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1

Space Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides in formation on past and current exploration ideas and achievements. The advances science has made in the space exploration area, such as having a permanent space station in space and the hundreds of probes, satellite, and space shuttles that have been launched. Advanced telescopes have given scientists the opportunity to see far beyond we ever imagined, and new explorations are found every day. Also featured are details about the International space station and what kinds of experiments scientists do in outer space.

Russell, Randy

2004-05-10

2

Space physics missions handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

Cooper, Robert A. (compiler); Burks, David H. (compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (editor)

1991-01-01

3

The Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a

Stephen C. Unwin

1998-01-01

4

Dosimetry during space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative radiation hazards due to various sources of radiation in several prominent manned space missions are surveyed, along with techniques for coping with the hazards. Cosmic radiation of solar and galactic origin, and Van Allen belt radiation, are the major hazards outside the earth's geomagnetic shield, and were a major problem in the Apollo missions. The Skylab missions, while within the geomagnetic field, were subject to extensive exposure to the trapped radiation belts (Van Allen belts), while the Soyuz-Apollo test project involved orbiting at a lower altitude, with lower exposure. No solar particle bursts affected Apollo missions, and the Solar Particle Alert Network devised to help cope with the problem is described. Dosimetry practices and devices are described. Radiation experience and dose readings logged with the various missions are reported.

Bailey, J. V.

1976-01-01

5

Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

1994-01-01

6

The Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects; imaging the narrow-line regions of AGNs in the optical; direct distance determination of a half dozen nearby spiral galaxies using rotational kinematics, thereby sidestepping reddening and metallicity issues in the calibration of distance estimators like Tully-Fisher; imaging exozodiacal dust disks (when operating in its nulling mode, SIM will be sensitive, at a distance of (beta) Pic (20 pc), to scales ranging from 0.2 to 5 AU).

Unwin, Stephen C.

1998-01-01

7

The Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10-4. A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects; imaging the narrow-line regions of AGNs in the optical; direct distance determination of a half dozen nearby spiral galaxies using rotational kinematics, thereby sidestepping reddening and metallicity issues in the calibration of distance estimators like Tully-Fisher; imaging exozodiacal dust disks (when operating in its nulling mode, SIM will be sensitive, at a distance of (beta) Pic (20 pc), to scales ranging from 0.2 to 5 AU).

Unwin, Stephen C.

1998-04-01

8

Space missions to comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

Neugebauer, M. (editor); Yeomans, D. K. (editor); Brandt, J. C. (editor); Hobbs, R. W. (editor)

1979-01-01

9

The Space Technology 8 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

2006-01-01

10

Spitzer Space Telescope Mission Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta I1 Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the fnst time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and

Johnny H. Kwok; Mark D. Garcia; Eugene Bonfiglio; Stacia M. Long

11

Space Shuttle Missions Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

2011-01-01

12

The Pamela Space Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spaceborn experiment PAMELA will measure the primary cosmic ray particle and anti-particle spectra with high accuracy over an unprecedented energy range. PAMELA's sensitivity to a cosmic antimatter component at the level of 7×10-8 for the {/lineHe/He ratio, and its capability to detect galactic Dark Matter by WIMP annihilation signals in {bar p} and e+ spectra, are highlights of a broad physics program of this 3-years mission. We review performance and physics capabilities of this state-of-the-art spectrometer, which will be launched in 2004 with the Russian satellite Resurs DK-1 into a semi-polar orbit.

Wischnewski, R.

2004-07-01

13

Ulysses Space Mission Word Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ulysses Space Mission Word Search is a word search game that includes words relating to the Ulysses space mission that explored unknown regions of space above the north and south poles of the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

14

White Label Space GLXP Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

Barton, A.

2012-09-01

15

Space Mission : Y3K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer Programme and APME, following the successful launch of "Coming of Age: plastics and space meeting the challenges to mankind" in October 1999. "Coming of Age" is a report produced by APME that brought the role of plastics in technology transfer to adult consumer audiences across Europe.

2001-01-01

16

Spitzer Space Telescope mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

2004-10-01

17

Possible Space Missions for Solar Research After Solar Maximum Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ad hoc panel met in February 1977 to consider the needs of solar physics for space missions after the scheduled flight of Solar Maximum Mission in 1979. We were concerned only with scientific needs and opportunities. Neither budgetary implications nor payload feasibility were considered. This report on the panel deliberations therefore makes suggestions only. We hope it will be a useful input to the more extensive and careful analysis of the appropriate committees, such as the Solar Physics Working Group. We have made no attempt to prioritize our proposed mission. The following possible missions are describes briefly: A Solar Terrestrial Environment Mission; two versions of a Stereo Mission; a Large Scale Solar Structure Mission; a Solar Atmosphere Mission; a Solar Particle Acceleration Mission; and a Solar Pinhole Mission. We also append a brief account of the proposed Solar Probe Mission.

Sturrock, P. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brown, J. C.; Canfield, R. C.; Harvey, J.; Holzer, T. E.; Hoyng, T. E.; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.; Linsky, J. L.

1977-01-01

18

STS61 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

19

SpaceX Demonstration Mission MISSION OBJECTIVES  

E-print Network

stage o Solar arrays deploy from Dragon's trunk and function properly o Dragon completes system, and radiation) found in space, especially Dragon's solar arrays, radiators, avionics, and trunk o Performance

Waliser, Duane E.

20

Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

21

STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1991-01-01

22

Spaceport operations for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

Holt, Alan C.

1990-01-01

23

NASA mission planning for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

1991-01-01

24

Revolutionary Materials for NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for L2, Lunar, Mars and Mars/Venus swing-by reference missions. For all these missions, material trades have been studied. And, as an example, a crew age trade for Mars/Venus swing-by mission has been done. The career blood forming organ (BFO) constraints are more stringent and play a critical role in the optimization procedure. The short missions to L2 and the Moon mainly need to deal with the possibility of solar particle events. It is found that improved shield materials will be required to enable a Mars mission in which middle-aged astronauts can participate. If the age of the astronauts are allowed to be 55 and older then more options are available. Revolutionary materials need to be developed to have younger crewmembers on board to Mars and other long duration missions. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M.-H. Y.

2002-03-01

25

Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy  

E-print Network

Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy Steve Chien, Theresa Debban, and autonomous systems technologies present a unique opportunity for space science. Future space missions have

Schaffer, Steven

26

STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

27

Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

28

Northrop Grumman Space & Mission Systems Corp. Space Technology  

E-print Network

Northrop Grumman Space & Mission Systems Corp. Space Technology One Space Park Redondo Beach, CA: D47856-02 Document Date: March 31 2009 Revision: Point of Contact ____________________________________ ___________________________________ Prepared by Northrop Grumman Space Technology One Space Park Redondo Beach, CA 90278 Prepared

29

STS65 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

30

STS64 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1995-01-01

31

STS62 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter,

Robert W. Fricke Jr.

1994-01-01

32

STS39 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's)

Robert W. Fricke

1991-01-01

33

BIOMIMETIC APPROACH TO ADVANCED SPACE MISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, parking, transfer, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and

Carlo Menon; Tobias Seidl; Michael Broschart

34

Navigation of spacecraft on deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of deep mission spacecraft by computing and signaling to the spacecraft a series of propulsive, velocity correction commands which maneuver the craft to its desired course is examined. The technical elements of the global navigation system (measurement, communications, computation, and propulsion) are described. The ground-computing facilities used to navigate spacecraft on deep space missions consist of computer and

James F. Jordan

1987-01-01

35

Metrology for the Space Interferometry Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space interferometry mission, SIM PlanetQuest, is a mission to use the tool of astrometry to investigate a broad range of topics in astronomy and astrophysics. SIM requires that the baseline vector lengths also be measured at the few micrometer level of precision. This is called absolute metrology, and is a capability built into the external metrology subsystem of SIM.

B. Nemati

2006-01-01

36

Lunar Mission Profiles for Commercial Space Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lunar mission profiles for manned commercial space operations utilizing existing hardware are analyzed: (1) direct insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a parking Earth orbit, similar to those used on Apollo missions; (2) insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a high elliptical parking orbit, similar to the elliptical phasing orbit profiles used on the Hughes satellite HGS-1

Andrew Meade; David Warden; Leroy Chiao

37

Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

1980-01-01

38

Technology transfer and space science missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on technology transfer and space science missions are provided. Topics covered include: project scientist role within NASA; role of universities in technology transfer; role of government laboratories in research; and technology issues associated with science.

Acuna, Mario

1992-01-01

39

Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme 'Space Mission Success Through Testing.'

Stecher, Joseph L., III (compiler)

1994-01-01

40

Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

2012-01-01

41

In Brief: Proposed European space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New candidates for possible future scientific missions were selected by the European Space Agency's Space Science Advisory Committee at its 17-18 October meeting. Among the eight candidates are four solar system missions. The Laplace mission would perform coordinated observations of Europa, the Jovian satellites, Jupiter's magnetosphere, and its atmosphere and interior. Tandem is a mission that would explore two Saturn satellites-Titan and Enceladus-in situ and from orbit to investigate their origins, interiors, and evolution as well as their astrobiological potential. Cross-Scale, with 12 spacecraft, would make simultaneous measurements of plasma on different scales at shocks, reconnection sites, and turbulent regions in near-Earth space. Marco Polo would characterize a near-Earth object at multiple scales and return with a sample. Among other missions, Plato, a photometry mission, would detect and characterize transiting exoplanets, while Spica, a next-generation infrared observatory, would address planetary formation questions. Ultimately, two missions will be proposed for implementation, with launches planned for 2017 and 2018.

Showstack, Randy

2007-10-01

42

Space Interferometry Mission starlight and metrology subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), planned for launch in 2009, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4.0 microarcseconds. In order to achieve this accuracy, which represents an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous astrometric measurements, a ten-meter baseline interferometer will be flown in space. NASA challenges JPL and its industrial partners,

Lawrence L. Ames; Stephanie D. Barrett; Stuart J. Calhoon; Eric T. Kvamme; James E. Mason; Jeffrey M. Oseas; Mark Pryor; David B. Schaechter; David M. Stubbs

2003-01-01

43

COTS 2 Mission Press Kit SpaceX/NASA Launch and Mission to Space Station  

E-print Network

Highlights 4 Mission Overview 6 Dragon Recovery Operations 7 Mission Objectives 9 Mission Timeline 11 Dragon challenges (timeline could change): Day 1/Launch Day: SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket launches a Dragon spacecraft into orbit from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Day 2: Dragon orbits Earth as it travels toward

Waliser, Duane E.

44

The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

Hansen, Elaine

1993-08-01

45

STS37 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37\\/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial

Robert W. Fricke

1991-01-01

46

STS44 Space Shuttle mission report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines

Robert W. Fricke

1992-01-01

47

Blast-Off on Mission: SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of NASA's mission is to inspire the next generation of explorers. NASA often reaches children - the inventors of tomorrow - through teachers, reporters, exhibit designers, and other third-party entities. Therefore, when Walt Disney Imagineering, the creative force behind the planning, design, and construction of Disney parks and resorts around the world, approached NASA with the desire to put realism into its Mission: SPACE project, the Agency was happy to offer its insight.

2003-01-01

48

Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

O'Keefe, William

2008-01-01

49

Procedure Visualization to Augment Space Mission Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) has been developed by the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center as a solution to some of the training and operations challenges faced by organizations like the International Space Station training facilities and Mission Control engineering teams. At present, astronaut crews are constrained by limited access to physical mockups, which themselves have a built-in 1-g limitation. Mission operations team are faced with the daunting task of controlling the operations and maintenance of an ever-changing Station in space. Many operations teams create and follow textual procedures without the ability to visualize the given actions or alternatives. The NS allows users to easily generate and view procedures to enhance training and operations. Because training and mission operations are of crucial importance to the International Space Station and other similarly sophisticated programs, this paper is focused on the NS integrated procedure tool.

McIntosh, Dawn M.; Elcott, Sharif; Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.

2003-01-01

50

STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

51

Advanced power sources for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

1989-01-01

52

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-02-01

53

STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

54

Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Jospeh I.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Suggs, Robert M.

2013-01-01

55

Life sciences space missions. Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been known for many years that weightlessness induces changes in numerous physiological systems: the cardiovascular system declines in both aerobic capacity and orthostatic tolerance; there is a reduction in fluid and electrolyte balance, hematocrit, and certain immune parameters; bone and muscle mass and strength are reduced; various neurological responses include space motion sickness and posture and gate alterations. These responses are caused by the hypokinesia of weightlessness, the cephalic fluid shift, the unloading of the vestibular system, stress, and the altered temporal environment.

Sulzman, F. M.

1996-01-01

56

STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1990-01-01

57

Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

2007-01-01

58

STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

59

STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

60

Helios mission support. [Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities of the Deep Space Network Operations organization in support of the Helios Project from 15 October 1977 through 15 December 1977 are described. Topics covered include: (1) Mark 3 data subsystem testing at the conjoint Deep Space Stations (DSS) 42/43 (Canberra, Australia); (2) MDS implementation at DSS 61/63 (Madrid, Spain); (3) Radio Science update, and (4) other mission-related activities.

Goodwin, P. S.; Rockwell, G. M.

1978-01-01

61

Russian Projects of Space Missions for Astrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994 Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences is working on conception of astrometrical instrument of new generation under contract with Russian Space Agency. After HIPPARCOS mission it is obvious that necessary accuracy for modern astrometry is micro-arcseconds. The only way to approach this level is pupil interferometry outside atmosphere. The first Russian project was pair of twin

A. V. Bagrov

2006-01-01

62

Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Model and  

E-print Network

systems around distant stars, and perhaps the origins of life itself (see Fig. 1) [1]. The SIM instrumentSpace Interferometry Mission Instrument Model and Astrometric Performance Validation IPEK BASDOGAN optical interferometer. The lack of signal from the science targets precludes using the star as a feedback

Basdogan, Ipek

63

STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

64

Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station

Ronald J. Davenport; Franz H. Schubert; David J. Grigger

1991-01-01

65

STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-77 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 11. The Government Fumished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table II. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET). The six-person crew for STS-77 consisted of John H. Casper, Col., U. S. Air Force, Commander; Curtis L. Brown, Jr., Lt. Col., U. S. Air Force, Pilot; Andrew S. W. Thomas, Civilian, Ph.D., Mission Specialist 1; Daniel W. Bursch, CDR., U. S. Navy, Mission Specialist 2; Mario Runco, Jr., Civilian, Mission Specialist 3; and Marc Gameau, Civilian, PhD, Mission Specialist 4.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

66

STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

67

STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

68

Psychological considerations in future space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

1980-01-01

69

Navigation of spacecraft on deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of deep mission spacecraft by computing and signaling to the spacecraft a series of propulsive, velocity correction commands which maneuver the craft to its desired course is examined. The technical elements of the global navigation system (measurement, communications, computation, and propulsion) are described. The ground-computing facilities used to navigate spacecraft on deep space missions consist of computer and software systems used to compute orbits from radio tracking and on-board optical image data (radio, Doppler, and VLBI measurements). The accuracy of these measurements is evaluated, and the modeling of the data is discussed. Examples concerned with the navigation of Voyager and Galileo are presented.

Jordan, James F.

1987-01-01

70

Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

1997-01-01

71

STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment (GFE/FCE) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 3. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 4. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

72

Project trades model for complex space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Project Trades Model (PTM) is a collection of tools/simulations linked together to rapidly perform integrated system trade studies of performance, cost, risk, and mission effectiveness. An operating PTM captures the interactions between various targeted systems and subsystems through an exchange of computed variables of the constituent models. Selection and implementation of the order, method of interaction, model type, and envisioned operation of the ensemble of tools rpresents the key system engineering challenge of the approach. This paper describes an approach to building a PTM and using it to perform top-level system trades for a complex space mission. In particular, the PTM discussed here is for a future Mars mission involving a large rover.

Girerd, Andre R.; Shishko, Roberto

2003-01-01

73

Manned Mars missions using propellant from space  

SciTech Connect

.A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3413 (United States)); Redd, L.R. (Department of Energy, Office of Space, Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83402 (United States))

1993-01-10

74

Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software development techniques lays the foundation for delivery of product-oriented flight software modules and models. Software can then be readily applied to support the on-board autonomy required for mission self-management. An on-board intelligent system, based on advanced scripting languages, facilitates the mission autonomy required to offload ground system resources, and enables the spacecraft to manage itself safely through an efficient and effective process of reactive planning, science data acquisition, synthesis, and transmission to the ground. Autonomous ground systems in turn coordinate and support schedule contact times with the spacecraft. Specific autonomy software modules on-board include mission and science planners, instrument and subsystem control, and fault tolerance response software, all residing within a distributed computing environment supported through the flight LAN. Autonomy also requires the minimization of human intervention between users on the ground and the spacecraft, and hence calls for the elimination of the traditional operations control center as a funnel for data manipulation. Basic goal-oriented commands are sent directly from the user to the spacecraft through a distributed internet-based payload operations "center". The ensuing architecture calls for the use of spacecraft as point extensions on the Internet. This paper will detail the system architecture implementation chosen to enable cost-effective autonomous missions with applicability to a broad range of conditions. It will define the structure needed for implementation of such missions, including software and hardware infrastructures. The overall architecture is then laid out as a common thread in the mission life cycle from formulation through implementation and flight operations.

Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

75

STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1994-01-01

76

Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission  

E-print Network

MESSENGER Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission Frequently Asked Mercury's characteristics and environment during two complementary mission phases. The mission's primary goal is to increase our understanding of Mercury's density, geologic history, magnetic field, core

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

77

Digital communication constraints in prior space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this activity is to assist in the set-up of phase noise instrumentation, assist in the process of automated wire bonding, assist in the design and optimization of tunable microwave components, especially phase shifters, based on thin ferroelectric films, and learn how to use commercial electromagnetic simulation software.

Yassine, Nathan K.

2004-01-01

78

Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

Fusaro, Robert L.

1991-01-01

79

Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

Johnson, C. W.

2012-01-01

80

Internet Technology for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

2002-01-01

81

STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

1991-01-01

82

High performance techniques for space mission scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

Smith, Stephen F.

1994-01-01

83

Space station support of manned Mars missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly of a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be best accomplished with the support of the space station. Station payload requirements for microgravity environments of .001 g and pointing stability requirements of less than 1 arc second could mean that the spacecraft may have to be assembled at a station-keeping position about 100 meters or more away from the station. In addition to the assembly of large modules and connective structures, the manned Mars mission assembly tasks may include the connection of power, fluid, and data lines and the handling and activation of components for chemical or nuclear power and propulsion systems. These assembly tasks will require the use of advanced automation and robotics in addition to Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew support. Advanced development programs for the space station, including on-orbit demonstrations, could also be used to support manned Mars mission technology objectives. Follow-on studies should be conducted to identify space station activities which could be enhanced or expanded in scope (without significant cost and schedule impact) to help resolve key technical and scientific questions relating to manned Mars missions.

Holt, Alan C.

1986-01-01

84

STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

85

STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

86

The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) Space Shuttle Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

1998-01-01

87

Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

2011-01-01

88

A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

Wickler, Martin

1994-01-01

89

Space Place: LISA Space Mission Gives Humans a Sixth Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is related to gravity and the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) mission. Like a sixth sense, detecting gravity waves will give us a whole new way to see the universe. Provides an easy explanation of gravitational waves, with a link to an interactive crossword using the new vocabulary words.

2011-01-01

90

Training for long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

Goldberg, Joseph H.

1987-01-01

91

The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered with rechargeable batteries, thus allowing a long duration mission on the nucleus surface. At the time of this writing, the ST-4/Champollion spacecraft was undergoing a major redesign to fit within NASA cost constraints, and approval of the mission is pending.

Weissman, Paul R.

2000-01-01

92

STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

93

STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

94

ECLSS development for future space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom is presently under development. Three areas of concern for longer duration missions are recycling of mass, monitoring and controlling the ECLSS, and controlling trace contaminants and microorganisms. The goal is to 'close the loop' for water and oxygen much more than has been done on previous missions. Alternative technologies for performing each of the ECLSS functions are being developed and evaluated as part of the selection process for choosing the technologies to use on Freedom. Methods to automatically monitor and control the ECLSS are being investigated. The instrumentation needs are being determined in order to focus effort where most needed. Research is also underway to improve methods of monitoring and controlling trace contaminants and microorganisms.

Wieland, Paul O.; Humphries, William R.

1990-01-01

95

STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

96

STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

97

Positive psychological effects of space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C.; Kanas, Nick

2005-07-01

98

STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

99

STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

100

STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

101

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-03-01

102

STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

103

STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

Fricke, Robert W.

1992-01-01

104

STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1996-01-01

105

STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

106

Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

Doyle, Richard J.

2006-01-01

107

Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

Chilan, Christian Miguel

2009-01-01

108

Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

Redifer, Matthew E.

1995-01-01

109

STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

110

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Me...

J. Azbell

2010-01-01

111

Deep Space Orbital Service Model for Virtual Planetary Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of the orbital service model, a technique for coordinating mission services between multiple spacecraft, is presented. This facilitates the creation of virtual uploadable ‘app’ missions to deep space probes.

Straub, J.

2014-06-01

112

Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

1993-01-01

113

Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

Barret, Chris

2003-01-01

114

STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

115

STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

Fricke, Robert W.

1991-01-01

116

Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

2006-01-01

117

Active pixel array devices in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray Telescope for NASA's Swift mission incorporates a Telescope Alignment Monitor (TAM) to measure thermo-elastic misalignments between the telescope and the spacecraft star tracker. A LED in the X-ray focal plane is imaged on to a position-sensitive detector via two paths, directly and after reflection from the star tracker alignment cube. The separation of the two spots of light on the detector is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a centroiding algorithm. The active element of the TAM is a miniature camera supplied by Sira Electro-Optics Ltd, using an Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The camera was based on similar pointing sensors developed on European Space Agency programmes, such as acquisition sensors for optical inter-satellite links and miniaturized star trackers. The paper gives the background to APS-based pointing sensors, describes the Swift TAM system, and presents test results from the instrument development programme.

Hopkinson, G. R.; Purll, D. J.; Abbey, A. F.; Short, A.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, A.

2003-11-01

118

Power Electronic Components, Circuits and Systems for Deep Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power electronic circuits are widely used in space missions in the areas of power management, conditioning, and control systems. Circuits designed for deep space applications and outer planetary explorations are required to operate reliably and efficiently under extreme temperature conditions. This requirement is dictated by the fact that the operational environments associated with some of the space missions would encompass

Malik Elbuluk; Ahmad Hammoud; Richard Patterson

2005-01-01

119

Advanced ion propulsion systems for affordable deep-space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of future deep-space science missions will be the need for significantly greater on-board propulsion capability. To meet this need, ion propulsion based on the technology that flew on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft has now entered the mainstream of propulsion options available for deep-space missions. The next most likely science mission to use ion propulsion is the

John Brophy

2003-01-01

120

Earth science missions for the space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next decade and perhaps as early as 1994, a space station will carry an international team of scientists and engineers into low equatorial orbit (28.5 degrees) much like the shuttle missions are flown today. While the shuttle flights have successfully demonstrated new tools such as the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR), Large Format Camera (LFC) and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A and B) they have been of limited value to the operational needs of the earth science community, especially those located outside of the orbital path. In spite of this, it behooves the earth science community to begin defining experiments, instruments and observational objectives in preparation for the day when space stations can operate for long periods of time, at low-equatorial, high-polar and eventually, geosynchronous orbits. Observational experiments and instruments in concert with unmanned satellite records should be defined that focus on surface changes such as greening and senescence of vegetation, rain and snowfall, surface wetness, floods, plankton and algae blooms, sea and glacier ice movement, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches, forest and range fires , deforestation, and other dynamic environmental phenomena. If these can be observed and recorded on a global basis with better instruments than we have today we may be able to improve disaster warning and forecasting techniques as well as develop a better understanding of global change and its effects on mankind.

Carter, William D.

121

STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

122

Goals of the ARISE Space VLBI Mission  

E-print Network

Supermassive black holes, with masses of 10^6 to more than 10^9 solar masses, are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. The primary goal of ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth) is to use the technique of Space VLBI to increase our understanding of black holes and their environments, by imaging the havoc produced in the near vicinity of the black holes by their enormous gravitational fields. The mission will be based on a 25-meter space-borne radio telescope operating at frequencies between 8 and 86 GHz, roughly equivalent to an orbiting element of the Very Long Baseline Array. In an elliptical orbit with an apogee height of 40,000-100,000 km, ARISE will provide resolution of 15 microarcseconds or better, 5-10 times better than that achievable on the ground. At frequencies of 43 and 86 GHz, the resolution of light weeks to light months in distant quasars will complement the gamma-ray and X-ray observations of high-energy photons, which come from the same regions near the massive black holes. At 22 GHz, ARISE will image the water maser disks in active galaxies more than 15 Mpc from Earth, probing accretion physics and giving accurate measurements of black-hole masses. ARISE also will study gravitational lenses at resolutions of tens of microarcseconds, yielding important information on the dark-matter distribution and on the possible existence of compact objects with masses of 10^3 to 10^6 solar masses.

James S. Ulvestad

1999-01-26

123

Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

Lee, M.; Weidner, R. J.; Soderblom, L. A.

2002-01-01

124

Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

Nilsen, Erik N.

1998-01-01

125

STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981  

NASA Video Gallery

Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

126

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

1991-01-01

127

Results from the Deep Space One Technology Validation Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on October 25, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium Program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs.

Rayman, M.; Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.

1999-01-01

128

A Space Mission to Vesta: General Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large asteroid 4 Vesta appears today as the most interesting target for a possible space mission devoted to main-belt asteroids. There are several reasons for this conclusion. First, this asteroid is known to exhibit a rare mineralogic composition. Its surface is basaltic and indicates a differentiated composition, implying a complex thermal history. The fact that Vesta experienced an early phase of melting during its history has strong implications for the present understanding of the history of the solar system. In spite of its relatively large size compared to the bulk of the asteroid population, it is not easy to explain an early melting of Vesta as the consequence of the decay of radioactive isotopes, since the expected amount of such elements in a body of this size seems insufficient to cause a global melting. An alternative theory is based on electro-magnetic heating during an episode of strong solar wind from the early proto-Sun when our star experienced a T Tauri phase, as predicted by modem stellar astrophysics. In any case, a close approach by a space probe could provide essential observational constraints in order to better understand the thermal history of this body. On the other hand, Vesta is very interesting from the point of view of the physics of collisions and the overall process of collisional evolution of the main belt. It is known that Vesta suffered very important collision in the past. This collision created a hemispheric-sized crater whose existence has been detected through photometric and polarimetric studies Subsequently, its real nature, that it is physically associated with objects derived from a common collisional origin, has been confirmed by spectroscopic observations, showing that the small family members share a basaltic composition with Vesta. The high ejection velocities imparted to the fragments from this event can have allowed a fraction of them to reach both the V6 secular resonance and the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. These resonances are known to be efficient dynamical routes leading to the inner zones of the solar system. As a consequence, we believe today that both the known V-type (basaltic) near-Earth asteroids (NEAS) and the basaltic achondritic meteorites (eucrites) found on Earth can derive from Vesta. In this sense, a comparison between the mineralogical properties of eucrites and those of V-type asteroids could provide invaluable information about the mineralogical variations induced by the exposure to solar wind and by the impact with the Earth atmosphere in the case of eucritic meteorites. For these reasons, an analysis of the Vesta surface as could be performed by means of direct observations from a space probe should be of the highest importance, and could also provide information about the probable age of the Vesta family. On the basis of the body of scientific evidence explained above, we suggest that a mission devoted to a low-velocity rendezvous with Vesta should deserve high priority in the planning of space activity.

Bussolino, L.; Sommat, R.; Casaccit, C.; Zappala, V.; Cellino, A.; DiMartino, M.

1996-01-01

129

Space environments and effects analysis for ESA missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of the environments of space missions is an area of increasing importance in the spacecraft design and operation phase. The need to assess accurately the effects of high-energy radiation, plasma and micro-particles on space missions has fostered the development and use of new generation tools to cope with the increasingly demanding requirements from more challenging space missions, use of commercial devices and advanced scientific detectors. We present applications at ESA of new tools for the support of space missions including particle transport in planetary magnetic fields, applied to the INTEGRAL mission, and shielding assessments in the context of the future BepiColombo and JWST missions. Developments of other new tools or techniques, such as microscopic NIEL degradation prediction tools, will be outlined. The need of a common framework for the development of future analysis tools (Geant4-based and not) is presented.

Space Environments and Effects Analysis Section

2006-01-01

130

Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

2005-01-01

131

Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

2007-01-01

132

Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

2004-01-01

133

An integrated medical system for long-duration space missions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System (IMBLMS) being developed for onboard medical support of the crew and for medical research during space missions. The system is suitable for use during early extended space flights and for accommodating measurement and diagnostic apparatus as well as treatment and surgical facilities developed for later missions.

Pool, S. L.; Belasco, N.

1972-01-01

134

Social and cultural issues during Shuttle\\/Mir space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper,

Nick Kanas; Vyacheslav Salnitskiy; Ellen M. Grund; Vadim Gushin; Daniel S. Weiss; Olga Kozerenko; Alexander Sled; Charles R. Marmar

2000-01-01

135

Planetary Protection Status of NASA Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA monitors its spacecraft from a planetary protection (PP) perspective, to ensure it continues in compliance with COSPAR planetary protection requirements. This report to COSPAR on previous, ongoing and future missions will describe the PP compliance status of each, with changes noted as appropriate from the previous report in 2006. Missions to be covered include (but are not limited to):

A. Spry; Ying Lin; Yuki Salinas; Laura Newlin

2008-01-01

136

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, Palmer

1990-01-01

137

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

SciTech Connect

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, P.

1990-02-01

138

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, P.

1990-01-01

139

Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

1994-01-01

140

Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

Schulze, Norman R.

1991-01-01

141

Space Shuttle telemetry monitoring by expert systems in mission control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of two real-time expert systems for making flight-critical decisions during Space Shuttle missions is discussed. The expert systems, which monitor Space Shuttle communications and the Shuttle main engines, were first used in the STS-26 mission. The NASA Mission Control Center information systems are described. Consideration is given to the use of the C language inference production system expert system tool to develop the integrated communications officer (INCO) expert system, which monitors the Shuttle communications and data systems. The layered architecture of the INCO expert system is examined and results are presented from the use of the INCO expert system during Shuttle missions.

Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

1989-01-01

142

Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

1999-01-01

143

Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

1988-08-19

144

Cost Estimating of Space Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract: Estimating the cost of NASA's science missions is a very difficult task. Anticipating how a system concept may evolve over time is challenging to say the least. Historical data, however, can help to estimate how the design may grow and how the schedules may change over time. An overall approach for costing such system relies on utilizing multiple methods based on historical technical, cost and schedule data to provide a robust range of estimates for future missions. This approach and other considerations for costing NASA science missions will be discussed.

Bitten, Robert

2014-08-01

145

Active Refrigeration for Space Astrophysics Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of cryogen dewars limits mission lifetime, increases sensor mass, and increases program engineering and launch costs on spacebased low-background, precision-pointing instruments, telescopes and interferometers.

Wade, L.

1994-01-01

146

Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

1991-09-01

147

Deep space network: Mission support requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

1991-01-01

148

Projected NASA power requirements for space science and exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has recently completed its long-range strategic plan which describes a number of exciting space science missions into the early 21st century. In parallel, NASA's new Office of Exploration has begun defining in more detail the architectures of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) for returning to the Moon and going to Mars. Both the space science missions and the SEI missions are dependent upon power sources and energy storage with strong requirements for reliability, long life, ease of assembly, autonomy, and light weight. This paper reviews the currently planned space science and SEI missions and focuses upon the power requirements with a view toward guiding technology developers and power designers.

Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.

1992-01-01

149

Access to Space for Technology Validation Missions: A Practical Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space technology experiments and validation missions share a common dilemma with the aerospace industry in general: the high cost of access to space. Whether the experiment is a so-called university cubesat, a university measurement experiment, or a NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) technology validation mission, the access to space option can be scaled appropriately for the particular constraints. A cubesat might fly as one of a number of cubesats that negotiate a flight on an experimental vehicle. A university experiment might do the same. A NASA flight validation might partner with an Air Force experimental mission.

Herrell, Linda M.

2007-01-01

150

Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

Bowman, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

151

Ares V an Enabling Capability for Future Space Astrophysics Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

Stahl, H. Philip

2007-01-01

152

Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

1984-01-01

153

Ares V: an Enabling Capability for Future Space Science Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

Stahl, H. Philip

2007-01-01

154

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-01-01

155

Mission design for deep space 1: A low-thrust technology validation mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep Space 1 (DS1), currently scheduled for launch in July or August 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. DS1's payload of technologies will be rigorously exercised during the two-year mission. Several features of the project present unique or unusual opportunities and challenges in the design of the mission that are likely to be encountered in future missions. The principal mission-driving technology is solar electric propulsion (SEP); this will be the first mission to rely on SEP as the primary source of propulsion. Another important technology for the mission design is the autonomous on-board navigation system, which requires frequent (at least weekly) intervals of several hours during which it collects visible images of distant asteroids and stars for its use in orbit determination and maneuver planning. The mission design accommodates the needs of these and other technologies for operational use and for acquiring sufficient validation data to assess their viability for future missions. DS1's mission profile includes encounters with an asteroid and a comet.

Rayman, Marc D.; Chadbourne, Pamela A.; Culwell, Jeffery S.; Williams, Steven N.

1999-11-01

156

Estimating continental hydrology parameters from space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different instruments on board Earth Observing satellite missions that were designed either for ocean missions or land surface classification have been used to retrieve continental surface hydrology parameters While altimeter measurements provide an estimate of height over water bodies of typically a few km in size it is necessary to complement these measurements with imagers either optical or microwave to estimate water extent A comparison of the estimates of water elevation derived from the Topex Poseidon ERS2 ENVISAT and Icesat altimeter missions with in situ gauge measurements provides RMS errors between 10 and 50 cm Analysis of satellite altimeter time series over lakes and rivers in Asia clearly indicates superimposed seasonal and interannual variabilities The synergy of altimeter water height estimate with the water extent provided by radiometers is a means of estimating water volume variations The case of the Mekong river will be presented and the seasonal and interannual variability will be analyzed and compared with estimates of the total water content variability obtained with the GRACE gravimetry mission The synergy between the GRACE gravimetry mission that provides the variations of the integrated water mass with the surface water component estimated from the combination of altimeter and radiometer measurements will be analyzed The satellite altimeters currently available are not designed to provide accurate measurements over continents they have a resolution of at best 1 km and since they are profiling instruments they

Mognard, N. M.; Cazenave, A.; Cretaux, J.-F.; Calmant, S.; Ramillien, G.; Frappart, F.; Dominh, K.; Cauhope, M.

157

Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Me...

J. A. Azbell

2011-01-01

158

THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION M. W. Werner,1  

E-print Network

THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION M. W. Werner,1 T. L. Roellig,2 F. J. Low,3 G. H. Rieke,3 M2 Receivved 2004 March 26; accepted 2004 May 26 ABSTRACT The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays

Galis, Frietson

159

Virtual Environments in Training: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual environment (VE) technology was used to construct a model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and those elements that were replaced or serviced during the December, 1993 repair and maintenance mission conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The VE also included the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and the fixtures used for transporting replacement systems

R. Bowen Loftin; Patrick J. Kenney; Robin Benedetti; Chris Culbert; Mark Engelberg; Robert Jones; Paige Lucas; Mason Menninger; John Muratore; Lac Nguyen; Tim Saito; Robert T. Savely; Mark Voss

160

Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 1: Mission requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline mission model used to develop the space station mission-related requirements is described as well as the 90 civil missions that were evaluated, (including the 62 missions that formed the baseline model). Mission-related requirements for the space station baseline are defined and related to space station architectural development. Mission-related sensitivity analyses are discussed.

1983-01-01

161

Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

Staehle, R. L.

1979-01-01

162

National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

1984-01-01

163

Assessment and control of electrostatic charges. [hazards to space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experience is described of NASA and DOD with electrostatic problems, generation mechanisms, and type of electrostatic hazards. Guidelines for judging possible effects of electrostatic charges on space missions are presented along with mathematical formulas and definitions.

Barrett, M.

1974-01-01

164

Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dose and dose-equivalent estimates that astronauts might be expected to receive in space were assessed for the development of new radiation protection guidelines, considering several space mission scenarios. These scenarios included a 90-day LEO mission at 450 km altitude with orbital inclinations appropriate for NASA's Space Station (28.5, 57, and 90 deg), a 15-day sortie to GEO, and a 90-day lunar mission. All the missions contemplated would present space travelers with dose equivalents between 5 and 10 rem to the blood-forming organs, assuming no encounter with a large solar particle event; a large particle event could add considerable exposure for all scenarios except for the one at 28.5 orbital inclination. Adequate shielding must be included to guard against the radiation produced by such events.

Curtis, S. B.; Atwell, W.; Beever, R.; Hardy, A.

1986-01-01

165

Space shuttle traffic model developed from 1971 mission model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traffic model data for the space shuttle using the 1971 NASA, DOD, and commercial mission models are presented along with descriptions and schedules for the NASA and commercial payloads used to develop the data.

1973-01-01

166

Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

1990-01-01

167

Buzz Lightyear's Space Station Mission Logs  

NASA Video Gallery

The world's most famous space ranger returned to Earth in September 2009 after more than a year in orbit, and now he's sharing his adventures. Learn more about the International Space Station with ...

168

NASA Creates Space Technology Mission Directorate  

E-print Network

drew media attention and articles on 3D printing, including coverage by Popular Mechanics and website on 3D printing and prototyping technology to create parts for the Space Launch System at Marshall Space

169

Analysis of Space Coherent LIDAR Wind Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the performance of a coherent Doppler lidar proposed by a team comprising the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Company, University of Wisconsin and Los Alamos National Laboratory to NASA's Earth System Science Path...

G. D. Spiers

1997-01-01

170

Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

Swan, Christopher

2007-01-01

171

Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

Hoffman, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

172

Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

2015-01-01

173

Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

Wood, G. A.

1979-01-01

174

Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application  

SciTech Connect

Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

1987-01-01

175

Vision for Micro Technology Space Missions. Chapter 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and it is exciting to contemplate the various space mission applications that Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology could enable in the next 10-20 years. The primary objective of this chapter is to both stimulate ideas for MEMS technology infusion on future NASA space missions and to spur adoption of the MEMS technology in the minds of mission designers. This chapter is also intended to inform non-space oriented MEMS technologists, researchers and decision makers about the rich potential application set that future NASA Science and Exploration missions will provide. The motivation for this chapter is therefore to lead the reader down a path to identify and consider potential long-term, perhaps disruptive or revolutionary, impacts that MEMS technology may have for future civilian space applications. A general discussion of the potential for MEMS in space applications is followed by a brief showcasing of a few selected examples of recent MEMS technology developments for future space missions. Using these recent developments as a point of departure, a vision is then presented of several areas where MEMS technology might eventually be exploited in future Science and Exploration mission applications. Lastly, as a stimulus for future research and development, this chapter summarizes a set of barriers to progress, design challenges and key issues that must be overcome in order for the community to move on, from the current nascent phase of developing and infusing MEMS technology into space missions, in order to achieve its full future potential.

Dennehy, Neil

2005-01-01

176

Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

2005-01-01

177

Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

178

Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

Livas, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

179

Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

1990-01-01

180

Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Gushin, V.; Weiss, D. S.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

2000-01-01

181

Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

1966-01-01

182

Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and existing software used for Spacelab payload mission planning were studied. A complete baseline definition of the Spacelab payload mission planning process was established, along with a definition of existing software capabilities for potential extrapolation to the Space Station. This information was used as a basis for defining system requirements to support Space Station mission planning. The Space Station mission planning concept was reviewed for the purpose of identifying areas where artificial intelligence concepts might offer substantially improved capability. Three specific artificial intelligence concepts were to be investigated for applicability: natural language interfaces; expert systems; and automatic programming. The advantages and disadvantages of interfacing an artificial intelligence language with existing FORTRAN programs or of converting totally to a new programming language were identified.

Klus, W. J.

1987-01-01

183

Analysis of Space Coherent LIDAR Wind Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the performance of a coherent Doppler lidar proposed by a team comprising the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Company, University of Wisconsin and Los Alamos National Laboratory to NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program was performed. The design went through several iterations and only the performance of the final design is summarized here.

Spiers, Gary D.

1997-01-01

184

Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, Stephen D.

2013-01-01

185

Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

Creech, S. D.

186

Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

1984-01-01

187

Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100MT payload into a 1500km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space

Vincent P. Chiravalle

2008-01-01

188

Examples regarding the use of electronics for space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics has played a vital part in the many space missions conducted since the dawn of the space age in 1957. The employment of electronics in the spacecraft itself is mainly related to the processing and the transmission of payload data, the reception and execution of commands, and the supervision and control of experiments and spacecraft systems. The use of

W. Markwitz; J. Turner; W. Schwarz; J. Gredel

1981-01-01

189

Assessment of electronics for cryogenic space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration missions require electronics capable of efficient and reliable operation at low temperatures. Presently, spacecraft on-board electronics are maintained at approximately 20°C through the use of radioisotopes. Cryogenic electronics would enhance efficiency of space systems, improve reliability, and simplify their design. A Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics

R. L. Patterson; A. Hammoud; M. Elbuluk

2006-01-01

190

Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early dawn, the brilliant flames from the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery light up the billows of steam below. Mission STS-96 lifted off at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student- involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

191

Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

Edwards, Jacob

192

Onboard science software enabling future space science and space weather missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the path towards an operational Space Weather System are science missions involving as many as 100 spacecraft (Magnetospheric Constellation, DRACO, 2010). Multiple spacecraft are required to measure the macro, meso, and micro scale plasma physics that underlies Geospace phenomena. To be feasible, however, multiple spacecraft missions must be no more costly to operate than single spacecraft missions are today.

Michael L. Rilee; Scott A. Boardsen; Maharaj K. Bhat; Steven A. Curtis

2002-01-01

193

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testbed role of an early (1990-95) manned space station in large space structures technology development is defined and conceptual designs for large space structures development missions to be conducted at the space station are developed. Emphasis is placed on defining requirements and benefits of development testing on a space station in concert with ground and shuttle tests.

1983-01-01

194

TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

2011-01-01

195

Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

1999-01-01

196

Fiber optic rotation sensor for long lifetime space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present F-O rotation sensors (FORS) are all-solid state devices for measuring rotations and rotation rates in inertial space that may reach the 0.003 deg/hr (1-sigma) accuracies required for NASA's Saturn-orbiting Cassini mission. Attention is presently given to the mission, inertial reference unit, and FORS instrument optoelectronic component requirements envisioned for such spacecraft applications.

Dorsky, L.; Bartman, R.; Lehman, D.; Salomon, P.; Freier, L.; Laznicka, O.; Magee, R.; Murphy, J.

1992-01-01

197

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure\\u000a and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher\\u000a education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of practice. Moving from abstract\\u000a to concrete, this paper shows how mission statements embody structure

Sam J. Fugazzotto

2009-01-01

198

A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

Mendell, Wendell W.

1992-01-01

199

A new paradigm for space astrophysics mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship "mission after next" appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation's science ambitions requires a new paradigm of system design, development and manufacture. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future.

Arenberg, Jonathan; Atkinson, Charles; Breckinridge, Jim; Conti, Alberto; Feinberg, Lee; Lillie, Charles; MacEwen, Howard; Polidan, Ronald; Postman, Marc; Matthews, Gary; Smith, Eric

2014-08-01

200

Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

2015-01-01

201

Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier years, Indian scientists carried out studies of ionosphere and cosmic rays phenomena primarily using ground based radio techniques and balloon borne detectors. With the advent of the space era, parallel efforts in the indigenous design and development of different sounding rockets for electrojet and x-ray astronomy related research, satellite launch vehicles and satellites were undertaken. While these developments

S. C. Chakravarty

2004-01-01

202

Pioneer mission support. [Deep Space Network activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities within the Deep Space Network in support of the Pioneer Project's in-flight spacecraft during the period December 1976 through March 1977 are reported. The amount of tracking coverage provided by the network and a summary of operational testing ot the Mark III Data Subsystems are presented.

Adamski, T. P.

1977-01-01

203

Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

1984-01-01

204

Space missions to the exoplanets: Will they ever be possible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no doubt that the discovery of exoplanets has made interstellar space mission much more interesting than they were in the past. The possible discovery of a terrestrial type plane at a reasonable distance will give a strong impulse in this direction. However, there are doubts that such long range space mission will ever become feasible at all and, in case they will be, it is impossible to forecast a timeframe for them. At present, precursor interstellar missions are planned, but they fall way short from yielding interesting information about exoplanets, except perhaps in the case of missions to the focal line of the Sun’s gravitational lens, whose usefulness in this context is still to be demonstrated. They are anyway an essential step in the roadmap toward interstellar missions. Often the difficulties linked with interstellar missions are considered as related with the huge quantity of energy required for reaching the target star system within a reasonable timeframe. While this may well be a showstopper, it is not the only problem to be solved to make them possible. Two other issues are those linked with the probe’s autonomy and the telecommunications required to transmit large quantities of information at those distances. Missions to the exoplanets may be subdivided in the following categories: 1) robotic missions to the destination system, including flybys; 2) robotic missions including landing on an exoplanet; 3) robotic sample return missions; 4) human missions. The main problem to be solved for missions of type 1 is linked with propulsion and with energy availability, while autonomy (artificial intelligence) and telecommunication problems are more or less manageable with predictable technologies. Missions of type 2 are more demanding for what propulsion is concerned, but above all require a much larger artificial intelligence and also will generate a large amount of data, whose transmission back to Earth may become a problem. The suggestion of using a spacecraft to physically transfer back the information on a support of some type (the so called data clippers) may make missions of type 2 to be only marginally less complex than missions of type 3. Missions of type 3 are at least twice as demanding than those of type 2 for what propulsion is required, and are also much more demanding also from the viewpoint of autonomy. On the contrary, they may be simpler from the viewpoint of communications. Finally, missions of type 4 are often regarded as belonging to the science fiction domain more than to that of feasible realities. However, they might be the only possibility if the progress in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence will fall short from making it possible to proceed with robotic missions. As a conclusion, we can assess that, short of unpredictable technological breakthroughs, missions to the exoplanets are still far away in the future and educated guesses can set them centuries away from now. What can be done is to identify critical technologies and assess a roadmap to increase their technological readiness. This effort is really worthwhile, since aiming at a very difficult task like interstellar missions, will yield a positive fallout on space exploration in general. --- This paper is meant for the Panel on Exoplanetary Exploration (PEPE) which is not included in the list above, so it was included in PEX.1

Genta, Giancarlo

205

The LISA Pathfinder Mission. Tracing Einstein's Geodesics in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LISA Pathfinder, formerly known as SMART-2, is the second of the European Space Agency’s Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology, and is designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, by testing the core assumption of gravitational wave detection and general relativity: that free particles follow geodesics. The new technologies to be demonstrated in a space environment include: inertial sensors, high precision laser interferometry to free floating mirrors, and micro-Newton proportional thrusters. LISA Pathfinder will be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011 into a low Earth orbit. By a transfer trajectory, the sciencecraft will enter its final orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point. First science results are expected approximately 3 months thereafter. Here, we give an overview of the mission including the technologies being demonstrated.

Racca, Giuseppe D.; McNamara, Paul W.

2010-03-01

206

Propulsion trades for space science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relative benefits of proposed deep space propulsion technology improvements in three areas: advanced chemical, solar electric, and solar sail. Within each area, specific states, representing current technology (present-1999), mid-term (2000–2004), and far term (2005+), were selected for evaluation. The figures of merit used were net spacecraft mass delivered, size of the launch vehicle needed, trip time,

Robert Gershman; Calina Seybold

1999-01-01

207

Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security, and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

Roth, Karl

2014-01-01

208

International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-118 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back dropped by the colorful Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of supplies.

2007-01-01

209

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

210

Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

Galarza, Laura

1999-01-01

211

Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

Joosten, B. Kent

2006-01-01

212

Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquity and resilience of microorganisms makes them unavoidable in most environments including space habitats. The impaired immune system of astronauts in flight raises the level of concern about disease risk during human space missions and additionally these biological contaminants may affect life support systems and hardware. In this review, the microbial contamination observed in manned space stations and in particular the International Space Station ISS will be discussed, demonstrating that it is a microbiologically safe working and living habitat. Microbial contamination levels were in general below the implemented quality standards, although, occasional contamination hazard reports indicate that the current prevention and monitoring strategies are the strict minimum.

Van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie

2012-01-01

213

A space-based mission to characterize the IEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 the German Space Agency (DLR) initiated the Kompaktsatellit series of small satellites. With growing scientific interest in the threat of future asteroid impacts on Earth, the first mission selected for the Kompaktsatellit programme was AsteroidFinder, a mission to characterise the unknown Inner Earth Object (IEO) population. The mission is based around the AsteroidFinder Instrument (AFI), a high-performance optical telescope, with asteroids identified on-ground via their apparent motion against the fixed star background. Such a challenging mission implies significant demands on the Kompaktsatellit bus platform required to support the AFI. The tight constraints of small satellite design, namely time, finance and available mass, require innovative solutions to problems. With a launch scheduled for 2014 and the project due to enter Phase C in 2011, the challenges of achieving high science with a small satellite are already apparent.

Findlay, Ross; Eßmann, Olaf; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hoffmann, Harald; Kührt, Ekkehard; Messina, Gabriele; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Müller, Hartmut; Pedersen, Jakob Fromm

2013-09-01

214

Solar proton fluences for 1977-1983 space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probability with which any given solar proton fluence level will be exceeded during a space mission is computed for mission to be flown during the active phase of the next solar cycle (1977-1983). This probability is a function of fluence level, proton energy threshold, and mission duration. Calculations are based on 1966-1972 data only. In estimating mission fluences, a distinction is made between ordinary and anomalously large events. Probable numbers of each type of event are estimated from Burrell's extension of Poisson statistics. Fluences of all anomalously large events are assumed to have a spectrum given by the August 1972 event, while fluences of the ordinary events are assumed to obey a log normal distribution.

King, J. H.

1974-01-01

215

Navigation of space VLBI missions: Radioastron and VSOP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990s, Russian and Japanese space agencies will each place into highly elliptic earth orbit a radio telescope consisting of a large antenna and radio astronomy receivers. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques will be used to obtain high resolution images of radio sources observed by the space and ground based antennas. Stringent navigation accuracy requirements are imposed on the space VLBI missions by the need to transfer an ultra-stable ground reference frequency standard to the spacecraft and by the demands of the VLBI correlation process. Orbit determination for the mission will be the joint responsibility of navigation centers in the U.S., Russia, and Japan with orbit estimates based on combining tracking data from NASA, Russian, and Japanese sites. This paper describes the operational plans, the inter-agency coordination, and data exchange between the navigation centers required for space VLBI navigation.

Ellis, Jordan

1993-01-01

216

Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

2011-10-01

217

Collection and management of fecal wastes for space missions.  

PubMed

An improved type of human waste collection subsystem has been developed for Space Station Freedom which is designed to meet the challenges of zero gravity collection and system performance. Fecal collection is followed by passive storage for relatively short duration missions. The benefits of utilizing components in solid wastes as part of a partial or completely closed Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) become more apparent as the duration of the mission increases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the development issues associated with the current waste management subsystem for Space Station Freedom. Also reviewed are current ideas associated with the evolutionary development of this waste management subsystem for longer duration missions. PMID:11537686

Rethke, D W; Steele, J W

1991-10-01

218

Tropospheric Wind Measurements From Space: The SPARCLE Mission And Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

1998-01-01

219

Tropospheric Wind Measurements from Space: The SPARCLE Mission and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

1998-01-01

220

Intelligent Systems Technologies for Human Space Exploration Mission Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human space flight and exploration continues to be a key goal of the NASA, with an emphasis on utilizing new technologies to improve the effectiveness, efficiencies and safety associated with this endeavor, including the ground-based mission support. This search for improvement has led to cross- fertilization between the advanced software development community and the manned spaceflight operations community within NASA.

Ernest E. Smith; David J. Korsmeyer

2011-01-01

221

Atmosphere Selection for Long-duration Manned Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph reviews the spacecraft environment for future human space exploration missions. The choice of a atmosphere mix will play a critical role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost. There are a multitude of factors involved in selection of spacecraft environments.

Hirsch, David B.

2007-01-01

222

Advances in Space Traveling-Wave Tubes for NASA Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in the performance and reliability of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) utilized in amplifying space communication signals for NASA missions have been achieved over the last three decades through collaborative efforts between NASA and primarily L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. (L-3 ETI). This paper summarizes some of the key milestones during this period and includes development of TWTs for the

Jeffrey D. Wilson; Edwin G. Wintucky; Karl R. Vaden; Dale A. Force; Isay L. Krainsky; Rainee N. Simons; Neal R. Robbins; William L. Menninger; Daniel R. Dibb; David E. Lewis

2007-01-01

223

Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2001-01-01

224

Long Duration Space Missions: Human Subsystem Risks and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the human health and performance risks associated with long duration space flight beyond low earth orbit. The contents include: 1) Human Research Program; 2) Human Subsystem Risks; 3) Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) Architecture Elements; 4) Potentially Unacceptable Risks -1; 5) Potentially Unacceptable Risks-2; and 6) Major Mission Drivers of Risk.

Kundrot, Criag E.

2011-01-01

225

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

226

Mission Statements, Physical Space, and Strategy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of higher education institutions has bases in institutional structures and cultures. However, structure and culture represent abstract concepts while institutions realize high performance in practice. Given their salience in higher education, mission statements and campus space bring structure and culture into the realm of…

Fugazzotto, Sam J.

2009-01-01

227

Open Data Processing Environment for Future Space Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The globalization and decentralisation of future space missions execution requires new concepts for payload and experiment operation. The technological evolution in the area of data systems and networks will allow for almost unlimited remote operations. Software and hardware technologies bundled with modern networking will permit the distribution of work task- and location wise. Whereas in the past both, telemetry and

W. Koerver; G. Schmitz; C. Sommer; R. Willnecker

2002-01-01

228

Relativistic stellar aberration for the Space Interferometry Mission (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the issue of relativistic stellar aberration requirements for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Motivated by the importance of this issue for SIM, we have considered a problem of relative astrometric observations of two stars separated by angle $\\\\theta$ on the sky with a single baseline interferometer. While a definitive answer on the stellar aberration issue may be obtained

Slava G. Turyshev

2002-01-01

229

Space Interferometry Mission instrument model and astrometric performance validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), performed very accurate astrometric measurements to measure the positions of stars using a 10 m baseline optical interferometer. The lack of signal from the science targets precludes using the star as a feedback signal to control the science interferometer delay line. In order to solve this problem SIM uses pathlength feed forward (PFF) control of

IPEK BASDOGAN; MARK MILMAN

2004-01-01

230

Selection of the Space Interferometry Mission Astrometric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the choice of stellar population for use as the astrometric grid for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). SIM depends on the astrometric stability of about 2000 stars, the so-called grid, against which the science measures are referenced. Low-metallicity and thus relatively high luminosity K giants are shown to be the population of choice, when available. The alternative, nearby

D. M. Peterson; Y. Liu; S. Portegies Zwart

2002-01-01

231

Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

2005-01-01

232

Metrology system for Space Interferometry Mission's system testbed 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Interferometry mission's nano-meter class System Testbed has implemented an external metrology system to monitor changes in the length & orientation of the science interferometer baseline vector, which cannot be monitored directly. The output of the system is used in real time fringe tracking of dim stars. This paper describes the external metrology system, its mathematical representation, limitations, and

Oscar S. Alvarez-Salazar; Alireza Azizi; Yekta Gursel; George Sun; Jens Fischer; Arshak Avanesyan; John Shaw

2004-01-01

233

Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

1982-01-01

234

Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The

N. Kanas; G. Sandal; J. E. Boyd; V. I. Gushin; D. Manzey; R. North; G. R. Leon; P. Suedfeld; S. Bishop; E. R. Fiedler; N. Inoue; B. Johannes; D. J. Kealey; N. Kraft; I. Matsuzaki; D. Musson; L. A. Palinkas; V. P. Salnitskiy; W. Sipes; J. Stuster; J. Wang

2009-01-01

235

Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.  

PubMed

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2008-04-01

236

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2011-10-01

237

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2012-10-01

238

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 true Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2010-10-01

239

48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability...

2013-10-01

240

Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

2010-01-01

241

Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

1984-01-01

242

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (?Xacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

2014-10-01

243

The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

244

Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

2006-01-01

245

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds of smoke and steam roll across Launch Pad 39B and the nearby marshes as Space Shuttle Endeavour roars into the night sky in a perfect launch. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11- day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

2000-01-01

246

Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micrometers-750 micrometers) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the fares is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80 - 100 micrometers. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 micrometers. Existing and planned survey missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, survey area, and sensitivity. In this 4-dimensional parameter space, the flares is found to be substantially behind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be wellsuited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

247

Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micron-750 micron) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts, this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, survey speed, and sensitivity. In this parameter space, the opportunity for future far-IR and submillimeter missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will answer fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

Benford, D. J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

248

Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5°, 57° and 90°) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5° orbital inclination.

Curtis, S. B.; Atwell, W.; Beever, R.; Hardy, A.

249

Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

2009-04-01

250

The role of clocks in operating deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of deep space missions requires stable frequency references and clocks to perform several mission critical functions. These references are used in generating the telecommunication links to maintain communications between earth and spacecraft, in generating accurate doppler, range, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observables for determining the spacecraft's time varying position, and to generate on-board timing information for clocking out timed commands and time tagging instrument data. In addition, science applications exist, particularly those utilizing radio instrumentation, which can require additional functions and levels of performance. The design necessary to support these functions affects both the spacecraft and the ground tracking stations.

Asmar, Sami W.; Kursinski, E. R.

1992-01-01

251

Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA, approximates optimal control histories by incorporating boundary conditions explicitly using a conditional penalty function. The second method, feasible region analysis, is based on GA and NLP; the GA approximates the optimal boundary points of low-thrust arcs while NLP finds the required control histories. The solution of two representative multiphase space mission design problems shows the effectiveness of the methods developed.

Chilan, Christian Miguel

252

Space Technology 5 - A Successful Micro-Satellite Constellation Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation of three micro-satellites was launched March 22, 2006. During the three-month flight demonstration phase, the ST5 team validated key technologies that will make future low-cost micro-sat constellations possible, demonstrated operability concepts for future micro-sat science constellation missions, and demonstrated the utility of a micro-satellite constellation to perform research-quality science. The ST5 mission was successfully completed in June 2006, demonstrating high-quality science and technology validation results.

Carlisle, Candace; Webb, Evan H.

2007-01-01

253

Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

Fink, Patrick W.

2009-01-01

254

Space radiation shielding strategies and requirements for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for estimating crew exposure to radiation and for evaluating shield requirements for spacecraft equipment and crew are examined. The development status for deterministic space radiation transport computer codes and models of their nuclear interaction inputs, which are useful for estimating the composition and thickness of shield materials, is discussed. The relation between shield thickness and exposures is studied. Estimates of deep-space shield requirements are proposed. It is noted that an assessment of input parameter uncertainties reveals that a factor of 2 uncertainty in predicted dose equivalent could increase shield thickness by an order of magnitude of more.

Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

1989-01-01

255

The scientific basis for the space interferometry mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space interferometry mission (SIM), for launch in 2004, is expected to determine the positions of point sources to a global accuracy of 4 microarcsec, and an accuracy of 1 microarcsec over small angles. The instrument will reach 200 mag in 3 x 10(exp 4) s and has a nominal lifetime of five years. A nulling capability will be provided and synthesis imaging and near-infrared capabilities are being considered. These capabilities will extend those of the Hipparcos mission by almost three orders of magnitude in every sense. The NASA's expectation for the scientific return from the SIM mission is outlined in terms of the areas of stellar physics, galactic structure and extragalactic astrophysics, including the distance scale problem.

Peterson, Deane; Shao, Michael

1997-01-01

256

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia casts ghost-like shadows on the clouds of smoke and steam surrounding it. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

257

Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

258

Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-96  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On its perfect launch today, Space Shuttle Discovery's brilliant flames illuminate the tower at left, with the lightning mast on top, and the billows of smoke and steam at right. Liftoff into a gossamer dawn sky for mission STS-96 occurred at 6:49:42 a.m. EDT. The crew of seven begin a 10-day logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying about 4,000 pounds of supplies, to be stored aboard the station for use by future crews, including laptop computers, cameras, tools, spare parts, and clothing. The mission also includes such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-involved experiment. It will include a space walk to attach the cranes to the outside of the ISS for use in future construction. Landing is expected at the SLF on June 6 about 1:58 a.m. EDT.

1999-01-01

259

Space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties for Mars missions.  

PubMed

Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks. PMID:11604093

Cucinotta, F A; Schimmerling, W; Wilson, J W; Peterson, L E; Badhwar, G D; Saganti, P B; Dicello, J F

2001-11-01

260

Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainties for Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to the lack of data and knowledge. We discuss an uncertainty assessment within the linear-additivity model using the approach of Monte Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. Calculations are performed using the space radiation environment and transport codes for several Mars mission scenarios. This approach leads to estimates of the uncertainties in cancer risk projections of 400-600% for a Mars mission. The uncertainties in the quality factors are dominant. Using safety standards developed for low-Earth orbit, long-term space missions (>90 days) outside the Earth's magnetic field are currently unacceptable if the confidence levels in risk projections are considered. Because GCR exposures involve multiple particle or delta-ray tracks per cellular array, our results suggest that the shape of the dose response at low dose rates may be an additional uncertainty for estimating space radiation risks.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Peterson, L. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.; Dicello, J. F.

2001-01-01

261

Large size greenhouse for long-term space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crew space flights require on-going delivery of food, air and water from Earth. A long time missions in far space cannot be realized without self-supported life system, when food, air and water will be reused. For ecological self-regulated life support system a large volume of green house is needed. An inflatable construction of composite materials cured directly in free space environment is a way for development of large greenhouse. The rigidization of the frame by the way of chemical reaction of polymerization is viewed as real way. The large volume greenhouse created on Earth orbit is proposed. The construction and material of space greenhouse are considered based on results of biological investigations in space flights.

Kondyurin, Alexey

262

Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions  

PubMed Central

Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

2008-01-01

263

Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

1979-01-01

264

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration Class Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station (ISS) contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for the ISS is designed to enable a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the Moon are similar to LEO class missions with the additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DCMF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. NASA has identified five Levels of Care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. In order to implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new Crew Medical Officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2007-01-01

265

Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

Holt, Alan C.

2004-01-01

266

Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis surpasses the full moon for beauty as it roars into the early evening sky trailing a tail of smoke. The upper portion catches the sun'''s rays as it climbs above the horizon and a flock of birds soars above the moon. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

2001-01-01

267

Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

2001-01-01

268

Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such as robotic missions, where human teleoperation capability is not locally available.

Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

2005-01-01

269

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Mauricio; Belasque, Jose; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

270

Capability Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future missions are ready as needed. The responsibilities include development of a Strategic Plan (Antonsson, E., 2005). As part of the planning effort, a structured approach to technology prioritization, based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) (Weisbin, C.R., 2004) team, was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this approach and present its current status relative to the JPL technology investment.

Lincoln, William; Merida, Sofia; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.

2006-01-01

271

Potential civil mission applications for space nuclear power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the energy needs of spacecraft over the last 25 years have been met by photovoltaic arrays with batteries, primary fuel cells, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). However, it might be difficult to satisfy energy requirements for the next generation of space missions with the currently used energy sources. Applications studies have emphasized the need for a lighter, cheaper, and more compact high-energy source than the scaling up of current technologies would permit. These requirements could be satisfied by a nuclear reactor power system. The joint NASA/DOD/DOE SP-100 program is to explore and evaluate this option. Critical elements of the technology are also to be developed, taking into account space reactor systems of the 100 kW class. The present paper is concerned with some of the civil mission categories and concepts which are enabled or significantly enhanced by the performance characteristics of a nuclear reactor energy system.

Ambrus, J. H.; Beatty, R. G. G.

1985-01-01

272

International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Post STS-118 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back dropped by the blue Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies.

2007-01-01

273

A space-to-space microwave wireless power transmission experiential mission using small satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A space solar microwave power transfer system (SSMPTS) may represent a paradigm shift to how space missions in Earth orbit are designed. A SSMPTS may allow a smaller receiving surface to be utilized on the receiving craft due to the higher-density power transfer (compared to direct solar flux) from a SSMPTS supplier craft; the receiving system is also more efficient and requires less mass and volume. The SSMPTS approach also increases mission lifetime, as antenna systems do not degrade nearly as quickly as solar panels. The SSMPTS supplier craft (instead) can be replaced as its solar panels degrade, a mechanism for replacing panels can be utilized or the SSMPTS can be maneuvered closer to a subset of consumer spacecraft. SSMPTS can also be utilized to supply power to spacecraft in eclipse and to supply variable amounts of power, based on current mission needs, to power the craft or augment other power systems. A minimal level of orbital demonstrations of SSP technologies have occurred. A mission is planned to demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of space-to-space microwave wireless power transfer. This paper presents an overview of this prospective mission. It then discusses the spacecraft system (comprised of an ESPA/SmallSat-class spacecraft and a 1-U CubeSat), launch options, mission operations and the process of evaluating mission outcomes.

Bergsrud, Corey; Straub, Jeremy

2014-10-01

274

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

275

Science Priorities of the RadioAstron Space VLBI Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main scientific goal of the RadioAstron Space VLBI mission is study of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Masers and other astronomical objects with unprecedented angular resolution, up to few millionths of an arc-second. The resolution achieved with RadioAstron will allow study the following phenomena and problems: * Central engine of AGN and physical processes near super massive black holes providing

Glen Langston; N. Kardashev

2006-01-01

276

Oxygen sensor optimization for long duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of oxygen sensor is being developed for potential use in future manned space missions. This sensor incorporates two independent measurement schemes using dual electrochemical cells formed in a common body of solid electrolyte-zirconia. A combination of potentiometric and coulometric measurements yields accurate and fast response to cabin atmosphere oxygen. Means for self-calibration, fault detection and diagnosis by computer operation are discussed.

Taylor, R. M.; Van Valkenburg, E. S.; Cusick, R. J.

1988-01-01

277

Minimizing Astronauts' Risk from Space Radiation during Future Lunar Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the risk factors from space radiation for astronauts on future lunar missions. Two types of radiation are discussed, Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle events (SPE). Distributions of Dose from 1972 SPE at 4 DLOCs inside Spacecraft are shown. A chart with the organ dose quantities is also given. Designs of the exploration class spacecraft and the planned lunar rover are shown to exhibit radiation protections features of those vehicles.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Mathew; Nounu, Hatem N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

278

Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

1997-01-01

279

Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety standpoint. The energy beams may be either electron beam or laser, and the developments required for either energy source to achieve success in these applications will be discussed.

Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

2002-01-01

280

Active Radiation Shield for Space Exploration Missions (ARSSEM)  

E-print Network

One of the major issues to be solved is the protection from the effects of ionizing radiation. Exploration mission, lasting two to three years in space, represents a very significant step from the point of view of radiation protection: both the duration (up to 5 times) and the intensity (up to 5 times) of the exposure to radiation are increased at the same time with respect to mission on the ISS reaching and sometime exceeding professional career limits. In this ARSSEM report, after reviewing the physics basis of the issue of radiation protection in space, we present results based for the first time on full physics simulation to understand the interplay among the the various factors determining the dose absorbed by the astronauts during a long duration mission: radiation composition and energy spectrum, 3D particle propagation through the magnetic field, secondary production on the spacecraft structural materia, dose sensitivity of the various parts of the human body. As first application of this approach, we use this analysis to study a new magnetic configuration based on Double Helix coil and exhibiting a number of interesting features which are suited to active shield application. The study also proposes a technology R&D roadmap for active radiation shield development which would match ESA decadal development strategy for human exploration of space.

R. Battiston; W. J. Burger; V. Calvelli; R. Musenich; V. Choutko; V. I. Datskov; A. Della Torre; F. Venditti; C. Gargiulo; G. Laurenti; S. Lucidi; S. Harrison; R. Meinke

2012-09-10

281

Medical support and technology for long-duration space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current philosophy and development directions being taken towards realization of medical systems for use on board space stations are discussed. Data was gained on the performance of physical examinations, venipuncture and blood flow, blood smear and staining, white blood cell differential count, throat culture swab and colony count, and microscopy techniques during a 28-day period of the Skylab mission. It is expected that the advent of Shuttle flights will rapidly increase the number of persons in space, create a demand for in-space rather than on-earth medical procedures, and necessitate treatments for disorders without the provision for an early return to earth. Attention is being given to pressurized environment and extravehicular conditions of treatment, the possibilities of the use of the OTV for moving injured or ill crewmembers to other space stations, and to isolation of persons with communicable diseases from station crews.

Furukawa, S.; Nicogossian, A.; Buchanan, P.; Pool, S. L.

1982-01-01

282

Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 cu m (9,464 cu ft) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

2012-01-01

283

Distributed decision support for the 21st century mission space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has produced significant changes in the conduct of military operations: increased humanitarian missions, asymmetric warfare, the reliance on coalitions and allies, stringent rules of engagement, concern about casualties, and the need for sustained air operations. Future mission commanders will need to assimilate a tremendous amount of information, make quick-response decisions, and quantify the effects of those decisions in the face of uncertainty. Integral to this process is creating situational assessment-understanding the mission space, simulation to analyze alternative futures, current capabilities, planning assessments, course-of-action assessments, and a common operational picture-keeping everyone on the same sheet of paper. Decision support tools in a distributed collaborative environment offer the capability of decomposing these complex multitask processes and distributing them over a dynamic set of execution assets. Decision support technologies can semi-automate activities, such as planning an operation, that have a reasonably well-defined process and provide machine-level interfaces to refine the myriad of information that is not currently fused. The marriage of information and simulation technologies provides the mission commander with a collaborative virtual environment for planning and decision support.

McQuay, William K.

2002-07-01

284

International mission planning for space Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two spacecraft dedicated to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will be launched in 1996 and 1997 to make observations using baselines between the space telescopes and many of the world's ground radio telescopes. The Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) will launch VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) in September 1996, while the Russian Astro Space Center (ASC) is scheduled to launch RadioAstron in 1997. Both spacecraft will observe radio sources at frequencies near 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz; RadioAstron will also observe at 0.33 GHz. The baselines between space and ground telescopes will provide 3-10 times the resolution available for ground VLBI at the same observing frequencies. Ground tracking stations on four continents will supply the required precise frequency reference to each spacecraft measure the two-way residual phase and Doppler on the ground-space link, and record 128 Megabit/s of VLBI data downlinked from the spacecraft. The spacecraft data are meaningless without cross-correlation against the data from Earth-bound telescopes, which must take place at special-purpose VLBI correlation facilities. Therefore, participation by most of the world's radio observatories is needed to achieve substantial science return from VSOP and RadioAstron. The collaboration of several major space agencies and the ground observatories, which generally follow very different models for allocation of observing time and for routine operations, leads to great complexity in mission planning and in day-to-day operations. This paper describes some of those complications and the strategies being developed to assure productive scientific missions.

Ulvestad, James S.

1994-01-01

285

Space research activities during missions of the past  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For over 30 yr, men and women have lived for various periods of time in a weightless (or free-fall) environment while orbiting the Earth. During these years, we have learned that humans function quite well for short periods of weightlessness, that is, for up to a little more than a year. Some space flight missions have provided physiologic data, including cardiovascular data, from the spacefarers. In fact, some missions have provided laboratories for systematic study of cardiovascular responses and adaptation to space flight. However, the opportunity to obtain physiologic data from people in space is a rarity. It is important to remember that the population sample sizes are small, other stresses may confound the effects of weightlessness, and in some situations the crewmembers are subjects for several experiments at the same time. Furthermore, comparison of cardiovascular data from space flight to data obtained on the ground is sometimes difficult because the subject's posture on the ground is not always reported; in a gravity environment, posture influences the hydrostatic gradient. This over view describes what we have learned about cardiovascular function during flight and after return to Earth.

Frey, M. A.

1996-01-01

286

Autonomous and autonomic systems: a paradigm for future space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will rely on concepts from autonomous systems not only in mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other space assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Autonomy facilitates not only reduced operations costs, but also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will

Walter F. Truszkowski; Michael G. Hinchey; James L. Rash; Christopher A. Rouff

2006-01-01

287

Observational Model for Precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10-m baseline Michelson optical interferometer operating in the visible waveband that is designed to achieve astrometric accuracy in the single digits of the microarcsecond domain. Over a narrow field of view SIM is expected to achieve a mission accuracy of 1 microarcsecond. In this mode SIM will search for planetary companions to nearby stars by detecting the astrometric "wobble" relative to a nearby reference star. In its wide-angle mode, SIM will provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars, with parallaxes to comparable accuracy, at the end of its 5-year mission. The expected proper motion accuracy is around 3 microarcsecond/year, corresponding to a transverse velocity of 10 m/ s at a distance of 1 kpc. The basic astrometric observable of the SIM instrument is the pathlength delay. This measurement is made by a combination of internal metrology measurements that determine the distance the starlight travels through the two arms of the interferometer, and a measurement of the white light stellar fringe to find the point of equal pathlength. Because this operation requires a non-negligible integration time, the interferometer baseline vector is not stationary over this time period, as its absolute length and orientation are time varying. This paper addresses how the time varying baseline can be "regularized" so that it may act as a single baseline vector for multiple stars, as required for the solution of the astrometric equations.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Milman, Mark H.

2000-01-01

288

Space Radiation Risk Assessment for Future Lunar Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For lunar exploration mission design, radiation risk assessments require the understanding of future space radiation environments in support of resource management decisions, operational planning, and a go/no-go decision. The future GCR flux was estimated as a function of interplanetary deceleration potential, which was coupled with the estimated neutron monitor rate from the Climax monitor using a statistical model. A probability distribution function for solar particle event (SPE) occurrence was formed from proton fluence measurements of SPEs occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23). Large proton SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice for which the fluences are greater than 2 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm for energies greater than 30 MeV, were also combined to extend the probability calculation for high level of proton fluences. The probability with which any given proton fluence level of a SPE will be exceeded during a space mission of defined duration was then calculated. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV, and representative exposure levels were analyzed at those fluences. For the development of an integrated strategy for radiation protection on lunar exploration missions, effective doses at various points inside a spacecraft were calculated with detailed geometry models representing proposed transfer vehicle and habitat concepts. Preliminary radiation risk assessments from SPE and GCR were compared for various configuration concepts of radiation shelter in exploratory-class spacecrafts.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem; Atwell, Bill; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

289

James Webb Space Telescope Synergy with Dark Energy Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a general-purpose observatory which will impact all areas of observational astronomy. Two future dark energy missions are being planned: Euclid in Europe and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) in the US. While JWST is designed to go very deep in the infrared, the dark energy missions will conduct wide-area surveys of a substantial fraction of the sky in the optical and near-infrared. Synergy between JWST and Euclid or WFIRST could proceed in several ways. (1) JWST will make contributions to dark energy science that will be complementary to the results from the wide-area surveys. These contributions could include a more precise measurement of the current value of the Hubble constant, and rest-frame near-infrared light curves for high-redshift type Ia supernovae. (2) JWST could directly contribute to the dark energy science of the wide-area missions by providing additional calibration, investigating anomalies in the dataset, or with complementary observations that are deeper over a smaller area. (3) JWST could make follow-up observations of Euclid or WFIRST discoveries of rare objects, such as high-redshift quasars, strong-lens systems, galaxy clusters and supernovae.

Gardner, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

290

Searching for Planets with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. It will address a wide range of problems in stellar astrophysics and Galactic structure, delivering precision astrometry of stars down to 20 magnitude throughout the entire Galaxy. SIM uses a 10-m Michelson interferometer in Earth-trailing solar orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond (gas) precision astrometry. With a 5-year mission lifetime, SIM will be a powerful tool for discovering planets around nearby stars, through detection of the stellar reflex motion. The astrometric method complements the radial velocity technique which as already yielded many new planets, with an important benefit of directly measuring planetary masses. SIM will have a single-measurement precision of 1 microarcsecond in a frame defined by nearby reference stars, enabling searches for planets with masses as small as a few earth masses around the nearest stars. More massive planets will be detectable to much larger distances. In addition to precision astrometry SIM will also serve an important role as a technology precursor for future astrophysics missions using interferometers. Two technologies demonstrated will be high dynamic-range aperture synthesis imaging at 10-milliarcsec resolution in the optical, and fringe nulling to 10 (exp -4).

Unwin, Stephen

2000-01-01

291

Validation (not just verification) of Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ion & Validation (V&V) is a widely recognized and critical systems engineering function. However, the often used definition 'Verification proves the design is right; validation proves it is the right design' is rather vague. And while Verification is a reasonably well standardized systems engineering process, Validation is a far more abstract concept and the rigor and scope applied to it varies widely between organizations and individuals. This is reflected in the findings in recent Mishap Reports for several NASA missions, in which shortfalls in Validation (not just Verification) were cited as root- or contributing-factors in catastrophic mission loss. Furthermore, although there is strong agreement in the community that Test is the preferred method for V&V, many people equate 'V&V' with 'Test', such that Analysis and Modeling aren't given comparable attention. Another strong motivator is a realization that the rapid growth in complexity of deep-space missions (particularly Planetary Landers and Space Observatories given their inherent unknowns) is placing greater demands on systems engineers to 'get it right' with Validation.

Duren, Riley M.

2006-01-01

292

Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

Liu, Scan X.

2005-01-01

293

Developing a Habitat for Long Duration, Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible next leap in human space exploration is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to be designed to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be 268 m3 distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison with the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concepts. In the end, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

Rucker, Michelle A.; Thompson, Shelby

2011-01-01

294

SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM, including copies of this report, may be obtained from the project web site, at http://sim. jpl.nasa.gov.

Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

2004-01-01

295

Qualifying a Bonding Process for the Space Interferometry Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometry Mission consists of three parallel Michelson interferometers that will be capable of detecting extrasolar planets with a high degree of accuracy and precision. High levels of stability must be met in order to fulfill the scientific requirements of this mission. To attain successful measurements the coefficient of thermal expansion between optics and bonding material must be minimized without jeopardizing the integrity of the bonds. Optic-to-optic bonds have been analyzed to better understand variables such as the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion differences between optics and bonding materials, and materials have been chosen for the project based on these analyses. A study was conducted to determine if a reliable, repeatable process for bonding by wicking adhesive could be obtained using a low-viscosity epoxy and ultra-low expansion glass. A process of creating a methodology of bonding fused silica optics with Z-6020 silane primer and Epo-Tek 301 epoxy will be discussed.

Joyce, Gretchen P.

2005-01-01

296

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

2001-01-01

297

Study of binary asteroids with three space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary and multiple asteroids are common in the Solar system and encountered in various places going from Near-Earth region, to the main-belt, Trojans and Centaurs, and beyond Neptune. Their study can provide insight on the Solar System formation and its subsequent dynamical evolution. Binaries are also objects of high interest because they provide fundamental physical parameters such as mass and density, and hence clues on the early Solar System, or other processes that are affecting asteroid over time. We will present our current project on analysis of such systems based on three space missions. The first one is the Herschel space observatory (ESA), the largest infrared telescope ever launched. Thirty Centaurs and trans-Neptunian binaries were observed by Herschel and the measurement allowed to define size, albedo and thermal properties [1]. The second one is the satellite Gaia (ESA). This mission is designed to chart a three-dimensional map of the Galaxy. Gaia will provide positional measurements of Solar System Objects - including asteroid binaries - with unprecedented accuracy [2]. And the third one is the proposed mission AIDA, which would study the effects of crashing a spacecraft into an asteroid [3]. The objectives are to demonstrate the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid, to precisely measure its trajectory change, and to characterize its physical properties. The target of this mission is a binary system: (65803) Didymos. This encompasses orbital characterisations for both astrometric and resolved binaries, as well as unbound orbit, study of astrometric binaries, derivation of densities, and general statistical analysis of physical and orbital properties of trans-Neptunian and other asteroid binaries. Acknowledgements : work supported by Labex ESEP (ANR N° 2011-LABX-030) [1] Müller T., Lellouch E., Stansberry J. et al. 2009. TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region. EM&P 105, 209-219. [2] Mignard F., Cellino A., Muinonen K. et al. 2007. The Gaia Mission: Expected Applications to Asteroid Science. EM&P 1001, 97-125. [3] Galvez A., Carnelli I. et al. 2013. AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission. EPSC 2013 - 1043.

Kovalenko, Irina; Doressoundiram, Alain; Hestroffer, Daniel

298

Future Mission Trends and their Implications for the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses the direction of future missions and it's significance to the Deep Space Network. The topics include: 1) The Deep Space Network (DSN); 2) Past Missions Driving DSN Evolution; 3) The Changing Mission Paradigm; 4) Assessing Future Mission Needs; 5) Link Support Trends; 6) Downlink Rate Trends; 7) Uplink Rate Trends; 8) End-to-End Link Difficulty Trends; 9) Summary: Future Mission Trend Drivers; and 10) Conclusion: Implications for the DSN.

Abraham, Douglas S.

2006-01-01

299

Robotic Drilling Technology and Applications to Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Robotic drilling has great potential to become a vital, enabling technology in the context of future human and robotic exploration of the Solar System. Specific needs for human exploration relate to the ability for remote missions to scout potential locations for habitability and/or resource recovery. We will describe relevant challenges to robotic drilling and development pertaining to operations within hostile planetary environments. From the perspective of a system concept for mission architectures and exploration approaches, the ability to drill into extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and recover samples for analysis and/or utilization can provide vital references, resources, and opportunities for mission enrichment. The technology for supporting and planning such missions presents a feed-forward advantage for a human presence in such environments. Future space missions for drilling in the shallow and mid-to-deep subsurface face issues unfamiliar to terrestrial analogues, including limited power, very low or very high pressures, and widely varying thermal environments. We will discuss the means and approaches for establishing drilling operations, managing drilling sites, and mitigating environmental effects. Early robotic phases will leverage system-of-systems collaborations among humans and machines on and above the surface of planetary bodies. Such "precursor missions" will be charged with the task of mapping subsurface geology, understanding soil/rock particle distributions, obtaining geologic history, and determining local resource profiles. An example of the need for this kind of information is given to good effect by one of the lessons learned by NASA's Apollo program: the effects of lunar dust on humans, drilling mechanisms, and mission expectations were far greater than initially expected, and are still being critically considered. Future missions to Solar System bodies, including the Moon and Mars, will need to have advance information about local geologic effects, especially below the visible surface. In these hostile environments, valuable resources (e.g., water and other volatiles) will probably be hidden in substrata. Prospecting, mapping, excavating, and recovering these resources will remain a central need for NASA's exploration efforts for the foreseeable future. Swales Aerospace has a proven history in the development of low-power robotic drilling technology and research. We will show some results of a successful field campaign, during which our research prototype drill reached a depth of 10 meters with an average power consumption of only 100 Watts. We will summarize our results from a recent 2006 Idaho 2m-Basalt field test that proven basalt can be cored using 90W and past paper studies on drilling in the Martian environment and our perspective on the development of mission profiles for planetary drilling. We will suggest architectures for future drilling missions, potential configurations for deployed planetary drills, and provide comments on relevant engineering challenges such as sample acquisition, mission time, power, and mass.

Guerrero, J. L.; Reiter, J. W.; Rumann, A.; Wu, D.; Wang, G. Y.; Meyers, M.; Craig, J.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.

2006-12-01

300

High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF2, CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF2 show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013.

Yoshioka, K.; Homma, T.; Murakami, G.; Yoshikawa, I.

2012-08-01

301

An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical flagship missions after JWST will require affordable space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures. Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance. Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8 m to 16 m telescopes that have been studied as a follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without decimating the rest of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an "Evolvable Space Telescope" that would begin as a 3 to 4 m telescope when placed on orbit and then periodically be augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16 m or larger space telescope. This paper reviews the approach for such a mission and identifies and discusses candidate architectures.

Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

2014-08-01

302

Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation impact to astronauts depends on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk experienced by astronauts can be determined with the radiation LET spectrum measured and the risk response function obtained from radiobiology. Systematical measurement of the space radiation is an important part for the research on the impact of radiation to astronauts and to make the radiation ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). For NASA space missions at low Earth orbit (LEO), the active dosimeter used for all LET is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the passive dosimeters used for the astronauts and for the monitored areas are the combination of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLDs) for low LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs were used to measure the radiation during STS-121 space mission. LET spectra and radiation quantities were obtained with active and passive dosimeters. This paper will introduce the physical principles for TEPC and CR-39 detectors, the LET spectrum method for radiation measurement using CR-39 detectors and TEPC, and will present and compare the radiation LET spectra and quantities measured with TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs.

Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Rutledge, R.; Lin, T.

2009-02-01

303

Space Radiation and Manned Mission: Interface Between Physics and Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radiation environment in space consists of a mixed field of high energy protons, heavy ions, electrons and alpha particles. Interplanetary travel to the International Space Station and any planned establishment of satellite colonies on other solar system implies radiation exposure to the crew and is a major concern to space agencies. With shielding, the radiation exposure level in manned space missions is likely to be chronic, low dose irradiation. Traditionally, our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. Radiobiological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are subjected to modulations by various parameters including bystander effects, adaptive response, genomic instability and genetic susceptibility of the exposed individuals. Radiation dosimetry and modeling will provide conformational input in areas where data are difficult to acquire experimentally. However, modeling is only as good as the quality of input data. This lecture will discuss the interdependent nature of physics and biology in assessing the radiobiological response to space radiation.

Hei, Tom

2012-07-01

304

QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites offer the means to extend quantum communication and quantum key distribution towards global distances. We will outline the proposed QEYSSat mission proposal, which involves a quantum receiver onboard a satellite that measures quantum signals sent up from the ground. We present recent studies on the expected performance for quantum links from ground to space. Further studies include the demonstration of high-loss quantum transmission, and analyzing the effects of a fluctuating optical link on quantum signals and how these fluctuations can actually be exploited to improve the link performance.

Jennewein, T.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Higgins, B.; Holloway, C.; Meyer-Scott, E.; Erven, C.; Heim, B.; Yan, Z.; Hübel, H.; Weihs, G.; Choi, E.; D'Souza, I.; Hudson, D.; Laflamme, R.

2014-02-01

305

Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a planned NASA-ESA gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Lasers are used to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard each spacecraft to the picometer level over a 5 million kilometer separation. Each spacecraft and its two laser transmit/receive telescopes must be held stable in pointing to less than 8 nanoradians per root Hertz in the frequency band 0.1-100 mHz. The pointing error is sensed in the received beam and the spacecraft attitude is controlled with a set of micro-Newton thrusters. Requirements, sensors, actuators, control design, and simulations are described.

Hyde, T. Tupper; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Maghami, P. G.

2003-01-01

306

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This third semi-annual progress report covers the reporting period from August 16, 1994 through February 15, 1995 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions'. There are two major report sections: Motor Control Status/Electrical Experiment Planning and Experiment Planning and Initial Results. The primary emphasis of our efforts during the reporting period has been final construction and testing of the laboratory facilities. As a result, this report is dedicated to that topic.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1995-01-01

307

Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation IV. Ed. Fineschi, S. & Fennelly, J., Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8148, article id. 81480Z, DOI: 10.1117/12.901538

Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

308

Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

2009-01-01

309

Timekeeping for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Technology 5, or better known as ST-5, is a space technology development mission in the New Millennium Program (NMP) and NASA s first experiment in the design of miniaturized satellite constellations. The mission will design, integrate and launch multiple spacecraft into an orbit high above the Earth s protective magnetic field known as the magnetosphere. Each spacecraft incorporates innovative technology and constellation concepts which will be instrumental in future space science missions. A total of three ST-5 spacecraft will be launched as secondary payloads into a highly elliptical geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and will operate as a 3-element constellation for a minimum duration of 90 days. In order to correlate the time of science measurements with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space (with respect to other objects in space) and/or with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft, accurate knowledge of spacecraft and ground time is needed. Ground time as used in the USA (known as Universal Time Coordinated or UTC) is maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Spacecraft time is maintained onboard within the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system. The science requirements for ST-5 are that spacecraft time and ground time be correlatable to each other, with some degree of accuracy. Accurate knowledge of UTC time on a spacecraft is required so that science measurements can be correlated with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space and with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft. The most crucial parameter is not the clock oscillator frequency, but more importantly, how the clock oscillator frequency varies with time or temperature (clock oscillator drift). Even with an incorrect clock oscillator frequency, if there were no drift, the frequency could be assessed by comparing the spacecraft clock to a ground clock during a few correlation events. Once the frequency is accurately known, it is easy enough to make a regular adjustment to the spacecraft clock or to calculate the correct ground time for a given spacecraft clock time. The oscillator frequency, however, is temperature dependent, drifts with age and is affected by radiation; hence, repeated correlation measurements are required.

Raphael, Dave; Luers, Phil; Sank, Victor; Jackson, George

2002-01-01

310

The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

2014-05-01

311

Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

2014-01-01

312

In-Situ Resource Utilization for Economical Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some recent developments in the technologies of ISRU with the specific intention of cost reductions in space missions. Recognizing that a certain level of technology maturation is necessary before the mission designers will seriously consider any technology, the hypothesis is made that the overall cost-index is inversely proportional to the TRL. Also recognizing that the cost is directly proportional to the mass at launch, the cost-index is identified as the ratio of the launch mass to the TRL. Whether this cost-index is the true measure of the overall mission cost is arguable; however, the relative costs of comparable technologies can be readily assessed by applying identical rules of such an evaluation. As one example of this approach, Mars Sample Return (MSR) is studied, and nine competing technologies are evaluated for the key Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). It is found that the technology of oxygen production through the dissociation of atmospheric carbon dioxide can be a key technology. In addition to reporting upon this technology briefly, one innovative application that significantly enhances the science capabilities of a rover is discussed.

Ramohalli, Kumar

1999-01-01

313

Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

2010-01-01

314

Goddard Space Flight Center Solar Array Missions, Requirements and Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are "in house" spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are "out of house" spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC "in house" and "out of house" spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

1994-01-01

315

Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

1994-01-01

316

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

2011-01-01

317

Precision Pointing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a planned NASA-ESA gravity wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Lasers are used to measure distance fluctuations between the proof masses aboard the spacecraft to the picometer level over the 5 million kilometer spacing. Each spacecraft and it's two laser transmit/receive telescopes must be held stable in pointing to less than 8 nanoradians per root Hertz in the frequency band 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz. This is accomplished by sensing the pointing error in the received beam and controlling the spacecraft attitude with a set of micronewton thrusters. Requirements, sensors, actuators, control design, and simulations are described in this paper.

Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Hyde, T. Tupper; Maghami, P.

2003-01-01

318

Obervational Model for Microarcsecond Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission  

E-print Network

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based long-baseline optical interferometer for precision astrometry. One of the primary objectives of the SIM instrument is to accurately determine the directions to a grid of stars, together with their proper motions and parallaxes, improving a priori knowledge by nearly three orders of magnitude. The basic astrometric observable of the instrument is the pathlength delay, a measurement made by a combination of internal metrology measurements that determine the distance the starlight travels through the two arms of the interferometer and a measurement of the white light stellar fringe to find the point of equal pathlength. Because this operation requires a non--negligible integration time to accurately measure the stellar fringe position, the interferometer baseline vector is not stationary over this time period, as its absolute length and orientation are time--varying. This conflicts with the consistency condition necessary for extracting the astrometric para...

Milman, M H; Milman, Mark H.; Turyshev, Slava G.

2003-01-01

319

Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption of web-based and telecommunication tools has been critical to the success of Cassini operations.

Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

2006-01-01

320

Galaxy Mission Completes Four Star-Studded Years in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer is celebrating its fourth year in space with some of M81's 'hottest' stars.

In a new ultraviolet image, the magnificent M81 spiral galaxy is shown at the center. The orbiting observatory spies the galaxy's 'sizzling young starlets' as wisps of bluish-white swirling around a central golden glow. The tints of gold at M81's center come from a 'senior citizen' population of smoldering stars.

'This is a spectacular view of M81,' says Dr. John Huchra, of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. 'When we proposed to observe this galaxy with GALEX we hoped to see globular clusters, open clusters, and young stars...this view is everything that we were hoping for.'

The image is one of thousands gathered so far by GALEX, which launched April 28, 2003. This mission uses ultraviolet wavelengths to measure the history of star formation 80 percent of the way back to the Big Bang.

The large fluffy bluish-white material to the left of M81 is a neighboring galaxy called Holmberg IX. This galaxy is practically invisible to the naked human eye. However, it is illuminated brilliantly in GALEX's wide ultraviolet eyes. Its ultraviolet colors show that it is actively forming young stars. The bluish-white fuzz in the space surrounding M81 and Holmberg IX is new star formation triggered by gravitational interactions between the two galaxies. Huchra notes that the active star formation in Holmberg IX is a surprise, and says that more research needs to be done in light of the new findings from GALEX.

'Some astronomers suspect that the galaxy Holmberg IX is the result of a galactic interaction between M81 and another neighboring galaxy M82,' says Huchra. 'This particular galaxy is especially important because there are a lot of galaxies like Holmberg IX around our Milky Way galaxy. By understanding how Holmberg IX came to be, we hope to understand how all the little galaxies surrounding the Milky Way developed.'

'Four years after GALEX's launch, the spacecraft is performing magnificently. The mission results have been simply amazing as it helps us to unlock the secrets of galaxies, the building blocks of our universe,' says Kerry Erickson, GALEX project manager.

M81 and Holberg IX are located approximately 12 million light-years away in the northern constellation Ursa Major. In addition to leading the GALEX observations of M81, Huchra and his team also took observations of the region with NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes. By combining all these views of M81, Huchra hopes to gain a better understanding about how M81 has developed into the spiral galaxy we see today.

The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., leads the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission and is responsible for science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, also in Pasadena, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Researchers from South Korea and France collaborated on this mission.

2007-01-01

321

The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future space missions span over a wide range of scientific objectives. After different successful scientific missions, other international cornerstone experiments are planned to study of the evolution of the universe and of the primordial stellar systems, and our solar system. Space missions for the survey of the microwave cosmic background radiation, deep-field search in the near and mid-infrared region and planetary exploration will be carried out. Several fields are open for research and development in the space business. Three major categories can be found: detector technology in different areas, electronics, and software. At LABEN, a Finmeccanica Company, we are focusing the technologies to respond to this challenging scientific demands. Particle trackers based on silicon micro-strips supported by lightweight structures (CFRP) are studied. In the X-ray field, CCD's are investigated with pixels of very small size so as to increase the spatial resolution of the focal plane detectors. High-efficiency and higly miniaturized high-voltage power supplies are developed for detectors with an increasingly large number of phototubes. Material research is underway to study material properties at extreme temperatures. Low-temperature mechanical structures are designed for cryogenic ( 20 K) detectors in order to maintain the high precision in pointing the instrument. Miniaturization of front end electronics with low power consumption and high number of signal processing channels is investigated; silicon-based microchips (ASIC's) are designed and developed using state-of-the-art technology. Miniaturized instruments to investigate the planets surface using X-Ray and Gamma-Ray scattering techniques are developed. The data obtained from the detectors have to be processed, compressed, formatted and stored before their transmission to ground. These tasks open up additional strategic areas of development such as microprocessor-based electronics for high-speed and parallel data processing. Powerful computers with customized architectures are designed and developed. High-speed intercommunication networks are studied and tested. In parallel to the hardware research activities, software development is undertaken for several purposes: digital and video compression algorithms, payload and spacecraft control and diagnostics, scientific processing algorithms, etc. Besides, embedded Java virtual machines are studied for tele-science applications (direct link between scientist console and scientific payload). At system engineering level, the demand for spacecraft autonomy is increased for planetology missions: reliable intelligent systems that can operate for long periods of time without human intervention from ground are requested and investigated. A technologically challenging but less glamorous area of development is represented by the laboratory equipment for end-to-end testing (on ground) of payload instruments. The main fields are cryogenics, laser and X-ray optics, microwave radiometry, UV and infrared testing systems.

Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

1999-12-01

322

Precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission - PlanetQuest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical interferometry in space offers the prospect of microarcsecond precision astrometry of stars, enabling a wide range of problems in Galactic astronomy, stellar astrophysics, and planet detection and characterization to be addressed. The Space Interferometry Mission PlanetQuest (SIM PlanetQuest) will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry, operating in an Earth-trailing solar orbit for a minimum of 5 years. Launch is currently planned for 2011. SIM PlanetQuest will be a powerful tool for discovering planets around nearby stars, through detection of the stellar reflex motion. The astrometric method complements the radial velocity technique which has already yielded many new planets, and has the additional benefit of measuring planetary masses rather than mass lower limits. In a frame defined by nearby reference stars, the single-measurement precision of SIM will be 1 microarcsecond, enabling searches for planets with masses as small as a few Earth masses around the nearest stars. SIM will be able to fully characterize multiple-planet systems which are now known to exist. It will explore the nature and evolution of planetary systems in their full diversity, including age, by including young (0.5-100 Myr) solar-type stars. The mission will also serve as a precursor for future astrophysics missions using interferometers, demonstrating several needed technologies. SIM PlanetQuest will make global astrometric measurements by observing an all-sky grid of reference stars, anchored by observations of distant quasars. Relative to this frame, the mission will deliver positions and parallaxes to 4 microarcsecond accuracy on stars as faint as V = 20. This unprecedented precision will allow stellar masses and luminosities to be measured to accuracies better than 1 %, which is currently very hard. By observing samples of stars in the Galactic halo, SIM will probe the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, and trace its past history of interactions with dwarf companions. Finally, SIM will probe some of the most powerful objects in the universe, through astrometry of the structure of the nuclei of active galaxies.

Unwin, S. C.

2005-10-01

323

Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica- and organizational perspective, the developed space infrastructure is able to self-adapt, self-optimize and self-configure to dynamic changes in various local environmental conditions.

Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

324

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 2: Mission analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space environment studies, astrophysics, Earth environment, life sciences, and material sciences are discussed. Commercial communication, materials processing, and Earth observation missions are addressed. Technology development, space operations, scenarios of operational capability, mission requirements, and benefits analysis results for space-produced gallium arsenide crystals, direct broadcasting satellite systems, and a high inclination space station are covered.

1983-01-01

325

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 3, task 1: Mission requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission requirements of the space station program are investigated. Mission parameters are divided into user support from private industry, scientific experimentation, U.S. national security, and space operations away from the space station. These categories define the design and use of the space station. An analysis of cost estimates is included.

1983-01-01

326

Mini-STAR: A small space mission testing special relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mSTAR (mini-STAR) is a proposed collaborative Saudi-USA-German small space mission to perform an advanced Kennedy-Thorndike (KT) type test of Special Relativity using the large and rapid velocity modulation available in low Earth orbit (LEO). An improvement of about a factor of 100 over present ground results is expected with an additional factor of 10 possible using more advanced technology. To date, limits on local Lorentz invariance violations (LLIV) related to boost effects are on the order of ?c/c ? 10 15. While advances in technology will undoubtedly lead to further gains, it has become clear that space experiments in low Earth orbit offer a way to obtain much better results than ground experiments. The mSTAR LLIV experiment consists of the comparison of a molecular frequency reference, 532 nm Iodine, with a length reference, an optical cavity, in a LEO flight (7 km/s orbital velocity, 90 min period). The corresponding sensitivity to boost-dependent LLIV terms is improved relative to Earth based measurements because of the high velocity modulation and the increased number of the measurements. The mSTAR approach is to develop a small-scale instrument with a high scientific output that also provides instrument and spacecraft technology for subsequent missions, which would use further improved frequency standards.

Gürlebeck, Norman

327

Science Priorities of the RadioAstron Space VLBI Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main scientific goal of the RadioAstron Space VLBI mission is study of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Masers and other astronomical objects with unprecedented angular resolution, up to few millionths of an arc-second. The resolution achieved with RadioAstron will allow study the following phenomena and problems: * Central engine of AGN and physical processes near super massive black holes providing an acceleration of cosmic rays size, velocity and shape of emitting region in the core, spectrum, polarization and variability of emitting components; * Cosmological models, dark matter and dark energy by studying dependence of above mentioned AGN's parameters with redshift, and by observing gravitational lensing; * Structure and dynamics of star and planets forming regions in our Galaxy and in AGN by studying maser and Mega maser radio emission; * Neutron (quark?) stars and black holes in our Galaxy, their structure and dynamics by VLBI and measurements of visibility scintillations, proper motions and parallaxes; * Structure and distribution of interstellar and interplanetary plasma by fringe visibility scintillations of pulsars; The RadioAstron mission uses the satellite SPECTR (astrophysical module), developed by Lavochkin Association of Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA). This module will be used in several other scientific missions. The total mass of the scientific payload is about 2500 kg, of which the unfolding parabolic 10-m radio astronomy antenna's mass is about 1500 kg, and scientific package holding the receivers, power supply, synthesizers, control units, frequency standards and data transmission radio system. The mass of the whole system (satellite and scientific payload) to be carried into orbit by the powerful "Zenit-2SB"-"Fregat-2CB" launcher is about 5000 kg. The RadioAstron project is an international collaboration between RASA and ground radio telescope facilities around the world.

Langston, Glen; Kardashev, N.; International Space VLBI Collaboration

2006-12-01

328

Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

Bents, D. J.

1992-01-01

329

A Proposal to Study the Scientific Uses of Solar Electric Propulsion for Space Physics Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort was for the participation of Dr. William S. Kurth in the study of the application of spacecraft using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for a range of space physics missions. This effort included the participation of Dr. Kurth in the Tropix Science Definition Team but also included the generalization to various space physics and planetary missions, including specific Explorer mission studies.

Kurth, William S.

1999-01-01

330

Passive ZBO storage of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen applied to space science mission concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic propulsion and storage were recently considered for application to Titan Explorer and Comet Nuclear Sample Return space science mission investigations. These missions would require up to 11 years of cryogenic storage. We modeled and designed cryogenic propellant storage concepts for these missions. By isolating the propellant tank’s view to deep space, we were able to

D. W. Plachta; R. J. Christie; J. M. Jurns; P. Kittel

2006-01-01

331

Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerators for Future Sub-Millimetre Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space worthy refrigeration capable of providing a 100 mK and below heat load sink for bolometric detectors will be required for the next generation of sub-millimetre space missions. Adiabatic demagnetisation refrigeration (ADR), being a gravity independent laboratory method for obtaining such temperatures, is a favourable technique for utilisation in space. We show that by considering a 3 salt pill refrigerator rather than the classic single salt pill design the space prohibitive laboratory ADR properties of high magnetic field (6 Tesla) and a<2 K environment (provided by a bath of liquid4He) can be alleviated, while maintaining a sufficient low temperature hold time and short recycle time. The additional salt pills, composed of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) provide intermediate cooling stages, enabling operation from a 4 K environment provided by a single 4 K mechanical cooler, thereby providing consumable free operation. Such ADRs could operate with fields as low as 1 Tesla allowing the use of high temperature, mechanically cooled superconducting magnets and so effectively remove the risk of quenching. We discuss the possibility of increasing the hold time from 3 hours, for the model presented, to between 40 and 80 hours, plus reducing the number of salt pills to two, through the use of a more efficient Garnet. We believe the technical advances necessitated by the envisaged ADRs are minimal and conclude that such ADRs offer a long orbital life time, consumable free, high efficiency means of milli-Kelvin cooling, requiring relatively little laboratory development.

Hepburn, I. D.; Davenport, I.; Smith, A.

1995-10-01

332

Biological dosimetry in the ENEIDE Mission on the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation represents one of the major health hazards to crews of interplanetary missions. As the duration of space flight\\u000a increases, according to International Space Station (ISS) and Mars mission programs, the risk associated with exposure to\\u000a ionizing radiation also increases. Although physical dosimetry is routinely performed in manned space missions, it is generally\\u000a accepted that direct measurement of biological

A. Bertucci; M. Durante; G. Gialanella; G. Grossi; L. Manti; M. Pugliese; P. Scampoli

2007-01-01

333

On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space - Deep Space Mission Enhancements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS, https://oltaris.nasa.gov) is a web-based set of tools and models that allows engineers and scientists to assess the effects of space radiation on spacecraft, habitats, rovers, and spacesuits. The site is intended to be a design tool for those studying the effects of space radiation for current and future missions as well as a research tool for those developing advanced material and shielding concepts. The tools and models are built around the HZETRN radiation transport code and are primarily focused on human- and electronic-related responses. The focus of this paper is to highlight new capabilities that have been added to support deep space (outside Low Earth Orbit) missions. Specifically, the electron, proton, and heavy ion design environments for the Europa mission have been incorporated along with an efficient coupled electron-photon transport capability to enable the analysis of complicated geometries and slabs exposed to these environments. In addition, a neutron albedo lunar surface environment was also added, that will be of value for the analysis of surface habitats. These updates will be discussed in terms of their implementation and on how OLTARIS can be used by instrument vendors, mission designers, and researchers to analyze their specific requirements.12

Sandridge, Chris a.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steve A.; Spangler, Jan L.

2011-01-01

334

Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

1983-01-01

335

Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

Hawkins, Gerald W.

1987-01-01

336

Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

2010-01-01

337

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

338

STS-70 Space Shuttle Mission Report - September 1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-70 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-71; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2036, 2019, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated 81-073. The RSRMs, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and were designated as 36OL044A for the left SRB, and 36OL044B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-G/IUS). The secondary objectives were to fulfill the requirements of the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R); Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment; Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health - Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2); Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); Microencapsulation in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment; Window Experiment (WINDEX); Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) payload.

Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

1995-01-01

339

Development of Electronics for Low Temperature Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of electronic systems at cryogenic temperatures is anticipated for many future NASA space missions such as deep space probes and planetary surface exploration. For example, an unheated interplanetary probe launched to explore the rings of Saturn would reach an average temperature near Saturn of about -183 C. In addition to surviving the deep space harsh environment, electronics capable of low temperature operation would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation system, and arctic exploration. An on-going research and development program on low temperature electronics at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of efficient power systems capable of surviving and exploiting the advantages of low temperature environments. Inhouse efforts include the design, fabrication, and characterization of low temperature power systems and the development of supporting technologies for low temperature operations, such as dielectric and insulating materials, semiconductor devices, passive power components, opto-electronic devices, as well as packaging and integration of the developed components into prototype flight hardware.

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott; Overton, Eric

2000-01-01

340

Investigation of Electrostatic Accelerometer in HUST for Space Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision electrostatic accelerometers are significant payload in CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE gravity missions to measure the non-gravitational forces. In our group, space electrostatic accelerometer and inertial sensor based on the capacitive sensors and electrostatic control technique has been investigated for space science research in China such as testing of equivalence principle (TEPO), searching non-Newtonian force in micrometer range, satellite Earth's field recovery and so on. In our group, a capacitive position sensor with a resolution of 10-7pF/Hz1/2 and the ?V/Hz1/2 level electrostatic actuator are developed. The fiber torsion pendulum facility is adopt to measure the parameters of the electrostatic controlled inertial sensor such as the resolution, and the electrostatic stiffness, the cross couple between different DOFs. Meanwhile, high voltage suspension and free fall methods are applied to verify the function of electrostatic accelerometer. Last, the engineering model of electrostatic accelerometer has been developed and tested successfully in space and preliminary results are present.

Bai, Yanzheng; Hu, Ming; Li, Gui; Liu, Li; Qu, Shaobo; Wu, Shuchao; Zhou, Zebing

2014-05-01

341

Space Radiation Risks for Astronauts on Multiple International Space Station Missions  

PubMed Central

Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA’s radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members’ radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate. PMID:24759903

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2014-01-01

342

Respiratory mechanics after 180 days space mission (EUROMIR'95)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports data on respiratory function of lung and chest wall following the 180 days long European — Russian EuroMir '95 space mission. Data reported refer to two subjects studied before the mission, on day 9 and 175 in flight and on days 1, 10, 12, 27 and 120 after return. In-flight vital capacity (VC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were similar to those in supine posture, namely ~ 5% and ~ 30% less than in sitting posture. On day 1 after return, VC was reduced by ~30 % in both postures. This reflected a decrease in ERV (~0.5 L) and in IC (inspiratory capacity, ~ 1.7 L) that could be attributed to a marked weakening of the respiratory muscles. Regain of normal preflight values barely occurred 120 days after return. Post-flight pressure-volume curves of the lung, chest wall and total respiratory system are equal to preflight ones. The pressure-volume curve of the lung in supine posture is displaced to the right relative to sitting posture and shows a lower compliance. As far as the lung in-flight condition resembles that occurring in supine posture, this implies a lower compliance, a greater amount of blood in the pulmonary microvascular bed, a more homogeneous lung perfusion and therefore a greater microvascular filtration rate towards lung interstitium.

Venturoli, Daniele; Semino, Paola; Negrini, Daniela; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

343

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer: A Space Ultraviolet Survey Mission  

E-print Network

We give an overview of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), a NASA Explorer Mission launched on April 28, 2003. GALEX is performing the first space UV sky-survey, including imaging and grism surveys in two bands (1350-1750 Angstroms and 1750-2750 Angstroms). The surveys include an all-sky imaging survey (m[AB] ~ 20.5), a medium imaging survey of 1000 square degrees (m[AB] ~ 23), a deep imaging survey of 100 square degrees (m[AB] ~ 25), and a nearby galaxy survey. Spectroscopic grism surveys (R=100-200) are underway with various depths and sky coverage. Many targets overlap existing or planned surveys. We will use the measured UV properties of local galaxies, along with corollary observations, to calibrate the UV-global star formation rate relationship in local galaxies. We will apply this calibration to distant galaxies discovered in the deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys to map the history of star formation in the universe over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5, and probe the physical drivers of star formation in galaxies. The GALEX mission includes a Guest Investigator program supporting the wide variety of programs made possible by the first UV sky survey.

D. Christopher Martin; James Fanson; David Schiminovich; Patrick Morrissey; Peter G. Friedman; Tom A. Barlow; Tim Conrow; Robert Grange; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Bruno Milliard; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Timothy M. Heckman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; Susan G. Neff; R. Michael Rich; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2004-11-11

344

Mission design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It will feature a one-meter class cryogenically cooled telescope. It is planned for a NASA fiscal start for the development phase in 1994 with a launch in about 2001. The launch vehicle will be the new upgraded Titan IV with a Centaur upper stage. The operational orbit will be circular at an altitude of about 100,000 km. The planned mission lifetime is 5 years. This paper addresses the rationale in the selection of the high altitude orbit, the performance of the launch vehicle in delivering the observatory to orbit, other orbit options, and the planned observational modes and capabilities of the observatory. The paper will also address the viewing geometry and viewing constraints affecting science observation, telescope aperture shade design, and spacecraft solar-panel and communication design.

Kwok, Johnny H.; Osmolovsky, Michael G.

1991-12-01

345

Relativistic stellar aberration for the Space Interferometry Mission (2)  

E-print Network

We address the issue of relativistic stellar aberration requirements for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Motivated by the importance of this issue for SIM, we have considered a problem of relative astrometric observations of two stars separated by angle $\\theta$ on the sky with a single baseline interferometer. While a definitive answer on the stellar aberration issue may be obtained only in numerical simulations based on the accurate astrometric model of the instrument, one could still derive realistic conclusions by accounting for the main expected properties of SIM. In particular, we have analysied how the expected astrometric accuracy of determination of positions, parallaxes and proper motions will constrain the accuracy of the spaceraft navigation. We estimated the astrometric errors introduced by imperfect metrology (variations of the calibration term across the tile of interest), errors in the baseline length estimations, and those due to orbital motion of the spacecraft. We also estimate requ...

Turyshev, S G

2002-01-01

346

An Overview of Space Power Systems for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power is a critical commodity for all engineering efforts and is especially challenging in the aerospace field. This paper will provide a broad brush overview of some of the immediate and important challenges to NASA missions in the field of aerospace power, for generation, energy conversion, distribution, and storage. NASA s newest vehicles which are currently in the design phase will have power systems that will be developed from current technology, but will have the challenges of being light-weight, energy-efficient, and space-qualified. Future lunar and Mars "outposts" will need high power generation units for life support and energy-intensive exploration efforts. An overview of the progress in concepts for power systems and the status of the required technologies are discussed.

Lyons, Valerie J.; Scott, John H.

2007-01-01

347

An Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multi-filtration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP has been operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to maximum based on available carbon. To date, the FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

Barta, Daniel J.; Wheeler, Raymond; Jackson, William; Pickering, Karen; Meyer, Caitlin; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael

348

Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium  

PubMed Central

Space flight (SF) and dust inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone) there is no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 mm Hg (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute). There was no acute renal insult. Irwin’s apparent spontaneous remission is suggested to be related to the increase of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduced with SF because of reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001) reductions of magnesium (Mg) required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%), endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years) and vicious cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now. PMID:21694921

Rowe, William J

2009-01-01

349

An Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration human space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multi-filtration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP has been operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to stoichiometric maximum based on available carbon. To date, the FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater

Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pennsinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

2014-01-01

350

PETS - A GRB Polarimetry Mission on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry of Energetic Transients in Space (PETS) is a gamma-ray polarimetry mission that was recently proposed as an NASA Astrophysics Mission of Opportunity. It will make the first definitive observations of the inner jets of GRBs, which cannot be probed with conventional non-polarization instruments. It will also observe, for the first time, the polarization signature from SGRs, revealing high-energy emission processes originating from the most intense magnetic field conditions known to exist. PETS will use gamma-ray polarimetry to uncover the energy release mechanism associated with the formation of stellar-mass black holes and investigate the physics of extreme magnetic fields in the vicinity of compact objects. The objectives are : 1) determine the structure and composition of GRB jets and uncover the mechanisms powering them; and 2) determine the emission geometry and mechanisms under the extreme magnetic field conditions found in SGRs. The PETS science objectives are met with two instruments. The primary instrument, the TRAnsient Polarimeter (TRAP), is a wide FOV non-imaging polarimeter that measures polarization over the energy range from 50-500 keV. Knowledge of the transient source location, required for the polarization analysis, is provided by the TRAnsient Location Experiment (TRALE). PETS will be mounted on the ISS with the two instruments pointed towards the zenith, scanning the sky as it orbits the Earth. During the two-year baseline mission, PETS will achieve its primary science objective with the polarization measurement of ~100 GRBs with a minimum detectable polarization (MDP) better than 50%, ~35 GRBs with an MDP of better than 30%, and ~5 with an MDP of better than 15%. These data will be sufficient to distinguish amongst three basic models for the inner jet at a 90% confidence level. The secondary science objective will be achieved with the measurement of 3-4 SGRs with a minimum detectable polarization of 15-50%. PETS is a self-contained mission in that it will be able to achieve its objectives without relying on other sources for transient location data, while providing potentially important contextual data for other ongoing investigations. Scheduled launch date is 2018.

McConnell, Mark L.; Baring, M. G.; Bloser, P. F.; Greiner, J.; Harding, A. K.; Hartmann, D.; Hill, J. E.; Kaaret, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Pearce, M.; Produit, N.; Roming, P.; Ryan, J. M.; Ryde, F.; Sakamoto, T.; Toma, K.; Zhang, B.

2013-04-01

351

HEXANE: Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit  

E-print Network

HEXANE: Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit by Alexander August;2 [page intentionally left blank] #12;3 Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low- Earth and Astronautics Abstract With the end of the Space Shuttle Program and the cancellation of the Constellation

de Weck, Olivier L.

352

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 2: Mission definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space applications and science programs appropriate to the era beyond 1990, those user missions which can utilize the Space Station to an advantage, and user mission concepts so that requirements, which will drive the Space Stations (SS) design are addressed.

1983-01-01

353

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 3: Mission requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User missions that are enabled or enhanced by a manned space station are identified. The mission capability requirements imposed on the space station by these users are delineated. The accommodation facilities, equipment, and functional requirements necessary to achieve these capabilities are identified, and the economic, performance, and social benefits which accrue from the space station are defined.

1983-01-01

354

New Detector Developments for Future UV Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy is facing “dark ages”: After the shutdown of the Hubble Space Tele-scope only the WSO/UV mission will be operable in the UV wavelength region with efficient instruments. Improved optics and detectors are necessary for future successor missions to tackle new scientific goals. This drives our development of microchannel plate (MCP) UV-detectors with high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution and low-power readout electronics. To enhance the quantum efficiency and the lifetime of the MCP detectors we are developing new cathodes and new anodes for these detectors. To achieve high quantum efficiency, we will use caesium-activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathodes with a much higher efficiency than default CsI/CsTe cathodes in this wavelength range. The new anodes will be cross-strip anodes with 64 horizontal and 64 vertical electrodes. This type of anode requires a lower gain and leads to an increased lifetime of the detector, compared to MCP detectors with other anode types. The heart of the new developed front-end-electronic for such type of anode is the so called “BEETLE chip”, which was designed by the MPI für Kernphysik Heidelberg for the LHCb ex-periment at CERN. This chip provides 128 input channels with charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. Our design of the complete front-end readout electronics enables a total power con-sumption of less than 10 W. The MCP detector is intrinsically solar blind, single photon counting and has a very low read-out noise. To qualify this new type of detectors we are presently planning to build a small UV telescope for the usage on the German Technology Experimental Carrier (TET). Furthermore we are involved in the new German initiative for a Public Telescope, a space telescope equipped with an 80 cm mirror. One of the main instruments will be a high-resolution UV-Echelle Spectrograph that will be built by the University of Tübingen. The launch of this mission is scheduled for 2017.

Werner, Klaus; Kappelmann, Norbert

355

Performance assessment of planetary missions as launched from an orbiting space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results presented are intended to assist planners and the mission analysis community in assessing the performance impact (pro or con) of launching planetary missions from an orbiting space station as compared to the usual, ground-based Shuttle launch of such missions. The analyses comprising this assessment include: (1) a basic understanding and description of the space station launch problem; (2) examination of alternative injection strategies and selection of the most appropriate strategy for minimizing performance penalties; and (3) quantitative comparison of station-launched and Shuttle-launched performance over a wide energy/mass range of planetary mission opportunities. Data for each mission covers a full 360 deg of possible nodal location of the space station orbit. The main results are that planetary missions can be launched from a space station within acceptable penalty bounds, and that the station serving as a staging base/propellant depot can benefit some missions requiring large payload mass or high injection energy.

Friedlander, A.

1982-01-01

356

Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission commanders scored higher than crew on the coping style of Accepting Responsibility. These results improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between mission commanders and crew, and suggest areas of importance for the selection and training of future commanders.

Brcic, Jelena

357

ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order to support the forthcoming Cluster II mission. As a result, VILSPA now has two fully upgraded 15 metre S-band antennae, which should enable the facility to enter the new millennium confident in its ability to support future space programmes. Modernisation of VIL-1 included the replacement of the 60 dish panels, the subreflector, the antenna equipment room and other parts of the main structure. One of the most significant modifications has been the replacement of the Servo and tracking systems, since the Cluster II satellites will move in a highly elliptical orbit and require high speed tracking. Into Orbit The Cluster II mission will be launched by two Soyuz rockets provided by the French-Russian Starsem consortium. After two engine burns by the Fregat upper stage, the spacecraft will separate and use their own propulsion systems to reach their final orbits. Travelling in close formation, the four Cluster spacecraft will swoop to within 19,000 km of the Earth's surface and then retreat to 119,000 km - almost one third of the way to the Moon. The four satellites will be visible for an average of about 10 hours per day from the VILSPA ground station. However, only one satellite at a time can be in communication with the ground, which reduces the available time each day to around two and a half hours per satellite. Further challenges arise from the need to send new instructions to the 11 scientific instruments on each spacecraft, and from the vast amount of data to be returned each day from the 44 experiments. Over two years of operations, this adds up to 580 Gigabytes (580,000,000,000 bytes!) of data - equivalent to 290 million pages of printed text. VILSPA will be just one link in the overall Cluster II communications network. The day-to-day operation of the four spacecraft will be handled by the Operations Control Centre at ESOC (Darmstadt, Germany). All of the Cluster II data exchange between VILSPA and ESOC will be handled by dedicated communication lines. European Teamwork. Industrial enterprises in almost all of the 14 ESA member states and the United Stat

2000-05-01

358

Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rockets for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Space Policy includes a long range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. This has renewed interest in the potential application of Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) to space flight, particularly for human expeditions to the Moon and Mars. Recent NASA studies consider applications of the previously developed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology and the more advanced gas core reactors and show their potential advantages in reducing the initial mass in Earth orbit (IMEO) compared to advanced chemical rocket engines. Application of NERVA technology will require reestablishing the prior technological base or extending it to an advanced NERVA type engine, while the gas core NTR will require an extensive high risk research and development program. A technology intermediate between NERVA and the gas core NTR is a low pressure engine based on solid fuel, a Pressure Fed NTR (PFNTR). In addition to the simplicity of the gas pressurized engine cycle, the PFNTR takes advantage of the dissociation of hydrogen-the increases in specific impulse become significant as the chamber pressure decreases below 1.0 MPa (10 atmospheres) and the chamber temperature increases above 3000 K. The developmental status of technology applicable to a Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rocket (PFNTR) lies between that of the NERVA engine and the gas core NTR (GCNTR). This document investigates PFNTR performance and provides typical mission analyses.

Leyse, C.F. (Leyse (C.F.), Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Madsen, W.W.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Schnitzler, B.G. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-08-01

359

Space Missions for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently considering the establishment of a Space Mission for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program to define, develop, integrate, test, and operate a spaceborne national research facility for the validation of advanced automation and robotics technologies. Initially, the concept is envisioned to be implemented through a series of shuttle based flight experiments which will utilize telepresence technologies and real time operation concepts. However, eventually the facility will be capable of a more autonomous role and will be supported by either the shuttle or the space station. To ensure incorporation of leading edge technology in the facility, performance capability will periodically and systematically be upgraded by the solicitation of recommendations from a user advisory group. The facility will be managed by NASA, but will be available to all potential investigators. Experiments for each flight will be selected by a peer review group. Detailed definition and design is proposed to take place during FY 86, with the first SMART flight projected for FY 89.

Cliffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

1985-01-01

360

Characterizing 3D Vegetation Structure from Space: Mission Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human and natural forces are rapidly modifying the global distribution and structure of terrestrial ecosystems on which all of life depends, altering the global carbon cycle, affecting our climate now and for the foreseeable future, causing steep reductions in species diversity, and endangering Earth s sustainability. To understand changes and trends in terrestrial ecosystems and their functioning as carbon sources and sinks, and to characterize the impact of their changes on climate, habitat and biodiversity, new space assets are urgently needed to produce high spatial resolution global maps of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of vegetation, its biomass above ground, the carbon stored within and the implications for atmospheric green house gas concentrations and climate. These needs were articulated in a 2007 National Research Council (NRC) report (NRC, 2007) recommending a new satellite mission, DESDynI, carrying an L-band Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) and a multi-beam lidar (Light RAnging And Detection) operating at 1064 nm. The objectives of this paper are to articulate the importance of these new, multi-year, 3D vegetation structure and biomass measurements, to briefly review the feasibility of radar and lidar remote sensing technology to meet these requirements, to define the data products and measurement requirements, and to consider implications of mission durations. The paper addresses these objectives by synthesizing research results and other input from a broad community of terrestrial ecology, carbon cycle, and remote sensing scientists and working groups. We conclude that: (1) current global biomass and 3-D vegetation structure information is unsuitable for both science and management and policy. The only existing global datasets of biomass are approximations based on combining land cover type and representative carbon values, instead of measurements of actual biomass. Current measurement attempts based on radar and multispectral data have low explanatory power outside low biomass areas. There is no current capability for repeatable disturbance and regrowth estimates. (2) The science and policy needs for information on vegetation 3D structure can be successfully addressed by a mission capable of producing (i) a first global inventory of forest biomass with a spatial resolution 1km or finer and unprecedented accuracy (ii) annual global disturbance maps at a spatial resolution of 1 ha with subsequent biomass accumulation rates at resolutions of 1km or finer, and (iii) transects of vertical and horizontal forest structure with 30 m along-transect measurements globally at 25 m spatial resolution, essential for habitat characterization. We also show from the literature that lidar profile samples together with wall-to53 wall L-band quad-pol-SAR imagery and ecosystem dynamics models can work together to satisfy these vegetation 3D structure and biomass measurement requirements. Finally we argue that the technology readiness levels of combined pol-SAR and lidar instruments are adequate for space flight. Remaining to be worked out, are the particulars of a lidar/pol-SAR mission design that is feasible and at a minimum satisfies the information and measurement requirement articulated herein.

Hall, Forrest G.; Bergen, Kathleen; Blair, James B.; Dubayah, Ralph; Houghton, Richard; Hurtt, George; Kellndorfer, Josef; Lefsky, Michael; Ranson, Jon; Saatchi, Sasan; Shugart, H. H.; Wickland, Diane

2012-01-01

361

Metrology concepts for a space interferometer mission: SMART2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for the planet-finding missions DARWIN (ESA) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (NASA) a range of precursor missions are being defined, aimed at testing and validating the technology needed to make the planet-finder missions feasible from a technology point of view. In Europe the SMART-2 mission is meant to test high critical technologies for the DARWIN and the gravitation

Arno A. Wielders; Bertrand Calvel; Bas L. Swinkels; Patrick D. Chapman

2003-01-01

362

Radiation effects in space: The Clementine I mission  

SciTech Connect

The space radiation environment for the CLEMENTINE I mission was investigated using a new calculational model, CHIME, which includes the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), anomalous component (AC) species and solar energetic particle (SEP) events and their variations as a function of time. Unlike most previous radiation environment models, CHIME is based upon physical theory and is {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} with energetic particle measurements made over the last two decades. Thus, CHIME provides an advance in the accuracy of estimating the interplanetary radiation environment. Using this model we have calculated particle energy spectra, fluences and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra for all three major components of the CLEMENTINE I mission during 1994: (1) the spacecraft in lunar orbit, (2) the spacecraft during asteroid flyby, and (3) the interstate adapter USA in Earth orbit. Our investigations indicate that during 1994 the level of solar modulation, which dominates the variation in the GCR and AC flux as a function of time, will be decreasing toward solar minimum levels. Consequently the GCR and AC flux will be increasing during Y, the year and, potentially, will rise to levels seen during previous solar minimums. The estimated radiation environment also indicates that the AC will dominate the energetic particle spectra for energies below 30-50 MeV/nucleon, while the GCR have a peak flux at {approximately}300 MeV/nucleon and maintain a relatively high flux level up to >1000 MeV/nucleon. The AC significantly enhances the integrated flux for LET in the range 1 to 10 MeV/(mg/cm{sup 2}), but due to the steep energy spectra of the AC a relatively small amount of material ({approximately}50 mils of Al) can effectively shield against this component. The GCR are seen to be highly penetrating and require massive amounts of shielding before there is any appreciable decrease in the LET flux.

Guzik, T. G.; Clayton, E.; Wefel, J. P.

1994-12-20

363

Bonus: Apollo's Amazing Mission and Spin-Offs from Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two posters examine the 1969 Apollo moon mission. The first tracks the stages and path of the mission, suggesting that students create their own diagrams or models. The second presents a puzzle that helps student understand how many items developed for the mission are useful to today's everyday life. (SM)

Learning, 1994

1994-01-01

364

www.nasa.gov SpaceX CRS-1 Mission Press Kit  

E-print Network

www.nasa.gov #12;1 SpaceX CRS-1 Mission Press Kit CONTENTS 3 Mission Overview 7 Mission Timeline 9 and Communications 310-463-0794 (c) Katherine.Nelson@spacex.com media@spacex.com NASA PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS Trent Perrotto Public Affairs Officer Human Exploration and Operations NASA Headquarters 202-358-1100 Jenny

365

CALET Mission for the Observation of Cosmic Rays on the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) mission to make observations of high energy cosmic rays, electrons, gamma-rays, and nuclei, on the International Space Station (ISS). CALET mission has been approved as one of candidates for the next mission utilizing the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The detector of CALET consists of an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter

Tadahisa Tamura; Shoji Torii; Katsuaki Kasahara; Osamu Okudaira; Nobuyuki Hasebe; Makoto Hareyama; Hiromitsu Miyajima; Takashi Miyaji; Naoyuki Yamashita; Shiro Ueno; Yoshitaka Saito; Masahiro Takayanagi; Hiroshi Tomita; Jun Nishimura; Hideyuki Fuke; Takamasa Yamagami; Shoji Okuno; Nobuto Tateyama; Kinya Hibino; Atsushi Shiomi; Masato Takita; Toshinori Yuda; Yuki Shimizu; Fumio Kakimoto; Yoshiki Tsunesada; Toshio Terasawa; Tadashi Kobayashi; Atsumasa Yoshida; Kazutaka Yamaoka; Yusaku Katayose; Makio Shibata; Kenji Yoshida; Masaichi Ichimura; Shuichi Kuramata; Yukio Uchihori; Hisashi Kitamura; Hiroyuki Murakami; Yoshiko Komori; Kohei Mizutani; Kazuki Munakata; Robert E. Streitmatter; John W. Mitchell; Louis M. Barbier; Alexander A. Moissev; John F. Krizmanic; Gary L. Case; Michael L. Cherry; T. G. Guzik; Joachim B. Isbert; John P. Wefel; Walter R. Binns; Martin H. Israel; H. S. Krawzczynski; Jonathan F. Ormes; Pier S. Marrocchesi; Paolo Maestro; Maria G. Bagliesi; Vincenzo Millucci; Mario Meucci; Gabriele Bigongiari; Riccardo Zei; Meyoung Kim; Oscar Adriani; Paolo Papini; Lorenzo Bonechi; Vannuccini Elena; Fabio Morsani; Franco Ligabue; Jin Chang; Weiqun Gan; Ji Yang; Yuqian Ma; Huanyu Wang; Guoming Chen

2009-01-01

366

Visual Risk Assessment of Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure during an interplanetary mission is an important challenge for mission design and operations. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Polyethylene shielded "storm shelters" inside spacecraft have been shown to limit total exposure from a large SPE to a permissible level, preventing acute risks and providing a potential approach to fulfill the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement. For accurate predictions of radiation dose to astronauts involved in future space exploration missions, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. Radiation fluences and doses vary considerably across both the spacecraft geometry and the body-shielding distribution. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE(TradeMark), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. Visual assessment of radiation distribution at different points inside a spacecraft module and in the human body for a given radiation environment are described. Results will ultimately guide in developing requirements for maximal protection for astronauts from space radiation.

Hussein, Hesham F.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

367

Space Station Mission Planning System (MPS) development study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic objective of the Space Station (SS) Mission Planning System (MPS) Development Study was to define a baseline Space Station mission plan and the associated hardware and software requirements for the system. A detailed definition of the Spacelab (SL) payload mission planning process and SL Mission Integration Planning System (MIPS) software was derived. A baseline concept was developed for performing SS manned base payload mission planning, and it was consistent with current Space Station design/operations concepts and philosophies. The SS MPS software requirements were defined. Also, requirements for new software include candidate programs for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to capture and make more effective use of mission planning expertise. A SS MPS Software Development Plan was developed which phases efforts for the development software to implement the SS mission planning concept.

Klus, W. J.

1987-01-01

368

Spacecraft design-for-demise strategy, analysis and impact on low earth orbit space missions  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled reentry into the Earth atmosphere by LEO space missions whilst complying with stipulated NASA Earth atmospheric reentry requirements is a vital endeavor for the space community to pursue. An uncontrolled reentry ...

Waswa, M. B. Peter (Peter Moses Bweya)

2009-01-01

369

Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

1991-01-01

370

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

371

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

372

A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

2001-01-01

373

Contamination control program for the Hubble Space Telescope second servicing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrity and outgassing certification of reflown hardware, maintained between servicing missions while accommodating configuration changes to the hardware, are discussed. The Hubble Space Telescope requires a periodically servicing mission to maintain its scientific capabilities. Servicing carriers are reflown for each servicing mission. The mission contamination control program is unique as it must maintain the current operational capability of the telescope while allowing manned servicing.

Hansen, Patricia A.; Maag, Carl R.

1997-01-01

374

Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 7-2: Data book. Commercial missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of NASA's materials processing in space activities is reviewed. Market projections, support requirements, orbital operations issues, cost estimates and candidate systems (orbiter sortie flight, orbiter serviced free flyer, space station, space station serviced free flyer) for the space production of semiconductor crystals are examined. Mission requirements are identified for materials processing, communications missions, bioprocessing, and for transferring aviation maintenance training technology to spacecraft.

1983-01-01

375

Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

376

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual report Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions is presented. The reporting period is 16 Aug. 1992 to 15 Aug. 1993. However, the primary focus will be work performed since submission of our semi-annual progress report in Feb. 1993. Substantial progress was made. We currently feel confident in providing guidelines for motor and control strategy selection in electromechanical actuators to be used in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. A small portion was presented in the semi-annual report. At this point, we have implemented highly detailed simulations of various motor/drive systems. The primary motor candidates were the brushless dc machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, and the induction machine. The primary control implementations were pulse width modulation and hysteresis current control. Each of the two control strategies were applied to each of the three motor choices. With either pulse width modulation or hysteresis current control, the induction machine was always vector controlled. A standard test position command sequence for system performance evaluation is defined. Currently, we are gathering all of the necessary data for formal presentation of the results. Briefly stated for TVC application, we feel that the brushless dc machine operating under PWM current control is the best option. Substantial details on the topic, with supporting simulation results, will be provided later, in the form of a technical paper prepared for submission and also in the next progress report with more detail than allowed for paper publication.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1993-09-01

377

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual report Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions is presented. The reporting period is 16 Aug. 1992 to 15 Aug. 1993. However, the primary focus will be work performed since submission of our semi-annual progress report in Feb. 1993. Substantial progress was made. We currently feel confident in providing guidelines for motor and control strategy selection in electromechanical actuators to be used in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. A small portion was presented in the semi-annual report. At this point, we have implemented highly detailed simulations of various motor/drive systems. The primary motor candidates were the brushless dc machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, and the induction machine. The primary control implementations were pulse width modulation and hysteresis current control. Each of the two control strategies were applied to each of the three motor choices. With either pulse width modulation or hysteresis current control, the induction machine was always vector controlled. A standard test position command sequence for system performance evaluation is defined. Currently, we are gathering all of the necessary data for formal presentation of the results. Briefly stated for TVC application, we feel that the brushless dc machine operating under PWM current control is the best option. Substantial details on the topic, with supporting simulation results, will be provided later, in the form of a technical paper prepared for submission and also in the next progress report with more detail than allowed for paper publication.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1993-01-01

378

Medical-care systems for long-duration space missions.  

PubMed

As in the opening of frontiers on Earth, human physiological maladaptation, illness, and injury--rather than defective transportation systems--are likely to be the pace-limiting variables in efforts to expand the presence of humans into the solar system. Because of the inability of individuals to return to Earth rapidly and conveniently, the capability of delivering medical care on site will be key to the success of a manned space station, lunar base, and Mars mission. Spaceflight medical care equipment must meet stringent constraints of size, weight, and power requirements, and then must function accurately in remote, self-contained, microgravity settings after extended intervals of storage, with neither expert operators nor repair technicians on site. Satisfying these unusually rigorous requirements will require sustained direct involvement of clinically up-to-date health-care providers, medical scientists, and biomedical engineers, as well as astronauts and aerospace engineers and managers. Solutions will require validation in clinical settings with real patients, as well as in simulated operational settings. PMID:8419036

Houtchens, B A

1993-01-01

379

Development of double-stage ADR for future space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a development of a portable dewar with a double-stage ADR in it, and its cooling test results. The purpose of this system is to establish a cooling cycle of double-stage adiabatic demagnetization from 4.2 K to 50 mK, which is strongly desired for future space science missions. In our test dewar, two units of ADR are installed in parallel at the bottom of a liquid He tank. We used 600 g of GGG (Gadolinium Gallium Garnet) for the higher temperature stage (4 Tesla) and ˜90 g of CPA (Chromic Potassium Alum) for the lower temperature stage (3 Tesla). A passive gas-gap heat switch (PGGHS) is used between these two stages, while a mechanical heat switch between the He tank and the GGG stage. Using this system, 50 mK was achieved, and various kinds of cooling cycles with different operating temperatures and different sequences of magnetization were tested. We also evaluated the performance of the PGGHS, and interference of the magnetic field with each other during a stable temperature control.

Shinozaki, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Masui, Kensuke; Asano, Kentaro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Kosuke; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji

2010-09-01

380

Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

1983-01-01

381

A Systems Engineering Process for the Development of Analog Missions for the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout human exploration of space, analog missions have proven to be a critical aspect in reducing risk while increasing technical and operational experience. In light of the new goals of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the prior processes and procedures for analog missions are not adequate to meet the objectives of the VSE. To solve this problem, previous analog

Elizabeth Deems; Lynn Baroff

2008-01-01

382

Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 1: Missions and requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science and applications, NOAA environmental observation, commercial resource observations, commercial space processing, commercial communications, national security, technology development, and GEO servicing are addressed. Approach to time phasing of mission requirements, system sizing summary, time-phased user mission payload support, space station facility requirements, and integrated time-phased system requirements are also addressed.

1983-01-01

383

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Overview and Mission Applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This paper provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, and advanced chemical thrusters. Aerocapture investments have 1) improved models

Tibor Kremic; D. J. Anderson; J. W. Dankanich

2008-01-01

384

CCD characterization for astronomy space missions at ESA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's astronomy missions make wide use of CCDs as their main photon detectors. Depending on the scientific goals of the mission, different aspects the CCD's performance may be critical for the achievement of these goals. The Payload Technology Verification section of ESA's Future Missions Preparation Office has a task to provide support on issues related to payload performance. For that purpose we operate a versatile CCD test bench. We present test results on CCDs for missions that are currently under study (PLATO) or under development (EUCLID, CHEOPS).

Verhoeve, P.; Prod'homme, T.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Duvet, L.

2013-07-01

385

CCD characterization for astronomy space missions at ESA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's astronomy missions make wide use of CCDs as their main photon detectors. Depending on the scientific goals of the mission, different aspects the CCD's performance may be critical for the achievement of these goals. The Payload Technology Verification section of ESA's Future Missions Preparation Office has a task to provide support on issues related to payload performance. For that purpose we operate a versatile CCD test bench. We present test results on CCDs for missions that are currently under study (PLATO) or under development (EUCLID, CHEOPS).

Verhoeve, P.; Prod'homme, T.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Duvet, L.

2014-07-01

386

The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

2014-01-01

387

Developing a corss-project support system during mission operations: Deep Space 1 extended mission flight control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on small, low-cost spacecraft for both planetary and earth science missions. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission to be launched by the NMP. The New Millennium Project (NMP) is designed to develop and test new technology that can be used on future science missions with lower cost and risk. The NMP is finding ways to reduce cost not only in development, but also in operations. DS 1 was approved for an extended mission, but the budget was not large, so the project began looking into part time team members shared with other projects. DS1 launched on October 24, 1998, in it's primary mission it successfully tested twelve new technologies. The extended mission started September 18, 1999 and ran through the encounter with Comet Borrelly on September 22,2001. The Flight Control Team (FCT) was one team that needed to use part time or multi mission people. Circumstances led to a situation where for the few months before the Borrelly encounter in September of 2001 DSl had no certified full time Flight Control Engineers also known as Aces. This paper examines how DS 1 utilized cross-project support including the communication between different projects, and the how the tools used by the Flight Control Engineer fit into cross-project support.

Scarffe, V. A.

2002-01-01

388

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through February 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Following the executive summary are four report sections: Motor Selection, Tests Stand Development, Health Monitoring and Fault Management, and Experiment Planning. Three specific motor types have been considered as prime movers for TVC EMA applications: the brushless dc motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the induction motor. The fundamental finding was that, in general, the primary performance issues were energy efficiency and thermal dissipation (rotor heating). In terms of all other issues, the three motor types were found to compare quite equally. Among the design changes made to the test stand since the last progress report is the addition of more mounting holes in the side beams. These additional holes allow the movable end beam to be attached in a greater number of positions than previously. With this change the movable end beam can move from full forward to full back in three inch increments. Specific mathematical details on the approach that have been employed for health monitoring and fault management (HMFM) have been reported previously. This approach is based on and adaptive Kalman filter strategy. In general, a bank of filters can be implemented for each primary fault type. Presently under consideration for the brushless dc machine are the following faults: armature winding open-circuits, armature winding short-circuits (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), bearing degradation, and rotor flux weakening. The mechanically oriented experiments include transient loading experiments, transverse loading experiment, friction experiment, motor performance experiment, and HMFM experiment.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1994-02-01

389

Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.  

PubMed

Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight. PMID:24886968

Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

2014-10-01

390

Design and application of electromechanical actuators for deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This progress report documents research and development efforts performed from August 16, 1993 through February 15, 1994 on NASA Grant NAG8-240, 'Design and Application of Electromechanical Actuators for Deep Space Missions.' Following the executive summary are four report sections: Motor Selection, Tests Stand Development, Health Monitoring and Fault Management, and Experiment Planning. Three specific motor types have been considered as prime movers for TVC EMA applications: the brushless dc motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the induction motor. The fundamental finding was that, in general, the primary performance issues were energy efficiency and thermal dissipation (rotor heating). In terms of all other issues, the three motor types were found to compare quite equally. Among the design changes made to the test stand since the last progress report is the addition of more mounting holes in the side beams. These additional holes allow the movable end beam to be attached in a greater number of positions than previously. With this change the movable end beam can move from full forward to full back in three inch increments. Specific mathematical details on the approach that have been employed for health monitoring and fault management (HMFM) have been reported previously. This approach is based on and adaptive Kalman filter strategy. In general, a bank of filters can be implemented for each primary fault type. Presently under consideration for the brushless dc machine are the following faults: armature winding open-circuits, armature winding short-circuits (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), bearing degradation, and rotor flux weakening. The mechanically oriented experiments include transient loading experiments, transverse loading experiment, friction experiment, motor performance experiment, and HMFM experiment.

Haskew, Tim A.; Wander, John

1994-01-01

391

The Benefits of Virtual Presence in Space (VPS) to Deep Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding our place in the Universe is one of mankind's greatest scientific and technological challenges and achievements. The invention of the telescope, the Copernican Revolution, the development of Newtonian mechanics, and the Space Age exploration of our solar system; provided us with a deeper understanding of our place in the Universe; based on better observations and models. As we approach the end of the first decade of the new millennium, the same quest, to understand our place in the Universe, remains a great challenge. New technologies will enable us to construct and interact with a "Virtual Universe" based on remote and in situ observations of other worlds. As we continue the exploration that began in the last century, we will experience a "Virtual Presence in Space (VPS)" in this century. This paper describes VPS technology, the mechanisms for VPS product distribution and display, the benefits of this technology, and future plans. Deep space mission stereo observations and frames from stereo High Definition Television (HDTV) mission animations are used to illustrate the effectiveness of VPS technology.

De Jong, Eric M.; McGuffie, Barbara A; Levoe, Steven R.; Suzuki, Shigeru; Gorjian, Zareh; Leung, Chris; Cordell, Christopher; Loaiza, Frank; Baldwin, Robert; Craig, Jason; Kuramura, Koji; Stetson, Michael

2006-01-01

392

An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the crewed portion of the mission performed in one year or less. This study used exploration propulsion system team technology specialist advocates to identify seven meaningful, representative mission architecture scenarios to ``best'' demonstrate the capability of such in-space propulsion technology options to support the near-term crewed Mars mission requirement. Additionally, a common set of top-level mission/system requirements was established for the study, which was incorporated in the assessment of all the mission options considered. Mission performance for abundant chemical (Ab-Chem), bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR), high power nuclear electric propulsion (HP-NEP), momentum tether/chemical, solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar electric propulsion/chemical (SEP-Chem) and Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) based missions were estimated for this quick trip, 2018 crewed Mars flight opportunity. Each of these mission options are characterized in terms of their overall mission performance capability, crewed mission duration, Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), which including dry and propellant weight required, overall mission time, number of flight elements (propulsion units/tank sets), and number of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicle launches. Potential top-level development, implementation, and operational issues/risks for each mission scenario considered are also identified. .

Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; Maggio, Gaspare; Patel, Saroj; Sorensen, Kirk

2002-01-01

393

The external respiration and gas exchange in space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature data and results of our own studies into an effect of micro- and macro-gravity on an external respiration function of man are presented. It is found that in cosmonauts following the 7-366 day space missions there is an enhanced tendency associated with an increased flight duration toward a decrease in the lung volume and breathing mechanics parameters: forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC) by 5-25 percent, peak inspiratory and expiratory (air) flows (PIF, PEF) by 5-40 percent. A decrease in FVC appears to be explained by a new balance of elastic forces of the lungs, chest and abdomen occuring in microgravity as well as by an increased blood filling and pulmonary hydration. A decline of PIF and PEF is probalbly resulted from antigravitational deconditioning of the respiratory muscles with which a postflight decreased physical performance can in part be associated. The ventilation/perfusion ratios during orthostasis and +G Z and +G X accelerations are estimated. The biophysical nature of developing the absorption atelectases on a combined exposure to accelerations and 100% oxygen breathing is confirmed. A hypothesis that hypervolemia and pulmonary congestion can increase the tendency toward the development of atelectases in space in particular during pure oxygen breathing is suggested. Respiratory physiology problem area which is of interest for space medicine is defined. It is well known that due to present-day technologic progress and accomplishments in applied physiology including applied respiration physiology there currently exist sophisticated technical facilities in operation maintaining the life and professional working capacity of a man in various natural environments: on Earth, under water and in space. By the way, the biomedical involvement in developing and constructing such facilities has enabled an accumulation of a great body of information from experimental studies and full-scale trails to examine the effects of the changed environments both and its individual systems including an external respiration function. In this case, it should be remembered that the external respiration system has some physiological and morphological properties due to which the body systems are particularly subjected to environmental effects. Thus, according to figurative comparison by Evald Veible a contact area of the lungs with an external environment i.e. an alveolar surface is large and equaled approximately to tennis-court size, as the alveolocapillary membrane thickness is negligible and amounts to one fiftieth of a writing-paper sheet [1]. From this it follows that such a fine and highly organized structure must be extremely dependent upon any external exposures including gravitational ones since from the physical viewpoint of physics the lungs represent a quasiconical three-dimensional elastic body suspended in the thoracic cavity and in which there occur the gravity-induced internal tensions incrementing in a base-to-apices direction. As a result of these tensions, in the lungs various physical gradients: hydrostatic, pleural and transpulmonary pressures, pulmonary time constant, vertical gradient of the volume and structure of alveoli, etc. are developed.

Baranov, V. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Kotov, A. N.

394

OUR MISSION The mission of Space@VT is to provide forefront re-  

E-print Network

, instruction, and educational out- reach in the broad fields of space science and engineer- ing. A key focus on both graduate and undergraduate education in the broad fields of space science and engi- neering. Space Waves 6 Aeronomy 8 Into Thin Air 10 Deep Freeze 16 Where In Space 17 Space Science Courses University

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

395

Third International Symposium on Space Mission Operations and Ground Data Systems, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the theme of 'Opportunities in Ground Data Systems for High Efficiency Operations of Space Missions,' the SpaceOps '94 symposium included presentations of more than 150 technical papers spanning five topic areas: Mission Management, Operations, Data Management, System Development, and Systems Engineering. The papers focus on improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and quality of data acquisition, ground systems, and mission operations. New technology, techniques, methods, and human systems are discussed. Accomplishments are also reported in the application of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; the management of human factors; the use of telescience and teleoperations; and the design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations.

Rash, James L. (editor)

1994-01-01

396

The Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions: Past, present, and future operational challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be serviced by the Space Shuttle to upgrade systems, replace failed components and boost the telescope into higher orbits. There exists many operational challenges that must be addressed in preparation for the execution of a servicing mission, including technical and managerial issues. The operational challenges faced by the Hubble operations and ground system project for the support of the first servicing mission and future servicing missions, are considered. The emphasis is on those areas that helped ensure the success of the mission, including training, testing and contingency planning.

Ochs, William R.; Barbehenn, George M.; Crabb, William G.

1996-01-01

397

Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions  

SciTech Connect

The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

Gray, L.B. (NASA HQ/Code QS, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States)); Pyatt, D.W. (DOE HQ/Office of Nuclear Safety, Mail Stop NS-20, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)); Sholtis, J.A. (U.S. Air Force Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)); Winchester, R.O. (U.S. Air Force (Ret.), c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States))

1993-01-10

398

The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

Rayman, M. D.

2002-01-01

399

SpaceOps 1992: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Second International Symposium featured 135 oral presentations in these 12 categories: Future Missions and Operations; System-Level Architectures; Mission-Specific Systems; Mission and Science Planning and Sequencing; Mission Control; Operations Automation and Emerging Technologies; Data Acquisition; Navigation; Operations Support Services; Engineering Data Analysis of Space Vehicle and Ground Systems; Telemetry Processing, Mission Data Management, and Data Archiving; and Operations Management. Topics focused on improvements in the productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of mission operations, ground systems, and data acquisition. Also emphasized were accomplishments in management of human factors; use of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations; and the use of telescience and teleoperations.

1993-01-01

400

Private, commercial and student-oriented low-cost deep-space missions: A global survey of activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary mission objectives for most deepspace missions to date have emphasized acquiring scientific data and expanding our understanding of the solar system; some contemporary missions target advanced technology demonstration with science as a secondary objective. All missions so far have been sponsored by one or more government agencies, organizations or consortia.Now a new class of deep-space missions is emerging: those

Rex Ridenoure; Kevin Polk

1999-01-01

401

Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Aut