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1

Ionospheric applications of the scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) mission when used with the DORIS radio beacon network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) instrument will orbit the Earth near 560 km altitude to detect signals from the ground-based array of more than 50 DORIS UHF\\/S-band radio beacons established at sites around the world by the French Centre National d‘Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Institut Géographique National (IGN). The CITRIS receiver is on the US Air Force

Paul A. Bernhardt; Carl L. Siefring; Ivan J. Galysh; Thomas F. Rodilosso; Douglas E. Koch; Thomas L. MacDonald; Matthew R. Wilkens; G. Paul Landis

2006-01-01

2

Ionospheric applications of the scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) mission when used with the DORIS radio beacon network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) instrument will orbit the Earth near 560 km altitude to detect signals from the ground-based array of more than 50 DORIS UHF/S-band radio beacons established at sites around the world by the French Centre National d‘Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Institut Géographique National (IGN). The CITRIS receiver is on the US Air Force Space Test Program satellite STPSAT1, which is scheduled for launch in November 2006. CITRIS will record ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and radio scintillations with a unique ground-to-space geometry. The new instrument has been developed to study the ionosphere using data obtained with the UHF and S-band radio transmissions from the DORIS beacons because ionospheric radio scintillations can seriously degrade the performance of many space-geodetic systems, including the DORIS precise satellite orbitography system and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). The ionospheric data will be based on radio signals sampled at a rate of 200 Hz by the CITRIS receiver. Numerical models have been used to predict that the DORIS signals measured by CITRIS may have 30 dB fluctuations in amplitude and 30 rad in phase as the satellite flies over kilometer-scale ionospheric structures. The data from the space-based CITRIS receiver will help update and validate theories on the generation and effect of ionospheric irregularities known to influence radio systems. By using simultaneous beacon transmissions from DORIS on the ground and from low-Earth-orbit beacons in space, the concept of reciprocity in a non-bilateral propagation medium like the ionosphere will be tested. Computer simulations are used to predict the magnitude of amplitude and phase scintillations that are expected to be recorded with the CITRIS instrument.

Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Galysh, Ivan J.; Rodilosso, Thomas F.; Koch, Douglas E.; MacDonald, Thomas L.; Wilkens, Matthew R.; Landis, G. Paul

2006-11-01

3

The First Absolute TEC Measurements Using the Scintillation and Ionospheric TEC Receiver in Space (CITRIS)*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space-based multi-band CITRIS receiver records total electron content (TEC) and radio scintillations from satellite beacons in low-earth-orbit plus the global network of ground DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The measurement of ionospheric TEC provides inputs for space-weather models over remote regions of the Earth and allows for tracking of ionospheric disturbances. The CITRIS satellite-to-satellite TEC measurement uses the differential phase technique. The CITRIS receiver is currently in orbit at 560 km altitude on the STPSat1 satellite at 35 degrees inclination. CITRIS records TEC and radio scintillations from beacon transmitters on the Taiwan FORMOSAT3 at 150/400/1067 MHz, DMSP/F15, RADCAL, GFO and COSMOS at 150/400 MHz plus other satellites in low earth orbit. The ground-based DORIS geodesy beacons operate at 401/2036 MHz. The innovative satellite-to-satellite measurements provide new capacities. Satellite-to-satellite measurements have three stages: 1) ionospheric occultation at large separations, 2) minimum distance TEC sampling when the beacon passes directly over the receiver and 3) a second occultation. Absolute TEC is obtained by extrapolation to zero satellite separations. In such cases, it is possible to retrieve absolute TEC with less than 0.1 TECU errors. Initial tests using CITRIS data in data-assimilation space weather models shows the value of the technique. We will report on the first year of measurements from the CITRIS receiver. Future space missions would benefit from flying CITRIS receivers to give global radio measurements of the ionosphere at 150, 400, 1067, and 2036 MHz. *Supported by ONR

Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.

2008-05-01

4

The Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a

Stephen C. Unwin

1998-01-01

5

Space Astrometry Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful hipparcos mission has brought, and proved the validity of, a new observational concept to achieve absolute measurements of star positions in space. Only five years after the final publication of the results there are now four astrometry missions scheduled for the next decade, three of which appearing as the natural heirs of this pioneering mission. Space astrometry missions share a certain number of common features imposed by their observational principles and their scientific goals. The first part of this paper attempts to show how the objectives put severe constraints on the design and that this can be investigated with a fairly general approach. The German mission diva is then detailed as an illustration (gaia being considered elsewhere in this volume). In the last section few words are added about fame and simfollowed by global comparisons of these missions and their scientific returns.

Mignard, F.; Roeser, S.

6

Space Shuttle Missions Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document was originally produced as an informal Mission Operations book and has been updated since Space Shuttle Flight STS-1 and throughout the program. This version is a formally released NASA document. It is a handy reference guide for flight data...

F. V. Bennett R. D. Legler

2011-01-01

7

The Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be a 10-m baseline optical interferometer in earth orbit. It will provide high-throughput astrometry with an estimated noise floor for bright stars of about 4 mu as over wide angles, and 1 mu as over small fields. This performance will allow accurate parallaxes and distances for a very large number of stars of different

Stephen C. Unwin; A. Boden; M. Shao

1997-01-01

8

Space Mission Analysis and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this second edition is siniflar to the first: to allow you to begin with a blank sheet of paper'' and design a space mission to meet a set of broad, often poorly defined, objectives. You should be able to define the mission in sufficient detail to identify principal drivers and make a preliminary assessment of overan performance,

W. J. Larson; J. R. Wertz

1992-01-01

9

Space Mission : Y3K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer Programme and APME, following the successful launch of "Coming of Age: plastics and space meeting the challenges to mankind" in October 1999. "Coming of Age" is a report produced by APME that brought the role of plastics in technology transfer to adult consumer audiences across Europe.

2001-01-01

10

In Brief: Proposed European space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New candidates for possible future scientific missions were selected by the European Space Agency's Space Science Advisory Committee at its 17-18 October meeting. Among the eight candidates are four solar system missions. The Laplace mission would perform coordinated observations of Europa, the Jovian satellites, Jupiter's magnetosphere, and its atmosphere and interior. Tandem is a mission that would explore two Saturn

Randy Showstack

2007-01-01

11

``FIRST,'' A Submillimeter Space Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIRST (Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Telescope), an ESA mission, is a high sensitivity submillimeter spectroscopy and continuum satellite, approved as a "Horizon 2000" Cornerstone mission for launch in 2005/6. It has an ESA assigned budget of 400 MAU (1984 European accounting units; 1 MAU is slightly more than 1M.) The primary goals of the mission are the detection and study of distant and possibly primordial galaxies (1 < z < 5), and the detection and study of stars forming in the local interstellar medium. The NASA goal is to contribute to the technical and scientific aspects of the program, to provide a significantly enhanced international mission, through the use of advanced US technology, and also result in core program and open time science opportunites to US astronomers. NASA would be a partner in FIRST with ESA, at a level still to be determined. Our own project in this field, SMIM, is similar to FIRST, and although planned some time ago, could not be constructed on a competitive timescale, so the US submillimeter community has decided to try to join the European project. The FIRST mission, as approved, is a 3-m diameter, radiatively cooled (165K) telescope for high-throughput spectroscopy and photometry in the submillimeter and far-infrared range (85-900 microns, 3.5-0.33 THz). Best angular resolution is about 7''. The payload consists of a cryogenic focal plane system with: superconducting tunnel junction (SIS) heterodyne detectors providing near quantum-noise performance for high spectral resolution (R >= 10^4) in the 500-1200 GHz range; imaging photoconductor arrays for photometry (R ~3) or medium resolution spectroscopy (R ~10^4) in the 85-210 micron band; and bolometer arrays for spectroscopy in the 200-300 micron band and photometry in the 200-900 micron band. The nominal mission lifetime is 2 years, but could be extended to six years depending on the final cryogenic technology employed.

Phillips, T. G.

1995-12-01

12

Interactive Space Education and Space Shuttle Mission 51-L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shuttle mission 51-L launched an interactive promotion of education direct from space. Emphasis on use of actual video scenes of space mission and astronomical phenomena are encouraged as tools in the classroom. Observation and prediction of Earth satelli...

P. D. Maley

1986-01-01

13

Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Altho...

R. Hamon

1993-01-01

14

Future Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection from hazards of radiation has been identified as one of the two biggest problems of NASA. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for various missions. Current technology is adequate for low earth orbit missions. Revolutionary materials need to be developed for career astronauts and deep space missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

2004-03-01

15

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

16

STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance duri...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

17

STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance dur...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

18

Payload and Mission Definition in Space Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The life cycle of an ESA mission and how to get involved Alvaro Gimenez; 2. Design issues for space science missions Yves Langevin; 3. Instrumentation in space X-ray astronomy X. Barcons; 4. EUV and UV imaging and spectroscopy from space Richard Harrison; 5. The luminosity oscillations imager, a space instrument: from design to science Thierry Appourchaux; 6. Hipparcos and Gaia: the development of space astrometry in Europe M. Perryman; 7. Space physics and the space environment A. Balogh; 8. Planetary observations and landers A. Coradini.

Mártínez Pillet, V.; Aparicio, A.; Sánchez, F.

2011-04-01

19

Parametric cost estimation for space science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties

Charles F. Lillie; Bruce E. Thompson

2008-01-01

20

Lunar Mission Profiles for Commercial Space Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lunar mission profiles for manned commercial space operations utilizing existing hardware are analyzed: (1) direct insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a parking Earth orbit, similar to those used on Apollo missions; (2) insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a high elliptical parking orbit, similar to the elliptical phasing orbit profiles used on the Hughes satellite HGS-1

Andrew Meade; David Warden; Leroy Chiao

21

INNOVATIVE EXPLORER MISSION TO INTERSTELLAR SPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mission to interstellar space has been under discussion for over 25 years. Many fundamental scientific questions about the nature of the surrounding galactic medium and its interaction with the solar system can only be answered by in situ measurements that such a mission would provide. The technical difficulties and budgetary and programmatic realities have prevented implementation of previous studies

Mike Gruntman; Ralph L. McNutt; Robert E. Gold; Stamatios M. Krimigis; Edmond C. Roelof; James C. Leary; George Gloeckler; Patrick L. Koehn; William S. Kurth; Steve R. Oleson

22

Benchmarking Radiation Transport Codes for Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For long duration and\\/or deep space human missions, protection from severe space radiation exposure is a challenging design constraint and may be a potential limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft

Ram Tripathi; John Wilson; Larry Townsend; Tony Gabriel; Larry Pinsky; Tony Slaba

2008-01-01

23

STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Ro...

R. W. Fricke

1996-01-01

24

A Second Space Gravitational Wave Observation Mission?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific case for early flight of a first space GW mission to observe the signals from massive black hole mergers throughout the universe and from inspirals of stellar mass black holes into galactic center black holes appears to be strong. But, the justification for a second space GW mission will depend strongly on what the first one finds. The Big Bang Observer and DECIGO missions have been proposed, with their objectives including looking for primordial GW signals and helping to determine the cosmological distance scale. However, these missions are extremely challenging, so whether they will be scientifically justified in the future is quite uncertain. Future progress toward achieving similar objectives appears likely from ground observations and from one of the several Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization missions that have been proposed. Two much more modest missions have been suggested for study, in addition to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and the LISA and DECIGO pathfinder missions. One is called pre-DECIGO, which would combine looking for NS-NS inspirals out to 300 Mpc with technology demonstrations for DECIGO. The other is called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna (ALIA), and would extend observations of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole mergers out to considerably larger redshifts. The suggested baselines are 100 km and 500,000 km, and the required spurious acceleration limits are 1x10-17 and 3x10-16 m/s2/sqrt Hz, respectively.

Bender, Peter L.

2010-02-01

25

Nuclear Power for deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Power enables exploratory missions into deep space, where solar insolation is too weak for Solar Power to be effective. Radioisotope powered deep space platforms such as Voyager have been used for many years. Fission powered satellite have been flown also, mainly by the USSR. However these are low power systems. The high powered fission option is developing in the USA. This offers much more power to mission and platform designers. It will enhance the electric propulsion option for deep space platforms and allow much more power intensive payloads to be deployed. This paper reviews the history of Space Nuclear Reactors and describes emerging systems.

Gardner, F. J.

1994-06-01

26

Parametric cost estimation for space science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

2008-07-01

27

The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for

M. W. Werner; T. L. Roellig; F. J. Low; G. H. Rieke; M. Rieke; W. F. Hoffmann; E. Young; J. R. Houck; B. Brandl; G. G. Fazio; J. L. Hora; R. D. Gehrz; G. Helou; B. T. Soifer; J. Stauffer; J. Keene; P. Eisenhardt; D. Gallagher; T. N. Gautier; W. Irace; C. R. Lawrence; L. Simmons; J. E. Van Cleve; M. Jura; E. L. Wright; D. P. Cruikshank

2004-01-01

28

The spitzer space telescope mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA’s Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for

M. W. Werner

2005-01-01

29

STS-38 Space Shuttle Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle,...

D. W. Camp D. M. Germany L. S. Nicholson

1991-01-01

30

Space Weather Aspects of the STEREO Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STEREO Mission includes a Space Weather Group, whose purpose is to identify and promote the development of computer programs, modeling efforts and research studies in preparation for using the STEREO observations as a tool for Space Weather. Our activities are coordinated with the STEREO PI Teams and the STEREO Science Center (SSC) at GSFC, where the Beacon data will

D. A. Biesecker; D. F. Webb

2004-01-01

31

The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the mission —including some of its highlights— of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Infrared Space Observatory. ISO, the world's first true orbiting infrared observatory, was launched by Ariane in November 1995 and provided astronomers across the globe with a facility of unprecedented sensitivity and capabilities for a detailed exploration of the universe at infrared

M. F. Kessler

2002-01-01

32

Two from Space: The Genesis Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space scientists postulate that the planets of our solar system arose from solar nebulae approximately 4.6 billion years ago. This July, NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab launched a new mission, Genesis, to investigate the transition from solar nebulae to planets by collecting and analyzing the isotopic composition of solar particles. You can learn more about the Genesis mission at its official Website. Theoretical background, mission description, and scientific objectives are laid out in the text, while the site's imagery includes photographs of the mission hardware, diagrams of the spacecraft's orbit trajectory, mission timeline, and the instrumentation. Press releases, .pdf-formatted fact sheets, including one entitled "How does Studying Solar Wind Tell us About the Origin of Planets?" and a glossary are also available. People wishing to "catch a piece of the sun" should check out this site.

2001-01-01

33

Space mission Millimetron for terahertz astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the current status of the space mission Millimetron. Millimetron is a large 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for operation in the submillimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the solution of several key problems in astrophysics, such as study of the formation and evolution of stars and planets, galaxies, quasars and many others. The telescope will have an unprecedented sensitivity in the single-dish observation mode and an extremely high spatial resolution as an element of a ground-space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. The mission will have a cryogenic instruments and antenna, which will be cooled passively with radiation shields and actively with mechanical coolers. With this cooling combination the 10-m space telescope may reach a temperature of about 4.5 K. The Millimetron is proposed as a Russian-led mission with an extensive international consortium in various countries. The mission launch is planned for 2017.

Smirnov, A. V.; Baryshev, A. M.; Pilipenko, S. V.; Myshonkova, N. V.; Bulanov, V. B.; Arkhipov, M. Y.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Likhachev, S. F.; Kardashev, N. S.

2012-09-01

34

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-02-01

35

The L5 mission for space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) is one of the most important drivers of space environment disturbances. The “L5 mission” is the first challenge to track propagating CME toward the earth by side-view observation from the 5th Lagrangian point of the sun and the earth system. Our L5 mission plan is expected as an important component of an international space weather observation network like ILWS and CRL will promote the plan under collaboration with ISAS scientists and NASDA. Study and BBM development for wide field of view camera and high performance mission processor are already started in CRL. In this presentation, an overview of the plan and the status of the development, including orbital demostration and experiment with small satellite, are briefly introduced.

Akioka, M.; Ohtaka, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Marubashi, K.; Miyake, W.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.

2003-04-01

36

Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin

A. V. Bagrov

2006-01-01

37

The L5 mission for space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied an interplanetary space mission for space weather research and operational forecasting experiment. The spacecraft will be deployed at the L5 Point of the Sun - Earth system for remote sensing of the Sun and the interplanetary space and for in situ measurement of the solar wind plasma and high energy solar particle event. L5 point is an appropriate position for side-view observation of geo-effective CMEs and interplanetary plasma cloud. However, due to its large distance from earth, a communication link will be limited severely. A concept of highly intelligent telemetry based on autonomous onboard data analysis with high performance onboard computer has also been studied to override severely limited telemetry resource. Now, definition of mission plan and BBM development of important subsystems, WCI (Wide field Coronal Imager) and MP (Mission Processor), are on-going. WCI will have a large CCD array with 16-bit sampling to achieve a dynamic range of several thousands to detect a few percent irregularity of plasma clouds under zodiacal light contamination a hundred times brighter than the clouds. The L5 mission will be proposed to contribute for construction of international space weather observation network.

Akioka, M.; Iwai, H.; Marubashi, K.; Miyake, W.; Nagatsuma, T.

38

Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station

Ronald J. Davenport; Franz H. Schubert; David J. Grigger

1991-01-01

39

Manned Mars missions using propellant from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object (#4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

Zuppero, Anthony C.; Olson, Timothy S.; Redd, Lawrence R.

1993-01-01

40

Manned Mars missions using propellant from space  

SciTech Connect

.A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3413 (United States)); Redd, L.R. (Department of Energy, Office of Space, Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83402 (United States))

1993-01-10

41

Innovative Explorer Mission to Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mission to interstellar space has been under discussion for over 25 years. Many fundamental scientific questions about the nature of the surrounding galactic medium and its interaction with the solar system can only be answered by in situ measurements that such a mission would provide. The technical difficulties and budgetary and programmatic realities have prevented implementation of previous studies based on the use of a near-Sun perihelion propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and large fission-reactor-powered nuclear electric propulsion systems. We present an alternative approach - the Innovative Interstellar Explorer - based on Radioisotope Electric Propulsion. A high-energy, current-technology launch of the small spacecraft is followed by long-term, lowthrust, continuous acceleration enabled by a kilowatt-class ion thruster powered by Pu-238 Stirling radioisotope generators. We describe the science, payload, and mission and spacecraft design. We also discuss the role such a mission plays in assessing heliospheric “space climate,” knowledge of which is vital for human exploration to Mars and beyond.

Gruntman, M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gold, R. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Roelof, E. C.; Leary, J. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Koehn, P. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Oleson, S. R.; Fiehler, D.

42

Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

Johnson, C. W.

2012-01-01

43

Application of Pursuit Algorithms for space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the applicability of Pursuit Algorithm (PA), including Classic Pursuit Algorithm in Circle (ClaPAIC) and Cyclic Pursuit Algorithm (CyPA) into the field of space missions. The implementation of PA has been applied to a number of typical scenarios: formation replenishment, rendezvous and docking and formation reconfiguration. Simulation results show the effectiveness when ClaPAIC and CyPA are accurately designed

Tao Yang; G. Radice; Weihua Zhang; Xiaoqian Chen; Zhongwei Wang

2009-01-01

44

Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost growth in Earth and space science missions conducted by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a longstanding problem with a wide variety of interrelated causes. To address this concern, t...

2010-01-01

45

High performance techniques for space mission scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

Smith, Stephen F.

1994-10-01

46

Symbiotic structures to significantly enhance space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Defense is actively pursuing a Responsive Space capability that will dramatically reduce the cost and time associated with getting a payload into space. In order to enable that capability, our space systems must be modular and flexible to cover a wide range of missions, configurations, duty cycles, and orbits. This places requirements on the entire satellite infrastructure: payloads, avionics, electrical harnessing, structure, thermal management system, etc. The Integrated Structural Systems Team at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, has been tasked with developing structural and thermal solutions that will enable a Responsive Space capability. This paper details a "symbiotic" solution where thermal management functionality is embedded within the structure of the satellite. This approach is based on the flight proven and structurally efficient isogrid architecture. In our rendition, the ribs serve as fluidic passages for thermal management, and passively activated valves are used to control flow to the individual components. As the paper will explain, our analysis has shown this design to be structurally efficient and thermally responsive to a wide range of potential satellite missions, payloads, configurations, and orbits.

Williams, Andrew D.; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Arritt, Brandon J.

2007-03-01

47

Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System

Erik N. Nilsen

2001-01-01

48

Exoplanets and the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Doppler technique has revealed exoplanets with masses as low as 15 MEarth orbiting between 0.03 and 5.5 AU. The distribution of planet masses rises toward the lowest detectable masses and an increasing number of planets reside in larger orbits. The majority of planets reside in non-circular orbits and multiple planet systems are common, often trapped in resonances. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will detect planets with masses less than 10 MEarth orbiting within 2 AU of nearby stars. It will measure the masses and orbits of rocky planets, testing theories of their formation and dynamical evolution in protoplanetary disks. For the closest stars, planets with masses as low as 3 MEarth within 1 AU are detectable at a secure level, and marginal detections of planets of 1 MEarth can be made. SIM will be the first mission to find rocky planets near the habitable zone of nearby stars, allowing follow-up by later imaging and spectroscopic missions, such as the "Terrestrial Planet Finder" and Darwin. Thus, SIM will provide TPF and Darwin a set of target stars enriched in rocky planets, increasing the efficiency of those missions by factors of at least ˜3. Indeed, SIM can dictate the timing of imaging observations by selecting orbital phases when the planet resides outside the diffraction blind spot.

Marcy, G. W.; Fischer, D. A.; McCarthy, C.; Ford, E. B.

2005-10-01

49

Space cryogenic system for SPICA mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes that the feasibility of the next Japanese infrared astronomical SPICA mission is verified in thermal design by numerical analyses and developed technologies. In this advanced cryogenic mission, in order to cool the large primary mirror and focal plane instruments down to 4.5 K for 5 years or longer without cryogen, the mechanical cooling is employed with effective radiant cooling, which compensates the limited cooling capacity of the JT cryocooler for 4.5 K upgraded from that developed for the "JEM/SMILES" mission on the International Space Station. First, thermal design of the telescope is numerically discussed with thermal mathematical models. Some configurations of radiators, shields and solar-array paddles are investigated and compared in technical and mission feasibilities. Next, the development status of the 3He-JT circuit with the Stirling cryocooler for one detector operated at the lowest temperature of 1.7 K is reported. The recent results of experiments give that the breadboard model of the 1.7 K cryocooler successfully exceeds the required cooling capacity of 10mW at 1.7K with small power consumption. Finally, the heat rejection system from those cryocoolers is discussed. As a promising candidate, the loop heat pipe is chosen and suitably designed.

Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

2004-10-01

50

Space Place: LISA Space Mission Gives Humans a Sixth Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will give us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.

2011-01-01

51

Secure Telemetry Demonstrator for Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-to-end security is an emerging need of future space missions for protecting satellite's data from unauthorized access. Trend towards this new necessity is sustained by the growing convenience in making use of open systems and Internet connectivity for the control of shared instruments and for data distribution causing on the other hand an increased vulnerability from the security point of view. In response to that need, Syderal SA in Swit- zerland is developing under an ESA contract a demonstrator of a fundamental building block for providing space mission security services on an end-to- end basis. Specifically, this demonstrator implements all necessary functions on the spacecraft side for pro- viding data link layer security over a space link on a point-to-point basis. At the same time, it provides end-to- end security when used in combination with network layer security between end-users (connected through public networks) and payloads. This development is carried out within the frame of ISO/IEC 15408 standard on Evaluation Criteria for IT security [6], [7] and [8] as well as in accordance to ESA ECSS telemetry and telecommand standards [3] and [4].

Lombardi, P.; Fabry, P.; Akuatse, D.; Carrard, D.

2007-08-01

52

The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region

A. Bonati; R. Fusi; F. Longoni

1999-01-01

53

Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

Chilan, Christian Miguel

2009-01-01

54

Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex pro...

J. M. Orasanu

2009-01-01

55

Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar expl...

C. I. Calle

2005-01-01

56

The Mitigation of Radiation Hazards on Missions to Deep Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the advent of human space flight in the late 1950s, more than 200 people have flown in space, from sub-orbital flights and the Apollo missions to the Moon, to space stations Skylab, Soyuz, and the International Space Station. Even tourists are beginning to travel to space. As technology advances, human interplanetary missions are seen as the next steps for space exploration, with Mars as the first target.

Kumar, Mohi

2005-12-01

57

STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-08-01

58

Temporal investment strategy to enable JPL future space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The chief technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for

W. P. Lincoln; Hook Hua; C. R. Weisbin

2006-01-01

59

Active pixel array devices in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray Telescope for NASA's Swift mission incorporates a Telescope Alignment Monitor (TAM) to measure thermo-elastic misalignments between the telescope and the spacecraft star tracker. A LED in the X-ray focal plane is imaged on to a position-sensitive detector via two paths, directly and after reflection from the star tracker alignment cube. The separation of the two spots of light on the detector is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a centroiding algorithm. The active element of the TAM is a miniature camera supplied by Sira Electro-Optics Ltd, using an Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The camera was based on similar pointing sensors developed on European Space Agency programmes, such as acquisition sensors for optical inter-satellite links and miniaturized star trackers. The paper gives the background to APS-based pointing sensors, describes the Swift TAM system, and presents test results from the instrument development programme.

Hopkinson, G. R.; Purll, D. J.; Abbey, A. F.; Short, A.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, A.

2003-11-01

60

Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin Michelson interferometers with coincided bases. It consisted of 40-cm input telescopes and had baseline 4 meters long; its limiting magnitude was about 20^m and expected accuracy 2-4 mks. As this devise was proposed to be russian-american experiment for International Space Station, and NASA did not support it, the project was not move up. This is why improved conception of slightly diminished arcmeter-interferometer OSIRIS was proposed as national space project, and it is adopted to the Russian Federal Space Program for the period 2012-2015. Input optic of the OSIRIS will be of 20-cm aperture, and baseline will be 200 cm. It seems to be enough to get position accuracy of single measurement about 4-8 mks at arc range from 30 to 105 degrees, and limiting magnitude being 18^m. There are some technical invents that guarantee these parameters. The OSIRIS mission will establish referred to the ICRS inertial celestial reference frame in optic independent of epoch, that leads to new tasks of astrometry. The astrometrical instrument of new generation may be used for positioning of near-Earth probes as well as of ground objects. Using the same technology it became possible to point narrow-field telescope to any target with the same accuracy. A really desired for this aims accuracy is only milliseconds, and just for these applied experiments LIDA project was proposed last year. It will be suitable for bright sources above 12^m and it will measure instant positions with accuracy 1 mas. The LIDA will be low-mass and compact device suitable for launch by conversional rocket of light class.

Bagrov, A. V.

2006-08-01

61

Integrating Collaborative Distributed Simulations for Space Exploration Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the architecture and implementation of a distributed simulation of NASA's Orion spacecraft and Ares launch vehicle in a mission to the International Space Station. The simulation is part of the Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) project which aims at research and development collaboration among NASA centers. As mission systems are complex, a distributed simulation allows participating centers to

Esther H. Jennings; Michael G. Blum; Juan M. Busto; Victoria Chung; Joe Hawkins

62

Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

Lee, M.; Weidner, R. J.; Soderblom, L. A.

2002-01-01

63

STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-05-01

64

Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the Antimatter Driven Sail (ADS) has been examined in three major areas: Mission Architecture, Subsystem Technologies, and a Technology Roadmap. The Mission Architecture effort has focused on developing an integrated systems model to evaluate the performance of the entire spacecraft for a mission. The Subsystem Technologies investigation examined 1) the fundamental reactions between the antiprotons and the

Steven D. Howe; Gerald P. Jackson

2005-01-01

65

Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Microprobe Mission will be the second of the New Millennium Program's technology development missions to planetary bodies. The mission consists of two penetrators that weigh 2.4 kg each and are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring. The spacecraft arrive at Mars on December 3, 1999. The two identical penetrators will impact

Suzanne Smrekar; David Catling; Ralph Lorenz; Julio Magalhães; Jeffrey Moersch; Paul Morgan; Bruce Murray; Marsha Presley-Holloway; Albert Yen; Aaron Zent; Diana Blaney

1999-01-01

66

Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience wo...

P. J. George G. M. Pease T. E. Tyburski

2005-01-01

67

Hubble Space Telescope: Should NASA Proceed with a Servicing Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008 instead of 2010. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Se...

D. Morgan

2006-01-01

68

Packaging Materials for Thermally Processed Foods in Future Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermally processed shelf-stable foods are important in International Space Station (ISS) programs and essential to the success of future long-duration manned space missions. NASA uses military MRE pouch material to package thermally processed foods for I...

J. Tang

2005-01-01

69

Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Next Generation Space Telescope will extend astronomers vision of the early universe beyond the reach of the Hubble Space Telescope to much greater redshifts and luminosity distances. TRW is being funded by NASA to develop mission architectures that can achieve the NGST science goals, while still remaining within a rigid cost cap. This paper presents candidate NGST mission architectures

Charles F. Lillie; Michael J. Wehner

1998-01-01

70

Voice loops as cooperative aids in space shuttle mission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In domains like air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations, and space mission control, practitioners coordinate their activities through voice loops that allow communication among groups of people who are spatially separate. Voice loops have evolved into essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in space shuttle mission control, as well as other domains. We describe how voice loops support the

Jennifer C. Watts; David D. Woods; James M. Corban; Emily S. Patterson; Ronald L. Kerr; LaDessa C. Hicks

1996-01-01

71

Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans

A. R. Gross; B. D. Smith; G. A. Briggs; J. Hieronymus; D. J. Clancy

2002-01-01

72

A Space Mission to Vesta: General Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large asteroid 4 Vesta appears today as the most interesting target for a possible space mission devoted to main-belt asteroids. There are several reasons for this conclusion. First, this asteroid is known to exhibit a rare mineralogic composition. Its surface is basaltic and indicates a differentiated composition, implying a complex thermal history. The fact that Vesta experienced an early phase of melting during its history has strong implications for the present understanding of the history of the solar system. In spite of its relatively large size compared to the bulk of the asteroid population, it is not easy to explain an early melting of Vesta as the consequence of the decay of radioactive isotopes, since the expected amount of such elements in a body of this size seems insufficient to cause a global melting. An alternative theory is based on electro-magnetic heating during an episode of strong solar wind from the early proto-Sun when our star experienced a T Tauri phase, as predicted by modem stellar astrophysics. In any case, a close approach by a space probe could provide essential observational constraints in order to better understand the thermal history of this body. On the other hand, Vesta is very interesting from the point of view of the physics of collisions and the overall process of collisional evolution of the main belt. It is known that Vesta suffered very important collision in the past. This collision created a hemispheric-sized crater whose existence has been detected through photometric and polarimetric studies Subsequently, its real nature, that it is physically associated with objects derived from a common collisional origin, has been confirmed by spectroscopic observations, showing that the small family members share a basaltic composition with Vesta. The high ejection velocities imparted to the fragments from this event can have allowed a fraction of them to reach both the V6 secular resonance and the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. These resonances are known to be efficient dynamical routes leading to the inner zones of the solar system. As a consequence, we believe today that both the known V-type (basaltic) near-Earth asteroids (NEAS) and the basaltic achondritic meteorites (eucrites) found on Earth can derive from Vesta. In this sense, a comparison between the mineralogical properties of eucrites and those of V-type asteroids could provide invaluable information about the mineralogical variations induced by the exposure to solar wind and by the impact with the Earth atmosphere in the case of eucritic meteorites. For these reasons, an analysis of the Vesta surface as could be performed by means of direct observations from a space probe should be of the highest importance, and could also provide information about the probable age of the Vesta family. On the basis of the body of scientific evidence explained above, we suggest that a mission devoted to a low-velocity rendezvous with Vesta should deserve high priority in the planning of space activity.

Bussolino, L.; Sommat, R.; Casaccit, C.; Zappala, V.; Cellino, A.; DiMartino, M.

1996-01-01

73

Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

1988-03-01

74

Future Space Missions and Biohazard Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of new, more streamlined NASA missions, there is an exciting suite of smaller more frequent missions, including those in the Discovery line, and in the new Mars Exploration initiatives. The growing field of Bioastronomy combines the studies of planetary astronomy, astrophysics, and biology in an exciting field which encompasses the search for extra-solar planetary systems, the study

Karen J. Meech

75

Space cryogenic system for SPICA mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes that the feasibility of the next Japanese infrared astronomical SPICA mission is verified in thermal design by numerical analyses and developed technologies. In this advanced cryogenic mission, in order to cool the large primary mirror and focal plane instruments down to 4.5 K for 5 years or longer without cryogen, the mechanical cooling is employed with effective

Hiroyuki Sugita; Hiroki Nagai; Takao Nakagawa; Hiroshi Murakami; Toshio Matsumoto; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masayuki Hirabayashi

2004-01-01

76

Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

1988-08-19

77

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

Schulze, N.R.

1991-08-01

78

Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was a...

1993-01-01

79

Nutrition for Short-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role food/galley management (FGM) and nutrition plays within the context of the Hermes ECLSS is discussed. Human physiological and phychological needs as well as Hermes spacecraft mission requirements are presented. The analysis of possible concepts a...

C. Dammermann

1988-01-01

80

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1993-06-01

81

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E. P.; Dagle, J. E.; Bamberger, J. A.; Noffsinger, K. E.

1992-08-01

82

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-08-01

83

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-01-01

84

Japanese Mars mission in the future space program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA is now constructing a new category of space activity Exploration in the course of the long term vision released in 2005 At present this Exploration program is focused on investigation and utilization of the moon A couple of lunar landing missions at the period around the year 2015 will be followed by missions aiming at

S. Sasaki; S. Tanaka; T. Okada; H. Miyamoto; N. Terada

2006-01-01

85

Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context

Michael R. Lowry

2002-01-01

86

Leisure and Recreation in Long Duration Space Missions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure activities pursued during long range space missions should not be considered by planners as merely a way of filling in time. Current astronaut selection procedure tends to favor those who in leisure time in a spacecraft will spontaneously pursue mission-oriented activities, making the most of whatever facilities are available. With provision of an appropriate climate and opportunity, encouragement can

T. M. Fraser

1968-01-01

87

Simulation of Radiation Monitors for Future Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GEANT4 based simulation of a compact lightweight radiation monitor to be included in the payload of future space missions is presented. The instrument must meet severe mass and power constrains, satisfy mission safety requirements and it is also required to perform as a scientific instrument. GEANT4 is a powerful tool for developing and optimising such detector concept thanks to

Patrícia Gonçalves; Mário Pimenta; Bernardo Tomé

2006-01-01

88

The Scientific Basis for the Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission is expected to be launched in 2004. The mission, following closely the recommendations of the Bahcall Commission, will determine positions of point sources to an accuracy of 4 microarcsec globally and to 1 microarcsec over small angles (=< 1 deg). The instrument, based on the OSI architecture proposed by Michael Shao, will reach 20 mag in

D. Peterson; M. Shao

1997-01-01

89

In-Space Propulsion Electric Propulsion Technologies Mission Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary source of electric propulsion development within NASA is the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center under the management of the Science Mission Directorate. The electric propulsion (EP) technology area's objective is to develop near and mid-term EP technology that enhances or enables mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user.

John W. Dankanich

2008-01-01

90

Radiation Shielding Requirements on Long-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of radiation shielding requirements on long duration space missions is presented. The report finds the principal radiation hazards to be galactic cosmic radiation (cosmic rays) and radiation from solar flares. Galactic cosmic radiation is a co...

J. R. Letaw S. Clearwater

1986-01-01

91

Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Space Telescope will extend astronomers vision of the early universe beyond the reach of the Hubble Space Telescope to much greater redshifts and luminosity distances. TRW is being funded by NASA to develop mission architectures that can achieve the NGST science goals, while still remaining within a rigid cost cap. This paper presents candidate NGST mission architectures and identifies the key enabling technologies which must be developed to realize them.

Lillie, Charles F.; Wehner, Michael J.

1998-08-01

92

Space Interferometry Mission: flight system and configuration overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, NASA's Origins Program will launch the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), a 10-meter-baseline optical interferometry instrument, into an Earth-trailing solar orbit. This instrument will be comprised of four parallel optical interferometers whose prime mission objective is to perform astrometric measurements at unprecedented accuracy. Launched by the Space Shuttle and boosted into its final trajectory by an integral propulsion system,

Peter Kahn; Kim M. Aaron

2003-01-01

93

ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and how NASA is preparing to deal with it. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Gerald T Wright

2012-05-23

94

Mission to the Edge of Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official website of the Red Bull Stratos Mission, Felix Baumgartnerâs supersonic skydive from 39 km. The site contains sections on science, technology, and the project team, as well as an image gallery and several videos. The section âExplore the Missionâ provides much technical information about each phase of the ascent and the skydive.

2012-11-28

95

Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

96

Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions.  

PubMed

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. PMID:11708371

Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Gushin, V; Weiss, D S; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

97

JEM on the Space Station: Current Status and Scientific Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international Space Station project is gradually in progress with various comments on yes or no. Space Activities Commission (a steering committee of all space activities in Japan) has reviewed current activities and proposed measures to promote space environment utilization for Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the Space Station. JEM has the exposed facility for space observations which will be available from 2001. In this report I describe a recent status of space activities for JEM briefly, and I would like to give a personal comment what kinds of high energy astrophysics missions should be considered or fit for the exposed facility for JEM.

Matsuoka, Masaru

98

OMEGA: A Space Gravitational Wave MIDEX Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

OMEGA is a future gravitational wave astronomy project to be proposed as a MIDEX mission. It consists of six miniprobes in high circular Earth orbit that track each other with lasers. Each miniprobe also has a sensitive drag-free system that eliminates external non-gravitational perturbations on the probe. The spacecraft are placed two-by-two at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with

B. Hiscock; R. W. Hellings

1997-01-01

99

Advanced radioisotope power sources for future deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) has been well established for deep space mission applications. The success of the Voyager, Galileo, Cassini and numerous other missions proved the efficacy of these technologies in deep space. Future deep space missions may also require Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) technologies to accomplish their goals. In the Exploration of the Solar System (ESS) theme, several missions are in the planning stages or under study that would be enabled by ARPS technology. Two ESS missions in the planning stage may employ ARPS. Currently planned for launch in 2006, the Europa Orbiter mission (EO) will perform a detailed orbital exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa to determine the presence of liquid water under the icy surface. An ARPS based upon Stirling engine technology is currently baselined for this mission. The Pluto Kuiper Express mission (PKE), planned for launch in 2004 to study Pluto, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper belt, is baselined to use a new RTG (F-8) assembled from parts remaining from the Cassini spare RTG. However, if this unit is unavailable, the Cassini spare RTG (F-5) or ARPS technologies would be required. Future missions under study may also require ARPS technologies. Mission studies are now underway for a detailed exploration program for Europa, with multiple mission concepts for landers and future surface and subsurface explorers. For the orbital phase of these missions, ARPS technologies may provide the necessary power for the spacecraft and orbital telecommunications relay capability for landed assets. For extended surface and subsurface operations, ARPS may provide the power for lander operations and for drilling. Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) will perform a detailed study of Saturn's rings and ring dynamics. The Neptune Orbiter (NO) mission will perform a detailed multi disciplinary study of Neptune. Titan Explorer (TE) will perform in-situ exploration of Saturn's moon Titan, with both orbital operations and landed operations enabled by ARPS technologies. All of these missions would be enabled by ARPS technology. This paper presents the current status of ongoing studies of future ESS mission concepts and the design assumptions and capabilities required from ARPS technologies. Where specific capabilities have been assumed in the studies, the results are presented along with a discussion of the implementation alternatives. No decision on power sources would be made until after completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for each project. .

Nilsen, Erik N.

2001-02-01

100

Space clock missions and orbitography requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study in detail the requirements on orbitography compatible with operation of next generation space clocks at the required uncertainty, and based on a completely relativistic model. We show that the required accuracy goal can be reached with relatively modest constraints on the orbitography of the space clock, much less stringent than expected from \\

L. Duchayne; F. Mercier; P. Wolf

2007-01-01

101

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew

K. L. Peddicord; W. E. Bolch

1991-01-01

102

The IRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space) Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese satellite-borne infrared telescope, the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS), has completed a successful survey of a portion of the infrared sky. The IRTS consists of a 15 cm telescope cooled with superfluid liquid helium, and is installed on board the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) spacecraft. The SFU was launched on 1995 March 18 UT. The sky survey by

Hiroshi Murakami; Minoru M. Freund; Ken Ganga; Hongfeng Guo; Takanori Hirao; Norihisa Hiromoto; Mitsunobu Kawada; Andrew E. Lange; Sin'itirou Makiuti; Hideo Matsuhara; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Masahide Murakami; Takao Nakagawa; Masanao Narita; Manabu Noda; Haruyuki Okuda; Ken'ichi Okumura; Takashi Onaka; Thomas L. Roellig; Shinji Sato; Hiroshi Shibai; Beverly J. Smith; Toshihiko Tanabe; Masahiro Tanaka; Toyoki Watabe; Issei Yamamura; Lunming Yuen

1996-01-01

103

Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly

Myung-Hee Y. Kim; Giovanni De Angelis; Francis A. Cucinotta

2011-01-01

104

Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100MT payload into a 1500km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space

Vincent P. Chiravalle

2008-01-01

105

Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission - Debris selection and Trajectory optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible mean to stabilize the LEO debris population is to remove each year 5 heavy debris like spent satellites or launchers stages from that space region. This paper investigates the DeltaV requirement for such a Space Debris Collecting mission. The optimization problem is intrinsically hard since it mixes combinatorial optimization to select the debris among a list of candidates

Max Cerf

2011-01-01

106

Probing Galactic Dynamics with the Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission will be the first spatial long-baseline optical interferometer in space. SIM, scheduled to launch in 2005, is designed to perform wide-angle astrometry with 4 mu arcsec precision on objects as faint as V = 20, using a 10-meter baseline. This level of precision will allow SIM to measure stellar parallax distances to 10% and transverse velocities

Stephen C. Unwin

1998-01-01

107

SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is manag...

S. Unwin S. Turyshev

2004-01-01

108

Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

Edwards, Jacob

109

Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.  

PubMed

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains. PMID:12269347

Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

1999-01-01

110

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure\\u000a and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher\\u000a education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of practice. Moving from abstract\\u000a to concrete, this paper shows how mission statements embody structure

Sam J. Fugazzotto

2009-01-01

111

Reinventing the Hubble Space Telescope... ...The Next Hubble Servicing Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHUTTLE ASTRONAUTS will make one final ‘house call’ to the Hubble Space Telescope as part of a mission to extend and improve\\u000a the observatory’s capabilities through the year 2013. NASA Administrator Michael Griffin announced plans for a fifth servicing\\u000a mission to Hubble on Tuesday, 31 October 2006. “We have conducted a detailed analysis of the performance and procedures necessary\\u000a to

J. Chris Blades

112

Enabling Antenna Systems for Extreme Deep-Space Mission Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two NASA deep-space probes, Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and New Horizons (NH), are moving towards the extremes of our solar system (Mercury and Pluto). The delivery of the science in these extreme environments is a challenge, and the missions require unique approaches. MESSENGER'S antenna system utilizes the first electronically scanned high-gain array for a deep-space telecommunication

Ron Schulze; Robert E. Wallis; Robert K. Stilwell; Cheng Weilun

2007-01-01

113

FIR Space Heterodyne Interferometer Mission (ESPRIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a mission concept for a free-flying FIR imaging interferometer using radio techniques. The ultimate goal is to reach a Hubble ST-equivalent spatial resolution for the FIR wavelength range. The main scientific objectives are imaging in the water and molecular ions emission lines, imaging in important atomic fine-structure lines: CII, NII, OI and imaging in high excitation lines of CO, HCN, HCO+, etc, of star forming regions and proto-stellar/proto-planetary systems with emphasis on disks. The facility will be the FIR complement of the ground-based ALMA without any atmospheric attenuation and disturbance in phase and transmission. It will be a follow-up mission of ISO-LWS, SWAS, ODIN, SIRTF, ASTRO-F; Herschel-PACS and -HIFI and of MIRI on JWST. The aimed characteristics are Telescope sizes : ˜ quad >3.5 meter ; off-axis Number of elements: N >6 ; free-flying Proj. Baselines: ˜ 7- 500 meter Frequency coverage: in the 1.5- -- 6 THz range (200 ? m -- 50 ? m) Spectral Resolution: 1 Km/s at 100 ? m. (0.1 goal) Spatial Resolution: 0.02'' at 100 ? m F.O.V.: ˜ 6'' Pointing Requirements: - accuracy: 0.2''; - knowledge: 0.1'' Image Dynamic range: 100 Spectral Dynamic range: 1000 Tsys: 1000 K (N receiver bands; HEB mixers @5 K; dual polarisation; QCL as LO's) IF: 4 GHz wide; InP pre-amps Correlator: 4 sections of 1 GHz, each 128 channels We will present the results of studies covering the scientific objectives, instrumentation, interferometer configuration, delay lines and correlation techniques. From the inherent narrow band capability of heterodyne techniques, the substantial advantages for path length difference compensation and tracking will be elaborated as well as the expected detection and imaging sensitivity.

de Graauw, T.; Team

114

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit.

Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-01-01

115

Lucid showed pluck on long space mission.  

PubMed

Astronaut Shannon Lucid's 6-month stay onboard the Mir space station is described. She arrived on STS-76 and returned on STS-79. Topics include adaptation to the psychological aspects of isolation and working with crew members with a different cultural background. PMID:12190063

Azar, B

1997-06-01

116

Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier years, Indian scientists carried out studies of ionosphere and cosmic rays phenomena primarily using ground based radio techniques and balloon borne detectors. With the advent of the space era, parallel efforts in the indigenous design and development of different sounding rockets for electrojet and x-ray astronomy related research, satellite launch vehicles and satellites were undertaken. While these developments

S. C. Chakravarty

2004-01-01

117

Small to intermediate satellites for future space science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft capable of carrying modest to intermediate size science payloads into Earth orbit at relatively low cost are being investigated by the Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of the Astrophysics and Space Physics Division of OSSA. Intermediate-class space science missions, such as the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE), Inner Magnetosphere Imager (IMI), the Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Correlative Emissions (SOURCE) experiment, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF-II) are expected to have a progressively larger role in NASA's space science program into the next century. These and other space science missions have been examined to define the systems, subsystems, and interface requirements needed to accomplish their stated objectives. This paper discusses the science objectives, technical requirements and major issues posed by IMI, LUTE, SOURCE, and LDEF-II and will address MSFC's new ways of doing business.

De Sanctis, Carmine E.

1993-09-01

118

Optical communications for future deep-space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of key technologies for an optical communications system for deep-space probes is discussed. Aspects of the technology include the pulse-position modulation technique for data transmission, a solid-state laser with a Nd:YAG crystal end, nondiffraction-limited receivers, and the application of avalanche photodiodes to improve photon detection. Mission benefits and flight opportunities and applications are discussed. Experiments to test optical communication systems are being planned for the Space Shuttle and the Mars Rover Sample Return misson. Future missions which will probably use the system include Cassini and the Mariner Mark II.

Rayman, Marc D.; Lesh, James R.

1988-06-01

119

Earth science space missions in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, 2007” , commonly known as the “ Decadal Survey” . This report called for a balanced set of Earth Science Missions across the Earth Science research spectrum. In response, in February 2008, NASA's Earth Science Division reorganized into two program offices: The Earth Systematic Missions Program Office (ESM PO) at Goddard Space Flight Center which includes satellites making continuous measurements of the Earth's climate, and the Earth System Science Pathfinder Program Office (ESSP PO) at Langley Research Center which develops pathfinder missions through Announcements of Opportunity. In June 2010 NASA published its plan to achieve the goals of the Decadal Survey, “ Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space.” This plan includes support for the Decadal Survey missions as well as a set of “ climate continuity missions” to address the scientific need for data continuity of key climate observations. In 2011 the NRC revisited the Decadal Survey report and published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey” . This report notes that progress on the Decadal Survey plan has been slower than planned due to budget shortfalls and launch vehicle failures, and stresses that the goals of the Decadal Survey are as important as ever and must still yield a scientifically-balanced program. This paper will discuss the current status of the mission/mission study portfolios of the ESMP Program and the Earth Venture solicitations of the ESSP Program and how the Programs support the goals established and reiterated by the NRC, and will discuss the risks and challenges faced by t- e Programs as together they strive to meet these goals.

Grofic, B.

120

Space astrometry missions: principles and objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of space astrometry are the same as those of ground-based astrometry: to measure relative positions in a small field of view or/and to determine positions in a consistent full-sky reference frame (global astrometry). Three space techniques exist, and we present the principles of each, with a description of one realisation: The spaceborne classical small field imaging (HST); Michelson interferometry (SIM), optimised for small field astrometry, but which can also be used to build a global reference frame; HIPPARCOS type, two field of view astrometry (GAIA, and DIVA and FAME if they are re-endorsed). Specifically designed for global astrometry, but can also obtain good results within small fields. In conclusion, a choice among the very large astronomical and astrophysical objectives of SIM and GAIA will be presented.

Mignard, F.; Kovalevsky, J.

121

Propulsion trades for space science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relative benefits of proposed deep space propulsion technology improvements in three areas: advanced chemical, solar electric, and solar sail. Within each area, specific states, representing current technology (present-1999), mid-term (2000–2004), and far term (2005+), were selected for evaluation. The figures of merit used were net spacecraft mass delivered, size of the launch vehicle needed, trip time,

Robert Gershman; Calina Seybold

1999-01-01

122

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

123

Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions  

SciTech Connect

This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

Yen, Chen-wan L.

1993-07-20

124

Dawn Discovery Mission: A Journey in Space and Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2001, NASA announced the selection of the Dawn mission to Vesta and Ceres as the next mission to be undertaken in the Discovery series. Dawn examines the role of size and water content in planetary evolution, contrasting the primitive and apparently wet protoplanet, Ceres, with its dry and highly evolved neighbor, Vesta. Dawn maps the surface in visible and infrared wavelengths to determine its mineralogical composition and crustal properties, uses gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy to determine its elemental composition and magnetometry and radio science to probe the interior and laser altimetry to provide precise topography. Dawn is a partnership between UCLA, representing the science team members, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Orbital Sciences Corporation, the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the Italian Institute for Space Astrophysics, IAS. The mission uses ion propulsion to fly to Vesta, orbit it at a variety of altitudes for close to a year, leave Vesta orbit, fly to Ceres and orbit it similarly. The spacecraft carries a framing camera provided by DLR's Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration in Berlin; a mapping spectrometer provided by the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale in Roma, a gamma ray and neutron spectrometer provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a laser altimeter provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a magnetometer provided by UCLA. This paper summarizes the mission goals, and the trajectory, orbits, and instruments that enable the mission to attain those goals.

Russell, C.

125

Pointing and tracking concepts for deep-space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission -- as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo- mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

Alexander, James W.; Lee, Sukhan; Chen, Chien-Chung

1999-04-01

126

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2011-10-01

127

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2012-10-01

128

STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981  

NASA Video Gallery

Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely to Earth. This video depicts the historic launch, in-orbit activity by astronauts John Young and Bob Crippen, and the vast crowds who witnessed the landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

Monroe Conner

2011-04-13

129

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

Fugazzotto, Sam J.

2009-01-01

130

Plan management system for space science mission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number and complexity of systems that control Space Science Missions continues to increase. As a result, it is desirable to improve the efficiency of these systems and, in particular, their performance and their productivity. In this paper, we set out a strategy to achieve this goal. In order to talk about improving the Performance and Productivity of a system

P. A. Chaizy; T. G. Dimbylow; M. A. Hapgood; P. M. Allan

2009-01-01

131

Small Sensors for Space Weather: CubeSat Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DoD is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather (SWx) sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying a SWx sensor suite on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant SWx sensing. This mission will provide the ability

T. T. Finne; A. C. Nicholas; C. Coker; S. A. Budzien; M. S. Johnson; S. P. Arnold; F. Herrero; M. G. McHarg; R. L. Balthazor; R. A. Doe; G. S. Bust; G. Crowley; P. R. Straus

2009-01-01

132

Voice Loops as Coordination Aids in Space Shuttle Mission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium

Emily S. Patterson; Jennifer Watts-perotti; David D. Woods

1999-01-01

133

Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

1982-11-01

134

Intelligent Systems Technologies for Human Space Exploration Mission Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human space flight and exploration continues to be a key goal of the NASA, with an emphasis on utilizing new technologies to improve the effectiveness, efficiencies and safety associated with this endeavor, including the ground-based mission support. This search for improvement has led to cross- fertilization between the advanced software development community and the manned spaceflight operations community within NASA.

Ernest E. Smith; David J. Korsmeyer

2011-01-01

135

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

Fugazzotto, Sam J.

2009-01-01

136

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through August 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Since the submission of our last progress report in February 1994, our efforts have been almost entirely focused on final construction of the test stand and experiment design. Hence,

Tim A. Haskew; John Wander

1994-01-01

137

Space Interferometry Mission flight software management challenges and lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space interferometry mission (SIM) under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been an ambitious project which when completed will determine the positions and distances of stars several hundred times more accurately than any previous program. This accuracy will allow SIM to determine the distances to stars throughout the galaxy and to probe nearby stars for Earth-sized planets. [1

Marek W. Tuszynski

2009-01-01

138

The selection of comets for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criteria used to select a short period comet for possible future rendezvous space missions are stated and the selection process is outlined. For the time period 1900 - 2000, several candidate comets offer opportunities for spacecraft rendezvous. Two of the best candidates are periodic comets Kopff and Wild 2.

Yeomans, D. K.

139

Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions, Chapter 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusio...

N. Dennehy

2005-01-01

140

Advances in Space Traveling-Wave Tubes for NASA Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in the performance and reliability of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) utilized in amplifying space communication signals for NASA missions have been achieved over the last three decades through collaborative efforts between NASA and primarily L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. (L-3 ETI). This paper summarizes some of the key milestones during this period and includes development of TWTs for the

Jeffrey D. Wilson; Edwin G. Wintucky; Karl R. Vaden; Dale A. Force; Isay L. Krainsky; Rainee N. Simons; Neal R. Robbins; William L. Menninger; Daniel R. Dibb; David E. Lewis

2007-01-01

141

Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more

J. M. Macha; D. W. Johnson; D. D. McBride

1992-01-01

142

High pressure rotating reverse osmosis for long term space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating reverse osmosis, which uses reverse osmosis to purify water and rotating filtration to improve the efficacy of filtration, has great potential for wastewater recycling on a long term space mission. Previous investigations of a proof-of-concept device indicated that the most efficient method to improve rotating reverse osmosis performance is to increase the operational pressure. Thus, a second generation device

Cynthia Lynn Christensen Pederson

2005-01-01

143

Space nuclear power integration studies for a surveillance satellite mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of the status of reviews and studies that have recently been performed to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of various nuclear power systems for space mission applications in the 5 to 20 kWe range. The goal is to use these power systems for a generic surveillance satellite. The advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear and solar

Patrick G. Bailey; Vincent L. Teofilo

1989-01-01

144

The L5 mission for space weather forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a number of interplanetary space mission scenarios for space weather research and operational forecasting experiments and concluded that a spacecraft should be deployed at the L5 point of the Sun-Earth system to enable remote sensing of the Sun and interplanetary space and in situ measurements of solar wind plasma and high energy solar particle events. The L5 point is an appropriate position for making side-view observations of geo-effective coronal mass ejections and interplanetary plasma clouds. Here, we describe briefly the mission plan and the ongoing BBM development of important subsystems such as the wide field coronal imager (WCI) and the mission processor. The WCI will have a large CCD array with 16-bit sampling, to achieve a dynamic range of several thousand in order to detect very small deviations due to plasma clouds under zodiacal light contaminations a hundred times brighter than the clouds. The L5 mission we propose will surely contribute to the construction of an international space weather observation network.

Akioka, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Miyake, W.; Ohtaka, K.; Marubashi, K.

145

MICROSCOPE: A Space Mission to Test the Equivalence Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MICROSCOPE is a French space mission for testing the Equivalence Principle (EP). The mission goal is the determination of the Eötvös parameter eta with an accuracy of 10e-15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) is developed and built by the french institute ONERA. It consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers. One accelerometer is used as reference sensor with two test masses of platinum, the science sensor contains a platinum and a titanium proof mass. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM performs free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE differential accelerometers at the Bremen drop tower. The project concepts and current results of the free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE accelerometer engineering model will be presented.

List, Meike; Bremen, S.; Selig, H.; Lämmerzahl, C.

2009-05-01

146

Microscope - A space mission to test the equivalence principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MICROSCOPE is a ESA/CNES space mission for testing the validity of the weak equivalence principle. The mission's goal is to determine the Eötvös parameter ? with an accuracy of 10-15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for designing the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers and is developed and built by the French institute ONERA. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM performs free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE differential accelerometers at the Bremen drop tower. The project's concepts and current results of the free fall tests are shortly presented.

List, Meike; Selig, Hanns; Bremer, Stefanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus

2010-01-01

147

Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

2009-04-01

148

Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle, the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, ?. The risk of radiation exposure to astronauts as well as to hardware from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which could be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of solar cycle phase using a non-homogeneous Poisson model [1] to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy>30 MeV, ?30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses, for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and for a lunar rover during space missions of defined durations. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning for future manned space exploration missions. Internal documentation of NASA Constellation Trade Study (F.A. Cucinotta, personal communication).

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; De Angelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-04-01

149

Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions.  

PubMed

To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies. PMID:11858274

Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Weiss, D S; Gushin, V; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

150

Selection criteria for waste management processes in manned space missions.  

PubMed

Management of waste produced during manned space exploration missions will be an important function of advanced life support systems. Waste materials can be thrown away or recovered for reuse. The first approach relies totally on external supplies to replace depleted resources while the second approach regenerates resources internally. The selection of appropriate waste management processes will be based upon criteria which include mission and hardware characteristics as well as overall system considerations. Mission characteristics discussed include destination, duration, crew size, operating environment, and transportation costs. Hardware characteristics include power, mass and volume requirements as well as suitability for a given task. Overall system considerations are essential to assure optimization for the entire mission rather than for an individual system. For example, a waste management system designed for a short trip to the moon will probably not be the best one for an extended mission to Mars. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify and compare viable waste management options for selection of an appropriate waste management system. PMID:11537685

Doll, S; Cothran, B; McGhee, J

1991-10-01

151

Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions  

PubMed Central

Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station.

Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

2008-01-01

152

Space radiation shielding strategies and requirements for deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for estimating crew exposure to radiation and for evaluating shield requirements for spacecraft equipment and crew are examined. The development status for deterministic space radiation transport computer codes and models of their nuclear interaction inputs, which are useful for estimating the composition and thickness of shield materials, is discussed. The relation between shield thickness and exposures is studied. Estimates

Lawrence W. Townsend; John W. Wilson; John E. Nealy

1989-01-01

153

Review of Two Game Changing Technologies for Space Mission Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology continues to move forward, many new developments and products become available and can be considered for application in NASA's space missions. Two game changing technologies are high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and ionic polymer-metallic composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors. High temperature superconductors are a metal or alloy that can be cooled to above 70 K and are able to conduct an electric flow with zero resistance. Ionic polymer-metal composites actuators and sensors are synthetic composites that display artificial muscle behavior under an applied voltage. By conducting research to review papers, attending lectures and conferences, and interviewing and meeting with developers and researchers many products and applications for specific use in space missions were found. HTSC technology is being integrated into rocket propulsion and acceleration, radiation shielding, energy storage and medical diagnostic tools. IPMC technology is being integrated into extreme environment robotics, avionics and motion detection.

Randazzo, Patricia

2010-10-01

154

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This third semi-annual progress report covers the reporting period from August 16, 1994 through February 15, 1995 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions'. There are two major report sections: Motor Control Status\\/Electrical Experiment Planning and Experiment Planning and Initial Results. The primary emphasis of our efforts during the reporting period has been

Tim A. Haskew; John Wander

1995-01-01

155

Precise Photometry Mission -- Measuring Stellar Microvariability from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric scintillation limits the precision attainable by ground-based photometry; this limitation is a major obstacle to progress in several fields, notably asteroseismology of Sun-like stars. A space-borne photometric telescope could operate near the shot noise limit, removing this obstacle and providing new opportunities for inquiry. As part of the program for New Mission Concepts in Astrophysics, we are studying the

T. M. Brown; W. Borucki; S. Frandsen; R. L. Gilliland; A. Jones; R. W. Noyes; T. Tarbell; R. K. Ulrich

1995-01-01

156

Visiting the International Space Station--my mission diary.  

PubMed

Having been fortunate enough to be the first European Astronaut to visit and live aboard the International Space Station, I would like to share with you my personal diary of this very special trip. Space Shuttle 'Endeavour', with an international crew of seven, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 19 April for an 11-day mission, which included the delivery of the European-developed 'Raffaello' logistics module to the Station and the attachment of the Station's new 17-metre Canadian Robotic Arm. We returned to Earth, with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on 1 May. Raffaello had been packed for its outward journey with 10 tons of new Station equipment, including six experiment racks and two storage racks for the US 'Destiny' module, as well as supplies for the astronauts and other equipment for future construction and maintenance work. One of my main tasks during the mission was to oversee the safe unloading of all of the experiments and equipment into the Space Station. I was relieved that the whole exercise went so smoothly and very proud to have been the first astronaut to represent Europe on the International Space Station. PMID:15008205

Guidoni, G

2001-08-01

157

The next-generation infrared space mission SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is an astronomical mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a cryogenically cooled 3.2 m telescope. Its high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- and far-infrared will enable us to address a number of key problems in present-day astronomy, ranging from the star-formation history of the universe to the formation of planets. To reduce the mass of the whole mission, SPICA will be launched at ambient temperature and cooled down on orbit by mechanical coolers on board with an efficient radiative cooling system, a combination of which allows us to have a 3-m class cooled (6 K) telescope in space with moderate total weight (3.7t). SPICA is proposed as a Japanese-led mission together with extensive international collaboration. The most important international partner is ESA. The assessment study on the European contribution to the SPICA project has been conducted under the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Korea has also established a formal SPICA tema at KASI. Taiwan and US participations are also being discussed extensively. The target of launch is early 2020s.

Nakagawa, Takao

2012-07-01

158

The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

Damé, Luc

2013-05-01

159

The Next-Generation Infrared Space Mission: SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), which is an astronomical mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a cryogenically cooled 3-m class (3.5 m in the current design) telescope. Its high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity will enable us to address a number of key problems in present-day astronomy, ranging from the star-formation history of the universe to the formation of planets. To reduce the mass of the whole mission, SPICA will be launched at ambient temperature and cooled down on orbit by mechanical coolers on board with an efficient radiative cooling system, a combination of which allows us to have a 3-m class cooled (5 K) telescope in space with moderate total weight (4t). SPICA is an international mission. Japan is in charge of the whole integration of the system, and its activity is now approved as a pre-pro ject at JAXA. The assessment study on the European contribution to the SPICA pro ject has been carried out under the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. US and Korean participations are also being discussed extensively. The target launch year of SPICA is 2018.

Nakagawa, Takao; Spica Team

2009-12-01

160

Invariant Manifolds, Lagrangian Trajectories and Space Mission Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last 30 years have produced an explosion in the capabilities of designing and managing libration point missions. The starting point was the ground-breaking mission of the third International Sun-Earth Explorer spacecraft (ISEE-3). The ISEE-3 was launched August 12, 1978 to pursue studies of the Earth-Sun interactions, in a first step of what now is known as Space Weather. After a direct transfer of the ISEE-3 to the vicinity of the Sun-Earth Lagrange point, it was inserted into a nearly-periodic halo orbit, in order to monitor the solar wind about 1 h before it reached the Earth's magneto-sphere as well as the ISEE-1 and 2 spacecraft (which where in an elliptical orbit around the Earth).

Belló, Miguel; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

161

Robotic Drilling Technology and Applications to Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Robotic drilling has great potential to become a vital, enabling technology in the context of future human and robotic exploration of the Solar System. Specific needs for human exploration relate to the ability for remote missions to scout potential locations for habitability and/or resource recovery. We will describe relevant challenges to robotic drilling and development pertaining to operations within hostile planetary environments. From the perspective of a system concept for mission architectures and exploration approaches, the ability to drill into extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and recover samples for analysis and/or utilization can provide vital references, resources, and opportunities for mission enrichment. The technology for supporting and planning such missions presents a feed-forward advantage for a human presence in such environments. Future space missions for drilling in the shallow and mid-to-deep subsurface face issues unfamiliar to terrestrial analogues, including limited power, very low or very high pressures, and widely varying thermal environments. We will discuss the means and approaches for establishing drilling operations, managing drilling sites, and mitigating environmental effects. Early robotic phases will leverage system-of-systems collaborations among humans and machines on and above the surface of planetary bodies. Such "precursor missions" will be charged with the task of mapping subsurface geology, understanding soil/rock particle distributions, obtaining geologic history, and determining local resource profiles. An example of the need for this kind of information is given to good effect by one of the lessons learned by NASA's Apollo program: the effects of lunar dust on humans, drilling mechanisms, and mission expectations were far greater than initially expected, and are still being critically considered. Future missions to Solar System bodies, including the Moon and Mars, will need to have advance information about local geologic effects, especially below the visible surface. In these hostile environments, valuable resources (e.g., water and other volatiles) will probably be hidden in substrata. Prospecting, mapping, excavating, and recovering these resources will remain a central need for NASA's exploration efforts for the foreseeable future. Swales Aerospace has a proven history in the development of low-power robotic drilling technology and research. We will show some results of a successful field campaign, during which our research prototype drill reached a depth of 10 meters with an average power consumption of only 100 Watts. We will summarize our results from a recent 2006 Idaho 2m-Basalt field test that proven basalt can be cored using 90W and past paper studies on drilling in the Martian environment and our perspective on the development of mission profiles for planetary drilling. We will suggest architectures for future drilling missions, potential configurations for deployed planetary drills, and provide comments on relevant engineering challenges such as sample acquisition, mission time, power, and mass.

Guerrero, J. L.; Reiter, J. W.; Rumann, A.; Wu, D.; Wang, G. Y.; Meyers, M.; Craig, J.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.

2006-12-01

162

Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

Hei, Tom

2012-07-01

163

The application of nuclear power and propulsion for space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to integrating nuclear technology into space exploration missions is advanced that is based on conditioning nuclear technology to be broadly applicable across the existing mission set. Two similar baselines are presented for small nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines for exploration missions. Small NTR engines are also examined in terms of their use in manned Mars missions, and the

Robert M. Zubrin; Tal K. Sulmeisters

1992-01-01

164

Expert Mission Planning and Replanning Scheduling System for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) KSC (Kennedy Space Center) Payload Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flig...

R. Pierce

1987-01-01

165

A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications  

SciTech Connect

A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

1987-01-01

166

Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

2008-05-01

167

The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region and planetary exploration will be carried out. Several fields are open for research and development in the space business. Three major categories can be found: detector technology in different areas, electronics, and software. At LABEN, a Finmeccanica Company, we are focusing the technologies to respond to this challenging scientific demands. Particle trackers based on silicon micro-strips supported by lightweight structures (CFRP) are studied. In the X-ray field, CCD's are investigated with pixels of very small size so as to increase the spatial resolution of the focal plane detectors. High-efficiency and higly miniaturized high-voltage power supplies are developed for detectors with an increasingly large number of phototubes. Material research is underway to study material properties at extreme temperatures. Low-temperature mechanical structures are designed for cryogenic ( 20 K) detectors in order to maintain the high precision in pointing the instrument. Miniaturization of front end electronics with low power consumption and high number of signal processing channels is investigated; silicon-based microchips (ASIC's) are designed and developed using state-of-the-art technology. Miniaturized instruments to investigate the planets surface using X-Ray and Gamma-Ray scattering techniques are developed. The data obtained from the detectors have to be processed, compressed, formatted and stored before their transmission to ground. These tasks open up additional strategic areas of development such as microprocessor-based electronics for high-speed and parallel data processing. Powerful computers with customized architectures are designed and developed. High-speed intercommunication networks are studied and tested. In parallel to the hardware research activities, software development is undertaken for several purposes: digital and video compression algorithms, payload and spacecraft control and diagnostics, scientific processing algorithms, etc. Besides, embedded Java virtual machines are studied for tele-science applications (direct link between scientist console and scientific payload). At system engineering level, the demand for spacecraft autonomy is increased for planetology missions: reliable intelligent systems that can operate for long periods of time without human intervention from ground are requested and investigated. A technologically challenging but less glamorous area of development is represented by the laboratory equipment for end-to-end testing (on ground) of payload instruments. The main fields are cryogenics, laser and X-ray optics, microwave radiometry, UV and infrared testing systems.

Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

1999-12-01

168

Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica- and organizational perspective, the developed space infrastructure is able to self-adapt, self-optimize and self-configure to dynamic changes in various local environmental conditions.

Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

169

Space Interferometry Mission: flight system and configuration overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, NASA's Origins Program will launch the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), a 10-meter-baseline optical interferometry instrument, into an Earth-trailing solar orbit. This instrument will be comprised of four parallel optical interferometers whose prime mission objective is to perform astrometric measurements at unprecedented accuracy. Launched by the Space Shuttle and boosted into its final trajectory by an integral propulsion system, SIM will collect data for more than five years in the search for extra-solar system planets. NASA has assembled an integrated Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Industry team comprised of TRW, Lockheed Martin, and Caltech to formulate a reference design to meet the SIM science objectives. Addressing unique technical challenges has proven to be a formidable task in numerous aspects of the system definition, from component development to system-level integration and test. Parallel activities to develop and test the necessary enabling technologies for SIM are coupled with the ongoing flight system design. The flight system design poses unique challenges in many areas, including geometric aspects of the layout, stability of the precision structure, thermal control, active vibration suppression, picometer-level laser metrology, etc. System-level trade studies that balance the requirements of the optics and metrology layouts and develop clean interfaces are presented herein. This paper also addresses the issues of the System Engineering processes and validation of performance specifications. Finally, this paper describes the current status of the SIM Reference System design.

Kahn, Peter; Aaron, Kim M.

2003-02-01

170

Space Operations: NASA Is Not Properly Safeguarding Valuable Data from past Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA is responsible for space exploration and the management, archiving, and dissemination of space science data. Since 1958, the agency has spent about $24 billion on its space science program and successfully launched over 260 scientific missions. Data ...

S. A. Schwartz R. W. Beers M. J. Dolak D. T. Schwartz D. D. Rush

1990-01-01

171

Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Missi

1999-11-01

172

An Introduction to Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster is intended as an introduction to a series of posters on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). This series features the science objectives, selection of target stars, instrument operation, and astrometric data analysis. SIM is NASA's first space-based long-baseline interferometer designed for precision astrometry. SIM will extend the reach of precision astrometry to cover the entire Galaxy, and will address a diverse set of topics in stellar astrophysics and Galactic astronomy. It will be an extraordinary tool for discovering planets, allowing searches for planets with masses as small as a few Earth masses around the nearest stars. Its single-measurement accuracy will be 1 microarcsecond, relative to local reference stars. Through detection of the astrometric reflex motion the orbit inclination, and hence unambiguous masses, will be measured for the planets it detects. The 10-m SIM Michelson interferometer will be launched into an Earth-trailing orbit in 2006, and will observe for 5 years. SIM will also serve as a technology pathfinder for future astrophysics missions, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder. With a design accuracy of 4 microarcseconds in absolute position for stars as faint as 20 magnitude, SIM will provide a definitive calibration of stellar distance and luminosities, most notably the Cepheids, RR Lyraes and globular clusters. Using samples of stars in the Galactic disk and the halo as tracers, SIM will address a variety of questions relating to the formation and dynamics of the Galaxy. NASA expects to release in January 2000 an Announcement of Opportunity to participate in the SIM Science Team. Further information on SIM will be available at the SIM exhibit. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Unwin, S. C.

1999-12-01

173

Radiological health risks for exploratory class missions in space.  

PubMed

Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be unavoidably exposed to ionizing radiation as they pass through the Van Allen belts and the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux. There is the possibility for exposure to proton radiation from Solar Particle Events (SPE). Using absorbed doses and ICRP 26, Linear Energy Transfer (LET) -dependent quality factors, the following dose-equivalents are estimated: In a spacecraft with 0.75 cm aluminum walls (2 g/cm2) at solar minimum, the lunar round trip dose-equivalent is less than 0.05 Sv. During a Mars mission the estimated dose-equivalents are: outbound (Van Allen Belts) <0.02 Sv; Earth to Mars (205 days exposure to free space GCR) 0.32 Sv; 30 days on the Martian surface (GCR) 0.023 Sv; Mars to Earth (225 days exposure to free space) 0.35 Sv; and through the Van Allen Belts 0.02 Sv. Conventionally, the total of 0.73 Sv over 460 days could be expected to increase the risk of cancer mortality in a 35-year old male astronaut by about one percent. However three-fourths of the dose-equivalent in free space is contributed by high LET heavy ions (Z > or = 3) and target fragments with average quality factors of 10.3 and 20 respectively. The biological effectiveness of these radiations is poorly understood; so the quality factors are set at conservatively very high values. The entire concept of absorbed dose/quality factor/dose-equivalent as applied to GCR must be reconsidered. PMID:11537128

Nachtwey, D S; Yang, T C

1991-01-01

174

Mission design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It will feature a one-meter class cryogenically cooled telescope. It is planned for a NASA fiscal start for the development phase in 1994 with a launch in about 2001. The launch vehicle will be the new upgraded Titan IV with a Centaur upper stage. The operational orbit will be circular at an altitude of about 100,000 km. The planned mission lifetime is 5 years. This paper addresses the rationale in the selection of the high altitude orbit, the performance of the launch vehicle in delivering the observatory to orbit, other orbit options, and the planned observational modes and capabilities of the observatory. The paper will also address the viewing geometry and viewing constraints affecting science observation, telescope aperture shade design, and spacecraft solar-panel and communication design.

Kwok, Johnny H.; Osmolovsky, Michael G.

1991-12-01

175

Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium  

PubMed Central

Space flight (SF) and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone) there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute). There was no acute renal insult. Irwin’s apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001) reductions of magnesium (Mg) required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%), endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years) and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now.

Rowe, William J

2009-01-01

176

Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium.  

PubMed

Space flight (SF) and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone) there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute). There was no acute renal insult. Irwin's apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001) reductions of magnesium (Mg) required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%), endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years) and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now. PMID:21694921

Rowe, William J

2009-11-19

177

In-Space Propulsion Technology products ready for infusion on NASA's future science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant

David J. Anderson; Eric Pencil; Todd Peterson; John Dankanich; Michelle M. Munk

2012-01-01

178

Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission commanders scored higher than crew on the coping style of Accepting Responsibility. These results improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between mission commanders and crew, and suggest areas of importance for the selection and training of future commanders.

Brcic, Jelena

179

Small Space Weather Research Mission Designed Fully by Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students at the University of Colorado at Boulder are building a satellite to study the space weather generated by high-energy particles near the Earth. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a CubeSat mission funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, scheduled for launch into a low-Earth polar orbit in June 2012 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. CSSWE will observe energetic particles for a minimum of 3 months with two goals: to relate the location, magnitude, and frequency of solar flares to the timing, duration, and energy spectrum of solar energetic particles (SEP) reaching Earth and to determine the evolution of the energy spectrum of radiation belt electrons. To accomplish these objectives, CSSWE will measure energetic ions and electrons coming directly from the Sun while it traverses the polar regions, where Earth s magnetic field lines are directly connected to the interplanetary magnetic field. CSSWE will also measure radiation belt particles at lower latitudes. These types of radiation can affect the operations and life spans of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Solar particles incident over the polar caps also produce ionospheric disturbances that can affect radio frequency communications.

Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Kohnert, Rick

2011-04-01

180

Earthguard-I: a NEO detection space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since early July 2002 a Phase-A study under contract to ESA is underway to define a space mission to search for NEOs which are difficult or even impossible to detect from groundbased locations. Based on long-term orbital evolution studies of known Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) it is expected that a significant fraction of the NEO population has orbits that are mostly or completely inside the Earth's orbit - the so called Atens and Inner-Earth Objects (IEOs). Objects on such orbits are difficult or even impossible to detect with groundbased telescopes. Due to their short orbital periods of less than one year their encounter frequency is high, and so is their potential impact risk. A preliminary analysis has shown that the payload can be accommodated on a dedicated spacecraft with a heliocentric orbit of around 0.5 AU. Alternatively, the payload could be accommodated on existing/planned platforms such as the BepiColombo Mercury orbiter spacecraft, the Solar Orbiter spacecraft, or as an external payload of the International Space Station ISS.

Leipold, Manfred; von Richter, Andreas; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Kührt, Ekkehard; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano

2002-11-01

181

Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rockets for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Space Policy includes a long range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. This has renewed interest in the potential application of Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) to space flight, particularly for human expeditions to the Moon and Mars. Recent NASA studies consider applications of the previously developed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology and the more advanced gas core reactors and show their potential advantages in reducing the initial mass in Earth orbit (IMEO) compared to advanced chemical rocket engines. Application of NERVA technology will require reestablishing the prior technological base or extending it to an advanced NERVA type engine, while the gas core NTR will require an extensive high risk research and development program. A technology intermediate between NERVA and the gas core NTR is a low pressure engine based on solid fuel, a Pressure Fed NTR (PFNTR). In addition to the simplicity of the gas pressurized engine cycle, the PFNTR takes advantage of the dissociation of hydrogen-the increases in specific impulse become significant as the chamber pressure decreases below 1.0 MPa (10 atmospheres) and the chamber temperature increases above 3000 K. The developmental status of technology applicable to a Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rocket (PFNTR) lies between that of the NERVA engine and the gas core NTR (GCNTR). This document investigates PFNTR performance and provides typical mission analyses.

Leyse, C.F. (Leyse (C.F.), Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Madsen, W.W.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Schnitzler, B.G. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-08-01

182

Enabling Foundation for NASA's Earth and Space Science Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2007 Congress called for the National Research Council (NRC) to examine issues regarding balance between mission-enabling activities and spaceflight missions, and this report presents the conclusions of the NRC Committee on the Role and Scope of Missio...

2010-01-01

183

Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, ...

G. F. Squibb C. D. Edwards W. R. Schober A. J. Hooke W. S. Tai V. M. Pollmeier

2000-01-01

184

Bonus: Apollo's Amazing Mission and Spin-Offs from Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two posters examine the 1969 Apollo moon mission. The first tracks the stages and path of the mission, suggesting that students create their own diagrams or models. The second presents a puzzle that helps student understand how many items developed for the mission are useful to today's everyday life. (SM)

Learning, 1994

1994-01-01

185

Radiation effects in space: The Clementine I mission  

SciTech Connect

The space radiation environment for the CLEMENTINE I mission was investigated using a new calculational model, CHIME, which includes the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), anomalous component (AC) species and solar energetic particle (SEP) events and their variations as a function of time. Unlike most previous radiation environment models, CHIME is based upon physical theory and is {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} with energetic particle measurements made over the last two decades. Thus, CHIME provides an advance in the accuracy of estimating the interplanetary radiation environment. Using this model we have calculated particle energy spectra, fluences and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra for all three major components of the CLEMENTINE I mission during 1994: (1) the spacecraft in lunar orbit, (2) the spacecraft during asteroid flyby, and (3) the interstate adapter USA in Earth orbit. Our investigations indicate that during 1994 the level of solar modulation, which dominates the variation in the GCR and AC flux as a function of time, will be decreasing toward solar minimum levels. Consequently the GCR and AC flux will be increasing during Y, the year and, potentially, will rise to levels seen during previous solar minimums. The estimated radiation environment also indicates that the AC will dominate the energetic particle spectra for energies below 30-50 MeV/nucleon, while the GCR have a peak flux at {approximately}300 MeV/nucleon and maintain a relatively high flux level up to >1000 MeV/nucleon. The AC significantly enhances the integrated flux for LET in the range 1 to 10 MeV/(mg/cm{sup 2}), but due to the steep energy spectra of the AC a relatively small amount of material ({approximately}50 mils of Al) can effectively shield against this component. The GCR are seen to be highly penetrating and require massive amounts of shielding before there is any appreciable decrease in the LET flux.

Guzik, T.G.; Clayton, E.; Wefel, J.P.

1994-12-20

186

Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (?as) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 ?as for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 ?as at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurement of radial velocities with errors of 15 km s-1 at magnitude 17. Gaia's primary science goal is to unravel the kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, Gaia's data will touch many other areas of science, e.g., stellar physics, solar-system bodies, fundamental physics, and exo-planets. The Gaia spacecraft is currently in the qualification and production phase. With a launch in 2013, the final catalogue is expected in 2021. The science community in Europe, organised in the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), is responsible for the processing of the data.

de Bruijne, J. H. J.

2012-09-01

187

Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor for High Precision Astronomical Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the progress in developing the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (modular GRS) [1], which was first proposed as a simplified core sensor for space gravitational wave detection missions. In a modular GRS, laser beam from the remote the sensor does not illuminate the proof mass directly. The internal measurement from housing to proof mass is separated from the external interferometry. A double side grating may further simplify the structure and may better preserve the measurement precision. We review the recent progress in developing modular GRS at Stanford. We have further studied optical sensing design that combines advantage of high precision interferometric measurement and robust optical shadow sensing scheme. We have made critical progress in optical measurement of the center of mass position of a spherical proof mass at a precision without costing the dynamic range while spinning. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating localized grating pattern onto the dielectric and gold materials. We have conducted an initial experiment of rf heterodyne of cavity reflection and thus lowered optical power than that in the direct detection. We have further studied UV LED that will be used for AC charge management experiment. The modular GRS will be an in-time, cost effective product for the advanced Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) and the Big Bang Observatory (BBO). [1] K. Sun, G. Allen, S. Buchman, D. DeBra, and R. L. Byer, “Advanced Architecture for High Precision Space Laser Interferometers”, 5th International LISA Symposium, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-16 July 2004. Class. Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) S287-S296.

Sun, Ke-Xun; Allen, G.; Buchman, S.; Byer, R. L.; Conklin, J. W.; DeBra, D. B.; Gill, D.; Goh, A.; Higuchi, S.; Lu, P.; Robertson, N.; Swank, A.

2006-12-01

188

GC-MS in space research: decoding complex isothermal chromatograms recovered from space missions.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure is described to study GC-MS isothermal chromatograms simulating those recovered from space missions: in fact GC plays a predominant role in space missions devoted to characterizing the chemical composition of extra-terrestrial atmospheres. SIM (selected ion monitoring) detection was used for monitoring selected chemical classes: a simplified chromatogram can be obtained giving information on the chemical composition of the complex mixture. Since only isothermal GC chromatograms are allowed by flight constraints, a time axis transformation is required to make them homogeneous: i.e., constant retention increments for CH2 additions in terms of a homologous series. The order in the linearized chromatogram can be simply singled out with a chemometric approach based on the study of the Autocovariance Function (ACVF) computed on the digitized chromatogram: the plot of the experimental autocorrelation function (EACF) shows well-shaped peaks if constant interdistances are repeated in different regions of the chromatogram. The method was applied to standard mixtures representative of planetary atmospheres--hydrocarbons, nitriles and oxygenated compounds with between 3 and 12 carbon atoms--analyzed in flight simulating conditions. The coupling of the selectivity of SIM detection with the interpretation power of the EACF procedure proves to be a powerful tool for interpreting data recovered from space missions: the chemical composition of the mixture can be identified by handling the raw SIM chromatograms. PMID:15506623

Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Zampolli, Maria Grazia; Dondi, Francesco

189

A Study of the Applicability/Compatibility of Inertial Energy Storage Systems to Future Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems like the homopolar generator (HPG) and the compensated pulsed alternator (CPA) to future space missions is explored. Areas of CPA and HPG design requiring development for space application...

W. F. Weldon

1980-01-01

190

Space Shuttle: Costs for Hubble Servicing Mission and Implementation of Safety. Recommendations Not Yet Definitive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hubble's continued operation has been dependent on manned servicing missions using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) shuttle fleet. The fleet was grounded in early 2003 following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia, as NASA foc...

2004-01-01

191

Hubble Space Telescope: NASA's Plans for a Servicing Mission. CRS Report for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe announ...

D. Morgan

2008-01-01

192

In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce...

A. A. Rodriguez-Carias J. Sager V. Krumins R. Strayer M. Hummerick M. S. Roberts

2003-01-01

193

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Overview and Mission Applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This paper provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, and advanced chemical thrusters. Aerocapture investments have 1) improved models

Tibor Kremic; D. J. Anderson; J. W. Dankanich

2008-01-01

194

An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the

Dennis G. Pelaccio; Gerald A. Rauwolf; Gaspare Maggio; Saroj Patel; Kirk Sorensen

2002-01-01

195

Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+,

Sangho Lee; Richard M Lueptow

2001-01-01

196

Prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) -- there

Robert B. Owen; Albert W. Holland; JoAnna Wood

1993-01-01

197

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual report Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions is presented. The reporting period is 16 Aug. 1992 to 15 Aug. 1993. However, the primary focus will be work performed since submission of our semi-annual progress report in Feb. 1993. Substantial progress was made. We currently feel confident in providing guidelines for motor and control strategy selection in electromechanical actuators to be used in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. A small portion was presented in the semi-annual report. At this point, we have implemented highly detailed simulations of various motor/drive systems. The primary motor candidates were the brushless dc machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, and the induction machine. The primary control implementations were pulse width modulation and hysteresis current control. Each of the two control strategies were applied to each of the three motor choices. With either pulse width modulation or hysteresis current control, the induction machine was always vector controlled. A standard test position command sequence for system performance evaluation is defined. Currently, we are gathering all of the necessary data for formal presentation of the results. Briefly stated for TVC application, we feel that the brushless dc machine operating under PWM current control is the best option. Substantial details on the topic, with supporting simulation results, will be provided later, in the form of a technical paper prepared for submission and also in the next progress report with more detail than allowed for paper publication.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1993-09-01

198

Reliable commercial high temperature superconductor wire for space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are widely considered for large power applications used by industrial end-users and electric utilities. The prominent application areas include power transmission cables, electric motors, generators, current limiters, and transformers. The promising design concepts rely on HTS to be a flexible composite conductor, robust enough to handle an industrial environment. Currently, the most advanced manufacturing method for flexible composite conductor is the Bi-2223-OPIT, used by many organizations. Significant advances in HTS technology have been made, with average critical current performance of 130 A at 77 K which is equivalent to an engineering current density of 15.1 kA/cm2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity from 250 km to 500 km per year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstrations. While this level of quality and quantity enables impressive demonstrations of prototype power applications, it does not fully meet the requirements of commercial economic viability. Therefore, to further decrease wire price to the range of $50/kA-m, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated to the manufacturing of Bi-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km per year. The purpose of this paper is to examine the functional, reliable, and economical aspects of today's HTS materials with an eye towards application in space missions. .

Masur, Lawrence J.; Kellers, Jürgen

2002-01-01

199

Development of double-stage ADR for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a development of a portable dewar with a double-stage ADR in it, and its cooling test results. The purpose of this system is to establish a cooling cycle of double-stage adiabatic demagnetization from 4.2 K to 50 mK, which is strongly desired for future space science missions. In our test dewar, two units of ADR are installed in parallel at the bottom of a liquid He tank. We used 600 g of GGG (Gadolinium Gallium Garnet) for the higher temperature stage (4 Tesla) and ˜90 g of CPA (Chromic Potassium Alum) for the lower temperature stage (3 Tesla). A passive gas-gap heat switch (PGGHS) is used between these two stages, while a mechanical heat switch between the He tank and the GGG stage. Using this system, 50 mK was achieved, and various kinds of cooling cycles with different operating temperatures and different sequences of magnetization were tested. We also evaluated the performance of the PGGHS, and interference of the magnetic field with each other during a stable temperature control.

Shinozaki, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Masui, Kensuke; Asano, Kentaro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Kosuke; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji

2010-09-01

200

Imaging and Nulling with the SPACE INTERFEROMETER MISSION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical simulations for a possible synthesis imaging mode of the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM). We summarize the general techniques SIM offers to perform imaging of high surface brightness sources and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. We describe an interactive software package that is used to provide realistic, photometrically correct estimates of SIM performance for various classes of astronomical objects. In particular, we simulate the cases of gaseous disks around black holes in the nuclei of galaxies and zodiacal dust disks around young stellar objects. Regarding the first, we show that a Keplerian velocity gradient of the line-emitting gaseous disk-and thus the mass of the putative black hole-can be determined with SIM to unprecedented accuracy in about 5 hr of integration time for objects with H? surface brightness comparable to the prototype M87. Detections and observations of exozodiacal dust disks depend critically on the disk properties and the nulling capabilities of SIM. Systems with similar disk size and at least 1/10 of the dust content of ? Pic can be detected by SIM at distances between 100 pc and a few kiloparsecs, if a nulling efficiency of 10-4 is achieved. Possible inner clear regions indicative of the presence of massive planets also can be detected and imaged. On the other hand, exozodiacal disks with properties more similar to the solar system will not be found in reasonable integration times with SIM.

Böker, Torsten; Allen, Ronald J.

1999-11-01

201

Utilizing a Russian Space Nuclear Reactor for a United States Space Mission: Flight Qualification Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) could provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program is the Topaz II reactor. This space nuclear power system was built and flight qualified, though never tested in space, by the former Soviet Union. The NEPSTP is faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system will complicate many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities are further complicated because the reactor power system is a Russian design. Therefore, this program must deal not only with the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is then examined. The inherent difficulties in qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

Polansky, Gary F.; Schmidt, Glen L.; Reynolds, Edward L.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Ogloblin, Boris; Bocharov, Anatoly

1994-07-01

202

An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the crewed portion of the mission performed in one year or less. This study used exploration propulsion system team technology specialist advocates to identify seven meaningful, representative mission architecture scenarios to ``best'' demonstrate the capability of such in-space propulsion technology options to support the near-term crewed Mars mission requirement. Additionally, a common set of top-level mission/system requirements was established for the study, which was incorporated in the assessment of all the mission options considered. Mission performance for abundant chemical (Ab-Chem), bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR), high power nuclear electric propulsion (HP-NEP), momentum tether/chemical, solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar electric propulsion/chemical (SEP-Chem) and Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) based missions were estimated for this quick trip, 2018 crewed Mars flight opportunity. Each of these mission options are characterized in terms of their overall mission performance capability, crewed mission duration, Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), which including dry and propellant weight required, overall mission time, number of flight elements (propulsion units/tank sets), and number of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicle launches. Potential top-level development, implementation, and operational issues/risks for each mission scenario considered are also identified. .

Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; Maggio, Gaspare; Patel, Saroj; Sorensen, Kirk

2002-01-01

203

The MAXI mission on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is the first astrophysical payload which will be mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility of International Space Station in 2004. It is designed for monitoring all-sky in the x-ray band by scanning with slat collimators and slit apertures. Its angular resolution and scanning period are approximately 1 arc degree and 90 minutes, respectively. MAXI employs two types of X-ray camera. One is Gas slit Camera (GSC), the detectors of which are 1D position sensitive proportional counters. Its position resolution is approximately 1.0 mm along carbon anode wires. GSC covers the 2.0 - 30 keV energy band. We have found an interesting feature in the energy response: monochromatic X-rays are detected with a peculiar hard tail in the spectra. The physical mechanism causing the hard tail is still unclear. The other camera is Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). We employ a pair of SSCs, each of which consists of sixteen CCD chips. Each CCD has 1024 X 1024 pixels, and each pixel is 24 X 24 micrometers. The CCDs are to be operated at -60 degree using Peltier coolers. SSC covers an energy range of 0.5 - 10.0 keV. The test counters and test chips are evaluated in NASDA, Riken, and Osaka-University. The continuous Ethernet down link will enable us to alert the astronomers in all over the world to the appearance of X-ray transients, novae, bursts, flares etc. In this paper we will report on the current status of the MAXI mission.

Tomida, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Torii, Ken'ichi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Yuan, Wei M.; Komatsu, Shigenori; Shirasaki, Yuji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sakurai, Ikuya; Negoro, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Tanaka, Isao

2000-07-01

204

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through February 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Following the executive summary are four report sections: Motor Selection, Tests Stand Development, Health Monitoring and Fault Management, and Experiment Planning. Three specific motor types have been considered as prime movers for TVC EMA applications: the brushless dc motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the induction motor. The fundamental finding was that, in general, the primary performance issues were energy efficiency and thermal dissipation (rotor heating). In terms of all other issues, the three motor types were found to compare quite equally. Among the design changes made to the test stand since the last progress report is the addition of more mounting holes in the side beams. These additional holes allow the movable end beam to be attached in a greater number of positions than previously. With this change the movable end beam can move from full forward to full back in three inch increments. Specific mathematical details on the approach that have been employed for health monitoring and fault management (HMFM) have been reported previously. This approach is based on and adaptive Kalman filter strategy. In general, a bank of filters can be implemented for each primary fault type. Presently under consideration for the brushless dc machine are the following faults: armature winding open-circuits, armature winding short-circuits (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), bearing degradation, and rotor flux weakening. The mechanically oriented experiments include transient loading experiments, transverse loading experiment, friction experiment, motor performance experiment, and HMFM experiment.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1994-02-01

205

The external respiration and gas exchange in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature data and results of our own studies into an effect of micro- and macro-gravity on an external respiration function of man are presented. It is found that in cosmonauts following the 7-366 day space missions there is an enhanced tendency associated with an increased flight duration toward a decrease in the lung volume and breathing mechanics parameters: forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC) by 5-25 percent, peak inspiratory and expiratory (air) flows (PIF, PEF) by 5-40 percent. A decrease in FVC appears to be explained by a new balance of elastic forces of the lungs, chest and abdomen occuring in microgravity as well as by an increased blood filling and pulmonary hydration. A decline of PIF and PEF is probalbly resulted from antigravitational deconditioning of the respiratory muscles with which a postflight decreased physical performance can in part be associated. The ventilation/perfusion ratios during orthostasis and +G Z and +G X accelerations are estimated. The biophysical nature of developing the absorption atelectases on a combined exposure to accelerations and 100% oxygen breathing is confirmed. A hypothesis that hypervolemia and pulmonary congestion can increase the tendency toward the development of atelectases in space in particular during pure oxygen breathing is suggested. Respiratory physiology problem area which is of interest for space medicine is defined. It is well known that due to present-day technologic progress and accomplishments in applied physiology including applied respiration physiology there currently exist sophisticated technical facilities in operation maintaining the life and professional working capacity of a man in various natural environments: on Earth, under water and in space. By the way, the biomedical involvement in developing and constructing such facilities has enabled an accumulation of a great body of information from experimental studies and full-scale trails to examine the effects of the changed environments both and its individual systems including an external respiration function. In this case, it should be remembered that the external respiration system has some physiological and morphological properties due to which the body systems are particularly subjected to environmental effects. Thus, according to figurative comparison by Evald Veible a contact area of the lungs with an external environment i.e. an alveolar surface is large and equaled approximately to tennis-court size, as the alveolocapillary membrane thickness is negligible and amounts to one fiftieth of a writing-paper sheet [1]. From this it follows that such a fine and highly organized structure must be extremely dependent upon any external exposures including gravitational ones since from the physical viewpoint of physics the lungs represent a quasiconical three-dimensional elastic body suspended in the thoracic cavity and in which there occur the gravity-induced internal tensions incrementing in a base-to-apices direction. As a result of these tensions, in the lungs various physical gradients: hydrostatic, pleural and transpulmonary pressures, pulmonary time constant, vertical gradient of the volume and structure of alveoli, etc. are developed.

Baranov, V. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Kotov, A. N.

206

Brazilian participation in the CoRoT space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil participates in the CoRoT mission with France and other European countries. We performed software engineering, science activities and provided a ground station for data reception. A brief description of some of these contributions is presented here.

Janot-Pacheco, E.

2012-12-01

207

Mixed-Initiative Planning for Space Exploration Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern planning and scheduling systems are capable of dealing with the size and complexity of many real world problems. However, mission critical planning is still often done by humans. Even if only a couple of plans are produced (\\\\Master Plan\\

Tatiana Kichkaylo; Sameer Singh; Himanshu Neema; Michael Orosz; Robert Nechesy

208

Precision laser development for interferometric space missions NGO, SGO, and GRACE Follow-On  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, including the gravitational-wave missions NGO/SGO (formerly LISA) and the climate monitoring mission GRACE Follow-On, by fully utilizing the matured wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where simpler and more reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Non-planar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier.

Numata, K.; Camp, J.

2012-06-01

209

The application of nuclear power and propulsion for space exploration missions  

SciTech Connect

An approach to integrating nuclear technology into space exploration missions is advanced that is based on conditioning nuclear technology to be broadly applicable across the existing mission set. Two similar baselines are presented for small nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines for exploration missions. Small NTR engines are also examined in terms of their use in manned Mars missions, and the Integrated Power and Propulsion Stage (IPPS) is illustrated for providing electric power and direct thermal thrust for a variety of missions. An IPPS is proposed for use in the Titan IV launch, earth orbital missions, and for applications such as instrument delivery and exploration missions. The paper concludes the review of NTR engine technology possibilities by suggesting that the keys to integrating NTR engines are versatility and synergism. 8 refs.

Zubrin, R.M.; Sulmeisters, T.K. (Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Denver, CO (United States))

1992-07-01

210

The application of nuclear power and propulsion for space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to integrating nuclear technology into space exploration missions is advanced that is based on conditioning nuclear technology to be broadly applicable across the existing mission set. Two similar baselines are presented for small nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines for exploration missions. Small NTR engines are also examined in terms of their use in manned Mars missions, and the Integrated Power and Propulsion Stage (IPPS) is illustrated for providing electric power and direct thermal thrust for a variety of missions. An IPPS is proposed for use in the Titan IV launch, earth orbital missions, and for applications such as instrument delivery and exploration missions. The paper concludes the review of NTR engine technology possibilities by suggesting that the keys to integrating NTR engines are versatility and synergism.

Zubrin, Robert M.; Sulmeisters, Tal K.

1992-07-01

211

Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft\\/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system\\/spacecraft\\/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a

Harvey S. Bloomfield

1987-01-01

212

Precision laser development for interferometric space missions NGO, SGO, and GRACE Follow-On  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, including the gravitational-wave missions NGO\\/SGO (formerly LISA) and the climate monitoring mission GRACE Follow-On, by fully utilizing the matured wave-guided optics

K Numata; J Camp

2012-01-01

213

Psychological, emotional studies of Mir space station missions show Russians fared better than Americans.  

PubMed

Weekly surveys gathered from crewmembers and mission control personnel during NASA missions to the Mir space station were used to rate mood, work environment, and interactions with the rest of the crew. Analysis of the surveys indicated that Americans were less satisfied with their group interactions and work environments than Russians. Also, mission control workers reported higher levels of tension, fatigue, confusion, and overall negative feelings than the astronauts and cosmonauts. PMID:12190058

Boyd, K

2001-06-01

214

Evaluation of deep-space laser communication under different mission scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of space agencies, including NASA, are considering free-space laser communications as a means for returning higher data-rates from future space missions. In this paper, potential deep-space missions are evaluated to show that with optical communication a 10× increase relative to state-of-the art telecommunication systems could be achieved. The maximum deep-space distance where ground transmitted laser beacons could assist acquisition and tracking; and operating points where optical communication performance degrades faster than the inverse square distance are also discussed.

Biswas, Abhijit; Piazzolla, Sabino; Moision, Bruce; Lisman, Douglas

2012-02-01

215

Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during

Rudy J. Saucillo; William M. Cirillo

1991-01-01

216

Space odyssey of an angel: Summary of the HITEN's three year mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 11 April (JST) 1993, the satellite MUSES-A ceased its missions by hard landing on the moon's surface. The MUSES-A was launched from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan (JKSC) on 24 January 1990, and renamed HITEN after a Buddhist angel flying freely and playing music in the heavens. Since then, HITEN had successfully carried out every mission which included 10 lunar

Kuninori Uesugi

1993-01-01

217

Evaluation of ``The Space Place,'' a NASA Integrated, Multi-mission Education and Public Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Place is an integrated NASA education and public outreach program, so far representing over 40 different NASA missions. It combines Web-based, printed, and externally published media to reach underserved audiences across the nation. Its primary mission is to develop and provide a highly desirable suite of attractive and educational products designed to appeal to and immerse the general

Diane K. Fisher; N. J. Leon

2006-01-01

218

The telescope and the double Fabry-Pérot interferometer for the ADAHELI solar space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADvanced Astronomy for HELIophysics (ADAHELI) is a Small Mission to study the structure and fast dynamics of the low solar atmosphere, performing Visible-NIR monochromatic and broad-band observations. The mission will achieve millimeter full disk observations as well. The ADAHELI Team has succesfully completed, in December 2008, the Phase A study awarded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The Interferometer for

V. Greco; F. Cavallini; F. Berrilli

2010-01-01

219

Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The

C. Vongsouthy; P. A Stenger-Nguyen; H. V. Nguyen; P. H Nguyen; M. C Huang; R. G Alexander

2004-01-01

220

TOPEX/POSEIDON: A United States/France Mission. Oceanography from Space: The Oceans and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate ...

1992-01-01

221

Reliability Options for Data Communications in the Future Deep-Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of higher capacity for both uplinks and downlinks is expected in the future deep-space missions on Mars, thus enabling a large range of services that could even- tually support human remote operations. The provisioning for deep-space links offering data rate up to several megabits per second will be a crucial element to allow new services for the space domain

Tomaso de Cola; Enrico Paolini; Gianluigi Liva; Gian Paolo Calzolari

2011-01-01

222

The flight safety review\\/approval process for U. S. nuclear-powered space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1961, the US has launched > 20 spacecraft using nuclear power sources. One of these space missions involved a nuclear reactor; the remainder were powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Space nuclear power\\/propulsion systems are receiving greater attention in the US and abroad. These developments suggest that nuclear systems may play an expanding role in future space endeavors. Although

Sholtis; J. A. Jr

1991-01-01

223

International mission planning for space Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spacecraft dedicated to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will be launched in 1996 and 1997 to make observations using baselines between the space telescopes and many of the world's ground radio telescopes. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) will launch VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) in September 1996, while the Russian Astro Space Center (ASC) is

James S. Ulvestad

1994-01-01

224

Space Education Strategy Using Data Obtained by Lunar and Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese two lunar and planetary missions, Kaguya (SELENE) and Hayabusa (MUSES-C) are returning vast amount of result to the Earth, and these data are planned to open to the public via the Internet. These are considered useful not only for scientists and engineers but also for the educators and students as a “real textbook”. In space education, we can use several methods to facilitate students' interest. Here we describe some of our examples to promote space education. One is the event accompanying with the major conferences, and second is the video program describing the Hayabusa mission with very unique viewpoint, and the third is the website carefully designed for children. However, the application of mission results to the space education has some points which should be specific to these missions. This paper describes our current attempt of these application and future prospects for the promotion of space education.

Terazono, Junya; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Wakabayashi, Naoki

225

Advanced Analytical Instrument Facility for Analysis of Return Samples from NASA Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mass spectrometer with laser post-ionization of neutral species constructed at Argonne National Lab is well suited for analyses of return samples from NASA space exploration missions because of its high useful yield and analytical resolutions.

Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.

2006-03-01

226

Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the...

J. Cornish O. Monje S. Valling

2013-01-01

227

Mission to Planet Earth. The Living Ocean: Observing Ocean Color from Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of ocean color are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, which will assess how the global environment is changing. Using the unique perspective available from space, NASA will observe, monitor, and study large-scale environmental processes,...

1994-01-01

228

Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will requi...

D. P. Mellen D. Garcia W. W. Vaughan

2003-01-01

229

Space Geodetic Technique Co-location in Space: Simulation Results for the GRASP Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Geodetic Observing System-GGOS, places very stringent requirements in the accuracy and stability of future realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF): an origin definition at 1 mm or better at epoch and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale (0.1 ppb) and orientation components. These goals were derived from the requirements of Earth science problems that are currently the international community's highest priority. None of the geodetic positioning techniques can achieve this goal alone. This is due in part to the non-observability of certain attributes from a single technique. Another limitation is imposed from the extent and uniformity of the tracking network and the schedule of observational availability and number of suitable targets. The final limitation derives from the difficulty to "tie" the reference points of each technique at the same site, to an accuracy that will support the GGOS goals. The future GGOS network will address decisively the ground segment and to certain extent the space segment requirements. The JPL-proposed multi-technique mission GRASP (Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space) attempts to resolve the accurate tie between techniques, using their co-location in space, onboard a well-designed spacecraft equipped with GNSS receivers, a SLR retroreflector array, a VLBI beacon and a DORIS system. Using the anticipated system performance for all four techniques at the time the GGOS network is completed (ca 2020), we generated a number of simulated data sets for the development of a TRF. Our simulation studies examine the degree to which GRASP can improve the inter-technique "tie" issue compared to the classical approach, and the likely modus operandi for such a mission. The success of the examined scenarios is judged by the quality of the origin and scale definition of the resulting TRF.

Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.; Pavlis, E. C.

2011-12-01

230

The Successful Conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: Important Results without a Flashy Title  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceived in 1995, Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission of NASA s New Millennium program. Its purpose was to test high-risk, advanced technologies important for space and Earth science missions. DS1 s payload included ion propulsion, solar concentrator arrays, autonomous navigation and other autonomous systems, miniaturized telecommunications and microelectronic systems, and two highly integrated, compact science instruments. DS1

Marc D. Rayman

2002-01-01

231

The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics: SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing\\u000a in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the\\u000a use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will also cool the focal plane instruments thus avoiding the use of

Bruce Swinyard; Takao Nakagawa; Patrick Merken; Pierre Royer; Tim Souverijns; Bart Vandenbussche; Christoffel Waelkens; Peter Davis; James Di Francesco; Mark Halpern; Martin Houde; Doug Johnstone; Gilles Joncas; David Naylor; Rene Plume; Douglas Scott; A. Abergel; S. Bensammar; J. Braine; V. Buat; D. Burgarella; Ph. Cais; H. Dole; L. Duband; D. Elbaz; M. Gerin; M. Giard; J. Goicoechea; C. Joblin; A. Jones; J. P. Kneib; G. Lagache; S. Madden; R. Pons; F. Pajot; D. Rambaud; L. Ravera; I. Ristorcelli; L. Rodriguez; S. Vives; A. Zavagno; Norbert Geis; Oliver Krause; Dieter Lutz; Albrecht Poglitsch; Walfried Raab; Jutta Stegmaier; Eckhard Sturm; Richard Tuffs; Hyung Mok Lee; Bon-Chul Koo; Myungshin Im; Soojong Pak; Wonyong Han; Jang-Hyun Park; Uk-Won Nam; Ho Jin; Dae-Hee Lee; In-Soo Yuk; Sungho Lee; Yuri Aikawa; Nobuo Arimoto; Yasuo Doi; Keigo Enya; Misato Fukagawa; Reiko Furusho; Sunao Hasegawa; Masahiko Hayashi; Mitsuhiko Honda Kanagawa; Shigeru Ida; Imanishi; Masatoshi; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka; Hideyuki Izumiura; Hideyuki Kamaya; Hidehiro Kaneda; Toshihiro Kasuga; Hirokazu Kataza; Koji Kawabata; Mitsunobu Kawada; Hideyo Kawakita; Tsuneo Kii; Jin Koda; Tadayuki Kodama; Eiichiro Kokubo; Komatsu Keiji; Hideo Matsuhara; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Takashi Miyata; Murakam Miyata Hiroshi; Hirohisa Nagata; Tetsuya Nagata; Tadashi Nakajima; Kobayashi Naoto; Ryoichi Nishi; Atsushi Noda; Atsushi Okamoto; Yoshiko K. Okamoto; Kazuyuki Omukai; Takashi Onaka; Takafumi Ootsubo; Masami Ouchi; Hirobumi Saito; Yoichi Sato; Shigeyuki Sako; Tomohiko Sekiguchi; Hiroshi Shibai; Hiroyuki Sugita; Koji Sugitani; Hajime Susa; Tae-soo Pyo; Motohide Tamura; Yoshihiro Ueda; Munetaka Ueno; Takehiko Wada; Jun'ichi Watanabe; Toru Yamada; Issei Yamamura; Naoki Yoshida; Kitamura Yoshimi; Yukari Yui; Milena Benedettini; Riccardo Cerulli; Anna Di Giorgio; Sergio Molinari; Renato Orfei; Stefano Pezzuto; Lorenzo Piazzo; Paolo Saraceno; Luigi Spinoglio; Thijs de Graauw; Piet de Korte; Frank Helmich; Henk Hoevers; Robert Huisman; Russell Shipman; Floris van der Tak; Paul van der Werf; Wolfgang Wild; Jose Acosta-Pulido; Jose Cernicharo; Jose Herreros; Jesus Martin-Pintado; Francisco Najarro; Ismael Perez-Fourmon; Juan Ramon Pardo; Francisca Gomez; Nieves Castro Rodriguez; Peter Ade; Mike Barlow; David Clements; Marc Ferlet; Helen Fraser; Douglas Griffin; Matthew Griffin; Peter Hargrave; Kate Isaak; Robert Ivison; Malik Mansour; Jonathan Laniesse; Phillip Mauskopf; Dmitry Morozov; Seb Oliver; Angiola Orlando; Mathew Page; Cristina Popescu; Stephen Serjeant; Rashmi Sudiwala; Dimitra Rigopoulou; Ian Walker; Glenn White; Serena Viti; Berend Winter; Jamie Bock; Matt Bradford; Martin Harwit; Warren Holmes

2009-01-01

232

An overview of the risk uncertainty assessment process for the Cassini space mission  

SciTech Connect

The Cassini spacecraft is a deep space probe whose mission is to explore the planet Saturn and its moons. Since the spacecraft`s electrical requirements will be supplied by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), the spacecraft designers and mission planners must assure that potential accidents involving the spacecraft do not pose significant human risk. The Cassini risk analysis team is seeking to perform a quantitative uncertainty analysis as a part of the overall mission risk assessment program. This paper describes the uncertainty analysis methodology to be used for the Cassini mission and compares it to the methods that were originally developed for evaluation of commercial nuclear power reactors.

Wyss, G.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk Assessment and Systems Modeling Dept.

1996-08-01

233

Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and observatory recommissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HST is unique among NASA missions in the level of preparation that has been performed for on-orbit servicing. Planning and training for HST servicing has been an important element HST development leading to an observatory that is uniquely designed with servicing in mind. An overview of the components of the first Servicing Mission are described along with a walkthrough of several of the planned extravehicular activities (EVAs) including replacing solar arrays, swapping out the WF/PC and HSP for WFPC2 and COSTAR, replacing the gyros and installing the GHRS repair kit. An integral part of preparing for HST's first servicing mission is determining how to re-commission the observatory for science operations. The recommissioning period is referred to as the Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program and is a composite of the HST deployment Orbital Verification (OV) and Science Verification (SV) programs. We will examine how the lessons learned from the deployment commissioning have been addressed in development of the SMOV plans.

Stanley, Peg

1993-11-01

234

EHF space systems: Experimental missions for broadband communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years scientific community has been witness of the growing interest in global EHF satellite systems for broadband communications; these systems can help national and regional telecommunications service operators to provide broadband communications in areas not adequately served by terrestrial systems. In this paper main EHF satellite missions are presented, outlining challenges and future perspectives.

Marina Ruggieri; E rnestina Cianca; Tommaso Rossi; Marco Lucente; Cosimo Stallo; Giuseppe Codispoti; Lamberto Zuliani

2009-01-01

235

Trajectory design for space missions to libration point L2.  

PubMed

This work is focused on the detection and computation of "free" transfer trajectories from parking orbits around the Earth to quasiperiodic orbits around the collinear libration point L(2), in the Sun-Earth system; no correction or insertion maneuvers into the final orbits have been considered. The circular restricted three-body problem is the mathematical model used to describe the motion of a spacecraft, in the gravitational field of the two primaries, computed by integrating the nonlinearized equations of motion. A shooting method has been designed and developed to determine the increment of velocity required for the perigee maneuver, which injects a spacecraft into its transfer trajectory: first the velocity boundary for the Earth escape/capture condition is detected and then an iterative bisection method is applied until the burnout velocity, tangential to the parking orbit, leads the spacecraft to its final Lissajous orbit. For a launch from Kourou at local noon, Ariane5 GTO and Soyuz GTO "equivalent" have been studied and compared, considering fuel minimization for the transfer maneuver and general mission constraints, as maximum excursion of the final Lissajous orbit from the ecliptic plane and eclipses avoidance during the mission. This analysis highlights advantages and drawbacks of various parking orbits. Mission goals are the key factor for the tradeoff among orbit selection, launch options, and the other constraints, fixed by mission requirements. PMID:16510417

Di Salvo, Alessio

2005-12-01

236

Space Weather and Mission Control: A Roadmap to an Operational Multi-Mission Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Weather is the combination of conditions on the sun, in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground- based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. Space Weather can cause manifold problems to spacecraft (S\\/C) components, such as degradation of sensors and solar arrays and changes in

A. Donati; N. Viana; M. Pantoquilho; A. Baumgartner

2004-01-01

237

The MOST Asteroseismology Mission: Ultraprecise Photometry from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Microvariablity and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) mission is a low-cost microsatellite designed to detect low-degree acoustic oscillations (periods of minutes) with micromagnitude precision in solar-type stars and metal-poor subdwarfs. There are also plans to detect light reflected from giant, short-period, extrasolar planets and the oscillations of roAp stars and the turbulent variability in the dense winds of Wolf-Rayet stars.

Gordon Walker; Jaymie Matthews; Rainer Kuschnig; Ron Johnson; Slavek Rucinski; John Pazder; Gregory Burley; Andrew Walker; Kristina Skaret; Robert Zee; Simon Grocott; Kieran Carroll; Peter Sinclair; Don Sturgeon; John Harron

2003-01-01

238

Flexible Operations Planning Repository for Space Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planning Repository (P-REP) project aims to specify, design and develop a prototype for a centralized information repository to store any relevant operation planning data for any past, current or future mission. We describe how this ambitious goal can be achieved by following a top-down approach We also present how this project is positioned in a global effort for building generic science operation center frameworks, which in includes as well data repositories, scheduling and planning systems and control centers.

Vallejo, J. C.; Vazquez, R.; Tejo, J.; Chaizy, P.; Hutchinson, G.; Dimbylow, T.; Frew, D.

2010-12-01

239

Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase survivability of microorganisms under irradiation of heavy ion beam and other radiation. In this paper, we discuss current status of exposure experiment of microorganisms defined for the Tanpopo mission.

Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

240

LOW-COST SPACE MISSIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Flight Laboratory at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS\\/SFL) is pioneering the use of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in space to support education and rapid access to space for Canadian researchers. The Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment (CanX) Program empowers researchers across Canada by providing spacecraft under 10 kg that facilitate inexpensive research in low Earth orbit.

DANIEL RANKIN; ROBERT ZEE; FREDDY PRANAJAYA; DANIEL FOISY; ALEXANDER BEATTIE

241

Artificial magnetic field for the space station (Protecting space stations in future space missions)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem Explanation Strong solar storms and cosmic rays make great disturbances for equip-ment outside the magnetosphere. Also these disturbances are so harmful for biological process of living cells. If one decides to stay more outside the Earth, one's healthy is in a great danger. To investigate space station situation against strong solar storms, 5 recent strong solar storms have been selected. Dst of these storms are more than -300 nT. Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i.e. these fields always are anti-aligned because artificial field could change direction by itself basic on the situation of Sun. Relationship between artificial field and solar storm has two types: 1) Artifi-cial field loads up to solar storm's magnetic field and makes magnetic reconnection 2) artificial field repulses energetic solar particles. These below equations show situation of artificial field against magnetic reconnection with magnetic field of solar storm and repulsing particles. Basic on the volume of repulsed particles the strength of field could be: Each one of these storms has an accurate danger percentage. These data has been shown in Tab I. Tab I. strong solar storms during 1989-2003 and their danger percentage for space equipments and astronauts on outside the magnetic field As has been shown in Tab I. these strong storms are so dangerous and make problem for human outside the Earth layers. Basic on [13] solar activities in next century will be more than this century. That paper shows that the average number of sunspots in this century is less than 77 and this average will be more than 150 sunspots in a century. So we have only 70 years to prepare a suitable space station in other wise building this centre wills has many problem such as health security and long travels. Method explanation Only method to face with energetic particles is magnetic field. Space station is bereft of strong magnetic field to protect herself from energetic particles that released from the Sun and other types of stars in other galaxies (cosmic rays). Therefore the existence of an artificial magnetic field is necessary, this is not important that this field will be for the space station or its inner space because this field performs as magnetosphere. It does not allow energetic particles to enter the field. Also this field loads up to solar magnetic field as magnetosphere. Position of this artificial field is not important because basic on the simulations this field could repulse 85.6Modeling Important feature of this artificial field is its situation against solar magnetic field, i

Ahmadi Tara, Miss

242

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

Schulze, Norman R.

1991-08-01

243

The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.  

PubMed

Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

1993-01-01

244

Definition and archiving of ground-based observations in support of space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This science case was developed by the WG3&5 to induce and optimize the follow- up of space missions or to monitor a probe entry, in order to provide support in the case of failure, and help achieve science objectives. The space mission data need to be complemented by ground-based and space-borne observations that can help interpret the space mission return. Such coordinated observations were performed at the time of the Huygens descent in Titan's atmosphere and led to a JGR special issue publication (2006, in press). We should gather and archive all such observations to support space missions already existing or to come. For this we would need to get the space mission data from Cassini-Huygens (both images and spectra), Venus Express, Mars Express and future missions (to Europa and Mercury for instance) and complete them with ground-based observations (spectra, images, radio data, radar,...) of Titan, Venus, Mars, Europa, Mercury with the HST, ISO, etc, as well as amateur observations, if possible, taken from 1990 on. This applies to cometary, moon and planet surfaces/subsurfaces composition- structure. This would help among other with the target selections (comets, moons) and landing sites for SMART-1 (on the Moon). There are specific needs for stereoscopic images of the Moon and other objects. Our study will assist in optimizing the Rosetta mission return. For Mercury we need to observe from the ground at the time of the Bepi-Colombo mission to cross-calibrate the mission data. There are many examples of success from this additional input, as for instance with Cassini-Huygens (DWE- Channel C), Galileo, etc. For Titan there is a requirement for RADAR measurements of the whole surface during the extended Cassini mission. Also, assist with the interpretation of high-resolution DISR images in terms of surface activity and surface-atmosphere interactions This involves in some cases techniques possible only from the Earth such as the VLBI 1 radio-tracking of a space mission with probe signal during entry or landing and a radar search for solid and liquid extents on moon surfaces. We need to assure extended temporal monitoring to study diurnal or seasonal effects and complete planetary objects' lightcurves and derive insights on the evolution of their surface properties 2

Coustenis, A.; Europlanet Wg3&5

245

Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rockets for space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Policy includes a long range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. This has renewed interest in the potential application of Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) to space flight, particularly for human expeditions to the Moon and Mars. Recent NASA studies consider applications of the previously developed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for

C. F. Leyse; W. W. Madsen; J. H. Ramsthaler; B. G. Schnitzler

1989-01-01

246

Geant4 for space: mission simulations and engineering tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation shielding analysis is a crucial process in the spacecraft and space instrument development cycle. A number of dedicated tools have been developed in the last decades Cor the study of the effects of radiation on materials and instruments in space. We present here a set of detailed analyses based on Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, and dew tools for

G. Santin; R. Nartallo; P. Nierninen; F. Lei; P. R. Truscott; H. Evans; D. Heynderickx; B. Quaghebeur; C. S. Dyer; E. Daly

2003-01-01

247

Structural design challenges for a Shuttle-launched Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precision Structure Subsystem (PSS) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a large composite structure de- signed to house the interferometer optics in a structurally stable and thermally benign environment on orbit. The design requirements of the PSS as a shelter for the optics must be weighed against the demands of the baseline launch vehicle: the Space Shuttle. Whle

David H. Brady; Kim Aaronb; Brian Stumm; Allen J. Bronowicki; S. Chan; Peter A. Morris

248

Structural design challenges for a shuttle-launched Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precision Structure Subsystem (PSS) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a large composite structure designed to house the interferometer optics in a structurally and thermally stable environment on orbit. The resulting design requirements of the PSS must be weighed against the demands of the baseline launch vehicle: the Space Shuttle. While a Shuttle launch provides new opportunities for

David H. Brady; Kim M. Aaron; Brian D. Stumm; Allen J. Bronowicki; Irvin S. Chan; Peter A. Morris

2003-01-01

249

The Determination of Surface Salinity With the European SMOS Space Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission aims at obtaining global maps of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space for large-scale and climatic studies. It uses an L-band (1400-1427 MHz) Microwave Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis to measure brightness temperature of the earth's surface at horizontal and vertical polarizations ( and ). These two

Gary S. E. Lagerloef; David M. Le Vine; Adriano Camps; Ouan-Zan Zanifé

2004-01-01

250

Community Participation in the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty percent of the observing time on SIRTF will be available to the general astronomical community through Legacy Project (LP), Guest Observer (GO), Target of Opportunity (ToO), and Director's Discretionary Observations (DDO) programs. We describe the organization of the community of potential SIRTF observers under the auspices of the SIRTF Community Task Force (CTF) and summarize the recent activities of the CTF and its Working Groups (WGs). The WGs enable the SIRTF Project to draw on broad community representation to explore issues related to the definition of the LP, GO, and ToO Programs. Additional WGs are studying SIRTF Solar System Science and Data Archiving and Analysis. Working documents of the CTF and white papers delineating the major issues currently before the WGs can be read on the SIRTF homepage at http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/SIRTF. An interactive forum on the homepage will enable the community to participate actively during the mission definition phase. Community members can use the time-estimator tool on the homepage to assist with planning for SIRTF observations. A current version of the SIRTF Science Activities Timeline (SSAT) is presented. The SSAT defines the schedule for community activities that are necessary to conduct the SIRTF mission through its design, development, construction, preflight testing, and flight phases. Major milestones to be described include a series of workshops to define the LP program, NASA Research Announcement (NRA) releases for the LP and GO Programs, and NRA releases for flight-phase data archiving and analysis activities. An estimate of the fractional distribution of SIRTF observing time among Guaranteed Time Observations (GTOs), LPS, GOs, ToOs, and DDOs during the flight phase is presented. Further information regarding community activities in support of this NASA mission can be found on the SIRTF-homepage.

Gehrz, R. D.; Beichman, C. A.; Bicay, M. D.; Christian, C. A.; Clemens, D. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cutri, R. M.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Hanner, M. S.; Jones, T. J.; Miller, R. B.; Rieke, M. J.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Weiler, E. J.; Werner, M. W.; Woodward, C. E.

1997-12-01

251

The NASA New Millennium Program: Space Flight Validation of Advanced Technologies for Future Science Missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad range of advanced technologies are needed to support NASA's ambitious plans for planetary exploration during the next decade. To address these needs, the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) identifies breakthrough spacecraft and instrument technologies and validates them in space to reduce their cost and risk. The first NMP Deep Space mission, DS1, was launched on October 24, 1998. Since then, it has successfully validated a solar-powered ion propulsion system, a miniaturized deep space transponder, autonomous operations and navigation software, multifunctional structures, low-power microelectronics and 2 instruments: the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS), and the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE). To validate these technologies in a realistic environment, DS1's trajectory includes a close (<10km) flyby of asteroid 1992KD. An extended mission will allow encounters with comets Wilson-Harrington and Borrelly. The second NMP mission, DS2, consists of a pair of micro penetrators that are targeted near the Martian South Pole (71 to 76 S). DS2 was launched on January 3, 1999 as a piggyback payload on the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander cruise stage. After crashing into the Martian surface at greater than 200 m/s on December 3, 1999, these probes will validate technologies that will enable future Mars penetrator networks. These technologies include a single-stage, passive atmospheric entry system and a high-impact landing system designed to deliver a payload up to 1 meter below the Martian surface. This mission will also validate a miniaturized telecom system, low-temperature batteries, a suite of miniaturized in-situ scientific instruments, and other innovative packaging technologies. The next 2 NMP space science missions are currently being planned. If approved, Space Technology 3 (ST3) will validate technologies for separated spacecraft optical interferometry, to enable the ambitious Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission. The ST5 mission will validate advanced technologies needed by the space physics and astrophysics communities.

Crisp, D.; Raymond, C.

1999-09-01

252

Preliminary Analysis of Space Mission Applications for Electromagnetic Launchers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnet...

E. E. Rice L. A. Miller R. J. Conlon R. W. Earhart

1984-01-01

253

Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for ter...

S. X. Liu

2005-01-01

254

Space and ground segment performance of the FORMOSAT-3\\/COSMIC mission: four years in orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FORMOSAT-3\\/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites is the world's first demonstration constellation using radio occultation signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The radio occultation signals are retrieved in near real-time for global weather\\/climate monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and space weather research. The mission has processed on average 1400

C.-J. Fong; D. Whiteley; E. Yang; K. Cook; V. Chu; B. Schreiner; D. Ector; P. Wilczynski; T.-Y. Liu; N. Yen

2011-01-01

255

Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign entities. Continued success in JMS depends on continued support from across the space community. Key activities where community participation is essential include the C2 SSA Community of Interest (COI) development and refinement, creative strategies for faster, better, cheaper development, and defining the next set of capabilities.

Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

2011-09-01

256

A temporal forecast of radiation environments for future space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of future space radiation environments is an important goal for space mission operations, design, and risk\\u000a assessment. We have developed a solar cycle statistical model in which sunspot number is coupled to space-related quantities,\\u000a such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (?) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle\\u000a events (SPEs). Future GCR fluxes were

Myung-Hee Y. Kim; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson

2007-01-01

257

Trade space evaluation of multi-mission architectures for the exploration of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent cuts to NASA's planetary exploration budget have precipitated a debate in the community on whether large flagship missions to planetary bodies in the outer solar system or sequences of smaller missions as part of a long-term exploration program would be more beneficial. The work presented explores the trade between these two approaches as applied to the exploration of Europa and concentrates on identifying combinations of flyby, orbiter and/or lander missions that achieve high value at a lower cost than the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) flagship mission concept. The effects of the value attributed to the four main science objectives for Europa, which can be broadly classified as investigating the ocean, ice-shell, composition and geology, are demonstrated. The current approach proposed to complete the ocean exploration objective is shown to have conflicting requirements with the other three objectives. For missions that fully address all the science objectives, such as JEO, the ocean goal is therefore found to be the main cost driver. Instrument combinations for low-cost flyby missions are also presented, and simple lander designs able to achieve a wide range of objectives at a low additional cost are identified. Finally, the current designs for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) are compared to others in the trade space, based on the prioritization given to the science goals for the exploration of Europa. The current EHM flyby mission (Clipper) is found to be highly promising in terms of providing very high potential science value at a low cost.

Alibay, F.; Strange, N. J.

258

Space Missions: Long Term Preservation of IDL-based Software using GDL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNU Data Language (GDL) is a free software clone of IDL, an interactive language widely used in Astronomy and space missions since decades. Proprietary status, license restrictions, price, sustainability and continuity of support for particular platforms are recurrent concerns in the Astronomy community, especially concerning space missions, which require long-term support. In this paper, we describe the key features of GDL and the main achievements from recent development work. We illustrate the maturity of GDL by presenting two examples of application: reading spectral cubes in PDS format and use of the HEALPix library. These examples support the main argument of the paper: that GDL has reached a level of maturity and usability ensuring long term preservation of analysis capabilities for numerous ground experiments and spaces missions based on IDL.

Coulais, A.; Schellens, M.; Arabas, S.; Lenoir, M.; Noreskal, L.; Erard, S.

2012-09-01

259

Prospective Nuclear Reactor Power Systems for Space Based Radar Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the characteristics of 10 kW(e) and 50 kW(e) space reactor power systems utilizing four types of power conversion systems. The Brayton, organic Rankine and thermoelectric systems represent near-to-intermediate term technologies. O...

1975-01-01

260

Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion For Manned Deep Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite well possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the

Friedwardt Winterberg

2009-01-01

261

Rescue Mission: Retrieve the Space Capsules From the Water!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, learners use the steps of the design process to create a hook to rescue a "space capsule" from the water. Participants design, build, test and redesign their own model pieces of equipment to help them retrieve the floating objects. This activity also fits well with lessons on invention.

Wgbh

2006-01-01

262

Low Cost Electric Propulsion Thruster for Deep Space Robotic Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric Propulsion has found widespread acceptance by commercial satellite providers for on-orbit station keeping due to the total life cycle cost advantages these systems offer. NASA has also sought to benefit from the use of EP for primary propulsion onboard the Deep Space-1 and DAWN spacecraft. These applications utilized EP systems based on gridded ion thrusters, which offer performance unequaled

David Manzella

263

Snapshots from Space: Citizen Participation in Space Missions Through Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For six years, members of the public have been able to ride along with the rovers and cruise with Cassini on their daily journeys across Mars and through the Saturn system by browsing the daily downlinks of raw images posted to the missions' websites. An international community of amateur image processors has grown up around these image libraries, people who not only browse and discuss the photos but also process them into color versions, mosaics, and animations. Until recently, only a few of these amateurs have been able to push beyond the raw image websites -- which post reduced-quality versions of the images, unsuitable for science -- into the actual archived science data at the Planetary Data System. However, recent upgrades to search tools at the various Planetary Data System Nodes have largely removed the barriers (such as arcane file formats) that previously prevented members of the public from understanding how to access science data. Now increasing number of citizen scientists are making discoveries in these image data, while creating beautiful images that display space destinations as a human observer would see them.

Lakdawalla, E. S.; Bell, J. F.

2010-12-01

264

The Next Generation Deep Space Network: Meeting the Needs of Future Human and Robotic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is evolving to meet the communication and navigation needs of increasingly complex, data-intensive exploration and space science missions, both human and robotic. Solar system exploration missions, for instance, are focusing more on long-duration orbital remote sensing at increasing spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. Such missions are also conducting more elaborate in situ investigations - with short-lived probes being superceded by multiple, long-lived, mobile robotic explorers. Meanwhile, solar and astrophysical missions are moving from low-Earth-orbit, single-spacecraft observatories to multi-spacecraft observatories operating in more distant Earth-trailing and Lagrange point orbits. In the coming decades, human missions will play a key role in exploring the Moon and, eventually, Mars. Analysis of NASA's roadmap missions suggests that, over the next 25 years, these various changes will drive downlink and uplink rates up by a factor of at least 1,000 - even from the more distant regions of our solar system. At the same time, the trend toward multi-spacecraft missions will likely cause a doubling in the number of such links back to Earth. To meet these challenges, the DSN is transforming its network of large antennas to a hybrid network of large arrays of small antennas, optical communications terminals, and, at destinations undergoing intensive exploration, relay satellites. It is also developing more capable spacecraft communications components and systems and is exploring more accurate navigation techniques. All of these capabilities are being designed to play together in a seamless, cost-effective reliable manner, providing 21st century missions with a 21st century DSN. This work was performed in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA

Preston, R. A.; Abraham, D. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Geldzahler, B.

2004-12-01

265

Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 Project was established to develop and demonstrate feasibility of a space reactor power system (SRPS) at power levels of 10's of kilowatts to a megawatt. To help determine systems requirements for the SRPS, a mission and spacecraft were examined which utilize this power system for a space-based radar to observe moving objects. Aspects of the mission and spacecraft bearing on the power system were the primary objectives of this study; performance of the radar itself was not within the scope. The study was carried out by the Systems Design Audit Team of the SP-100 Project. (3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

1988-01-01

266

A high power ion thruster for deep space missions.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System ion thruster was developed for potential outer planet robotic missions using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). This engine was designed to operate at power levels ranging from 13 to 28 kW at specific impulses of 6000-8500 s and for burn times of up to 10 years. State-of-the-art performance and life assessment tools were used to design the thruster, which featured 57-cm-diameter carbon-carbon composite grids operating at voltages of 3.5-6.5 kV. Preliminary validation of the thruster performance was accomplished with a laboratory model thruster, while in parallel, a flight-like development model (DM) thruster was completed and two DM thrusters fabricated. The first thruster completed full performance testing and a 2000-h wear test. The second successfully completed vibration tests at the full protoflight levels defined for this NEP program and then passed performance validation testing. The thruster design, performance, and the experimental validation of the design tools are discussed in this paper. PMID:22852684

Polk, James E; Goebel, Dan M; Snyder, John S; Schneider, Analyn C; Johnson, Lee K; Sengupta, Anita

2012-07-01

267

Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion For Manned Deep Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it\\u000ais shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically\\u000afeasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep\\u000ainto the Oort cloud is quite well possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel\\u000aof choice, abundantly available on the comets of the

Friedwardt Winterberg

2009-01-01

268

Kepler: a space mission to detect earth-class exoplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the detection of giant extrasolar planets and the quest for life on Mars, there is heightened interset in finding earth-class planets, those that are less than ten earth masses and might be life supporting. A space-based photometer has the ability to detect the periodic transits of earth-class planets for a wide variety of spectral types of stars. From the

David G. Koch; William Borucki; Larry Webster; Edward Dunham; Jon Jenkins; John Marriott; Harold J. Reitsema

1998-01-01

269

The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): the mission design solution space and the art of the possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in

David Leisawitz; T. Tupper Hyde; Stephen A. Rinehart; Michael Weiss

2008-01-01

270

Space Environment Information System - SPENVIS: Applicability for Mission Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) is a system of models of the space environment and its effects on material (e.g. spacecraft). It covers the natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, and micro-particles. SPENVIS currently integrates 35 distinct models, with new ones being added regularly. The underlying models arise from many years of research, supported by national and international space agencies, resulting in a variety of tools to investigate the Sun-Earth connection and near-earth environment. SPENVIS was originally developed as a browser-based research tool that collects these tools together, being capable of recreating the full range of conditions in most of the solar system. In recent years SPENVIS has been further developed into an Operational System. In addition to enhancing the modeling capabilities, this required an enhancement to the customer perspective, i.e. ease-of-use, consistency, stability, runtime, support, etc. SPENVIS is now available as a web-based or standalone application. This paper will present the result of the latest development project, along with user case studies that will have particular significance for the satellite operations community

Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Kruglanski, M.; Parmentier, N.

2009-12-01

271

Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Manned Deep Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion can there be refuelled. To obtain a high thrust with high specific impulse favours the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of a propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on Earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, making obsolete the ignition of deuterium-tritium with a laser, where 80% of the energy goes into neutrons, this would also mean a breakthrough in fusion research, and therefore would justify the large development costs.

Winterberg, F.

272

Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions.  

PubMed

Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems. PMID:11541774

Garland, J L; Alazraki, M P; Atkinson, C F; Finger, B W

1998-01-01

273

New plans for first far infrared and sub-millimetre space astronomy mission for 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far Infra Red and Submillimetre space Telescope (FIRST) mission is an ESA ``cornerstone'' mission planned for the year 2007. This paper describes the new status of the FIRST satellite design following a redefinition of the mission in 1992/3 to better meet the cost targets. One challenging aspect of this redefinition was the substitution of the large liquid helium cryostat by Stirling cycle mechanical coolers. This posed a number of new thermal and configuration problems. In addition, a new payload complement configuration had to be defined which retained as many of the originally planned scientific capabilities of the system as possible, and which also optimised the instruments' compatibility with the cooling system. Other changes to the design included a reduction in the diameter of the primary reflector with corresponding cost and configurational benefits, and the reconfiguration of the attitude control system to use only existing hardware. These measures had to be introduced with minimum loss of mission capability.

Batchelor, M.; Adler, D.; Trogus, W.

274

Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.

1994-11-01

275

Coping with space motion sickness in Spacelab missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substantial number of persons, around 75%, making their first transition into orbital flight will need to adapt to this unique environment. The two most powerful instruments in the prevention of space motion sickness reside in the selection process and in acquiring adaptation-prelaunch. Today, neither of these means is practical. One logical alternative is to administer preventative medication to all or none. One candidate drug is a high-potency transdermal therapeutic system (TTS)-scopolamine. This is marketed in the nature of a patch that is affixed to the skin behind the ear 12 hr before need and delivers scopolamine into the blood stream for three days. We are systematically evaluating all claims for its high potency and low side effects. We are also evaluating new antimotion sickness remedies and new combinations of homergic drugs.

Graybiel, Ashton

276

Measurement Astrophysics and the AF Space Surveillance Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the AFRL-funded Near Earth Space Surveillance Initiative (NESSI) the University of New Mexico's Measurement Astrophysics (MAP) Research Group has defined, designed and implemented several atmospheric measurement techniques to complement and supplement the observations of the CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II). The principal idea driving the creation of atmospheric sensing and telescope metrology ancillary instrumentation is that these instruments produce data relevant to the reduction and analysis of astronomical data in the quest for quantitatively more precise and accurate photometric and astrometric observations of the night sky. Instruments and techniques relevant to optical-infrared (OIR) space surveillance include: " The Astronomical Lidar for Extinction (ALE) to measure precisely the time-dependent total atmospheric extinction " A spectrophotometric telescope for measuring wavelength-dependent atmospheric extinction " A differential microbarograph array to measure anomalous atmospheric refraction " A multi-baseline microthermal array for measuring atmospheric turbulence on multiple spatial scales. When implemented in support of the stationary, meridian-pointing CTI-II, designed to be the most precise ground-based photometric and astrometric telescope, these instruments operated together provide near real-time measurements of wavelength-dependent total atmospheric extinction caused by scattering and absorption by molecules and aerosols. They also characterize the time-dependent vertical atmospheric pressure and density above the telescope and measure the large-scale (degrees) tilt induced by atmospheric gravity waves, the apparent source of anomalous refraction. Imaging, photometry and spectrophotometry of satellites can be dramatically enhanced by use of these low-cost deployable instruments. Applications relative to CTI-II will be described. The network of faint photometric and astrometric standard stars always observable in the northern hemisphere resulting from multi-year CTI-II observations and the utility of this network to sky surveys will be discussed and demonstrated.

McGraw, J.; Ackermann, M.; Williams, T.; Zimmer, P.; Gerstle, W.; Taylor, M.; Turner, J.; Smith, J.; Linford, J.; Benedict, G.; et al.

277

Continuity and Change in Family's Role in Long-Duration Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As long-duration missions become commonplace, it will be important to consider the effect of the astronaut's career on his\\/her family, and the role of family in supporting that career. In the short history of the space program, archival information about three long-duration programs- Skylab, Shuttle-Mir, and the International Space Station----provides valuable information about the astronauts' adjustment to increasingly longer times

Phyllis Johnson

2008-01-01

278

The determination of surface salinity with the European SMOS space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission aims at obtaining global maps of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space for large-scale and climatic studies. It uses an L-band (1400-1427 MHz) Microwave Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis to measure brightness temperature of the earth's surface at horizontal and vertical polarizations (Th and Tv). These two

G. S. E. Lagerloef; D. M. Le Vine; A. Camps; O.-Z. Zanife

2004-01-01

279

The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Area Telescope (Fermi\\/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in

W. B. Atwood; Aous A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; W. Althouse; B. Anderson; M. Axelsson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; D. L. Band; G. Barbiellini; J. Bartelt; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; D. Bédérède; F. Bellardi; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; G. F. Bignami; D. Bisello; E. Bissaldi; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; J. R. Bogart; E. Bonamente; J. Bonnell; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. Busetto; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; S. Carius; P. Carlson; J. M. Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; M. Ceccanti; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; R. Chipaux; A. N. Cillis; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Condamoor; J. Conrad; R. Corbet; L. Corucci; L. Costamante; S. Cutini; D. S. Davis; D. Decotigny; M. DeKlotz; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; S. W. Digel; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; Y. Edmonds; D. Fabiani; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; D. L. Flath; P. Fleury; W. B. Focke; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; F.-X. Gentit; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; G. Haller; A. K. Harding; P. A. Hart; E. Hays; S. E. Healey; M. Hirayama; L. Hjalmarsdotter; R. Horn; R. E. Hughes; G. Jóhannesson; G. Johansson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; A. Kavelaars; N. Kawai; H. Kelly; M. Kerr; W. Klamra; J. Knödlseder; M. L. Kocian; N. Komin; F. Kuehn; M. Kuss; D. Landriu; L. Latronico; B. Lee; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; A. M. Lionetto; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; B. Marangelli; M. M. Massai; M. N. Mazziotta; J. E. McEnery; N. Menon; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; M. Minuti; N. Mirizzi; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; E. Moretti; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; S. Nishino; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; M. Ohno; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; A. Paccagnella; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; M. Pearce; M. Pepe; A. Perazzo; M. Pesce-Rollins; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pinchera; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; L. Poupard; S. Rainò; R. Rando; E. Rapposelli; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; L. C. Reyes; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; J. J. Russell; F. Ryde; S. Sabatini; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; L. Sapozhnikov; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; T. L. Schalk; G. Scolieri; C. Sgrò; G. H. Share; M. Shaw; T. Shimokawabe; C. Shrader; A. Sierpowska-Bartosik; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; T. E. Stephens; M. S. Strickman; A. W. Strong; D. J. Suson; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; A. Tenze; S. Tether; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; O. Tibolla; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; M. Turri; T. L. Usher; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; P. Wang; K. Watters; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

2009-01-01

280

Impact of the Columbia supercomputer on NASA space and exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has amply demonstrated its capability to accelerate NASA 's key missions in space operations, exploration systems, science, and aeronautics. Columbia is part of an integrated high-end computing (HEC) environment comprised of

Rupak Biswas; Dochan Kwak; Cetin Kiris; Scott Lawrence

2006-01-01

281

Pelletization and encapsulation of general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads for future space missions  

SciTech Connect

Because of the significant costs of space exploration, it can more effectively be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning, and execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as the processing, pelletization, and encapsulation of the fuel that will be used to support the spacecraft electrical power generation systems. Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), radioisotope Stirling systems or a combination of these. However, all of the aforementioned systems will be thermally driven by General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clads in some configuration. Each GPHS fueled clad contains a 150-gram pellet of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, and each pellet is encapsulated within an iridium-alloy shell. Historically, the fabrication of the iridium-alloy shells has been performed at EG&G Mound, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the girth welding of the GPHS capsules has been performed at Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper describes a cost effective alternative method for the production of GPHS capsules. Fundamental considerations such as the potential production options, the associated support activities, and the methodology to transport the welded fueled clads are discussed. (Abstract Truncated)

Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G. [EG& G Mound Applied Technologies, P.O. Box 3000, Miamisburg, Ohio 45343-3000 (United States); Malikh, Y.; Kalinovsky, A.; Aldoshin, A. [Mayak Production Association, 31 Lenin Street, Ozyorsk, (Russia) 454065

1996-03-01

282

Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led

A. Schock; M. Mukunda; G. Summers

1995-01-01

283

Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led

Alfred Schock; Meera Mukunda; G. Summers

1994-01-01

284

Galileo to Great Observatories: a NASA Hubble Space Telescope\\/Servicing Mission 4 Content Strand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slated to launch late summer 2008, STS-125 will service the Hubble Space Telescope. This servicing mission will provide the world with more spectacular images than ever before; consequently, providing scientists with enhanced capabilities to make new discoveries. NASA's education effort includes four content strands, one of which is Galileo to Great Observatories. The focus of this strand is to engage

Tara Clopper; D. Seidel

2008-01-01

285

Shift Changes, Updates, and the On-Call Architecture in Space Shuttle Mission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted

Emily S. Patterson; David D. Woods

2001-01-01

286

Low-Power High-Speed Smart Sensor Design for Space Exploration Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low-power high-speed smart sensor system based on a large format active pixel sensor (APS) integrated with a programmable neural processor for space exploration missions is presented. The concept of building an advanced smart sensing system is demonstra...

W. C. Fang

1997-01-01

287

Reliability Programs and the Problem of Attaining High Probabilities of Mission Success in Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major obstacles to attaining high probabilities of mission success in future space exploration are described to be as follows: dependence on large numbers of propulsive stages in a given vehicle development of relatively many more long-lived components and subsystems than has been possible to achieve to date heed to improve the development process so that a reletively much ower

Nicholas E. Golovin

1964-01-01

288

Space Radiation Hazards on Human Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant health risks for humans exploring Earth's moon and Mars is exposure to the harsh space radiation environment. Crews on these exploration missions will be exposed to a complex mixture of very energetic particles. Chronic exposures to the ever-present background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum consisting of various fluxes of all naturally - occurring chemical elements

L. Townsend

2004-01-01

289

Adventures in level design: generating missions and spaces for action adventure games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates strategies to generate levels for action adventure games. This genre relies more strongly on well-designed levels than rule-driven genres such as strategy or roleplaying games for which procedural level generation has been successful in the past. The approach outlined by this paper distinguishes between missions and spaces as two separate structures that need to be generated in

Joris Dormans

2010-01-01

290

Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build

P. A. Chaizy; T. G. Dimbylow; P. M. Allan; M. A. Hapgood

2011-01-01

291

Hubble Space Telescope solar array change-out, mission anomalies and returned flight hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the successful First Servicing Mission on the Hubble Space Telescope the two solar arrays were replaced with new and improved solar arrays. An electrical short and four solar array mechanical system anomalies occurred: (1) the upper outer bistem on the +V2 wing had developed kinks and then failed to retract; (2) additional friction between the solar array latch fitting

Cindy Winslow

1995-01-01

292

Evaluation of dual multi-mission space exploration vehicle operations during simulated planetary surface exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pair of small pressurized rovers (multi-mission space exploration vehicles, or MMSEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human lunar exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths.

Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jadwick, Jennifer

2013-10-01

293

Development of an experimental loop heat pipe for application in future space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of loop heat pipes (LHPs) as two-phase thermal control devices for space missions has been considered and successfully used in many spacecraft. Therefore, issues related to design, miniaturization of such a device and use of hazardous working fluids such as ammonia are still a concern. In order to face such concerns, this paper presents the development of an

Roger R. Riehl; Thiago Dutra

2005-01-01

294

Performance testing of lidar components subjected to exposure in space via MISSE 7 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

Prasad, Narasimha S.

2012-10-01

295

Behavioral and biological effects of autonomous versus scheduled mission management in simulated space-dwelling groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability of Earth-based mission control personnel to manage their astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. Despite this inevitability, little research exists regarding crew performance and psychosocial adaptation under such autonomous conditions. To this end, a newly-initiated study on crew management systems was conducted to assess crew performance effectiveness under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. Nine volunteers formed three long-term crews and were extensively trained in a simulated planetary geological exploration task over the course of several months. Each crew then embarked on two separate 3-4 h missions in a counterbalanced sequence: Scheduled, in which the crews were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous, in which the well-trained crews received equivalent baseline support from Mission Control but were free to explore the planetary surface as they saw fit. Under the autonomous missions, performance in all three crews improved (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), subjective self-reports of negative emotional states decreased, unstructured debriefing logs contained fewer references to negative emotions and greater use of socially-referent language, and salivary cortisol output across the missions was attenuated. The present study provides evidence that crew autonomy may improve performance and help sustain if not enhance psychosocial adaptation and biobehavioral health. These controlled experimental data contribute to an emerging empirical database on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing missions.

Roma, Peter G.; Hursh, Steven R.; Hienz, Robert D.; Emurian, Henry H.; Gasior, Eric D.; Brinson, Zabecca S.; Brady, Joseph V.

2011-05-01

296

Spectrofluorometric analysis of amino acid mixtures: Implications for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient detection of organic molecules is fundamental for the success of future life detection missions. Spectrofluorometric analysis is one of the many techniques that may be used to detect organic molecules in extraterrestrial settings. A particularly important class of organic molecules to target is the amino acids on which all terrestrial life depends. This study aims to identify the optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for 17 amino acid standards to examine the effects of amino acid concentrations, mixtures and fluorescence quenching. The results and interpretations can guide the design and operation of life detection protocols on future space missions.

Chan, Hoi S.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

2012-01-01

297

The S3 VLBI Data Record and Playback System and Future Space VLBI Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ``orbiting radio observatories'' to conduct VLBI observations on Earth-to-Space and Space-to-Space baselines is the only means by which the fundamental limitations on the angular resolution of images afforded by the technique of VLBI which result from the finite physical dimensions of the Earth and the opacity of the atmosphere at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths may be circumvented. For continuum observations, the loss of correlated flux on long baselines as well as other technical considerations generate a requirement for very wide bandwidth VLBI systems to support future Space VLBI missions. This report presents a brief description of the 1024 - 2048 Mb/sec (1 - 2 Gb/sec) ``S3'' VLBI system under development at the Space Geodynamics Laboratory (SGL) of the Center for Research in Earth and Space Technology (CRESTech)

Cannon, W. H.

298

Investigation of suitable targets for space missions to Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are small bodies of the Solar System which periodically approach or intersect the Earth's orbit. The NEO population is supposed to be continuously replenished by asteroids and comets and is believed to be one of the principal sources of meteorites found on the Earth. As a consequence, the study of the physical properties of NEOs is interesting for scientific goals, to investigate the nature of the whole population of small bodies of the Solar System. It also provides essential information for technological purposes, considering the potential hazard that these objects constitute to our planet and the development of suitable mitigation strategies both on Earth and from space. In the last years, scientific and technological goals have pushed space agencies to plan and launch space missions to NEOs. In this respect, observations investigating the physical and thermal structure of NEOs are needed in support of future space missions. Due to the wide variety of the orbital characteristics of NEOs, target selection must be able to guarantee both technical feasibility and high scientific return. We therefore propose to carry out spectroscopic observations, in the infrared wavelength range 5.2-38 micron, of NEOs characterized by a high degree of accessibility for a space mission. We have selected 13 targets accessible from Earth for space missions and we ask for a total of 24.5 hours of IRS observations to obtain spectroscopic data between 5.2 and 38 micron. The aim of these observations will be the investigation of the surface composition and thermal structure and the determination of the albedo and diameter of each selected target.

Dotto, Elisabetta; Barbieri, Cesare; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Binzel, Richard P.; Brucato, John Robert; Emery, Joshua; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Migliorini, Alessandra; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Perozzi, Ettore

2005-06-01

299

A study of the applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems to future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems like the homopolar generator (HPG) and the compensated pulsed alternator (CPA) to future space missions is explored. Areas of CPA and HPG design requiring development for space applications are identified. The manner in which acceptance parameters of the CPA and HPG scale with operating parameters of the machines are explored and the types of electrical loads which are compatible with the CPA and HPG are examined. Potential applications including the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, pulsed data transmission, laser ranging, welding and electromagnetic space launch are discussed.

Weldon, W. F.

1980-08-01

300

Mission Architecture Study Results for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum has a rich collection of astrophysical sources, and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been the key mission to cover this science for over twenty years. Although highly ranked in the 2010 Decadal Survey for the spectacular science return, tight budgets have forced NASA to consider a reformulation of the LISA mission concept at a lower cost point, even if at the expense of some of the science. We report the results of a mission architecture study that considered various options according to cost, risk, technical readiness, and the ability to address the Decadal-endorsed science goals.

Livas, Jeffrey C.; SGO Mission Concept Development Team

2013-01-01

301

Durham optical design of EUCLID, the merged SPACE/DUNE ESA Dark Energy Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPACE and DUNE proposals for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 have been pre-selected for a Dark Energy Mission. An assessment study was performed in the past few months resulting in a merged mission called EUCLID. The study led to a possible concept for the mission and the payload, paving the way for the industrial studies. I will describe a fully integrated optical design proposed for EUCLID as well as the different steps and difficulties to meet the optical specifications. ESA used the optical design of the telescope, the spectroscopic channel (ex-SPACE), and the space envelope of the visible imaging and NIR photometric channels (ex-DUNE) to derive a tentative mechanical design and related accommodation constraints for EUCLID. Starting with the preliminary design of the DUNE mission for the telescope and instrument, a series of modifications were made to make space for the spectroscopic channel and minimize the weight. The design of DUNE used a 3 mirror telescope of 1.2-m and a dichroic to obtain imaging in both visible and infrared. The design of SPACE, mostly a Durham design, was made of 4 channels each re-imaging a sub-field from the Cassegrain focus of a 2 mirror telescope onto a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) containing ~2.2 millions micromirrors. A prism spectrograph followed each array. This design was modified to reduce the number of optics and spectrographs, and add an imaging capability. The total field of EUCLID is almost 1 square degree nearly equally split between the spectroscopic and imaging channels.

Content, Robert

2008-08-01

302

Building a Sustained University-Built Spacecraft Program: Current and Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hands-on engineering training is considered to be an important part of modern engineering education. This goal has proven to be elusive for spacecraft engineering, however; with the exception of large, government-sponsored "flagship" schools, very few universities have successfully launched and operated their own spacecraft, and the schools that have launched more than one mission can be counted on two hands. The invention and adoption of the CubeSat standard is changing this dynamic; 1-kg, 10-cm CubeSats can be designed, built and launched within the four-year student academic lifetime. But, even if a school could build a series of CubeSats, the question remained as to whether there were any missions worth flying on a CubeSat. The Space Systems Research Laboratory at Saint Louis University (SLU) has embarked on an ambitious program of building a new spacecraft to validate several technical and earth-science payloads. This program is established to sustain the growth of small satellite projects in SLU. To fulfill this mission, SLU is partnering with Vanderbilt University and George Mason University. In addition, as these three universities develop their own payload and bus capabilities, respectively, each school can broaden their partnerships to other organizations to support new missions and new spacecraft. This paper will outline current and future spacecraft missions, the practices adopted by SLU to enable a campaign of student-built spacecraft, and the challenges associated with creating a undergraduate-focused, sustained spacecraft program. The first two Argus spacecraft (COPPER and Argus-High) will be detailed, including the plans for NASA-sponsored launches in 2013. Other two missions, Argus-GTO and the mission proposal currently being developed with George Mason University will also be detailed.

Swartwout, Michael; Jayaram, Sanjay

2012-07-01

303

Space and ground segment performance of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission: four years in orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites is the world's first demonstration constellation using radio occultation signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The radio occultation signals are retrieved in near real-time for global weather/climate monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and space weather research. The mission has processed on average 1400 to 1800 high-quality atmospheric sounding profiles per day. The atmospheric radio occultation soundings data are assimilated into operational numerical weather prediction models for global weather prediction, including typhoon/hurricane/cyclone forecasts. The radio occultation data has shown a positive impact on weather predictions at many national weather forecast centers. A proposed follow-on mission transitions the program from the current experimental research system to a significantly improved real-time operational system, which will reliably provide 8000 radio occultation soundings per day. The follow-on mission as planned will consist of 12 satellites with a data latency of 45 min, which will provide greatly enhanced opportunities for operational forecasts and scientific research. This paper will address the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC system and mission overview, the spacecraft and ground system performance after four years in orbit, the lessons learned from the encountered technical challenges and observations, and the expected design improvements for the new spacecraft and ground system.

Fong, C.-J.; Whiteley, D.; Yang, E.; Cook, K.; Chu, V.; Schreiner, B.; Ector, D.; Wilczynski, P.; Liu, T.-Y.; Yen, N.

2011-01-01

304

Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053. PMID:11594378

Lee, S; Lueptow, R M

2001-02-01

305

A parameter database for large scientific projects: application to the Gaia space astrometry mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel development of many aspects of a complex space science mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants\\u000a in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the\\u000a many design changes, instrument and operational parameters, and numerical values for the data analysis and simulations, a\\u000a challenging but crucially important problem. A comprehensive,

Michael Perryman; Jos de Bruijne; Uwe Lammers

2008-01-01

306

CoRoT: a first space mission to find terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

CoRoT is a space mission devoted to broadband star photometry in visible light during long observing runs. Developed by CNES with a wide european cooperation, it will be launched in 2006 with two pionneering scientific programs: star seismology and detection of terrestrial planets. CoRoT will use the transit method looking for terrestrial planets slightly larger than the Earth. It will

P. Barge; A. Baglin; M. Auvergne; J.-T. Buey; C. Catala; E. Michel; W. W. Weiss; M. Deleuil; L. Jorda; C. Moutou

2005-01-01

307

The performance of a high-precision photometry mission in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

For approximately 17 months during 1999-2000, the star tracker camera on board the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite was used as an instrument to perform high-precision photometry in space. In this paper, I summarize the operating characteristics of the instrument, the data analysis techniques developed to support WIRE's new mission, and some recent scientific results. In addition, I discuss lessons

D. L. Buzasi

2004-01-01

308

End-to-end simulator for Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an end-to-end simulator to assess the performances of Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) space missions for altimetry or sea state determination. The presented simulator is capable of simulating the GNSS-R observation scenario including the states of the transmitting and receiving satellites, the full instrument modeling, and scattering physical modeling based on an actual geophysical database. It

Hyuk Park; Juan Fernando Marchan-Hernandez; Nereida Rodriguez-Alvarez; Enric Valencia; Isaac Ramos-Perez; Xavier Bosch-Lluis; Adriano Camps

2010-01-01

309

Intersatellite laser ranging with homodyne optical phase locking for Space Advanced Gravity Measurements mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the scheme and the preliminary results of an intersatellite laser ranging system that is designed for the Earth's gravity recovery mission proposed in China, called Space Advanced Gravity Measurements (SAGM). The proposed intersatellite distance is about 100 km and the precision of inter-satellite range monitoring is 10 nm\\/Hz1\\/2 at 0.1 Hz. To meet the needs,

Hsien-Chi Yeh; Qi-Zhong Yan; Yu-Rong Liang; Ying Wang; Jun Luo

2011-01-01

310

Microprecision interferometer: scorecard on technology readiness for the Space Interferometer Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first ever `scorecard' showing how well the Space Interferometer Mission is expected to meet the vibration attenuation requirements for its instrument. The spacecraft reaction wheel assembly, the primary on-board vibration source, shakes the structure in the frequency range from 2 Hz to 1000 Hz. Optical path differences and wavefront tip-tilts must be maintained to a few nanometers and tens of milli-arcseconds respectively, in this disturbance environment.

Goullioud, Renaud; Dekens, Frank G.; Neat, Gregory W.

2000-07-01

311

Effects of space missions on the human immune system: A meta?analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future spaceflight will require travelers to spend ever?increasing periods of time in microgravity. Optimal functioning of the immune system is of paramount importance for the health and performance of these travelers. A meta?analysis statistical procedure was used to analyze immune system data from crew members in United States and Soviet space missions from 8.5 to 140 days’ duration between 1968

L. K. Barger; J. E. Greenleaf; F. Baldini; D. Huff

1995-01-01

312

Near infrared camera and multiobject spectrometer (NICMOS): the near infrared space mission on HST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), is a `second generation' instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As such it is an integral part of the HST mission concept of periodic instrument replacement. NICMOS provides a new capability of near infrared astrophysical investigations in the 0.8 - 2.5 micrometers spectral region utilizing three cameras at different spatial resolutions

Rodger I. Thompson

1994-01-01

313

Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, is one of the most powerful optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. ESA contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble and European astronomers receive in return a guaranteed 15 share of observing time (and 20 on average in practice).

1999-03-01

314

SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM PHASED-MISSION PROBABILITY ANALYSIS USING CONVENTIONAL PRA METHODS  

SciTech Connect

As part of a series of papers on the topic of advance probabilistic methods, a benchmark phased-mission problem has been suggested. This problem consists of modeling a space mission using an ion propulsion system, where the mission consists of seven mission phases. The mission requires that the propulsion operate for several phases, where the configuration changes as a function of phase. The ion propulsion system itself consists of five thruster assemblies and a single propellant supply, where each thruster assembly has one propulsion power unit and two ion engines. In this paper, we evaluate the probability of mission failure using the conventional methodology of event tree/fault tree analysis. The event tree and fault trees are developed and analyzed using Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE). While the benchmark problem is nominally a "dynamic" problem, in our analysis the mission phases are modeled in a single event tree to show the progression from one phase to the next. The propulsion system is modeled in fault trees to account for the operation; or in this case, the failure of the system. Specifically, the propulsion system is decomposed into each of the five thruster assemblies and fed into the appropriate N-out-of-M gate to evaluate mission failure. A separate fault tree for the propulsion system is developed to account for the different success criteria of each mission phase. Common-cause failure modeling is treated using traditional (i.e., parametrically) methods. As part of this paper, we discuss the overall results in addition to the positive and negative aspects of modeling dynamic situations with non-dynamic modeling techniques. One insight from the use of this conventional method for analyzing the benchmark problem is that it requires significant manual manipulation to the fault trees and how they are linked into the event tree. The conventional method also requires editing the resultant cut sets to obtain the correct results. While conventional methods may be used to evaluate a dynamic system like that in the benchmark, the level of effort required may preclude its use on real-world problems.

Curtis Smith; James Knudsen

2006-05-01

315

Scientific program construction principles and time allocation scheme for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present scientific program construction principles and a time allocation scheme developed for the World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet\\u000a (WSO-UV) mission, which is an international space observatory for observation in UV spectral range 100–300 nm. The WSO-UV\\u000a consists of a 1.7 m aperture telescope with instrumentation designed to carry out high resolution spectroscopy, long-slit\\u000a low resolution spectroscopy and direct sky imaging. The WSO-UV Ground

Oleg Malkov; Mikhail Sachkov; Boris Shustov; Pavel Kaigorodov; Francisco Javier Yáñez; Ana Ines Gómez de Castro

2011-01-01

316

Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission  

SciTech Connect

A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

1994-06-28

317

Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes.  

PubMed

The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The control of hazards associated with the deployment of complex payloads and cargoes has involved many international participants. These challenges are examined in some detail along with examples of how crew safety has evolved in the manned space program and how the international partners have addressed various scenarios involving control and mitigation of potential hazards to crew and vehicle safety. PMID:14606499

Vongsouthy, C; Stenger-Nguyen, P A; Nguyen, H V; Nguyen, P H; Huang, M C; Alexander, R G

2004-02-01

318

Opportunities for Space Science Education Using Current and Future Solar System Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current and future Solar System exploration missions available, endless opportunities exist for education programs to incorporate the real-world science of these missions. APL currently has numerous education and outreach programs tailored for K-12 formal and informal education, higher education, and general outreach communities. Current programs focus on Solar System exploration missions such as the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) Moon explorer, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite, to name a few. Education and outreach programs focusing on K-12 formal education include visits to classrooms, summer programs for middle school students, and teacher workshops. APL hosts a Girl Power event and a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Day each year. Education and outreach specialists hold teacher workshops throughout the year to train educators in using NASA spacecraft science in their lesson plans. High school students from around the U.S. are able to engage in NASA spacecraft science directly by participating in the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT) and the Student Principal Investigator Programs. An effort is also made to generate excitement for future missions by focusing on what mysteries will be solved. Higher education programs are used to recruit and train the next generation of scientists and engineers. The NASA/APL Summer Internship Program offers a unique glimpse into the Space Department’s “end-to-end” approach to mission design and execution. College students - both undergraduate and graduate - are recruited from around the U.S. to work with APL scientists and engineers who act as mentors to the students. Many students are put on summer projects that allow them to work with existing spacecraft systems, while others participate in projects that investigate the operational and science objectives of future planned spacecraft systems. In many cases these interns have returned to APL as full-time staff after graduation.

Matiella Novak, M.; Beisser, K.; Butler, L.; Turney, D.

2010-12-01

319

Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions  

SciTech Connect

The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

1988-01-01

320

Quickstar mission applications, system design, and capabilities of a small, smart space system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early days of the United States space program, small low-cost satellite systems permitted scientific researchers timely access to space to perform a wide range of scientific experiments. More recently, however, high cost and the lack of launch opportunities have precluded most space experimenters, whether they are student scientists at the university level or government agency researchers, from ever participating in an actual space flight experiment. The paper discusses the development of a small highly-capable, low-cost, light-weight satellite system using modern design techniques capable of carrying scientific experiments into space at a tenth the cost of current much larger and more costly space systems. Mission applications, system design, relevant technologies, and payload capabilities (mass, power, data rate, pointing, volume, etc) of this light-weight spacecraft are described. As part of the overall small satellite system architecture, a low-cost multi-purpose ground station to support production, test, launch, and orbit operations of the space segment is also available. The prototype space segment was developed to be compatible with a McDonnell Douglas Delta II series expendable launch vehicle (ELV). The paper will also provide a look at a satellite configuration, incorporating the same subsystems and capabilities as the prototype, designed for stand alone ELV (Pegasus, Scout, or SSLV) launchings.

Garrison, Thomas P.

321

A pose and position measurement system for the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As NASA develops the new space explorations systems required for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) also known as ORION, there is a growing need for hardware and algorithms to support Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technology for both manned and unmanned flights. A new definition of space hardware is also emerging based on reconfigurable computing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a high processing bandwidth hardware platform based on the latest Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. This platform, called SpaceCube, incorporates the processing power of immersed PowerPC core technology with an extremely flexible I/O capability. The result is an adaptable, reconfigurable computing platform well suited for hosting computationally intensive AR&D algorithms. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) has developed several electro-optical sensor systems for both NASA and the Department of Defense. ULTOR® is one such sensor technology, developed for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in missile guidance systems. AOS has applied ULTOR® to target position and attitude measurements in space, commonly referred to as pose estimation. Under GSFC funding, AOS has successfully integrated ULTOR® into the SpaceCube platform. GSFC plans to demonstrate on-station pose estimation using the integrated ULTOR® SpaceCube system on the next shuttle mission to the service the Hubble Space Telescope.

Balch, Michael; Tandy, Dave

2007-05-01

322

Space medicine innovation and telehealth concept implementation for medical care during exploration-class missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) is provided using real-time communication with limited medical data transmission. In the occurrence of an off-nominal medical event, the medical care paradigm employed is ‘stabilization and transportation’, involving real-time management from ground and immediate return to Earth in the event that the medical contingency could not be resolved in due time in space. In preparation for future missions beyond Low-Earth orbit (LEO), medical concepts of operations are being developed to ensure adequate support for the new mission profiles: increased distance, duration and communication delays, as well as impossibility of emergency returns and limitations in terms of medical equipment availability. The current ISS paradigm of medical care would no longer be adequate due to these new constraints. The Operational Space Medicine group at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is looking towards synergies between terrestrial and space medicine concepts for the delivery of medical care to deal with the new challenges of human space exploration as well as to provide benefits to the Canadian population. Remote and rural communities on Earth are, in fact, facing similar problems such as isolation, remoteness to tertiary care centers, resource scarcity, difficult (and expensive) emergency transfers, limited access to physicians and specialists and limited training of medical and nursing staff. There are a number of researchers and organizations, outside the space communities, working in the area of telehealth. They are designing and implementing terrestrial telehealth programs using real-time and store-and-forward techniques to provide isolated populations access to medical care. The cross-fertilization of space-Earth research could provide support for increased spin-off and spin-in effects and stimulate telehealth and space medicine innovations to engage in the new era of human space exploration. This paper will discuss the benefits of space-Earth research projects for the advancement of both terrestrial and space medicine and will use examples of operational space medicine projects conducted at the CSA in areas such as remote training, tele-mentoring and remote control of an ultrasound.

Martin, Annie; Sullivan, Patrick; Beaudry, Catherine; Kuyumjian, Raffi; Comtois, Jean-Marc

2012-12-01

323

Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strain Aw12879, a Restricted-Host-Range Citrus Canker-Causing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.

Jalan, Neha; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2013-01-01

324

Validation of the in-flight calibration procedures for the MICROSCOPE space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MICROSCOPE space mission aims to test the Equivalence Principle with an accuracy of 10-15. The drag-free micro-satellite will orbit around the Earth and embark a differential electrostatic accelerometer including two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field and made of different materials. The experience consists in testing the equality of the electrostatic acceleration applied to the masses to maintain them relatively motionless. The accuracy of the measurements exploited for the test of the Equivalence Principle is limited by our a priori knowledge of several physical parameters of the instrument. These parameters are partially estimated on-ground, but with an insufficient accuracy, and an in-orbit calibration is therefore required to correct the measurements. The calibration procedures have been defined and their analytical performances have been evaluated. In addition, a simulator software including the dynamics model of the instrument, the satellite drag-free system and the perturbing environment has been developed to numerically validate the analytical results. After an overall presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission, this paper will describe the calibration procedures and focus on the simulator. Such an in-flight calibration is mandatory for similar space missions taking advantage of a drag-free system.

Hardy, Émilie; Levy, Agnès; Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles

2013-11-01

325

Design of small Stirling Dynamic Isotope Power System for robotic space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) technology is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. Unlike previous DIPS designs which were based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled down to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTGs. Preliminary characterization of units in the output power ranges 200-600 We indicate that on an electrical watt basis the GPHS/small Stirling DIPS will be roughly equivalent to an advanced RTG in size and mass but require less than a third of the isotope inventory.

Bents, David J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Withrow, Colleen A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

1993-01-01

326

An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success  

SciTech Connect

The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earth in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as return on investment'' and commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1990-10-01

327

An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success  

SciTech Connect

The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as return on investment'' and commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, M/S K5-21, Richland, Washington 99352 (US))

1991-01-05

328

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis

Chuanfu An; Zhonglin Mou

2012-01-01

329

Capture of Interplanetary Dust Particles and Exposure of Bioorganic Compounds Using the International Space Station: The Tanpopo Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel astrobiology mission named Tanpopo on the International Space Station will be introduced. We will collect interplanetary dusts (IDPs) with aerogel, and expose amino acid (precursors) to examine possible alteration of organics in IDPs.

Kobayashi, K.; Mita, H.; Yabuta, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Takahashi, J.; Imai, E.; Okudaira, K.; Tanabe, M.; Kawai, H.; Yano, H.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Yokobori, S.; Yamagishi, A.; Tanpopo Working Group

2012-05-01

330

User and Task Analysis of the Flight Surgeon Console at the Mission Control Center of the NASA Johnson Space Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Astronauts in a space station are to some extent like patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medical support of a mission crew will require acquisition, transmission, distribution, integration, and archiving of significant amounts of data. These data a...

K. A. Johnson M. Shek

2003-01-01

331

Space certification and qualification programs for laser diode modules on the NASA ICESat-2 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser diode module (LDM) space certification and qualification program was developed for NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2, ICESat-2 mission. The ICESat-2 laser transmitter is a high performance diode-pumped solid state laser that requires high reliability, high efficiency and high brightness fiber coupled LDMs, capable of supporting a 27,000 hour mission life. The test centric LDM space certification and qualification programs consisted of several key phases including a technology plausibility study, laser diode and LDM pedigree reviews, environmental acceptance and qualification testing, and extensive life testing. The intent of the plausibility study was to analytically and experimentally demonstrate that a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) LDM design was capable of being space-certified. A pedigree review of the laser diode population was conducted to reject out-of-family laser diodes from the population. The laser diode pedigree review was a statistical analysis of several laser diode performance metrics (efficiency, operating current, etc.) with outliers being rejected. All LDMs underwent environmental acceptance testing including vibration, thermal cycling and an extended burn-in. The primary purpose of the acceptance testing was to highlight internal workmanship issues. The pedigree review of the acceptance tested LDMs was conducted to reject out-of-family LDMs in statistical analysis of several performance metrics (operating current, coupling efficiency, etc.). A sub-set of the flight-certified LDMs will be exposed to environmental qualification testing and will subsequently be tested to failure to determine the LDM capability. Multiple LDMs are being life tested under flight-like conditions and show no signs of degradation with run times of 22,000 hours, which is over 80% of the mission life. Details of the LDMs space certification and qualification programs are presented.

Sawruk, Nicholas W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Bruce, Kevin; Eltringham, Thomas F.; Nash, Franklin R.; Piccirilli, Alfonso B.; Slusark, Walter J.; Hovis, Floyd E.

2013-09-01

332

The international management of the Mars 94/96 mission: The French space agency role  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1970s just after the French-Soviet cooperation settlement in 1966, the French contribution was limited to scientific participation or to 'Black Box' deliveries. In the 1980s, with the VEGA and the PHOBOS missions, the cooperation was extended to the international scientific community and the French contribution to the scientific payload got more ambitious and important: it follows that management rules had to be settled. The management challenges are stressed with the MARS 94-96 mission under the leadership of the Russian Space Agency. For the first time, in addition to an important contribution to the different scientific payloads, CNES is involved at system level through the relays on board MARS OBSERVER and MARS 94 orbiter and at vehicle level through its contribution to the MARSOKHOD navigation but mainly through the balloon delivery together with its guide-rope.

Brochard-Runavot, J.

1994-11-01

333

Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) began in 1994 with plans to send spacecraft to Mars every 26 months. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a global mapping mission, was launched in 1996 and is currently orbiting Mars. Mars Surveyor '98 consisted of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL). Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) was the prime contractor for Mars Surveyor '98. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Surveyor Program for NASA's Office of Space Science. MPL was developed under very tight funding constraints. The combined development cost of MPL and MCO, including the cost of the two launch vehicles, was approximately the same as the development cost of the Mars Pathfinder mission, including the cost of its single launch vehicle. The MPL project accepted the challenge to develop effective implementation methodologies consistent with programmatic requirements.

Albee, Arden; Battel, Steven; Brace, Richard; Burdick, Garry; Casani, John; Lavell, Jeffrey; Leising, Charles; MacPherson, Duncan; Burr, Peter; Dipprey, Duane

2000-03-01

334

Bathymetry from space: Rationale and requirements for a new, high-resolution altimetric mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetry is foundational data, providing basic infrastructure for scientific, economic, educational, managerial, and political work. Applications as diverse as tsunami hazard assessment, communications cable and pipeline route planning, resource exploration, habitat management, and territorial claims under the Law of the Sea all require reliable bathymetric maps to be available on demand. Fundamental Earth science questions, such as what controls seafloor shape and how seafloor shape influences global climate, also cannot be answered without bathymetric maps having globally uniform detail. Current bathymetric charts are inadequate for many of these applications because only a small fraction of the seafloor has been surveyed. Modern multibeam echosounders provide the best resolution, but it would take more than 200 ship-years and billions of dollars to complete the job. The seafloor topography can be charted globally, in five years, and at a cost under $ 100 M. A radar altimeter mounted on an orbiting spacecraft can measure slight variations in ocean surface height, which reflect variations in the pull of gravity caused by seafloor topography. A new satellite altimeter mission, optimized to map the deep ocean bathymetry and gravity field, will provide a global map of the world's deep oceans at a resolution of 6-9 km. This resolution threshold is critical for a large number of basic science and practical applications, including: determining the effects of bathymetry and seafloor roughness on ocean circulation, mixing, climate, and biological communities, habitats, and mobility; understanding the geologic processes responsible for ocean floor features unexplained by simple plate tectonics, such as abyssal hills, seamounts, microplates, and propagating rifts; improving tsunami hazard forecast accuracy by mapping the deep-ocean topography that steers tsunami wave energy; mapping the marine gravity field to improve inertial navigation and provide homogeneous coverage of continental margins; providing bathymetric maps for numerous other practical applications, including reconnaissance for submarine cable and pipeline routes, improving tide models, and assessing potential territorial claims to the seabed under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Because ocean bathymetry is a fundamental measurement of our planet, there is a broad spectrum of interest from government, the research community, industry, and the general public. Mission requirements. The resolution of the altimetry technique is limited by physical law, not instrument capability. Everything that can be mapped from space can be achieved now, and there is no gain in waiting for technological advances. Mission requirements for Bathymetry from Space are much less stringent and less costly than typical physical oceanography missions. Long-term sea-surface height accuracy is not needed; the fundamental measurement is the slope of the ocean surface to an accuracy of ˜1 ?rad (1 mm km -1). The main mission requirements are: improved range precision (a factor of two or more improvement in altimeter range precision with respect to current altimeters is needed to reduce the noise due to ocean waves); fine cross-track spacing and long mission duration (a ground track spacing of 6 km or less is required. A six-year mission would reduce the error by another factor of two); moderate inclination (existing satellite altimeters have relatively high orbital inclinations, thus their resolution of east-west components of ocean slope is poor at low latitudes. The new mission should have an orbital inclination close to 60° or 120° so as to resolve north-south and east-west components almost equally while still covering nearly all the world's ocean area); near-shore tracking (for applications near coastlines, the ability of the instrument to track the ocean surface close to shore, and acquire the surface soon after leaving land, is desirable). To cite this article: D.T. Sandwell et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Gille, Sarah; Kappel, Ellen; Jayne, Steven; Soofi, Khalid; Coakley, Bernard; Géli, Louis

2006-11-01

335

Exploration mission enhancements possible with power beaming. [Space Applications Power Beaming  

SciTech Connect

A key factor in the exploration and development of the space frontier is the availability of energy where and when it is needed. Currently all space satellites and platforms include self-contained power systems that supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. An alternative approach is to couple advanced high power system with energy beam transmitters and energy receivers to form an infrastructure of a space power utility where a central power system provides power to multiple users. Major space activities, such as low Earth orbit space commercialization and the colonization of the Moon or Mars, would benefit significantly from a central power generation and transmission system. This paper describes the power-beaming concept and system components as applied to space power generation and distribution in support of the Space Exploration Initiative. Beam-power scenarios are discussed including commonality of systems and hardware with cargo transport vehicles, power beaming from orbit to stationary and mobile users on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, and other surface applications. 6 refs.

Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Segna, D.R. (USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (USA))

1990-10-01

336

Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO): an innovative space mission target-oriented to the extreme energy cosmic rays and neutrinos detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUSO - Extreme Universe Space Observatory, is a precursor space mission aiming at important scientific objectives with an innovative instrumentation approach. For the first time an attempt will be done to detect Extensive Air Shower from space. EUSO will image the streak of the UV fluorescence light produced from the outer particles interacting with the Earth's atmosphere. The EUSO telescope,

Osvaldo Catalano

2003-01-01

337

Mariner Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

338

XMM (X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission) space telescope: Development plan for the lightweight replicated x-ray gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach and development plan for the production of replicated variable line spacing x-ray reflection gratings on lightweight substrates is described. The gratings will be arrayed in spectrometers to analyze the soft x-rays gathered by the telescopes flown around the European Space Agency (ESA) X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission'' (XMM). The mission requires about 750 gratings to form 3 arrays. Each array

R. C. Montesanti; D. P. Atkinson; D. F. Edwards; J. L. Klingmann

1990-01-01

339

The European Space Agency?s Preparatory Activities for Future Atmospheric Composition Sounding Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the European Space Agency's Envisat mission is successfully observing the Earth's atmosphere using the three instruments GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY, GOME on the ERS-2 mission is still operational with limitations in data coverage, and MetOp will provide continuity to GOME-type observations, ESA is conducting preparatory activities for future missions. Two future mission candidates focusing on water vapour measurements have completed their Phase A study. WALES uses a four-wavelengths DIAL for high-resolution water vapour measurements in the entire troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. ACE+ uses radio occultation in the L-band and K/X-band for tropospheric and stratospheric temperature and tropospheric/lowest stratospheric water vapour. ESA is also actively supporting the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Partnership, which establishes requirements for future long-term observation and analysis / integration systems in various areas of Earth sciences and related applications. IGACO is the IGOS theme dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. The IGACO theme report is presently being drafted and will identify the major scientific and societal issues, establish the observational requirements as well as assess the adequacy of existing instrumentation and the need for improved observation systems. ESA is conducting preparatory study activities for a future Earth Watch mission for operational atmospheric chemistry monitoring, which could be implemented in the framework of the GMES initiative with the European Commission. Advanced study activities are taking place for UTLS limb-sounding. An airborne mm-wave limb sounder demonstrator has been developed by the Agency and will start test flights soon. Tomographic, two-dimensional retrieval algorithms have been developed through ESA-sponsored studies.

Langen, J.; Wehr, T.

340

Using TEC and radio scintillation data from the CITRIS radio beacon receiver to study low and midlatitude ionospheric irregularities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space (CITRIS) instrument is presented. CITRIS is a multiband receiver that recorded Total Electron Content (TEC) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555 ± 5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and midlatitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO and 2) the French sponsored global network of ground-based Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) beacons. This paper is both a brief review of the CITRIS experiment and the first combined TEC and scintillation study of ionospheric irregularities using a satellite-borne beacon receiver. It primarily focuses on CITRIS/DORIS observations and is a case study of the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillation characteristics at 401.25 MHz during the 2008 equinox solar minimum. In addition, CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during C/NOFS' first year of operations and comparison with measured C/NOFS irregularity characteristics are made. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions.

Siefring, Carl L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Koch, Douglas E.; Galysh, Ivan J.

2011-12-01

341

IMPEx - an infrastructure for joint analysis of space missions and computational modelling data in planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) was started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Specifically, the `modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and analysis of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will enable 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ CLWeb software for computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and scientific modelling tools, providing their joint interconnected analysis for the better understanding of related space and planetary physics phenomena.The interconnection between the tools participating in IMPEx is based on webservices and a messaging protocol. IMPEx tries to use as often as possible widely accepted standards for the metadata allowing to efficiently search and retrieve observational and modelling data for their joint utilisation.

Gangloff, Michel

2012-07-01

342

The Atmospheric Monitoring System of the JEM-EUSO space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) is mandatory and a key element of a space-based mission which aims to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). JEM-EUSO has a dedicated atmospheric monitoring system that plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. Our AMS consists of an infrared camera and a LIDAR device that are being fully designed with space qualification to fulfil the scientific requirements of this space mission. This AMS will provide information of the cloud cover in the FoV of JEM-EUSO, as well as measurements of the cloud top altitudes with an accuracy of 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere transmittance in the direction of each air shower with an accuracy of 0.15 degree and a resolution of 500 m. This will ensure that the energy of the primary UHECR and the depth of maximum development of the EAS (Extensive Air Shower) are measured with an accuracy better than 30% and 120 g/cm2, for EAS occurring either in the clear sky or with the EAS depth of maximum development above optically thick cloud layers. Moreover novel stereoscopic and radiometric retrieval techniques are under development to infer the Cloud Top Height (CTH) from the brightness temperature patterns obtained from the infrared camera.

Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Morales de losRíos, J. A.; del Peral, L.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Shinozaki, K.; Prieto, H.; H-Carretero, J.; Sabau, M. D.; Belenguer, T.; González Alvarado, C.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Briz, S.; de Castro, A. J.; Fernández, I.; Cortés, F.; López, F.; Licandro, J.; Reyes, M.; Joven, E.; Tsuno, K.; Ogawa, T.; Catalano, O.; Anzalone, A.; Isgró, F.; Valore, L.; Guarino, F.; Casolino, M.; Cellino, A.; Di Martino, M.; Bertaina, M.; Cremonini, R.; Gola, F.; Garino, F.; Keilhauer, B.; Neronov, A.; Wada, S.

2013-06-01

343

Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.  

PubMed

Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions. PMID:11876201

Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

1998-01-01

344

Offspring of SPACE: the spectrograph channel of the ESA Dark Energy Mission EUCLID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPACE and DUNE proposals for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 have been pre-selected for a Dark Energy Mission. An assessment study was performed in the past few months resulting in a merged mission called EUCLID. The study led to a possible concept for the mission and the payload, paving the way for the industrial studies. SPACE has now become the EUCLID spectrograph channel (EUCLID-spectro). We will discuss its science and give a description of the different studied optical designs. EUCLID-spectro aims to produce the largest three-dimensional map of the Universe by taking near-IR spectra at R=400 and 0.9?mspace distortions and clusters of galaxies. It will distinguish true dark energy from a modification of Einstein's gravity. The original design had 4 channels each re-imaging with mirrors a sub-field from the Casgrain focus onto a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). A prism spectrograph followed each array. This design was modified to adapt EUCLID-spectro to a DUNE-type telescope, to reduce the number of optics and spectrographs, and add an imaging capability. We studied grism spectrographs, especially for a slitless backup solution that have less optics but a smaller field; we also studied compact prism and lens spectrographs, telescope corrector combined with micromirror arrays at the Casgrain focus then eliminating the re-imaging, and TIR prisms over the arrays to help with packaging.

Content, Robert; Cimatti, Andrea; Robberto, Massimo; Grange, Robert; Spanò, Paolo; Sharples, Ray M.; Baugh, Carlton; Garilli, Bianca; Guzzo, Luigi; Le Fevre, Olivier; Maccagni, Dario; Rosati, Piero; Wang, Yun; Zamorani, Giovanni; Zerbi, Filippo

2008-08-01

345

Utilizing a Russian space nuclear reactor for a United States space mission: Systems integration issues  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) has developed a cooperative relationship with several institutes of the former Soviet Union to evaluate Russian space hardware on a US spacecraft One component is the Topaz II Nuclear Power System; a built and flight qualified nuclear reactor that has yet to be tested in space. The access to the Topaz II reactor provides the NEPSTP with a rare opportunity; to conduct an early flight demonstration of nuclear electric propulsion at a relatively low cost. This opportunity, however, is not without challenges. Topaz II was designed to be compatible with Russian spacecraft and launch vehicles. It was manufactured and flight qualified by Russian techniques and standards and conforms to safety requirements of the former Soviet Union, not the United States. As it is desired to make minimal modifications to the Topaz II, integrating the reactor system with a United States spacecraft and launch vehicle presents an engineering challenge. This paper documents the lessons teamed regarding the integration of reactor based spacecraft and also some insight about integrating Russian hardware. It examines the planned integration flow along with specific reactor requirements that affect the spacecraft integration including American-Russian space system compatibility.

Reynolds, E.; Schaefer, E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Lab.; Polansky, G.; Lacy, J. [Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bocharov, A. [GDBMB, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1993-09-30

346

Lunar space missions for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two stages of exploring the lunar surface as a target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are discussed. The first step is connected with the Lunar Orbital Radio Detector (LORD) experiment in the space mission Luna-Glob, scheduled for the near future. The current status of the LORD instrument development is represented. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based detector arrays. Successful completion of the LORD experiment will permit to consider the second step of the program namely multi-satellite lunar systems to increase the statistics and the accuracy of the experiment.

Gusev, G. A.; Chechin, V. A.; Ryabov, V. A.

2013-05-01

347

CALET Mission for the Observation of Cosmic Rays on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) mission to make observations of high energy cosmic rays, electrons, gamma-rays, and nuclei, on the International Space Station (ISS). CALET mission has been approved as one of candidates for the next mission utilizing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The detector of CALET consists of an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). Main objective of cosmic-ray observation with CALET is to determine precise energy spectrum of electrons up to 20 TeV. As the super nova remnants (SNR) are taken to be sources of electrons, some structure caused by nearby electron sources is expected to appear in the energy spectrum over 1 TeV. Gamma-rays from 20 MeV to a few TeV can be also observed by CALET. Because a thick TASC of CALET gives high energy resolution, annihilation line of SUSY particle, which is a candidate of the dark matter, can be detected. Observation of nuclei is also possible up to 1000 TeV owing to the thick TASC. We have been going on conceptual design of CALET to clear a next judgment in one or two years to proceed to practical development for launching in 2013.

Tamura, Tadahisa; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Okudaira, Osamu; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Hareyama, Makoto; Miyajima, Hiromitsu; Miyaji, Takashi; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Ueno, Shiro; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Jun; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Okuno, Shoji; Tateyama, Nobuto; Hibino, Kinya; Shiomi, Atsushi; Takita, Masato; Yuda, Toshinori; Shimizu, Yuki; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Terasawa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Katayose, Yusaku; Shibata, Makio; Yoshida, Kenji; Ichimura, Masaichi; Kuramata, Shuichi; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Komori, Yoshiko; Mizutani, Kohei; Munakata, Kazuki; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Mitchell, John W.; Barbier, Louis M.; Moissev, Alexander A.; Krizmanic, John F.; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, Joachim B.; Wefel, John P.; Binns, Walter R.; Israel, Martin H.; Krawzczynski, H. S.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Marrocchesi, Pier S.; Maestro, Paolo; Bagliesi, Maria G.; Millucci, Vincenzo; Meucci, Mario; Bigongiari, Gabriele; Zei, Riccardo; Kim, Meyoung; Adriani, Oscar; Papini, Paolo; Bonechi, Lorenzo; Elena, Vannuccini; Morsani, Fabio; Ligabue, Franco; Chang, Jin; Gan, Weiqun; Yang, Ji; Ma, Yuqian; Wang, Huanyu; Chen, Guoming

348

The telescope and the double Fabry-Pérot interferometer for the ADAHELI solar space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADvanced Astronomy for HELIophysics (ADAHELI) is a Small Mission to study the structure and fast dynamics of the low solar atmosphere, performing Visible-NIR monochromatic and broad-band observations. The mission will achieve millimeter full disk observations as well. The ADAHELI Team has succesfully completed, in December 2008, the Phase A study awarded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The Interferometer for SOlar Dynamics (ISODY), on board the ADAHELI satellite, comprises a Gregorian telescope and its focal plane suite. The advanced design focal plane suite uses fast CMOS cameras for investigating photospheric and chromospheric fast dynamics and structure. ISODY is equipped with a pioneering focal plane suite composed of a spectral channel, based upon a tandem of Fabry-Perot interferometers operating in the visible-NIR spectral region, a broad band channel for high resolution imaging, and a correlation tracker used as an image stabilization system. ADAHELI's mission profile has been tailored to limit the spacecraft's radial velocity in the Sunward direction, to not exceed +/-4 km/s, during 95% of the yearly orbit, to allow a continuous use of the on-board interferometer.

Greco, V.; Cavallini, F.; Berrilli, F.

2010-07-01

349

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases.

2011-01-01

350

Orbit design for future SpaceChip swarm missions in a planetary atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag on the orbital dynamics of satellites-on-a-chip (SpaceChips) is exploited to design equatorial long-lived orbits about the oblate Earth. The orbit energy gain due to asymmetric solar radiation pressure, considering the Earth's shadow, is used to balance the energy loss due to atmospheric drag. Future missions for a swarm of SpaceChips are proposed, where a number of small devices are released from a conventional spacecraft to perform spatially distributed measurements of the conditions in the ionosphere and exosphere. It is shown that the orbit lifetime can be extended and indeed selected through solar radiation pressure and the end-of-life re-entry of the swarm can be ensured, by exploiting atmospheric drag.

Colombo, Camilla; McInnes, Colin

2012-06-01

351

Space Engineering Model Cryogen Free ADR for Future ESA Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an engineering model ADR system to cool cryogenic detectors to 50-30 mK is presented which is designed to be cooled via a 4-5 K space cryocooler. The system will be subjected to vibration qualification suitable for an Ariane 5 launch. The ADR is of a double ADR form comprising a chromic potassium alum (CPA) low temperature stage and dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG) high temperature stage. Details of the 3 Tesla (< 2.5 Amp) magnet system and the magnetic shielding for the detector focal plane and potential spacecraft are given with modelled results.

Hepburn, I. D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Coker, P.; Crofts, E.; Winter, B.; Milward, S.; Stafford-Allen, R.; Hunt, R.; Brownhill, M.; Rando, N.; Linder, M.

2004-06-01

352

Space and ground segment performance and lessons learned of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission: four years in orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) Mission consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites is the world's first demonstration constellation using radio occultation signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The atmospheric profiles derived by processing radio occultation signals are retrieved in near real-time for global weather/climate monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and space weather research. The mission has processed, on average, 1400 to 1800 high-quality atmospheric sounding profiles per day. The atmospheric radio occultation data are assimilated into operational numerical weather prediction models for global weather prediction, including typhoon/hurricane/cyclone forecasts. The radio occultation data has shown a positive impact on weather predictions at many national weather forecast centers. A follow-on mission was proposed that transitions the current experimental research mission into a significantly improved real-time operational mission, which will reliably provide 8000 radio occultation soundings per day. The follow-on mission, as planned, will consist of 12 LEO satellites (compared to 6 satellites for the current mission) with data latency requirement of 45 min (compared to 3 h for the current mission), which will provide greatly enhanced opportunities for operational forecasts and scientific research. This paper will address the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC system and mission overview, the spacecraft and ground system performance after four years in orbit, the lessons learned from the encountered technical challenges and observations, and the expected design improvements for the spacecraft and ground system for FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

Fong, C.-J.; Whiteley, D.; Yang, E.; Cook, K.; Chu, V.; Schreiner, B.; Ector, D.; Wilczynski, P.; Liu, T.-Y.; Yen, N.

2011-06-01

353

Vibrations and High-frequency Rotations: Supporting Current and Future Space Missions in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Herschel Space Observatory now in full operation, and the launch of SOFIA and JWST expected in the next few years, it seems likely that the paradigm which has historically characterized laboratory astrophysics will gradually shift from `one line, one molecule at a time' to one more geared towards rapid data acquisition, wide frequency bandwidth, and high detection sensitivity at high frequency. As the recent detection of the fullerenes C60 and C70 with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope vividly demonstrates, molecules of considerably complexity are known or thought to possess strong spectral features in the frequency bands that will soon be accessible to many of these new frontier space observatories | a general indication that highly accurate rotation-vibrational data will be needed for organic molecules over a wide range of sizes and structures. This paper highlights some of the most critical spectroscopic data that will be required to support these space missions, and laboratory approaches that might be used to provide this information.

McCarthy, M. C.

2011-05-01

354

Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space. We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, Fv/Fm (Fig.2). Some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance were also determined. The dose and particle flux during Foton-M3 flight were monitored in real time by the active spectrum-dosimeter Liulin- Photo, mounted on the top of Photo-II fluorimeter (Fig.2). Liulin-Photo measurements provided information on the amount of the energy released on the samples and the quality of the incident ionizing radiation [3]. The space flight results in relationship with the ground control simulation are discussed.

Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

2008-09-01

355

Space and ground segment performance and lessons learned of the FORMOSAT-3\\/COSMIC mission: four years in orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FORMOSAT-3\\/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) Mission consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites is the world's first demonstration constellation using radio occultation signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The atmospheric profiles derived by processing radio occultation signals are retrieved in near real-time for global weather\\/climate monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and space weather research. The mission

C.-J. Fong; D. Whiteley; E. Yang; K. Cook; V. Chu; B. Schreiner; D. Ector; P. Wilczynski; T.-Y. Liu; N. Yen

2011-01-01

356

Changes in Mouse Thymus and Spleen after Return from the STS-135 Mission in Space.  

PubMed

Our previous results with flight (FLT) mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM). Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01). Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05). In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6); 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc). In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa). Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation) was used to map relationships among the cancer-related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA's Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue. PMID:24069384

Gridley, Daila S; Mao, Xiao Wen; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bateman, Ted A; Moldovan, Maria; Cunningham, Christopher E; Jones, Tamako A; Slater, Jerry M; Pecaut, Michael J

2013-09-19

357

Changes in Mouse Thymus and Spleen after Return from the STS-135 Mission in Space  

PubMed Central

Our previous results with flight (FLT) mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM). Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01). Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05). In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6); 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc). In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa). Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation) was used to map relationships among the cancer–related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue.

Gridley, Daila S.; Mao, Xiao Wen; Stodieck, Louis S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Moldovan, Maria; Cunningham, Christopher E.; Jones, Tamako A.; Slater, Jerry M.; Pecaut, Michael J.

2013-01-01

358

Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

2012-12-01

359

AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN THE ASTEROSEISMOLOGY PROGRAM OF THE KEPLER SPACE MISSION  

SciTech Connect

We present the first results of the application of supervised classification methods to the Kepler Q1 long-cadence light curves of a subsample of 2288 stars measured in the asteroseismology program of the mission. The methods, originally developed in the framework of the CoRoT and Gaia space missions, are capable of identifying the most common types of stellar variability in a reliable way. Many new variables have been discovered, among which a large fraction are eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries unknown prior to launch. A comparison is made between our classification from the Kepler data and the pre-launch class based on data from the ground, showing that the latter needs significant improvement. The noise properties of the Kepler data are compared to those of the exoplanet program of the CoRoT satellite. We find that Kepler improves on CoRoT by a factor of 2-2.3 in point-to-point scatter.

Blomme, J.; Debosscher, J.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Gilliland, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Brown, T. M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jenkins, J. M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Stello, D.; Derekas, A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Stevens, I. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Suran, M. D. [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Str. Cutitul de Argint 5, RO 40557, Bucharest, RO (Romania)

2010-04-20

360

Propulsion Utilizing Laser-Driven Ponderomotive Fields for Deep-Space Missions  

SciTech Connect

The generation of large amplitude electric fields in plasmas by high-power lasers has been studied for several years in the context of high-energy particle acceleration. Fields on the order of GeV/m are generated in the plasma wake of the laser by non-linear ponderomotive forces. The laser fields generate longitudinal and translational electron plasma waves with phase velocities close to the speed of light. These fields and velocities offer the potential to revolutionize spacecraft propulsion, leading to extended deep space robotic probes. Based on these initial calculations, plasma acceleration by means of laser-induced ponderomotive forces appears to offer significant potential for spacecraft propulsion. Relatively high-efficiencies appear possible with proper beam conditioning, resulting in an order of magnitude more thrust than alternative concepts for high I{sub SP} (>10{sup 5} s) and elimination of the primary life-limiting erosion phenomena associated with conventional electric propulsion systems. Ponderomotive propulsion readily lends itself to beamed power which might overcome some of the constraints of power-limited propulsion concepts. A preliminary assessment of the impact of these propulsion systems for several promising configurations on mission architectures has been conducted. Emphasizing interstellar and interstellar-precursor applications, performance and technical requirements are identified for a number of missions. The use of in-situ plasma and gas for propellant is evaluated as well.

Williams, George J.; Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, NASA GRCMS 16-1 Cleveland, OH 44135 216-433-9622 (United States)

2009-03-16

361

Identifying Organic Molecules in Space - The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) the evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) the chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) the distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) the nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) the nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bregman, J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Strecker, D.

2001-05-01

362

Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the all-too-familiar 'brain-drain' seeking employment overseas. The most successful countries have secured their initial investment in acquiring space know-how by following through with the formation of a national space agency or organization to provide a stable nucleus for supporting long-term space activities. Particularly suited to developing countries, Surrey has co-ordinated the first international constellation of small satellites for Earth Observation - the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). Four enhanced microsatellites have been launched in 2002 & 2003 built collaboratively by Surrey and Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey and UK which now provide daily images of anywhere in the world for disaster management and monitoring other dynamic phenomena such as land use and urban development. The same model of international partnership will be used in follow-on constellations with different sensors (IR, SAR, hyper-spectral) to meet national needs in a sustainable way. In a similar manner whereby the Personal Computer enabled developing countries access to modern information technologies on an affordable budget, small satellites are enabling these same countries to access space within sensible and sustainable expenditures for the direct benefit of their populations.

Sweeting, M.

363

Low-Cost Space Transportation Systems for Scientific and Applied Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Association has accumulated huge experience in field of spacecraft propulsion systems creation such as "Luna"(Moon), "Venera" (Venus), "Mars", "Vega", "Phobos" series and also upper stage boosters (USB) "L" (4th stage of "Molniya") and "Fregat" (4th stage of "Souz"). Nowadays is an independent enterprise and carries out its own space technology development program. Taking into account requirements of small dimensional payloads space transportation, Babakin Space Center now is developing series of upper stage boosters of conversional launch vehicles (LV) for low-cost missions. These are "Shmel" for "Volna" LV, "Shmel-2" for "Strela" LV, "Varyag" for "Dnepr" LV, and further "Kaplya" for "Shtil" LV. possibility of payload launch to Solar Synchronous Orbit is under consideration too. `Volna" LV is very attractive from point of view scientific experiments and technology demonstration carrying out. interplanetary. The structure of USB "Varyag" for "Dnepr" LV keeps maximal succession from "Phobos" propulsion system and has two propellant tank modules with jettissonable lower one. "Dnepr" LV is capable to launch up to 500 kg to Geostationary Earth Orbit and up-to 800 kg to escape trajectory.

Pichkhadze, K. M.; Vorontsov, V. A.; Loukianchikov, A. V.; Dolgopolov, V. P.; Ilin, A. S.

2002-01-01

364

On-demand spares fabrication during space missions using Laser Direct Metal Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a revolutionary approach to manufacturing or repairing a range of metal components. In its simplest form, the process works in much the same way as stereo lithography: a layer-by-layer approach to building up a three dimensional solid object. In the case of DMD this occurs by building up layers of metal by completely melting and re-solidifying metal powder using a laser. The result of the process is a fully dense structure close to the required net shape. The static and dynamic properties of the structure can be equivalent or superior to wrought material, as in the case of titanium and stainless steel alloys. Among its other applications, laser DMD has long been proposed as a means for fabricating spares on an as-needed basis. As-needed spares fabrication is conceptually attractive for use during space missions to create metal parts to fit a situational need, either for spares or for fabricating new items to meet an unforeseen need. The laser DMD process as currently used on Earth can't be used directly in a space environment without modifications. This paper discusses the issues we can currently foresee with using laser DMD in space. .

Krantz, Donald; Nasla, Sylvia; Byrne, Jeff; Rosenberger, Brian

2001-02-01

365

Charge transfer inefficiency in the Hubble Space Telescope since Servicing Mission 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We update a physically motivated model of radiation damage in the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, using data up to mid-2010. We find that charge transfer inefficiency increased dramatically before shuttle Servicing Mission 4, with ~1.3 charge traps now present per pixel. During detector readout, charge traps spuriously drag electrons behind all astronomical sources, degrading image quality in a way that affects object photometry, astrometry and morphology. Our detector readout model is robust to changes in operating temperature and background level, and can be used to iteratively remove the trailing by pushing electrons back to where they belong. The result is data taken in mid-2010 that recovers the quality of imaging obtained within the first six months of orbital operations.

Massey, Richard

2010-11-01

366

Oases{emdash}A space mission to search for habitable planets of other stars  

SciTech Connect

We do not yet know if nearby sun-like stars have planets resembling the solar system. In the past, telescopes have not had the power to resolve weak planet emission next to a bright star{emdash}it is as if from a thousand miles away one tried to see a glow worm next to a searchlight. But a telescope in space could now be built by NASA that could not only see Earth-like planets if they are there, but check if they have abundant water or even an atmosphere with oxygen, produced on Earth by primitive life. The name we have given to such a mission is OASES{emdash}Outpost for the Analysis and Spectroscopy of Exo-planetary Systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Angel, R.; Woolf, N. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Leger, A. [Institute d`Astrophysics Spatiale, University of Paris SUD, Bat. 121, F-91405 Orsay (France)

1996-03-01

367

A suitcase full of astrophysics: The first year of ultraprecise photometry from the MOST space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing the Universe in new ways has always yielded surprising discoveries. Astronomers are accustomed to extending the limits of wavelength coverage, light-gathering power, and angular resolution. The MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) mission - a suitcase-sized microsatellite housing an optical photometer of small (15-cm) aperture which deliberately blurs its stellar images for stability - forges its advances in totally different regions of parameter space. MOST is the only existing observatory on Earth or in space which can monitor stars several times per minute with almost no interruptions for weeks at a time, reaching photometric precisions of a few micromagnitudes (ppm). These demonstrated levels of time sampling and ultraprecise photometry enable the MOST Science Team to explore with unprecedented sensitivity acoustic (p-mode) oscillations and granulation behaviour in other stars, to search for reflected light from giant close-in exoplanets, and discover other phenomena associated with stellar variability. I will summarise the first year of full scientific operations of the MOST mission. Results at press time include: (1) the first photometric detection of solar-like oscillations in a star other than the Sun, eta Boo; (2) a surprising null detection of oscillations in Procyon, constraining theories of stochastic excitation by convective turbulence; (3) real-time observations of differential rotation in a young active G5 dwarf, {? }1 Ceti; and (4) newly discovered pulsators caught in the nets of MOST's Secondary Science and Guide Star fields, including a binary ? Scuti star with more than 40 frequencies. Results which should be ready for presentation by January 2005 will include: a comparison of the granulation frequency spectra of a sample of solar-type stars for direct comparison to the Sun, continuous monitoring of the exoplanet system 51 Pegasi to search for the reflected light signal from the close-in exoplanet, and I expect, a few other surprises.

Matthews, J. M.

2004-12-01

368

A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

2003-01-01

369

Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

370

Informal Science Education + Planetary Missions = Increased Public Support and Space Science Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary missions provide a ready-made audience for successful science education public programming. Museums\\/science centers provide informal science education that links the mission to a wide and diverse audience.

J. C. Aubele

2007-01-01

371

Use of Earth-Based Analogs for Long-Duration Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation reviews the Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility (INTEGRITY). Topics include capability development; general attributes of human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit; objectives of INTEGRITY; and other aspects s...

D. L. Henninger

2003-01-01

372

Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and co...

R. J. Noble

1994-01-01

373

ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED AT IPSL AND ESA TO SUPPORT A CO2 DIAL SPACE MISSION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002, the Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace (IPSL) is involved in several projects addressing CO2 monitoring by Dial lidar for environmental science and space borne applications. The activity started with the development of a 2-µm CO2 heterodyne DiAL project. The first instrumental activity gave rise to two new programs to develop a transportable CO2 DiAL in a container using fiber technologies and then an airborne system. In 2006, “A-SCOPE” a proposal aiming at a space borne Integrated Path CO2 DiAL mission has been submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to a Call for Ideas in the framework of the Earth Explorer Mission program. The IPDA technique makes use of signal returns from the surface. Accordingly canopy height and surface information will be provided as spin-off products in addition to dry CO2 mixing ratio as the main products. A-SCOPE has been selected with 5 other missions for phase “0” study and preliminary feasibility assessments by 2 European industrial consortia. A Mission Assessment Group has been formed by ESA to support the mission definition and write a Report for Assessment (ESA SP-1313/1). A-SCOPE and the 5 other potential missions have been presented and discussed during the Users Consultation Meeting (UMC) in Lisbon, Portugal, 20-21 January 2009. The A-SCOPE Report for Assessment, the discussion during UMC and on-going activities will be presented at the conference to support a future mission like “A-SCOPE”.

Flamant, P. H.; Gibert, F.; Édouart, D.; Cuesta, J.; Bruneau, D.

2009-12-01

374

Migrating an In-Operation Space Observatory Data Processing Chain Towards a SOA Oriented Architecture, and the Benefits for Other Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XMM-Newton Science Control System is currently under a migration exercise aiming to preserve the processing functionality up to the end of the mission, but also to enhance the user accessibility to the different processing and monitoring subsystems. This migration exercise is also providing new insights into how different architectures can help to support other space missions with large demands on processing and storage needs. Service Oriented Architectures and Cloud have also been used in EO missions with results of high interest in storage and processing. In this paper, a prototyping activity is described to face storage and processing in the case of XMM-Newton having in mind its application to other missions with similar needs.

Perez, O.; Vallejo, J. C.; Perez, R. F.

2013-10-01

375

Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Committee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to

C. Peterson; J. Cutts; T. Balint; J. B. Hall

2008-01-01

376

Orbit determination covariance analysis for the Deep Space Program Science Experiment mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define an appropriate orbit support procedure for the DSPSE mission, detailed permission orbit determination covariance analyses have been performed for the translunar and trans-Geographos mission phases. Preliminary analyses were also performed for the lunar mapping mission phase. These analyses are designed to assess the tracking patterns and the amount of tracking data needed to obtain orbit solutions of required

M. Beckman; C. Yee; T. Lee; M. Hoppe; D. Oza

1993-01-01

377

Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a study on telecommunication systems for a hypothetical mission to Mars. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the benefits that microwave -- X-band (8.4 GHz) and Ka-band (32 GHz) and optical communications technologies afford to future missions. The telecommunication systems were required to return data after launch and in orbit at 2.7 AU with daily data volumes of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 Gbits (Gb). Spacecraft terminals capable of delivering each of the three data volumes were proposed and characterized in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost. The estimated parameters for X-band, Ka-band, and optical frequencies are compared and presented here. For all cases, the optical flight terminal exhibits about 60 percent of the mass of the corresponding radio frequency (RF) subsystem. Power consumption is comparable for all three technologies at a 0.1 Gb/day data volume, but the power required at either Ka-band or optical is less than half of the X-band requirement at 10 Gb/day. These benefits can be obtained only with a suitable investment in reception facilities for Ka-band or optical frequencies. As part of an overall study plan to examine the future of space communications across the solar system, we explored the application of these three design points for other possible destinations and, in particular, for Neptune. Although the data return capability at Neptune is reduced by over two orders of magnitude from the Mars case, the relative comparison between the three bands is little changed.

Hemmati, H.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M. K.; Harcke, L. J.; Wilhelm, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Lesh, J. R.; Feria, Y.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.; Layland, J. W.

1996-10-01

378

The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope:. AN Astro-Particle Mission to Explore the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a space mission that will detect photons from the gamma ray sky, in the rich yet poorly explored high energy band between 20MeV and 1TeV. Main instrument on board is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a gamma-ray pair-conversion telescope, that will measure direction and energy of incoming photons by means of

R. Bellazzini; G. Spandre

2003-01-01

379

Recovery of Bacillus Spore Contaminants from Rough Surfaces: a Challenge to Space Mission Cleanliness Control?  

PubMed Central

Microbial contaminants on spacecraft can threaten the scientific integrity of space missions due to probable interference with life detection experiments. Therefore, space agencies measure the cultivable spore load (“bioburden”) of a spacecraft. A recent study has reported an insufficient recovery of Bacillus atrophaeus spores from Vectran fabric, a typical spacecraft airbag material (A. Probst, R. Facius, R. Wirth, and C. Moissl-Eichinger, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:5148-5158, 2010). Here, 10 different sampling methods were compared for B. atrophaeus spore recovery from this rough textile, revealing significantly different efficiencies (0.5 to 15.4%). The most efficient method, based on the wipe-rinse technique (foam-spatula protocol; 13.2% efficiency), was then compared to the current European Space Agency (ESA) standard wipe assay in sampling four different kinds of spacecraft-related surfaces. Results indicate that the novel protocol out-performed the standard method with an average efficiency of 41.1% compared to 13.9% for the standard method. Additional experiments were performed by sampling Vectran fabric seeded with seven different spore concentrations and five different Bacillus species (B. atrophaeus, B. anthracis Sterne, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis, and B. safensis). Among these, B. atrophaeus spores were recovered with the highest (13.2%) efficiency and B. anthracis Sterne spores were recovered with the lowest (0.3%) efficiency. Different inoculation methods of seeding spores on test surfaces (spotting and aerosolization) resulted in different spore recovery efficiencies. The results of this study provide a step forward in understanding the spore distribution on and recovery from rough surfaces. The results presented will contribute relevant knowledge to the fields of astrobiology and B. anthracis research.

Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Wolf, Marco; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2011-01-01

380

Crowded-Field Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission - I. Estimating the Single-Measurement Astrometric Bias Arising from Confusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of position measurements on stellar targets with the future\\u000aSpace Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be limited not only by photon noise and\\u000aby the properties of the instrument (design, stability, etc.) and the overall\\u000ameasurement program (observing strategy, reduction methods, etc.), but also by\\u000athe presence of other \\

R. Sridharan; Ronald J. Allen

2007-01-01

381

Current progress of active pixel sensor developments for future European Space Agency planetary and sun observation missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the early progress of the Active Pixel Sensor (SWIR, Optical and UV\\/EUV) industrial developments for the European Space Agency Bepi Colombo and Solar Orbiter missions and present preliminary results of tests performed in our laboratory on an existing optical rad-hard APS, the STAR1000, presently in prequalification phase.

L. Duvet; D. D. E. Martin; A. Owens

2006-01-01

382

Photometric Observations of Selected, Optically Bright Quasars for Space Interferometry Mission and Other Future Celestial Reference Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V

Roopesh Ojha; Norbert Zacharias; Gregory S. Hennessy; Ralph A. Gaume; Kenneth J. Johnston

2009-01-01

383

Photometric Observations of Selected, Optically Bright Quasars for Space Interferometry Mission and Other Future Celestial Reference Frames.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1'4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes...

G. S. Hennessy K. J. Johnson N. Zacharias R. Ojha R. A. Gaume

2009-01-01

384

PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED, OPTICALLY BRIGHT QUASARS FOR SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION AND OTHER FUTURE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V

Roopesh Ojha; Norbert Zacharias; Gregory S. Hennessy; Ralph A. Gaume; Kenneth J. Johnston; Kenneth J

2009-01-01

385

The Space-Wise Global Gravity Model from GOCE Nominal Mission Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the GOCE data analysis, the space-wise approach implements a multi-step collocation solution for the estimation of a global geopotential model in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients and their error covariance matrix. The main idea is to use the collocation technique to exploit the spatial correlation of the gravity field in the GOCE data reduction. In particular the method consists of an along-track Wiener filter, a collocation gridding at satellite altitude and a spherical harmonic analysis by integration. All these steps are iterated, also to account for the rotation between local orbital and gradiometer reference frame. Error covariances are computed by Montecarlo simulations. The first release of the space-wise approach was presented at the ESA Living Planet Symposium in July 2010. This model was based on only two months of GOCE data and partially contained a priori information coming from other existing gravity models, especially at low degrees and low orders. A second release was distributed after the 4th International GOCE User Workshop in May 2011. In this solution, based on eight months of GOCE data, all the dependencies from external gravity information were removed thus giving rise to a GOCE-only space-wise model. However this model showed an over-regularization at the highest degrees of the spherical harmonic expansion due to the combination technique of intermediate solutions (based on about two months of data). In this work a new space-wise solution is presented. It is based on all nominal mission data from November 2009 to mid April 2011, and its main novelty is that the intermediate solutions are now computed in such a way to avoid over-regularization in the final solution. Beyond the spherical harmonic coefficients of the global model and their error covariance matrix, the space-wise approach is able to deliver as by-products a set of spherical grids of potential and of its second derivatives at mean satellite altitude. These grids have an information content that is very similar to the original along-orbit data, but they are much easier to handle. In addition they are estimated by local least-squares collocation and therefore, although computed by a unique global covariance function, they could yield more information at local level than the spherical harmonic coefficients of the global model. For this reason these grids seem to be useful for local geophysical investigations. The estimated grids with their estimated errors are presented in this work together with proposals on possible future improvements. A test to compare the different information contents of the along-orbit data, the gridded data and the spherical harmonic coefficients is also shown.

Gatti, A.; Migliaccio, F.; Reguzzoni, M.; Sampietro, D.; Sanso, F.

2011-12-01

386

CH4 Flux Inversion Studies for Future Active Space CH4 Missions like MERLIN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space based active sensors such as the planned German-French CH4 DIAL MERLIN mission have a very small footprint and therefore see through moderately small cloud holes. This fact, in addition to being independent of reflected sunlight is expected to provide global coverage with a higher number of observations than heretofore possible with passive sensors. How will this impact our ability to infer the different types of CH4 surface sources? Using a global atmospheric inversion system we quantify the resulting error reduction of inferred CH4 source estimates as a function of spatial and temporal resolution given instrument accuracy and other parameters of potential satellite orbits. The methodology is based on the classical Green's function approach on a monthly global 8°x10° resolution (Houweling et al., 2004) extended by using a nested two-step procedure for the investigation of higher temporal and spatial source resolutions (Rödenbeck et al., 2009). We furthermore employ a nested Lagrangian system at very high resolution (down to 1/8° x 1/12°) to quantify the impact on the detection and quantification of point sources such as power plants, landfills, natural gas pipelines, forest fires, geological seeps, and volcanoes. We demonstrate that the current specification of the MERLIN DIAL mission with a nominal breakthrough instrument precision of 18 ppb and bias of 3 ppb over 50km would lead to a substantial improvement of CH4 source quantification in many regions of the world as compared to what is possible with the currently existing observations from the surface network or passive satellite sensors. Houweling, S, FM Breon, I Aben, C Roedenbeck, M Gloor, M Heimann, and P Ciais. 2004. "Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time." Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics 4: 523-538. Roedenbeck, C, C Gerbig, K Trusilova, and M Heimann. 2009. "A two-step scheme for high-resolution regional atmospheric trace gas inversions based on independent models." Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics 9 (14): 5331-5342.

Heimann, M.; Marshall, J.

2011-12-01

387

The Reduction and Treatment of Serious Mental Illness during Long Duration Space Mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known in the history of terrestrial naval expeditions that members of long expeditions could and did suffered from serious mental illnesses. Depression and even psychosis could inflict crew members, and in serious cases this sometimes resulted in violence directed towards others or themselves. There was little that the medical practitioners of the time could do to alleviate these illnesses. Modern psychiatry operates within a paradigm of the normalcy of the modern western standard of living. When we place humans outside these normal experiences, we place them in vulnerable positions. For the foreseeable future, spaceflight will continue to result in extremely physically, mentally and spiritually arduous expeditions. As we start our journey towards Mars and beyond, the time humans will be in the isolation of space, and subjected to these extraordinary stresses, will increase. The recent incident where an American astronaut had a mental collapse and was criminally charged is indicative of this real possibility. One solution could be to have more pre-screening but this only goes so far, especially when the rigorous training and the actual mission might cause psychological problems that were never present before hand. Eastern and Western philosophies and religious systems can provide a framework to draw upon to strengthen the mental and spiritual psyche of the astronauts on a long duration expedition. Meditative techniques and prayer techniques, if within the belief system of the astronaut, might serve to prevent or ameliorate the severity of a mental collapse should it occur during a space mission. Many of the American astronauts that went to the Moon reported having intense emotional and spiritual reactions based on the intensity of their experiences. For several of these men, the courses of their lives were changed. What astronauts will face by going back to the Moon and further a field to Mars, will be dangerous and extremely mentally taxing. At the least techniques of meditation and contemplation from religions could reduce and strengthen the individual psyche of expedition teams. What the authors recommend is psychological and spiritual support by teaching meditation techniques (based on prayer), relaxation and body regulative disciplines as part of any major expedition's pre-flight training schedule.

Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine; Mardon, Austin

388

Effects of simulated space radiation on immunoassay components for life-detection experiments in planetary exploration missions.  

PubMed

The Life Marker Chip (LMC) instrument is part of the proposed payload on the ESA ExoMars rover that is scheduled for launch in 2018. The LMC will use antibody-based assays to detect molecular signatures of life in samples obtained from the shallow subsurface of Mars. For the LMC antibodies, the ability to resist inactivation due to space particle radiation (both in transit and on the surface of Mars) will therefore be a prerequisite. The proton and neutron components of the mission radiation environment are those that are expected to have the dominant effect on the operation of the LMC. Modeling of the radiation environment for a mission to Mars led to the calculation of nominal mission fluences for proton and neutron radiation. Various combinations and multiples of these values were used to demonstrate the effects of radiation on antibody activity, primarily at the radiation levels envisaged for the ExoMars mission as well as at much higher levels. Five antibodies were freeze-dried in a variety of protective molecular matrices and were exposed to various radiation conditions generated at a cyclotron facility. After exposure, the antibodies' ability to bind to their respective antigens was assessed and found to be unaffected by ExoMars mission level radiation doses. These experiments indicated that the expected radiation environment of a Mars mission does not pose a significant risk to antibodies packaged in the form anticipated for the LMC instrument. PMID:22897155

Derveni, Mariliza; Hands, Alex; Allen, Marjorie; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C

2012-08-16

389

The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys: Post-Servicing Mission 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to 2007, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) was the workhorse instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope, accounting for over 70% of scheduled programs. ACS suffered two anomalies in 2006, leading to a switch to the redundant set of electronics. This restored operation of all three channels on the instrument: the Wide Field Channel (WFC), the High Resolution Channel (HRC), and the Solar Blind Channel (SBC). On January 27, 2007, the instrument was rendered inoperable as a result of a failure of these redundant electronics. The Solar Blind Channel alone could be reactivated using the primary set of electronics. This was completed on February 20, 2007. Almost immediately after the January 2007 anomaly, the HST Project assembled a team to examine the options for the repair. In a remarkably short time, the instrument condition was assessed, a repair concept developed, and implementation began for a system that will be deployed during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) in August 2008. The repair will replace the existing WFC CCD Electronics Box (CEB) and power it using a replacement Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS). While the highest priority is restoring WFC, the repair hardware also provides the possibility of restoring the HRC by supplying power to the HRC from the new LVPS using the original power bus. If successful, the repair will restore all three cameras to full operation after SM4, making them available for the Cycle 17 Call for Proposals.

Cheng, Edward S.; Sirianni, M.; Rinehart, S.; Boyce, K.; Emerle, R.; Turczyn, M.; Waczynski, A.; Wen, Y.; Orlowski, I.; Waligroski, G.; Trubell, L.; Albin, K.; Loose, M.; Ricardo, R.; Smith, H.; Alea, P.; Meyer, T.; Auyeung, J.; LaPole, M.; Mack, J.; ACS Repair Team

2007-12-01

390

Design of multihundred-watt dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a multihundred-watt dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) general-purpose heat source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is described as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope convertor was first identified, work has focused on the feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain safe operating limits under all conditions including shutdown of one engine on a twin engine unit. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established. They indicate that, per electrical watt, the GPHS/small Stirling DIPS will be roughly equivalent to MOD RTG in size and mass but will require about a third the amount of isotope fuel.

Bents, D. J.; Geng, S. M.; Schreiber, J. G.; Withrow, C. A.; Schmitz, P. C.; McComas, T. J.

391

YODA++: A proposal for a semi-automatic space mission control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YODA++ is a proposal for a semi-automated data handling and analysis system for the PAMELA space experiment. The core of the routines have been developed to process a stream of raw data downlinked from the Resurs DK1 satellite (housing PAMELA) to the ground station in Moscow. Raw data consist of scientific data and are complemented by housekeeping information. Housekeeping information will be analyzed within a short time from download (1 h) in order to monitor the status of the experiment and to foreseen the mission acquisition planning. A prototype for the data visualization will run on an APACHE TOMCAT web application server, providing an off-line analysis tool using a browser and part of code for the system maintenance. Data retrieving development is in production phase, while a GUI interface for human friendly monitoring is on preliminary phase as well as a JavaServerPages/JavaServerFaces (JSP/JSF) web application facility. On a longer timescale (1 3 h from download) scientific data are analyzed. The data storage core will be a mix of CERNs ROOT files structure and MySQL as a relational database. YODA++ is currently being used in the integration and testing on ground of PAMELA data.

Casolino, M.; de Pascale, M. P.; Nagni, M.; Picozza, P.

392

Data Processing from the Chandra and XMM-Newton Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fourth in the series of COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops was held in Durban in 2004. The availability of large archives of data from space missions via the internet provides an important research opportunity for scientists in developing countries. The aim of the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshop programme is to ensure that this opportunity is taken up as widely as possible. The character of the workshops and the programme for the first five years are described. Evaluation of the longer-term results of the first workshop, which was held in Brazil in 2001, show that a good proportion of past participants have used archival data and have produced publishable results from it. Some comments are made about future development of the programme. L'agence internationale COSPAR a organisé à Durban en 2004, le quatrième d'une série d'ateliers dédiés au renforcement des capacités. La disponibilité actuelle de larges bases de données en ligne offre des possibilités de recherche pour les scientifiques des pays émergents. Le but de cet atelier est de rendre cette opportunité pleinement exploitable. La spécificité ainsi que le programme pour les cinq premières années est décrit ici. L'évaluation des retombées à long terme, consécutives au premier atelier tenu au Brésil en 2001, montre qu'une large proportion de participants ont déjà utilises lesdites.

Willmore, P.

2009-10-01

393

Use of coated silicon field emitters as neutralisers for fundamental physics space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft neutralisers are required as part of the ion propulsion system for accurate station keeping in fundamental physics missions. This paper describes the use of thin layers of insulating materials as coatings for the gated silicon field emitter array structure used in a spacecraft neutraliser. These thin coatings are postulated to reduce power consumption and reduce overheating. The power consumption and lifetime of aluminium nitride and amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings have been tested by current-voltage and endurance tests. Diamond-like carbon coatings were promising, performing better in endurance tests than uncoated samples, but further work is required to characterise the coating's physical properties and its effects on field emission. The thermal conductivity of the coating material had little effect on measured sample lifetimes. Aluminium nitride had reduced power consumption compared to diamond-like carbon coated and uncoated samples. A thin (˜5 nm) layer of aluminium nitride was found to be optimal, meeting European Space Agency specifications for the neutraliser engineering model.

Aplin, K. L.; Kent, B. J.; Collingwood, C. M.; Wang, L.; Stevens, R.; Huq, S. E.; Malik, A.

2011-10-01

394

BDRG and shok instruments for study of GRB prompt emission in michaylo lomonosov space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of GRB prompt emission (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission, which is being prepared at Moscow State University. The GRB monitor (BDRG) and the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) are intended for detection of GRB prompt emission as well as optical counterparts. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) (13.0 × 2.0cm ) phoswich detectors, whose axes determine the Cartesian coordinate system. This allows to localize any GRB source on the sky by means of the count rate seen by each detector with an accuracy of ~2 deg. The SHOK instrument consists of two identical wide-field cameras (WFC) directed in such a way that the field of view (FOV) of each WFC overlaps by the corresponding BDRG FOV, which produces a trigger on the WFC in case of a GRB detection. With this setup, the GRB prompt light curve will be obtained in the visible without any delay with respect to gamma-rays, which is crucial for a GRB central engine understanding.

Amelushkin, A. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharov, B. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V. G.; Lipunov, V. M.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Petrov, V. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S. I.; Vedenkin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.

2013-07-01

395

Characterization of a variant of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that triggers a host-specific defense response.  

PubMed

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by Asiatic citrus bacterial canker (CBC), a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of CBC, 42 Xanthomonas isolates were collected from a range of Citrus spp. across 17 different orchards in Tucumán, Argentina and subjected to molecular, biochemical, and pathogenicity tests. Analysis of genome-specific X. citri markers and DNA polymorphisms based on repetitive elements-based polymerase chain reaction showed that all 42 isolates belonged to X. citri. Interestingly, pathogenicity tests showed that one isolate, which shares >90% genetic similarity to the reference strain X. citri T, has host range specificity. This new variant of X. citri subsp. citri, named X. citri A(T), which is deficient in xanthan production, induces an atypical, noncankerous chlorotic phenotype in Citrus limon and C. paradisi and weak cankerous lesions in C. aurantifolia and C. clementina leaves. In C. limon, suppression of canker development is concomitant with an oxidative burst; xanthan is not implicated in the phenotype induced by this interaction, suggesting that other bacterial factors would be involved in triggering the defense response. PMID:23268580

Chiesa, María A; Siciliano, María F; Ornella, Leonardo; Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Delgado, Natalia Pino; Sendín, Lorena N; Orce, Ingrid G; Ploper, L Daniel; Vojnov, Adrian A; Vacas, José Gadea; Filippone, María P; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María R

2013-06-01

396

Summary of measurements of high-LET particle radiation in U.S. manned space missions.  

PubMed

A summary of measurements of high-LET particle radiation inside U.S. manned spacecraft is given for ASTP (Apollo Soyuz Test Project), Skylab and Apollo missions. The results include particle fluxes, integral LET spectra, and stopping-density charge distributions derived from measurements made in plastic nuclear track detectors worn by astronauts and located at various positions inside spacecraft. The results presented for different missions cover a wide range of shielding depth and missions type. PMID:11958206

Benton, E V; Peterson, D D; Henke, R P

1977-01-01

397

The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy ?-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy ?-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure spectra from 20 MeV to more than 50 GeV for several hundred sources, (4) localize point sources to 0.3-2 arcmin, (5) map and obtain spectra of extended sources such as SNRs, molecular clouds, and nearby galaxies, (6) measure the diffuse isotropic ?-ray background up to TeV energies, and (7) explore the discovery space for dark matter.

Atwood, W. B.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Althouse, W.; Anderson, B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bédérède, D.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Bisello, D.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, P.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Condamoor, S.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Corucci, L.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Davis, D. S.; Decotigny, D.; DeKlotz, M.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Edmonds, Y.; Fabiani, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Flath, D. L.; Fleury, P.; Focke, W. B.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Gentit, F.-X.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Haller, G.; Harding, A. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Hirayama, M.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Horn, R.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johansson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kavelaars, A.; Kawai, N.; Kelly, H.; Kerr, M.; Klamra, W.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Komin, N.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marangelli, B.; Massai, M. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Menon, N.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mirizzi, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paccagnella, A.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pearce, M.; Pepe, M.; Perazzo, A.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Picozza, P.; Pieri, L.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Poupard, L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rapposelli, E.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Russell, J. J.; Ryde, F.; Sabatini, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Scolieri, G.; Sgrò, C.; Share, G. H.; Shaw, M.; Shimokawabe, T.; Shrader, C.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tenze, A.; Tether, S.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Usher, T. L.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

2009-06-01

398

The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission  

SciTech Connect

The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure spectra from 20 MeV to more than 50 GeV for several hundred sources, (4) localize point sources to 0.3-2 arcmin, (5) map and obtain spectra of extended sources such as SNRs, molecular clouds, and nearby galaxies, (6) measure the diffuse isotropic {gamma}-ray background up to TeV energies, and (7) explore the discovery space for dark matter.

Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

2009-05-15

399

Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx): an infrastructure to bridge space missions data and computational models in planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) has started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the Creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Data analysis and visualization within IMPEx will be based on the advanced computational models of the planetary environments. Specifically, the 'modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and operation of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will propose 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ "CLWeb" software which enables computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and scientific modelling tools, providing their joint interconnected operation for the better understanding of related space and planetary physics phenomena.

Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Génot, V. N.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Topf, F.; Schmidt, W.; Alexeev, I. I.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Gangloff, M.; Belenkaya, E. S.

2012-04-01

400

Mission Insignia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science/art activity, learners create an insignia or emblem for a planet exploration mission. Astronauts wear insignia patches on their uniforms for every space flight, and each mission has its own insignia. This activity goes with the Planet Exploration Mission and Exploration Vehicles activities in the same Astrobiology activity guide. This activity can be found on pages 58-59 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

401

Project Golden Gate: Towards Real-Time Java in Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary science missions, such as those that explore Mars and Saturn, employ a variety of spacecraft such as orbiters, landers, probes, and rovers. Each of these kinds of spacecraft depend on embedded real-time control systems-systems that are increasingly being asked to do more as challenging new mission concepts are proposed. For both systems engineers and software engineers the large challenges

Daniel Dvorak; Gregory Bollella; Tim Canham; Vanessa Carson; Virgil Champlin; Brian Giovannoni; Mark Indictor; Kenny Meyer; Alex Murray; Kirk Reinholtz

2004-01-01

402

Selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Mission Video Images (Videodisc).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Selected JPL Mission Video Images-Videodisc consists of a one sided color recording of selected motion picture and television clips. It contains one hour of film and video clips from selected JPL flight missions: Ranger 9 photos of the Moon; Surveyor,...

F. Bristow

1982-01-01

403

Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (Steap) for Halo Orbit Missions. Volume 1: Analytic and User'S Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system is reported. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part o...

D. V. Byrnes P. C. Carney J. W. Underwood E. D. Vogt

1974-01-01

404

Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to MMW In-Space NEP and Surface Power Missions  

SciTech Connect

Anticipated manned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions will require multi-megawatt nuclear reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and sealable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional multi-megawatt gas-cooled and liquid metal concepts. (authors)

Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk [Propulsion Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2002-07-01

405

Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological science themes from unique vantage points at 100 to 600 AU, including parallax distance measurements for the entire Milky Way Galaxy, sampling

1994-01-01

406

Earth System Mass Transport Mission (e.motion): A Concept for Future Earth Gravity Field Measurements from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, satellite gravimetry has been revealed as a pioneering technique for mapping mass redistributions within the Earth system. This fact has allowed us to have an improved understanding of the dynamic processes that take place within and between the Earth's various constituents. Results from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have revolutionized Earth system research and have established the necessity for future satellite gravity missions. In 2010, a comprehensive team of European and Canadian scientists and industrial partners proposed the e.motion (Earth system mass transport mission) concept to the European Space Agency. The proposal is based on two tandem satellites in a pendulum orbit configuration at an altitude of about 370 km, carrying a laser interferometer inter-satellite ranging instrument and improved accelerometers. In this paper, we review and discuss a wide range of mass signals related to the global water cycle and to solid Earth deformations that were outlined in the e.motion proposal. The technological and mission challenges that need to be addressed in order to detect these signals are emphasized within the context of the scientific return. This analysis presents a broad perspective on the value and need for future satellite gravimetry missions.

Panet, I.; Flury, J.; Biancale, R.; Gruber, T.; Johannessen, J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van Dam, T.; Gegout, P.; Hughes, C. W.; Ramillien, G.; Sasgen, I.; Seoane, L.; Thomas, M.

2013-03-01

407

Earth System Mass Transport Mission (e.motion): A Concept for Future Earth Gravity Field Measurements from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, satellite gravimetry has been revealed as a pioneering technique for mapping mass redistributions within the Earth system. This fact has allowed us to have an improved understanding of the dynamic processes that take place within and between the Earth's various constituents. Results from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have revolutionized Earth system research and have established the necessity for future satellite gravity missions. In 2010, a comprehensive team of European and Canadian scientists and industrial partners proposed the e.motion (Earth system mass transport mission) concept to the European Space Agency. The proposal is based on two tandem satellites in a pendulum orbit configuration at an altitude of about 370 km, carrying a laser interferometer inter-satellite ranging instrument and improved accelerometers. In this paper, we review and discuss a wide range of mass signals related to the global water cycle and to solid Earth deformations that were outlined in the e.motion proposal. The technological and mission challenges that need to be addressed in order to detect these signals are emphasized within the context of the scientific return. This analysis presents a broad perspective on the value and need for future satellite gravimetry missions.

Panet, I.; Flury, J.; Biancale, R.; Gruber, T.; Johannessen, J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van Dam, T.; Gegout, P.; Hughes, C. W.; Ramillien, G.; Sasgen, I.; Seoane, L.; Thomas, M.

2012-10-01

408

Surface composition of low delta-V near-Earth asteroids, a survey of future targets for space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are attracting nowadays more and more attention from the scientific community, because of their constant threat to human civilization, their increasing feasibility for future space missions and the opportunity to investigate pristine material. The classical "accessibility" of a celestial body can be defined in terms of the velocity change (delta-V) applied to an already free-flying spacecraft needed to realize a rendez-vous mission. It is possible to show that NEAs can be more accessible than the Moon or as difficult to reach as Jupiter and beyond (Perozzi et al. 2010). Due to their low delta-V and short mission duration, these objects could be therefore suitable targets for space missions. Unfortunately only 10% of discovered NEAs have been physically characterized. So, in order to guarantee both technical feasibility and high scientific return, we perform spectroscopic observations of 13 low delta-V NEAs. The taxonomic classification of the observed NEAs has been obtained by performing a best fit between our data and the mean spectra of each spectral class proposed by Bus & DeMeo (DeMeo et al. 2009). We also compared our observational data with laboratory spectra, searching for a possible meteorite analogue. Finally we investigate mineralogy by sampling the prominent bands in the NIR, typical of pyroxene and olivine assemblages.

Ieva, Simone; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Brucato, J.

2013-10-01

409

Transmission of Spiroplasma citri to Carrots by Circulifer tenellus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma citri is a wall-less bacterium that causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and brittle root in horseradish. Recently, carrot purple disease was reported in Washington State, and attributed to S. citri, but the mechanisms of transmission and fulfillment of Koch’s postulates were not complet...

410

Quantitative Detection of Spiroplasma Citri by Real Time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to develop an accurate and rapid method to detect Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease for use in epidemiology studies. Quantitative real-time PCR was developed for detection of S. citri. Two sets of primers based on sequences from the P58 putative adhesin ...

411

Cycle life testing of lithium-ion batteries for small satellite LEO space missions  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, Sony corporation announced their intention to manufacture a rechargeable lithium ion battery, based on the intercalation of lithium ions into a carbonaceous anode. The cells were first introduced for portable telephone use in June, 1991. (1) A 3.6V average cell voltage (4.1-2.75V range); (2) Excellent cycle life (1200 @ 100% DOD); (3) Good capacity retention (70% after 6 months); (4) Wide temperature range performance ({minus}20 to +60{degrees}C); (5) Excellent Discharge rate (82% capacity at 30 min. discharge rate); (6) Excellent Charge rate (100% Charge in <3 hrs); and (7) High energy density (264 W*hr/1 and 120 Whr/kg for ``D`` size cell. These specifications show significant promise for application of these batteries in low earth orbit (LEO) small satellites, particularly when compared to existing NiH{sub 2} and NiCd technology. The very high energy density and specific energy will reduce power system volume and weight. The wide temperature range enables simpler thermal design, particularly for new, small, high power satellites. The materials used in the lithium ion batteries are relatively inexpensive and benign, so that we expect costs to come down substantially in the future. The specified cycle life at 100% DOD is also 50% longer than most NiCds, so low DOD (depth of discharge) performance could be substantial. This study was undertaken to: (a) assess the feasibility for using lithium ion cells on small satellite LEO missions and (b) verify the claims of the manufacturer. This was accomplished by performing a detailed autopsy and various depth of discharge and rate tests on the cells. Of special interest was the cycle life performance of these cell at various depths of discharge DOD`s, to get an initial measure of the reduction in capacity fade with cycle conditions. Low DOD`s are used to extend the life of all batteries used in a space application.

Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1993-08-16

412

Are de-orbiting missions possible using electrodynamic tethers? Task review from the space debris perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 9000 satellites and other trackable objects are currently in orbit around the Earth, along with many smaller particles. As the low Earth orbit is not a limitless resource, some sort of debris mitigation measures are needed to solve the problem of unusable satellites and spent upper stages. De-orbiting devices based on the use of conducting tethers have been recently proposed as innovative solutions to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. However, electrodynamic tethers introduce unusual problems when viewed from the space debris perspective. In particular, because of their small diameter, tethers of normal design may have a high probability of being severed by impacts with relatively small meteoroids and orbital debris. This paper compares the results obtained at ISTI/CNR, the Kyushu University and NASA/JSC concerning the vulnerability to debris impacts on a specific conducting tether able to de-orbit spacecraft in inclinations up to 75? and initial altitude less than 1400 km. A double line tether design has been analyzed, in addition to the single wire solution, in order to reduce the tether vulnerability. The results confirm that the survivability concern is fully justified for a single line tether and no de-orbit mission, from the altitudes and inclinations considered, is possible if the tether diameter is smaller than a few millimeters. The survival probability is shown to grow for a double line configuration with a sufficiently high number of knots and loops. The results are strongly dependent on the environment model adopted and the MASTER-2001 orbital debris and meteoroids fluxes result in survival probabilities appreciably higher than those of ORDEM2000 coupled with the Grün meteoroids model.

Pardini, Carmen; Hanada, Toshiya; Krisko, Paula H.; Anselmo, Luciano; Hirayama, Hiroshi

2007-05-01

413

Relativistic gravitational deflection of light and its impact on the modeling accuracy for the Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the impact of relativistic gravitational deflection of light on the accuracy of future Space Interferometry Mission\\u000a (SIM). We estimate the deflection angles caused by the monopole, quadrupole and octupole components of gravitational fields\\u000a for a number of celestial bodies in the solar system. We observe that, in many cases, the magnitude of the corresponding effects\\u000a is significantly larger

V. G. Turyshev

2009-01-01

414

High velocity Van de Graaff shots of mineral dust: application to STARDUST and other in situ space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and collection of high velocity interplanetary or interstellar dust grains by space missions is a nontrivial task, as high speed impacts on collectors or detectors may cause significant structural and chemical modification. Hence, simulation of high speed dust impacts is required, e.g. into STARDUST aerogel or foils [1], or impact ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometers as onboard CASSINI [2,3].

Frank Postberg; Ralf Srama; Mario Trieloff; Jon Hillier; Zack Gainsforth; Andrew Westphal; Eberhard Grün; Steve Armes; Anton Kearsley

2010-01-01

415

Discovery and Exploration of Comet 67P\\/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO - the Main Target of the Rosetta Space Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short period comet 67P\\/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the Jupiter comet family is selected as main target of the European space mission Rosetta. In September 1969 the three collaborators of expedition of Kyiv Shevchenko University went to the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute to conduct a survey of short period and new comets. The main result of the expedition was the discovery of the

K. I. Churyumov

2006-01-01

416

Some results of exploration of comet 67P\\/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - the main target of the Rosetta space mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short period comet 67P\\/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the Jupiter comet family is selected as main target of the European space mission Rosetta. In September 1969 the three collaborators of expedition of Kyiv Shevchenko University went to the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute to conduct a survey of short period and new comets. The main result of the expedition was the discovery of the

K. I. Churyumov

2004-01-01

417

Ground-based detection of TLE-producing intense lightning during the MEIDEX mission on board the space shuttle Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2003 Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) also known as sprites and ELVES were observed by the astronauts on board of the Columbia space shuttle, during the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX). Throughout the 16-day mission, electromagnetic data at four ground-based Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) stations (Israel, Hungary, Japan and Antarctica) were collected to geo-locate and determine the parameters of

C. Price; E. Greenberg; Y. Yair; G. Sátori; J. Bór; H. Fukunishi; M. Sato; P. Israelevich; M. Moalem; A. Devir; Z. Levin; J. H. Joseph; I. Mayo; B. Ziv; A. Sternlieb

2004-01-01

418

Continuous oxygen monitoring of mammalian cell growth on space shuttle mission STS93 with a novel radioluminescent oxygen sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact, flow-through oxygen sensor device based on luminescence quenching was used to monitor dissolved oxygen levels during\\u000a mammalian cell growth on the STS-93 mission of the Columbia space shuttle. Excitation of an oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex\\u000a was provided by a radiolumin escent light source (0.9 mm in diameter, 2.5 mm long), and the intensity of the resulting luminescence\\u000a was measured

Julie S. Reece; Michael J. Miller; Mark A. Arnold; Cris Waterhouse; Ted Delaplaine; Laura Cohn; Tom Cannon

2003-01-01

419

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

420

Effective radiation reduction in Space Station and missions beyond the magnetosphere.  

PubMed

Presented are results from a parametric study of the shielding effectiveness of low and high atomic number shields on biological dose equivalent for low-earth-orbit and interplanetary manned missions. PMID:11537302

Jordan, T M; Stassinopoulos, E G

1989-01-01

421

A deep-space concentrator for inner and outer solar system missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary missions pose special challenges to solar panels because of the wide range of illumination intensities and temperatures. Some missions have both near-sun and far-sun operation requirements, which impart both high illumination, high temperature and low illumination, low temperature operating regimes on the solar panel. At first, a solar concentrator may seem to be a counter-intuitive choice for surviving near-sun

T. G. Stern; M. Piszczor

2002-01-01

422

Microkelvin thermal control system for the laser interferometer space antenna mission and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission aims to detect directly gravitational waves from massive black holes and galactic binaries. Through detecting gravitational waves, we can study blackholes and the origin of the universe, which is inaccessible from the electromagnetic wave spectrum. It will open a new window to the universe. LISA is essentially a Michelson interferometer placed in space with a third spacecraft added. Gravitational waves are time-varying strain in space-time, which is detectable as a fractional change in a proper distance. LISA will monitor fractional changes in the interferometer arms of a nominally 5 million km. The fractional change in the arm length can be as small as 1 x 10-21 m/(m · Hz ) even for powerful sources. LISA makes use of the gravitational reference sensors (GRS) for drag-free control and will achieve the required sensitivity through management of specific acceleration noise. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass, which floats at the center of each GRS, is required to be below 3 x 10-15 m/(s2 · Hz ). Thermal variations due to, for example, solar irradiation, or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing, are expected to be significant disturbance source to the LISA sensitivity requirements. Even a small temperature gradient can produce distortions in the housing structure, which results in a mass attraction force. In this thesis, I focus on developing a thermal control system that aims to achieve the temperature stability of 10 muK / Hz over 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. We have chosen glass-bead thermistors as the temperature sensor for feedback temperature control of the GRS. First, we created a temperature sensor design program in MATLAB that provides an optimal values of resistances in the thermistor bridge circuit for the given application. The spectral stability of the sensor achieves as low as 20 muK/ Hz at 1 mHz with a DC excitation source. The LISA thermal requirement is met by employing AC excitation and phase sensitive demodulation. Second, a passive thermal isolation system with a specially designed multilayer thermal chamber has been developed. For ground testing, the thermal specification can be met fairly readily with a massive amount of thermal mass. However, for spacecraft the thermal mass is limited, which calls for active compensation particularly in the low frequency range. In order for our test facility to simulate in-flight conditions and to compensate for solar radiation and other thermal disturbance sources we have designed it be analogous to the spacecraft structure. The temperature requirement is met to a frequency as low as 10 mHz through passive thermal isolation. Finally, to overcome the limited bandwidth of passive designs to reduce the temperature variations below 10 mHz, a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is developed for active disturbance temperature cancellation. The system attenuates low frequency variations as low as 2 mK/ Hz at 0.1 mHz.

Higuchi, Sei

2009-10-01

423

NASA Targets March 1 Launch for Next SpaceX Station Resupply Mission; Media Accreditation Open  

NASA Website

NASA and its international partners are targeting Friday, March 1, as the launch date for the next cargo resupply flight to the International Space Station by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), designated CRS-2.

424

High-resolution dimensional metrology of materials for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space missions such as LISA, LISA Pathfinder and Darwin, require mechanically and thermally highly stable materials used as structure material for spacecraft platforms and optical instruments. In case of LISA, the pathlength stability of the interferometric measurement must be stable down to the pm-level, implying the use of dimensionally ultra-stable materials for the optical bench and the telescope structure. Baseline materials are Zerodur, a thermally highly-stable glass ceramics with a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) below 2*10-8 K-1 , for the optical bench and carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) for the telescope spacer where a CTE below 2*10-7 K-1 is required. For thermal characterization of materials with very low CTE we developed -in a coopera-tion of EADS Astrium and the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz -a high-resolution dilatometer based on sub-nm heterodyne interferometry. The interferometer measures changes in translation between a measurement and a reference mirror which are placed inside a tube made of the material under investigation. The tube is surrounded by a radiative heating where a specific thermal cycling -such as a sine or step function -can be applied. The mirror mounts are specifically designed in order not to influence the measurement; the method of differen-tial wavefront sensing (DWS) is implemented for measuring a tilt of the mirrors. The DWS signal is taken for a correction of the translation measurement. A temperature gradient over the sample tube is measured using several high-sensitivity temperature sensors fixed to the tube. A first setup was realized using a tube mount made of aluminum. The CTE of tubes made of CFRP and Zerodur was measured, where an accuracy of 10-7 K-1 was demonstrated. For CTE evaluation, different methods such as hysteresis evaluation, frequency analysis and periodic segmentation analysis were carried out, all yielding to comparable CTE values. In our experiments, it was seen that we are limited by a relative movement of the tube support with respect to the interferometer baseplate. We therefore developed an improved dimensionally stable setup where the whole tube support is made of Zerodur. The improved setup and first measurements will be presented.

Schuldt, Thilo; Stoppel, Eugen; Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Braxmaier, Claus

425

Visualization of Space-Time Ambiguities to be Explored by the NASA GEC Mission with a Critique of Synthesized Measurements for Different GEC Mission Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this grant was to study how a multi-satellite mission configuration can be optimized for maximum exploratory scientific return. NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) concept mission Geospace Electrodynamic Connections (GEC) was the target ...

J. J. Sojka L. Zhu T. J. Fuller-Rowell

2005-01-01