those fluences. For the development of an integrated strategy for radiation protection on lunar exploration missions, effective doses at various points inside a spacecraft were calculated with detailed geometry models representing proposed transfer vehicle and habitat concepts. Preliminary radiation risk assessments from SPE and GCR were compared for various configuration concepts of radiation shelter in exploratory-class spacecrafts.

  3. Searching for Planets with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. It will address a wide range of problems in stellar astrophysics and Galactic structure, delivering precision astrometry of stars down to 20 magnitude throughout the entire Galaxy. SIM uses a 10-m Michelson interferometer in Earth-trailing solar orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond (gas) precision astrometry. With a 5-year mission lifetime, SIM will be a powerful tool for discovering planets around nearby stars, through detection of the stellar reflex motion. The astrometric method complements the radial velocity technique which as already yielded many new planets, with an important benefit of directly measuring planetary masses. SIM will have a single-measurement precision of 1 microarcsecond in a frame defined by nearby reference stars, enabling searches for planets with masses as small as a few earth masses around the nearest stars. More massive planets will be detectable to much larger distances. In addition to precision astrometry SIM will also serve an important role as a technology precursor for future astrophysics missions using interferometers. Two technologies demonstrated will be high dynamic-range aperture synthesis imaging at 10-milliarcsec resolution in the optical, and fringe nulling to 10 (exp -4).

  4. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    PubMed Central

    Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Marchand, Marion; Irbah, Abdenour; Quémerais, Éric; Bekki, Slimane; Foujols, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Cessateur, Gaël; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Kuzin, Sergey; Slemzin, Vladimir; Urnov, Alexander; Bogachev, Sergey; Merayo, José; Brauer, Peter; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Paschalis, Antonis; Mahrous, Ayman; Khaled, Safinaz; Ghitas, Ahmed; Marzouk, Besheir; Zaki, Amal; Hady, Ahmed A.; Kariyappa, Rangaiah

    2013-01-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018. PMID:25685424

  5. SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM, including copies of this report, may be obtained from the project web site, at http://sim. jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to be designed to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be 268 m3 distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison with the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concepts. In the end, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  7. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Dubayah, R.; Hager, B. H.; Joughin, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation are planning a synthetic aperture radar (currently named NISAR) mission for launch in 2020. The mission is a dual L- and S-band polarimetric SAR satellite with a 12-day interferometric orbit and 240 km wide ground swath. The 3-year mission will have a circular sun synchronous orbit (6 am and 6 pm) with a 98° inclination and 747 km altitude that will provide systematic global coverage. Its primary science objectives are to: measure solid Earth surface deformation (earthquakes, volcanic unrest, land subsidence/uplift, landslides); track and understand cryosphere dynamics (glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, and permafrost); characterize and track changes in vegetation structure and wetlands for understanding ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle; and support global disaster response. We will describe the current mission concept: the satellite design/capabilities, spacecraft, launch vehicle, and data flow.

  9. Deep space network enhancement for the Galileo mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K.; Armstrong, J. W.; Breidenthal, J. C.; Donivan, F. F.; Ham, N. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has unique scientific objectives never attempted before by a planetary mission. These objectives have presented technical challenges to the NASA Deep Space Network. New technologies and system concepts have been developed to meet these challenges. Major implementations are underway to equip the ground stations in the Network. Significant improvement in performance is expected. The ground-based navigation is expected to achieve an angular precision of 50 nanoradians using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). The frequency stability of the ground instrument will be 5 x 10 to the -15th for the detection of gravitational waves. The precision of the Faraday rotation angle measurement of the spacecraft signal will be better than 2 degrees.

  10. Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2005-01-01

    The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar exploration to support sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond. A series of robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 to prepare for human exploration as early as 2015 but no later than 2020 are anticipated. In a similar way, missions to the Moon and Mars are being planned in Europe, Japan and Russia. These space missions will require international participation to solve problems in a number of important technological areas where research is needed, including biomedical risk mitigation as well as life support and habitability on the surface of Mars. Mitigation of dust hazards is one of the most important problems to be resolved for both Lunar and Mars missions. Both Lunar and Martian regolith are unique materials and completely different from the terrestrial soils that we are exposed to on earth. The total absence of water and an atmosphere on the moon and the formation of soil and fine dust by micrometeorite impacts over billions of years resulted in a layer of soil with unique properties. The soil is primarily basaltic in composition with a high glass concentration. The depth of the soil layer varies from a few meters in the mare areas (dark areas on the Lunar near side) to tens of meters in the highland areas (the lighter mountainous areas) and the particle size distribution of this dust layer varies widely with a major mass fraction less than 10 micrometer in diameter. The hard soil from the moon which has been extensively studied by several researchers showed clearly unique properties of Lunar soil. Apollo astronauts became aware of the potentially serious threat to crew health and mission hardware that can be caused by the lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier the mass fraction of the lunar dust with particle diameter smaller than 20p.m probably represents up to 30% of the total mass of regolith. Apollo astronaut Dr. Harrison Schmidt reported that these fine dust particles were clinging to the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suits and to the visors and were limiting the activity on the surface of the moon. The dust particles that were transported with the EVA suits into the lunar module floated throughout the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust particles and noted that they smelled like gun smoke, caused a chocking sensation in the throat and eye irritation. In addition,, some of the mechanical systems were not functioning well because of the dust deposition. It appeared that the dust particles are highly charged electrostatically and Dr. Schmidt noted that future successful Lunar missions will require appropriate dust mitigation technology for protecting astronauts from inhaling toxic particles and mission's life supporting equipment from contamination with the dust particles.

  11. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  12. Radiation shielding requirements for manned deep space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1991-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and, particularly, solar flares (SF) constitute the major radiation hazards in deep space. The dose to astronauts from these radiation sources and the shielding required to mitigate its effect during a 480 day Mars mission is estimated here for a simplistic spacecraft geometry. The intent is to ball park'' the magnitude of the doses for the constant GCR background and for SF's that occur randomly during the mission. The spacecraft shielding and dose data are given only for primary GCR and SF radiation, recognizing that secondary particles produced by primary particle reactions in the spacecraft and High Z-High Energy particles will also contribute to the dose suffered by the astronauts. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. An Architecture to Promote the Commercialization of Space Mission Command and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a command and control architecture that encompasses space mission operations centers, ground terminals, and spacecraft. This architecture is intended to promote the growth of a lucrative space mission operations command and control market through a set of open standards used by both gevernment and profit-making space mission operators.

  14. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) space to ground mission data architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, J.; Ames, J.A.; Williams, J.; Patschke, R.; Mott, C.; Joseph, J.; Garon, H.; Mah, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a scientific endeavor to extend the longest continuous multi-spectral imaging record of Earth's land surface. The observatory consists of a spacecraft bus integrated with two imaging instruments; the Operational Land Imager (OLI), built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), an in-house instrument built at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Both instruments are integrated aboard a fine-pointing, fully redundant, spacecraft bus built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Gilbert, Arizona. The mission is scheduled for launch in January 2013. This paper will describe the innovative end-to-end approach for efficiently managing high volumes of simultaneous realtime and playback of image and ancillary data from the instruments to the reception at the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Landsat Ground Network (LGN) and International Cooperator (IC) ground stations. The core enabling capability lies within the spacecraft Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system and Radio Frequency (RF) communications system implementation. Each of these systems uniquely contribute to the efficient processing of high speed image data (up to 265Mbps) from each instrument, and provide virtually error free data delivery to the ground. Onboard methods include a combination of lossless data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data formatting, a file-based/managed Solid State Recorder (SSR), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) forward error correction. The 440 Mbps wideband X-Band downlink uses Class 1 CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and an earth coverage antenna to deliver an average of 400 scenes per day to a combination of LGN and IC ground stations. This paper will also describe the integrated capabilities and processes at the LGN ground stations for data reception using adaptive filtering, and the mission operations approach fro- the LDCM Mission Operations Center (MOC) to perform the CFDP accounting, file retransmissions, and management of the autonomous features of the SSR.

  15. Robotic Drilling Technology and Applications to Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J. L.; Reiter, J. W.; Rumann, A.; Wu, D.; Wang, G. Y.; Meyers, M.; Craig, J.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: Robotic drilling has great potential to become a vital, enabling technology in the context of future human and robotic exploration of the Solar System. Specific needs for human exploration relate to the ability for remote missions to scout potential locations for habitability and/or resource recovery. We will describe relevant challenges to robotic drilling and development pertaining to operations within hostile planetary environments. From the perspective of a system concept for mission architectures and exploration approaches, the ability to drill into extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and recover samples for analysis and/or utilization can provide vital references, resources, and opportunities for mission enrichment. The technology for supporting and planning such missions presents a feed-forward advantage for a human presence in such environments. Future space missions for drilling in the shallow and mid-to-deep subsurface face issues unfamiliar to terrestrial analogues, including limited power, very low or very high pressures, and widely varying thermal environments. We will discuss the means and approaches for establishing drilling operations, managing drilling sites, and mitigating environmental effects. Early robotic phases will leverage system-of-systems collaborations among humans and machines on and above the surface of planetary bodies. Such "precursor missions" will be charged with the task of mapping subsurface geology, understanding soil/rock particle distributions, obtaining geologic history, and determining local resource profiles. An example of the need for this kind of information is given to good effect by one of the lessons learned by NASA's Apollo program: the effects of lunar dust on humans, drilling mechanisms, and mission expectations were far greater than initially expected, and are still being critically considered. Future missions to Solar System bodies, including the Moon and Mars, will need to have advance information about local geologic effects, especially below the visible surface. In these hostile environments, valuable resources (e.g., water and other volatiles) will probably be hidden in substrata. Prospecting, mapping, excavating, and recovering these resources will remain a central need for NASA's exploration efforts for the foreseeable future. Swales Aerospace has a proven history in the development of low-power robotic drilling technology and research. We will show some results of a successful field campaign, during which our research prototype drill reached a depth of 10 meters with an average power consumption of only 100 Watts. We will summarize our results from a recent 2006 Idaho 2m-Basalt field test that proven basalt can be cored using 90W and past paper studies on drilling in the Martian environment and our perspective on the development of mission profiles for planetary drilling. We will suggest architectures for future drilling missions, potential configurations for deployed planetary drills, and provide comments on relevant engineering challenges such as sample acquisition, mission time, power, and mass.

  16. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

  17. An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

    2014-08-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after JWST will require affordable space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures. Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance. Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8 m to 16 m telescopes that have been studied as a follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without decimating the rest of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an "Evolvable Space Telescope" that would begin as a 3 to 4 m telescope when placed on orbit and then periodically be augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16 m or larger space telescope. This paper reviews the approach for such a mission and identifies and discusses candidate architectures.

  18. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  19. Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

  20. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.

  1. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  2. Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the direction of future missions and it's significance to the Deep Space Network. The topics include: 1) The Deep Space Network (DSN); 2) Past Missions Driving DSN Evolution; 3) The Changing Mission Paradigm; 4) Assessing Future Mission Needs; 5) Link Support Trends; 6) Downlink Rate Trends; 7) Uplink Rate Trends; 8) End-to-End Link Difficulty Trends; 9) Summary: Future Mission Trend Drivers; and 10) Conclusion: Implications for the DSN.

  3. Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

    1995-01-01

    This third semi-annual progress report covers the reporting period from August 16, 1994 through February 15, 1995 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions'. There are two major report sections: Motor Control Status/Electrical Experiment Planning and Experiment Planning and Initial Results. The primary emphasis of our efforts during the reporting period has been final construction and testing of the laboratory facilities. As a result, this report is dedicated to that topic.

  4. Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

  5. The Mask Designs for Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) consists of three interferometers (science, guide1, and guide2) and two optical paths (metrology and starlight). The system requirements for each interferometer/optical path combination are different and sometimes work against each other. A diffraction model is developed to design and optimize various masks to simultaneously meet the system requirements of three interferometers. In this paper, the details of this diffraction model will be described first. Later, the mask design for each interferometer will be presented to demonstrate the system performance compliance. In the end, a tolerance sensitivity study on the geometrical dimension, shape, and the alignment of these masks will be discussed.

  6. Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, T. Tupper; Maghami, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a planned NASA-ESA gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Lasers are used to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard each spacecraft to the picometer level over a 5 million kilometer separation. Each spacecraft and its two laser transmit/receive telescopes must be held stable in pointing to less than 8 nanoradians per root Hertz in the frequency band 0.1-100 mHz. The pointing error is sensed in the received beam and the spacecraft attitude is controlled with a set of micro-Newton thrusters. Requirements, sensors, actuators, control design, and simulations are described.

  7. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation IV. Ed. Fineschi, S. & Fennelly, J., Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8148, article id. 81480Z, DOI: 10.1117/12.901538

  8. Timekeeping for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, Dave; Luers, Phil; Sank, Victor; Jackson, George

    2002-01-01

    Space Technology 5, or better known as ST-5, is a space technology development mission in the New Millennium Program (NMP) and NASA s first experiment in the design of miniaturized satellite constellations. The mission will design, integrate and launch multiple spacecraft into an orbit high above the Earth s protective magnetic field known as the magnetosphere. Each spacecraft incorporates innovative technology and constellation concepts which will be instrumental in future space science missions. A total of three ST-5 spacecraft will be launched as secondary payloads into a highly elliptical geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and will operate as a 3-element constellation for a minimum duration of 90 days. In order to correlate the time of science measurements with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space (with respect to other objects in space) and/or with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft, accurate knowledge of spacecraft and ground time is needed. Ground time as used in the USA (known as Universal Time Coordinated or UTC) is maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Spacecraft time is maintained onboard within the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system. The science requirements for ST-5 are that spacecraft time and ground time be correlatable to each other, with some degree of accuracy. Accurate knowledge of UTC time on a spacecraft is required so that science measurements can be correlated with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space and with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft. The most crucial parameter is not the clock oscillator frequency, but more importantly, how the clock oscillator frequency varies with time or temperature (clock oscillator drift). Even with an incorrect clock oscillator frequency, if there were no drift, the frequency could be assessed by comparing the spacecraft clock to a ground clock during a few correlation events. Once the frequency is accurately known, it is easy enough to make a regular adjustment to the spacecraft clock or to calculate the correct ground time for a given spacecraft clock time. The oscillator frequency, however, is temperature dependent, drifts with age and is affected by radiation; hence, repeated correlation measurements are required.

  9. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  10. Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

  11. The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

  12. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the mission considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

  13. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

  14. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

  15. Design of multihundredwatt DIPS for robotic space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Geng, S. M.; Schreiber, J. G.; Withrow, C. A.; Schmitz, P. C.; Mccomas, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Design of a dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) general purpose heat source (GPHS) and small free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to SEI precursor missions. These are multihundredwatt missions. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel which reduces cost and radiological hazard. However, unlike a conventional DIPS based on turbomachinery converions, the small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred watt unit size while preserving size and weight competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the range where dynamic systems are competitive to hundreds of watts (a power range not previously considered for dynamic systems). The challenge of course is to demonstrate reliability similar to RTG experience. Since the competative potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on the feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Extensive thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries were performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within safe operating limits under all conditions including shutdown of one engine. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred watt units were established.

  16. Analytical dynamics models for space missions around minor bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the dynamics of orbits around minor bodies and icy moons in our solar system has become important in planning future missions that intend to visit dwarf planets, planetary moons, asteroids and comets. Due to their special characteristics, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the group of objects with greater potential to receive missions in a near future. In order to provide a semi-analytical theory for tuture space exploration of these celestial bodies, this work aims to present two analytical models to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecrat's orbit around a minor body. A search for these less perturbed orbits is performed. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented and consideres it in an eccentric-inclined orbit. Some harmonic terms due to the non-uniform distribuition of mass are considered according they are available in the literature. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results are in accordance with the requirements for missions present in the literature.

  17. Identification and Classification of Common Risks in Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Hanna, Robert A.; Port, Daniel; Eggleston, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Due to the highly constrained schedules and budgets that NASA missions must contend with, the identification and management of cost, schedule and risks in the earliest stages of the lifecycle is critical. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) it is the concurrent engineering teams that first address these items in a systematic manner. Foremost of these concurrent engineering teams is Team X. Started in 1995, Team X has carried out over 1000 studies, dramatically reducing the time and cost involved, and has been the model for other concurrent engineering teams both within NASA and throughout the larger aerospace community. The ability to do integrated risk identification and assessment was first introduced into Team X in 2001. Since that time the mission risks identified in each study have been kept in a database. In this paper we will describe how the Team X risk process is evolving highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. The paper will especially focus on the identification and classification of common risks that have arisen during Team X studies of space based science missions.

  18. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Economical Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some recent developments in the technologies of ISRU with the specific intention of cost reductions in space missions. Recognizing that a certain level of technology maturation is necessary before the mission designers will seriously consider any technology, the hypothesis is made that the overall cost-index is inversely proportional to the TRL. Also recognizing that the cost is directly proportional to the mass at launch, the cost-index is identified as the ratio of the launch mass to the TRL. Whether this cost-index is the true measure of the overall mission cost is arguable; however, the relative costs of comparable technologies can be readily assessed by applying identical rules of such an evaluation. As one example of this approach, Mars Sample Return (MSR) is studied, and nine competing technologies are evaluated for the key Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). It is found that the technology of oxygen production through the dissociation of atmospheric carbon dioxide can be a key technology. In addition to reporting upon this technology briefly, one innovative application that significantly enhances the science capabilities of a rover is discussed.

  19. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a project under NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for a lunar outpost, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and discusses how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing, which includes the sub-elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize the overall mission architecture by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements.

  20. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Amor A.; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m3 six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of ‘space synthetic biology’, and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact. PMID:25376875

  1. Training Space Surgeons for Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; McSwain, N.

    2004-01-01

    Over a period of 4 years, several working groups reviewed the provisions for medical care in low earth orbit and for future flights such as to the Moon and Mars. More than 60 medical experts representing a wide variety of clinical backgrounds participated in the working groups. They concluded that NASA medical training for long-duration missions, while critical to success, is currently aimed at short-term skill retention. They noted that several studies have shown that skills and knowledge deteriorate rapidly in the absence of adequate sustainment training. American Heart Association studies have shown that typically less than twenty-five percent of learned skills remain after 6 to 8 months. In addition to identifying the current training deficiencies, the working groups identified additional skill and knowledge sets required for missions to the Moon and Mars and curricula were developed to address inadequacies. Space medicine care providers may be categorized into 4 types based on health care responsibilities and level of education required. The first 2 types are currently recognized positions within the flight crew: crew medical officers and astronaut-physician. The crew medical officer (CMO), a non-medically trained astronaut crewmember, is given limited emergency medical technician-like training to provide medical care on orbit. Many of hidher duties are carried out under the direction of a ground-based flight surgeon in mission control. Second is the astronaut- physician whose primary focus is on mission specialist duties and training, and who has very limited ability to maintain medical proficiency. Two new categories are recommended to complete the 4 types of care providers primarily to address the needs of those who will travel to the Moon and Mars. Physician astronaut - a physician, who in addition to being a mission specialist, will be required to maintain and enhance hidher medical proficiency while serving as an astronaut. Space surgeon - a physician astronaut given special training to address the unique health care requirements envisioned for expeditions such as those to Mars.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the Infrared successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 sq m aperture (6 m class) telescope yielding diffraction limited angular resolution at a wave1ength of 2 micron. The science instrument payload includes three passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronagraphy, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete, and construction is underway in all areas of the program.

  3. Worst-case space radiation environments for geocentric missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Worst-case possible annual radiation fluences of energetic charged particles in the terrestrial space environment, and the resultant depth-dose distributions in aluminum, were calculated in order to establish absolute upper limits to the radiation exposure of spacecraft in geocentric orbits. The results are a concise set of data intended to aid in the determination of the feasibility of a particular mission. The data may further serve as guidelines in the evaluation of standard spacecraft components. Calculations were performed for each significant particle species populating or visiting the magnetosphere, on the basis of volume occupied by or accessible to the respective species. Thus, magnetospheric space was divided into five distinct regions using the magnetic shell parameter L, which gives the approximate geocentric distance (in earth radii) of a field line's equatorial intersect.

  4. New space missions for mapping the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmino, Georges

    The knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth and of an associated reference surface of altitudes (the geoid) is necessary for geodesy, for improving theories of the physics of the planet interior and for modeling the ocean circulation in absolute. This knowledge comes from several observing techniques but, although it benefited from the artificial satellite approach, it remains incomplete and erroneous in places. Within a reasonable future, a substantial improvement can only come from new space techniques. Thanks to the intense lobbying by the concerned geoscientists, the coming decade will see the advent of three techniques already proposed in the seventies and to be implemented by different space agencies; these are the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions.

  5. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  6. Anarctica as a launchpad for space astronomy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, John W. V.; Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.

    2002-11-01

    In the coming decades, astronomical breakthroughs will increasingly come from observations from the best ground-based locations and from space observatories. At infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths in particular, Antarctica offers site conditions that are found nowhere else on earth. There are two implications of this. First, for tackling some of the most crucial problems in astrophysics, a large telescope in Antarctica can outperform any other ground-based facility. Second, with infrared backgrounds between one and two orders of magnitude below those at other sites, superior sub-mm transmission and extraordinary low atmospheric turbulence above the boundary layer, Antartical offers designers of space missions a unique test-bed for their ideas and instrumentation.

  7. Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

  8. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, E.; Day, J.

    1994-09-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA`s communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are `in house` spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are `out of house` spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC `in house` and `out of house` spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  9. Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

  10. Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

  11. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption of web-based and telecommunication tools has been critical to the success of Cassini operations.

  12. Standardized Modular Power Interfaces for Future Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies show that future human explorations missions are composed of multi-vehicle assemblies with interconnected electric power systems. Some vehicles are often intended to serve as flexible multi-purpose or multi-mission platforms. This drives the need for power architectures that can be reconfigured to support this level of flexibility. Power system developmental costs can be reduced, program wide, by utilizing a common set of modular building blocks. Further, there are mission operational and logistics cost benefits of using a common set of modular spares. These benefits are the goals of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project. A common set of modular blocks requires a substantial level of standardization in terms of the Electrical, Data System, and Mechanical interfaces. The AMPS project is developing a set of proposed interface standards that will provide useful guidance for modular hardware developers but not needlessly constrain technology options, or limit future growth in capability. In 2015 the AMPS project focused on standardizing the interfaces between the elements of spacecraft power distribution and energy storage. The development of the modular power standard starts with establishing mission assumptions and ground rules to define design application space. The standards are defined in terms of AMPS objectives including Commonality, Reliability-Availability, Flexibility-Configurability and Supportability-Reusability. The proposed standards are aimed at assembly and sub-assembly level building blocks. AMPS plans to adopt existing standards for spacecraft command and data, software, network interfaces, and electrical power interfaces where applicable. Other standards including structural encapsulation, heat transfer, and fluid transfer, are governed by launch and spacecraft environments and bound by practical limitations of weight and volume. Developing these mechanical interface standards is more difficult but an essential part of defining physical building blocks of modular power. This presentation describes the AMPS projects progress towards standardized modular power interfaces.

  13. Galaxy Mission Completes Four Star-Studded Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer is celebrating its fourth year in space with some of M81's 'hottest' stars.

    In a new ultraviolet image, the magnificent M81 spiral galaxy is shown at the center. The orbiting observatory spies the galaxy's 'sizzling young starlets' as wisps of bluish-white swirling around a central golden glow. The tints of gold at M81's center come from a 'senior citizen' population of smoldering stars.

    'This is a spectacular view of M81,' says Dr. John Huchra, of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. 'When we proposed to observe this galaxy with GALEX we hoped to see globular clusters, open clusters, and young stars...this view is everything that we were hoping for.'

    The image is one of thousands gathered so far by GALEX, which launched April 28, 2003. This mission uses ultraviolet wavelengths to measure the history of star formation 80 percent of the way back to the Big Bang.

    The large fluffy bluish-white material to the left of M81 is a neighboring galaxy called Holmberg IX. This galaxy is practically invisible to the naked human eye. However, it is illuminated brilliantly in GALEX's wide ultraviolet eyes. Its ultraviolet colors show that it is actively forming young stars. The bluish-white fuzz in the space surrounding M81 and Holmberg IX is new star formation triggered by gravitational interactions between the two galaxies. Huchra notes that the active star formation in Holmberg IX is a surprise, and says that more research needs to be done in light of the new findings from GALEX.

    'Some astronomers suspect that the galaxy Holmberg IX is the result of a galactic interaction between M81 and another neighboring galaxy M82,' says Huchra. 'This particular galaxy is especially important because there are a lot of galaxies like Holmberg IX around our Milky Way galaxy. By understanding how Holmberg IX came to be, we hope to understand how all the little galaxies surrounding the Milky Way developed.'

    'Four years after GALEX's launch, the spacecraft is performing magnificently. The mission results have been simply amazing as it helps us to unlock the secrets of galaxies, the building blocks of our universe,' says Kerry Erickson, GALEX project manager.

    M81 and Holberg IX are located approximately 12 million light-years away in the northern constellation Ursa Major. In addition to leading the GALEX observations of M81, Huchra and his team also took observations of the region with NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes. By combining all these views of M81, Huchra hopes to gain a better understanding about how M81 has developed into the spiral galaxy we see today.

    The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., leads the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission and is responsible for science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, also in Pasadena, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Researchers from South Korea and France collaborated on this mission.

  14. The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

    1999-12-01

    The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region and planetary exploration will be carried out. Several fields are open for research and development in the space business. Three major categories can be found: detector technology in different areas, electronics, and software. At LABEN, a Finmeccanica Company, we are focusing the technologies to respond to this challenging scientific demands. Particle trackers based on silicon micro-strips supported by lightweight structures (CFRP) are studied. In the X-ray field, CCD's are investigated with pixels of very small size so as to increase the spatial resolution of the focal plane detectors. High-efficiency and higly miniaturized high-voltage power supplies are developed for detectors with an increasingly large number of phototubes. Material research is underway to study material properties at extreme temperatures. Low-temperature mechanical structures are designed for cryogenic ( 20 K) detectors in order to maintain the high precision in pointing the instrument. Miniaturization of front end electronics with low power consumption and high number of signal processing channels is investigated; silicon-based microchips (ASIC's) are designed and developed using state-of-the-art technology. Miniaturized instruments to investigate the planets surface using X-Ray and Gamma-Ray scattering techniques are developed. The data obtained from the detectors have to be processed, compressed, formatted and stored before their transmission to ground. These tasks open up additional strategic areas of development such as microprocessor-based electronics for high-speed and parallel data processing. Powerful computers with customized architectures are designed and developed. High-speed intercommunication networks are studied and tested. In parallel to the hardware research activities, software development is undertaken for several purposes: digital and video compression algorithms, payload and spacecraft control and diagnostics, scientific processing algorithms, etc. Besides, embedded Java virtual machines are studied for tele-science applications (direct link between scientist console and scientific payload). At system engineering level, the demand for spacecraft autonomy is increased for planetology missions: reliable intelligent systems that can operate for long periods of time without human intervention from ground are requested and investigated. A technologically challenging but less glamorous area of development is represented by the laboratory equipment for end-to-end testing (on ground) of payload instruments. The main fields are cryogenics, laser and X-ray optics, microwave radiometry, UV and infrared testing systems.

  15. Precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission - PlanetQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, S. C.

    2005-10-01

    Optical interferometry in space offers the prospect of microarcsecond precision astrometry of stars, enabling a wide range of problems in Galactic astronomy, stellar astrophysics, and planet detection and characterization to be addressed. The Space Interferometry Mission PlanetQuest (SIM PlanetQuest) will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry, operating in an Earth-trailing solar orbit for a minimum of 5 years. Launch is currently planned for 2011. SIM PlanetQuest will be a powerful tool for discovering planets around nearby stars, through detection of the stellar reflex motion. The astrometric method complements the radial velocity technique which has already yielded many new planets, and has the additional benefit of measuring planetary masses rather than mass lower limits. In a frame defined by nearby reference stars, the single-measurement precision of SIM will be 1 microarcsecond, enabling searches for planets with masses as small as a few Earth masses around the nearest stars. SIM will be able to fully characterize multiple-planet systems which are now known to exist. It will explore the nature and evolution of planetary systems in their full diversity, including age, by including young (0.5-100 Myr) solar-type stars. The mission will also serve as a precursor for future astrophysics missions using interferometers, demonstrating several needed technologies. SIM PlanetQuest will make global astrometric measurements by observing an all-sky grid of reference stars, anchored by observations of distant quasars. Relative to this frame, the mission will deliver positions and parallaxes to 4 microarcsecond accuracy on stars as faint as V = 20. This unprecedented precision will allow stellar masses and luminosities to be measured to accuracies better than 1 %, which is currently very hard. By observing samples of stars in the Galactic halo, SIM will probe the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, and trace its past history of interactions with dwarf companions. Finally, SIM will probe some of the most powerful objects in the universe, through astrometry of the structure of the nuclei of active galaxies.

  16. Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

    A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica- and organizational perspective, the developed space infrastructure is able to self-adapt, self-optimize and self-configure to dynamic changes in various local environmental conditions.

  17. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  18. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.

    PubMed

    Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (ΦXacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

  19. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

  20. Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William

    2008-01-01

    Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

  1. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

  2. Science Priorities of the RadioAstron Space VLBI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Glen; Kardashev, N.; International Space VLBI Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    The main scientific goal of the RadioAstron Space VLBI mission is study of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Masers and other astronomical objects with unprecedented angular resolution, up to few millionths of an arc-second. The resolution achieved with RadioAstron will allow study the following phenomena and problems: * Central engine of AGN and physical processes near super massive black holes providing an acceleration of cosmic rays size, velocity and shape of emitting region in the core, spectrum, polarization and variability of emitting components; * Cosmological models, dark matter and dark energy by studying dependence of above mentioned AGN's parameters with redshift, and by observing gravitational lensing; * Structure and dynamics of star and planets forming regions in our Galaxy and in AGN by studying maser and Mega maser radio emission; * Neutron (quark?) stars and black holes in our Galaxy, their structure and dynamics by VLBI and measurements of visibility scintillations, proper motions and parallaxes; * Structure and distribution of interstellar and interplanetary plasma by fringe visibility scintillations of pulsars; The RadioAstron mission uses the satellite SPECTR (astrophysical module), developed by Lavochkin Association of Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA). This module will be used in several other scientific missions. The total mass of the scientific payload is about 2500 kg, of which the unfolding parabolic 10-m radio astronomy antenna's mass is about 1500 kg, and scientific package holding the receivers, power supply, synthesizers, control units, frequency standards and data transmission radio system. The mass of the whole system (satellite and scientific payload) to be carried into orbit by the powerful "Zenit-2SB"-"Fregat-2CB" launcher is about 5000 kg. The RadioAstron project is an international collaboration between RASA and ground radio telescope facilities around the world.

  3. Mini-STAR: A small space mission testing special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürlebeck, Norman

    mSTAR (mini-STAR) is a proposed collaborative Saudi-USA-German small space mission to perform an advanced Kennedy-Thorndike (KT) type test of Special Relativity using the large and rapid velocity modulation available in low Earth orbit (LEO). An improvement of about a factor of 100 over present ground results is expected with an additional factor of 10 possible using more advanced technology. To date, limits on local Lorentz invariance violations (LLIV) related to boost effects are on the order of δc/c ≤ 10 15. While advances in technology will undoubtedly lead to further gains, it has become clear that space experiments in low Earth orbit offer a way to obtain much better results than ground experiments. The mSTAR LLIV experiment consists of the comparison of a molecular frequency reference, 532 nm Iodine, with a length reference, an optical cavity, in a LEO flight (7 km/s orbital velocity, 90 min period). The corresponding sensitivity to boost-dependent LLIV terms is improved relative to Earth based measurements because of the high velocity modulation and the increased number of the measurements. The mSTAR approach is to develop a small-scale instrument with a high scientific output that also provides instrument and spacecraft technology for subsequent missions, which would use further improved frequency standards.

  4. The space instrument SOVAP of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, S.; Conscience, C.; Mefta, M.; Chevalier, A.; Crommelynck, D.

    2010-12-01

    PICARD is a scientific mission of the French space agency CNES. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. The payload was launched on 15 june 2010 in a Sun Synchronous Orbit at 725 km altitude. The mission life time is two years, however to be extended to three years. The payload consists of two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability PICARD) is an experiment developed by the STCE (Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence) with a contribution of the CNRS (Centre National de Recherche Scientifique) composed of an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI and a bolometer provided by the ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium) to measure both the solar and terrestrial outgoing radiation with 10 s sampling . The Sovap instrument aims at high quality metrology in the space environment. In this paper, we describe the SOVAP instrument and its technical performances.

  5. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970’s and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  6. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  7. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

  8. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 2: Mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space environment studies, astrophysics, Earth environment, life sciences, and material sciences are discussed. Commercial communication, materials processing, and Earth observation missions are addressed. Technology development, space operations, scenarios of operational capability, mission requirements, and benefits analysis results for space-produced gallium arsenide crystals, direct broadcasting satellite systems, and a high inclination space station are covered.

  9. AN/FPS-108 COBRA DANE Space Surveillance Mission Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorman, P.; Boggs, J.

    2013-09-01

    It has been ten years since the COBRA DANE radar was restored to continuous full power operations in a more dedicated role of space debris tracking. Over this time, the satellite catalog population has grown and the overall average RCS value of cataloged objects has decreased dramatically, due to a combination of breakups and collisions together with the increased sensitivity offered by COBRA DANE's support to the network. This shift in catalog composition places new challenges on COBRA DANE and other debris tracking radars (PARCS and Eglin/FPS-85) to consistently track the ever-increasing number of small objects. Space Surveillance Network radars now operate at the limits of their detection performance, tracking several thousand new objects in a size category that only the most powerful and sensitive radars can observe (i.e., < 10 cm diameter). However, for much of the last decade, COBRA DANE's inherent Spacetrack mission software functionality remained better tuned for its original support role against the larger (known) orbital objects than for its more modern role in acquiring and reporting small debris in an appreciable number -- that is, until now. Several newly-identified software changes offer promise of significantly increased data yield that will make COBRA DANE an even more important asset for this evolving mission. In the course of assisting JSpOC, AFSPC, and USSTRATCOM with the ongoing challenges of lost satellite management, it was discovered that the radar's performance is being artificially restricted by mission software, rather than by the system's overall architectural design (power-aperture envelope and radar resources). This paper captures specific opportunities to improve COBRA DANE's Spacetrack mission performance, several of which are currently implemented and slated to become operational with the next two software releases. With one of the more prominent enhancements, COBRA DANE will be capable of autonomously 'fence tasking' all newly acquired small objects. Under the current operating paradigm, the radar detects satellites in its debris fences, correlates them to known (cataloged) objects, and subsequently drops the correlated objects from track, many times per day for thousands of objects. This response occurs under the (false) premise that the known objects will be successfully reacquired later by automatic satellite acquisition searches, when the objects are expected to present more optimal data collection passes, as determined by the radar's Spacetrack mission planning algorithm. Unfortunately, for the bulk of the challenging objects in question, this opportunity seldom presents itself and most reacquisition attempts are unsuccessful, causing the radar to effectively squander valuable surveillance resources that could be better applied to other Spacetrack functions. An important new change to the mission software will allow COBRA DANE to collect a predefined number of metric observations, spaced ten seconds apart, on correlated objects whether or not they are tasked by JSpOC, if they are sufficiently small as determined by radar operator input. This change is projected to provide an enormous increase in COBRA DANE's output on the smallest objects in the satellite catalog and analyst satellite list, and will greatly improve the completeness and quality of the JSpOC small object catalog.

  10. Contributions of the International Space Station towards future exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weppler, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    When the idea of a large space station in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) was conceived in the 1980s, it was primarily planned as an orbiting laboratory for microgravity research. Some even thought of it as an industrial plant in space. Whereas the latter did not materialize because of various reasons, the former is absolutely true when you talk about the International Space Station (ISS). Since the transition to a six astronaut crew in 2009 and the completion of its assembly in 2011, it has been intensively used as laboratory in a wide field of scientific topics. Experiments conducted on ISS have yielded first class results in biology, physiology, material science, basic physics, and many more. While its role as a laboratory in space is widely recognized, the awareness for its potential for preparing future exploration missions beyond LEO is just increasing. This paper provides information on how the ISS programme contributes to future exploration efforts, both manned and unmanned. It highlights the work that has been done or is currently underway in the fields of technology, operations, and science. Further potentials and future projects for exploration preparation are also shown. A special focus lies on experiments and projects primarily funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) or with strong German participation in the science team.

  11. On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space - Deep Space Mission Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandridge, Chris a.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steve A.; Spangler, Jan L.

    2011-01-01

    The On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS, https://oltaris.nasa.gov) is a web-based set of tools and models that allows engineers and scientists to assess the effects of space radiation on spacecraft, habitats, rovers, and spacesuits. The site is intended to be a design tool for those studying the effects of space radiation for current and future missions as well as a research tool for those developing advanced material and shielding concepts. The tools and models are built around the HZETRN radiation transport code and are primarily focused on human- and electronic-related responses. The focus of this paper is to highlight new capabilities that have been added to support deep space (outside Low Earth Orbit) missions. Specifically, the electron, proton, and heavy ion design environments for the Europa mission have been incorporated along with an efficient coupled electron-photon transport capability to enable the analysis of complicated geometries and slabs exposed to these environments. In addition, a neutron albedo lunar surface environment was also added, that will be of value for the analysis of surface habitats. These updates will be discussed in terms of their implementation and on how OLTARIS can be used by instrument vendors, mission designers, and researchers to analyze their specific requirements.12

  12. A Proposal to Study the Scientific Uses of Solar Electric Propulsion for Space Physics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, William S.

    1999-01-01

    This effort was for the participation of Dr. William S. Kurth in the study of the application of spacecraft using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for a range of space physics missions. This effort included the participation of Dr. Kurth in the Tropix Science Definition Team but also included the generalization to various space physics and planetary missions, including specific Explorer mission studies.

  13. For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

    The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone, the peptide urodilatin, discovered in 1988 and its significance for the fluid volume control of the human body, an aplanation tonometer developped for hand- and selfoperation for measuring the inner eye pressure; in the technological disciplines another patent issued for a sensor based control ball in conjunction with the robotics experiment (to be manufactured under licence of an American company.

  14. An Introduction to Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    This poster is intended as an introduction to a series of posters on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). This series features the science objectives, selection of target stars, instrument operation, and astrometric data analysis. SIM is NASA's first space-based long-baseline interferometer designed for precision astrometry. SIM will extend the reach of precision astrometry to cover the entire Galaxy, and will address a diverse set of topics in stellar astrophysics and Galactic astronomy. It will be an extraordinary tool for discovering planets, allowing searches for planets with masses as small as a few Earth masses around the nearest stars. Its single-measurement accuracy will be 1 microarcsecond, relative to local reference stars. Through detection of the astrometric reflex motion the orbit inclination, and hence unambiguous masses, will be measured for the planets it detects. The 10-m SIM Michelson interferometer will be launched into an Earth-trailing orbit in 2006, and will observe for 5 years. SIM will also serve as a technology pathfinder for future astrophysics missions, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder. With a design accuracy of 4 microarcseconds in absolute position for stars as faint as 20 magnitude, SIM will provide a definitive calibration of stellar distance and luminosities, most notably the Cepheids, RR Lyraes and globular clusters. Using samples of stars in the Galactic disk and the halo as tracers, SIM will address a variety of questions relating to the formation and dynamics of the Galaxy. NASA expects to release in January 2000 an Announcement of Opportunity to participate in the SIM Science Team. Further information on SIM will be available at the SIM exhibit. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  16. Packaging data products using data grid middleware for Deep Space Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Ramirez, Paul M.; Chrichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven

    2004-01-01

    Deep Space Mission Systems lack the capability to provide end to end tracing of mission data products. These data products are simple products such as telemetry data, processing history, and uplink data.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  18. Space Radiation Risks for Astronauts on Multiple International Space Station Missions

    PubMed Central

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA’s radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members’ radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

  19. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.