These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

2014-01-01

2

Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

2014-01-01

3

Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

1982-01-01

4

Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

2006-01-01

5

Effects of space flight on locomotor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.

Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Layne, Charles S.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Peters, Brian T.; Huebner, William P.; Reschke, Millard F.; Berthoz, Alain; Glasauer, Stefan; Newman, Dava; Jackson, D. Keoki

1999-01-01

6

Impact of space flight on cardiovascular autonomic control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Space flight alters the distribution of blood in the human body, leading to altered cardiovascular neurohumoral regulation with a blunted carotid-cardiac baroreflex. These changes contribute to the occurrence of orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) provide non-invasive means to study the autonomic modulation of the heart. Low frequency (LF) oscillations provide information about sympathetic modulation and baroreflex, while high frequency (HF) modulation is an index of vagal heart rate modulation. Methods: ECG and continuous blood pressure were measured for at least 10 minutes in supine, sitting and standing position 45 days and 10 days (L-45, L-10) before launch; and at 1, 2, 4, 9, 15, 19 and 25 days after return to earth (R+x). In space, ECG and continuous blood pressure were measured at day 5 (FD5) and day 8 (FD8). These measurements were performed in 3. HRV and BPV indices were calculated in time and frequency domain. Results: Measurements in supine position and sitting position did not show as high differences as the measurements in standing position. During space flight heart rate was significantly lower compared to the pre- and post-flight measurements in standing position (RR-values: L-45: 837± 42 ms; FD5: 1004± 40 ms; FD8: 1038± 53 ms; R+1: 587± 21 ms; p<0.05). This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of HF power during space flight and a decrease in LF power. Immediately after space flight both LF and HF modulation of heart rate were extremely depressed compared to the pre-flight conditions (p<0.005). A gradual recovery towards baseline conditions of both indices was observed up to 25 days after return from space (LF: L-45: 3297± 462 ms2; FD5: 1251± 332 ms2; FD8: 1322± 462 ms2; R+1: 547± 188 ms2; R+4: 1958± 709 ms2; R+9: 1220± 148 ms2; R+15: 1704± 497 ms2; R+25: 2644± 573 ms2). However, even 25 days after return, values were below baseline condition. Mean systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly before during and after space flight. In space both LF and HF were decreased compared the standing measurements pre- and post-flight. No evolution was present in BPV after return to Earth. Conclusion: During space flight autonomic modulation is characterised by a vagal predominance. Immediately after return to Earth overall autonomic modulation is extremely depressed. Vasomotor autonomic control is restored rather quickly after space flight, while the restoration of autonomic modulation of heart rate is very slow.

Beckers, F.; Verheyden, B.; Morukov, B.; Aubert, Ae

7

Integrated Digital Flight Control System for the Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the integrated digital flight control system (DFCS) is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the computer complex and is equally insensitive to characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure is described of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure. The input and output, including jet selection are included. Specific estimation and control algorithm are shown for the various mission phases: cruise (including horizontal powered flight), entry, on-orbit, and boost. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are included.

1973-01-01

8

Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

1973-01-01

9

Recovery of postural equilibrium control following space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSO 605 represents the first large study of balance control following spaceflight. Data collected during DSO 605 confirm the theory that postural ataxia following short duration spaceflight is of vestibular origin. We used the computerized dynamic posturography technique developed by Nashner et al. to study the role of the vestibular system in balance control in astronauts during quiet stance before and after spaceflight. Our results demonstrate unequivocally that balance control is disrupted in all astronauts immediately after return from space. The most severely affected returning crew members performed in the same way as vestibular deficient patients exposed to this test battery. We conclude that otolith mediated spatial reference provided by the terrestrial gravitational force vector is not used by the astronauts balance control systems immediately after spaceflight. Because the postflight ataxia appears to be mediated primarily by CNS adaptation to the altered vestibular inputs caused by loss of gravitational stimulation, we believe that intermittent periods of exposure to artificial gravity may provide an effective in-flight countermeasure. Specifically, we propose that in-flight centrifugation will allow crew members to retain their terrestrial sensory-motor adapted states while simultaneously developing microgravity adapted states. The dual-adapted astronaut should be able to make the transition from microgravity to unit gravity with minimal sensory-motor effects. We have begun a ground based program aimed at developing short arm centrifuge prescriptions designed to optimize adaptation to altered gravitational environments. Results from these experiments are expected to lead directly to in-flight evaluation of the proposed centrifuge countermeasure. Because our computerized dynamic posturography system was able to (1) quantify the postflight postural ataxia reported by crew members and observed by flight surgeons and scientists, (2) track the recovery of normal (preflight) balance control, (3) differentiate between rookie and veteran subjects, and (4) provide normative and clinical databases for comparison, and because our study successfully characterized postflight balance control recovery in a large cross-section of Shuttle crew members, we recommend that this system and protocol be adopted as a standard dependent measure for evaluating the efficacy of countermeasures and/or evaluating the postflight effects of changing mission durations or activities.

Paloski, William H.; Reschke, Millard F.; Black, F. Owen; Dow, R. S.

1999-01-01

10

Adaptive control of tunable laser spectrometers for space flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Adaptive in this context refers to the real-time autonomous response of software and electronics to the harsh and hard-to-predict conditions that can be encountered in space flight missions. This approach takes advantage of both software tools as well as

Gregory Flesch; Didier Keymeulen

2010-01-01

11

Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

2009-01-01

12

An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (Dep1Ex for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The Dep1Ex also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of Dep1Ex in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffles, Paul; Hua, Grace

1988-01-01

13

Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

Springer, Darlene

1989-01-01

14

In-flight testing of the space shuttle orbiter thermal control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight thermal control system testing of a complex manned spacecraft such as the space shuttle orbiter and the considerations attendant to the definition of the tests are described. Design concerns, design mission requirements, flight test objectives, crew vehicle and mission risk considerations, instrumentation, data requirements, and real-time mission monitoring are discussed. An overview of the tests results is presented.

Taylor, J. T.

1985-01-01

15

[Comparative analysis of alfalfa seeds between space flight mutation and its control by Raman spectroscopy].  

PubMed

To realize the effect of space flight factors on chemical component of alfalfa seeds and its possible mechanism, seeds were loaded onto satellite "Jianbing No. 1" in 2006 for 14 days' space flight and then analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that the intensity of two peaks (358 and 553 cm(-1)) of space flight seeds had been increased and the intensity of four peaks (814, 1 122, 1 531 and 1 743 cm(-1)) of space flight seeds had been decreased compared with its ground control. Based on the classification of Raman spectra, the increased peaks of 358 and 553 cm(-1) are related to DNA and Ca2+ respectively, which mean that the content of DNA and Ca2+ of alfalfa seeds had increased after space flight. The decreased peaks of 814, 1 122 and 1 743 cm(-1) are related to saccharide and fatty acid respectively, which mean that the content of reserve energy of alfalfa seeds had decreased after space flight. These findings can be explained as follows: (1) The increase in the content of DNA may be explained by the DNA damage induced by space flight factors and DNA syntheses and duplication before the cell division. (2) The increase in the content of Ca2+ may be stimulated by the complexity of gravity during the space flight, especially the hypergravity. Recent researches in Abrabidopsis thaliana have provided additional proof. (3) The decrease of the energy materials such as saccharide and fatty acid may be explained by the consumption both during the repair process of DNA damage induced by cosmic radiation and during the germination of seeds because the dormancy of alfalfa seeds had been broken up by space flight factors (cosmic radiation, microgravity, vibration or others) which subsequently resulted in that nutritious materials of alfalfa seeds were used earlier than its ground control. PMID:20545146

Ren, Wei-Bo; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Deng, Bo; Xu, Zhu; Chen, Li-Bo

2010-04-01

16

The Vehicle Control Systems Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines the responsibility of the Vehicle Control Systems Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to analyze, evaluate, define, design, verify, and specify requirements for advanced launch vehicles and related space projects, and to conduct research in advanced flight control concepts. Attention is given to branch responsibilities which include Shuttle-C, Shuttle-C Block II, Shuttle-Z, lunar cargo launch vehicles, Mars cargo launch vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicle, automatic docking, tethered satellite, aeroassisted flight experiment, and solid rocket booster parachute recovery system design.

Barret, Chris

1990-01-01

17

Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

1973-01-01

18

Space Crew Members' Microbial Flora in Space Flight and Prospective Approaches for Its Ecological Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the astronauts' microflora, the changes that occur during spaceflight and the control of microflora using drugs, is reported. A decrease in the quantity of lactibacilli in the mouth and throat cavities was observed during flight. The data showed that the susceptibility of the microflora to antibiotics increased during flight.

Iilyin, V. K.; Kornyushenkova, I. N.; Lizko, N. N.

1996-01-01

19

Vestibular-Somatosensory Convergence in Head Movement Control During Locomotion after Long-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibular-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to somatosensory adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing (BLS) systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and BLS-mediated somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual acuity task. Data were collected using the same testing protocol from three independent subject groups; 1) normal subjects before and after exposure to 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, 2) bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients and 3) astronauts who performed the protocol before and after long duration space flight. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the LD patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. Astronaut subjects results showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation mediated by the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Ruttley, Tara; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Merkle, Lauren; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

20

Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper explains our mentoring approach and discusses its effectiveness and future applicability in promoting SFRM/CRM skills.

Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

2008-01-01

21

Simulation of the coupled multi-spacecraft control testbed at the Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capture and berthing of a controlled spacecraft using a robotic manipulator is an important technology for future space missions and is presently being considered as a backup option for direct docking of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station during assembly missions. The dynamics and control of spacecraft configurations that are manipulator-coupled with each spacecraft having independent attitude control systems is not well understood and NASA is actively involved in both analytic research on this three dimensional control problem for manipulator coupled active spacecraft and experimental research using a two dimensional ground based facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper first describes the MSFC testbed and then describes a two link arm simulator that has been developed to facilitate control theory development and test planning. The motion of the arms and the payload is controlled by motors located at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

Ghosh, Dave; Montgomery, Raymond C.

1994-01-01

22

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

Gilligan, Eric

2014-01-01

23

International Space Station Mechanisms and Maintenance Flight Control Documentation and Training Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station (ISS) crew and flight controller training documentation is used to aid in training operations. The Generic Simulations References SharePoint (Gen Sim) site is a database used as an aid during flight simulations. The Gen Sim site is used to make individual mission segment timelines, data, and flight information easily accessible to instructors. The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) training schematic includes simple and complex fluid schematics, as well as overall hardware locations. It is used as a teaching aid during WHC lessons for both ISS crew and flight controllers. ISS flight control documentation is used to support all aspects of ISS mission operations. The Quick Look Database and Consolidated Tool Page are imagery-based references used in real-time to help the Operations Support Officer (OSO) find data faster and improve discussions with the Flight Director and Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). A Quick Look page was created for the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) by locating photos of the module interior, labeling specific hardware, and organizing them in schematic form to match the layout of the PMM interior. A Tool Page was created for the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) by gathering images, detailed drawings, safety information, procedures, certifications, demonstration videos, and general facts of each MWA component and displaying them in an easily accessible and consistent format. Participation in ISS mechanisms and maintenance lessons, mission simulation On-the-Job Training (OJT), and real-time flight OJT was used as an opportunity to train for day-to-day operations as an OSO, as well as learn how to effectively respond to failures and emergencies during mission simulations and real-time flight operations.

Daugherty, Colin C.

2010-01-01

24

Basics of Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This training module was designed to help the user identify and grasp basic concepts associated with space travel and deep space missions. Separate sections deal with topics such as the physical environment of space (solar system, gravity, orbital mechanics), flight projects (mission concepts, system requirements, design, onboard systems and instruments), and flight operations (launch, cruise, encounter). Links to related topics are embedded in the text.

25

Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

1981-01-01

26

Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

2004-01-01

27

Guidance and control law for automatic landing flight experiment of reentry space vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic landing flight experiment with a sub-scale model is being prepared for a planned future reentry space vehicle by the National Aerospace Laboratory and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The subscale model is dropped from a helicopter at a 1500-m altitude, and, controlled by an on-board navigation, guidance, and control system, it automatically lands on a 1000-m runway. This paper discusses preliminary study results obtained from numerical simulation. The guidance and control law was designed using a multiple delay model and multiple design point approach. Control system robustness against uncertain and time varying dynamics is especially considered in this approach. The control performances are evaluated with appropriately defined quadratic indices of tracking error. Simple control structures are assumed and parameters are obtained with numerical optimization. The approach was successfully applied to the design, and feasibility of the experiment has been verified with numerical simulations.

Miyazawa, Yoshikazu; Ishikawa, Kazutoshi; Fujii, Kenji

28

Introduction to Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online lecture notes introduce students to the basics of space flight. Topics covered include: rocket motors, history of rockets, the scientific method, astronomy basics, the solar system, the universe, space flight missions, spacecraft, remote sensing, astronauts, and future spaceflight missions. This website also provides useful links and exercises intended for students taking this course. These exercises can provide teachers with ideas for their own classes.

Erickson, Lance

2005-06-07

29

The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

2011-01-01

30

Predicted and flight test results of the performance, stability and control of the space shuttle from reentry to landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynaic performance, stability and control data obtained from the first five reentries of the Space Shuttle orbiter are given. Flight results are compared to pedicted data from Mach 26.4 to Mach 0.4. Differences between flight and predicted data as well as probable causes for the discrepancies are given.

Kirsten, P. W.; Richardson, D. F.; Wilson, C. M.

1983-01-01

31

Calbindins decreased after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins may contribute to the disorders of Ca2+ metabolism induced by space flight.

Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

1996-01-01

32

Flights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic Controllers  

E-print Network

We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible interactive space to support air traffic control of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment, an operational, complex system already based on basic mixedFlights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

2014-01-01

34

Space Flight Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Flight Now offers the latest space news from around the world. Visitors can discover information on current missions, launch schedules, and mission reports. Along with providing the space news headlines, the web site supplies news archives so people can catch up on the activities of the space science world. Visitors can enjoy video footage from cameras onboard recent rocket launches. While users do have to subscribe to obtain many of the videos and audio recordings, individuals can benefit from the free up-to-date astronomy news stories and a few videos.

35

Space Flight Requirements  

E-print Network

Space Flight Requirements Definition Hardware Ground Testing Hardware Mod Evaluation Hardware Bench Reviews Realtime Payload Ops Support Provide Hardware Unique Services Postflight Support & Analysis Manufactured/Designed Owned X X X X X X X X X X X SLCC (Single Loop Cell Culture) CGBA, PGBA, GAPs

36

The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

2011-01-01

37

Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

2012-01-01

38

Cardiovascular physiology in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

1991-01-01

39

Space flight rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347

Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

2007-07-01

40

Cardiovascular function in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L+O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L+2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

Nicgossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

41

Space Flight Immunodeficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

Shearer, William T.

1999-01-01

42

Marshall Space Flight Center Electromagnetic Compatibility Design and Interference Control (MEDIC) Handbook  

E-print Network

this document. The MEDIC Handbook was prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch (EL54). Funding for developmental testing was provided by the MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF), Project No. 93-15. iv v

unknown authors

43

Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

Jevitt, S. J.

1973-01-01

44

Space Flight: A Human Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this "Space Age" we are just beginning to explore the solar system, and human space flights into Earth orbit are our first baby steps off our home planet. Why do we go to space? What do we do there? What will we learn in this environment that will benefit future explorers? A four-time space flight veteran will describe experiences in space and opportunities for future explorers.

Thornton, Kathryn C.

2006-12-01

45

Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted to design controllers that would provide substantial reduction of line-of-sight control errors. The satisfaction of this objective required the controllers to attenuate the beam vibration significantly. Particular emphasis was placed on controller simplicity (i.e., reduced-order and decentralized controller architectures). Complexity reduction in control law implementation is of paramount interest due to stringent limitations on throughput of even state-of-the-art space qualified processors. The results of this experiment successfully demonstrate active vibrator control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the ACES structure at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas; Hyland, David C.

1990-01-01

46

Energy requirements for space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

Lane, Helen W.

1992-01-01

47

Long-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.

1997-01-01

48

Relativistic rocket and space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the new concept of “proper speed”. It turns out that relativistic space flight can be sized and described more adequately by this concept. In particular, it is shown that the physics and equations of relativistic and classical space flight have a one-to-one relationship. The rocket equations are even identical. In addition, we generalize the expressions for the rocket

Ulrich Walter

2006-01-01

49

National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

1990-01-01

50

Effect of space flight on bone strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.

Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

1982-01-01

51

Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

52

Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration missions dominated these discussions and were driven by the paucity of data available. These issues along with more specific recommendations arising from the above discussions will be addressed an upcoming issue of the Journal of Vestibular Research.

Paloski, William H.

2004-01-01

53

Alternative Approaches to Mission Control Automation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet its objective of reducing operations costs without incurring a corresponding increase in risk, NASA is seeking new methods to automate mission operations. This paper examines the state of the art in automating ground operations for space missions. A summary of available technologies and methods for automating mission operations is provided. Responses from interviews with several space mission FOTs (Flight Operations Teams) to assess the degree and success of those technologies and methods implemented are presented. Mission operators that were interviewed approached automation using different tools and methods resulting in varying degrees of success - from nearly completely automated to nearly completely manual. Two key criteria for successful automation are the active participation of the FOT in the planning, designing, testing, and implementation of the system and the relative degree of complexity of the mission.

Rackley, Michael; Cooter, Miranda; Davis, George; Mackey, Jennifer

2001-01-01

54

Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

1975-01-01

55

The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

Kalvelage, Thomas A.

1989-01-01

56

Intelligent flight control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

Stengel, Robert F.

1993-01-01

57

SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

2014-01-01

58

Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

Spann, James

2005-01-01

59

Immune function during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

2002-01-01

60

Physiological effects of space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from Skylab and Space Shuttle missions are used as a framework for discussing the physiological effects of space flight. Consideration is given to motion sickness, and changes in body fluids, the cardiovascular system, and red blood cell counts. In addition, changes in muscle mass, bone mass, and the immune system, and neurosensory disturbances are examined.

Huntoon, Carolyn L.

1989-01-01

61

Human tolerance to space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

Huntoon, C. L.

1989-01-01

62

Developing a corss-project support system during mission operations: Deep Space 1 extended mission flight control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is focusing on small, low-cost spacecraft for both planetary and earth science missions. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission to be launched by the NMP. The New Millennium Project (NMP) is designed to develop and test new technology that can be used on future science missions with lower cost and risk. The NMP is finding ways to reduce cost not only in development, but also in operations. DS 1 was approved for an extended mission, but the budget was not large, so the project began looking into part time team members shared with other projects. DS1 launched on October 24, 1998, in it's primary mission it successfully tested twelve new technologies. The extended mission started September 18, 1999 and ran through the encounter with Comet Borrelly on September 22,2001. The Flight Control Team (FCT) was one team that needed to use part time or multi mission people. Circumstances led to a situation where for the few months before the Borrelly encounter in September of 2001 DSl had no certified full time Flight Control Engineers also known as Aces. This paper examines how DS 1 utilized cross-project support including the communication between different projects, and the how the tools used by the Flight Control Engineer fit into cross-project support.

Scarffe, V. A.

2002-01-01

63

Flexible body stability analysis of Space Shuttle ascent flight control system by using lambda matrix solution techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lambda matrix solution technique is being developed to perform an open loop frequency analysis of a high order dynamic system. The procedure evaluates the right and left latent vectors corresponding to the respective latent roots. The latent vectors are used to evaluate the partial fraction expansion formulation required to compute the flexible body open loop feedback gains for the Space Shuttle Digital Ascent Flight Control System. The algorithm is in the final stages of development and will be used to insure that the feedback gains meet the design specification.

Bown, R. L.; Christofferson, A.; Lardas, M.; Flanders, H.

1980-01-01

64

Challenges of Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

2006-01-01

65

The radiation hazard during space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic cosmic radiation is described. Distinctive features of radiation effects in space flights are discussed and space radiation hazards are estimated. Measures to provide radiation safety during space flights are given. The need for safety standards is emphasized.

Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kolomenskiy, A. V.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Petrov, V. M.

1973-01-01

66

X-43A Flight Controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

Baumann, Ethan

2006-01-01

67

Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

68

Vision Aspects of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

69

Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

70

Relativistic rocket and space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the new concept of "proper speed". It turns out that relativistic space flight can be sized and described more adequately by this concept. In particular, it is shown that the physics and equations of relativistic and classical space flight have a one-to-one relationship. The rocket equations are even identical. In addition, we generalize the expressions for the rocket exhaust speed to systems with mass and/or photon propulsion. With this new insight the basic relativistic spaceflight are easily derived and summarized and it is shown that they can be readily transformed into those of classical space flight. We also provide the space-time transformation equations for a cruising rocket, for a rocket with constant acceleration, and for a rocket with constant thrust (with and without inflight thrust reversal to slow down to zero speed at the target). For each of these cases a representative flight through the milky way with a ultimate matter-antimatter annihilation drive is calculated.

Walter, Ulrich

2006-09-01

71

Velocity control propulsion subsystem of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite for Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Velocity Control Propulsion Subsystem (VCPS) was designed the propulsion required for trajectory and lunar orbit corrections of the spacecraft. A GFE clamp assembly physically attaches the VCPS to the spacecraft and the unit is ejected after completing the required corrections. The VCPS is physically and functionally separated from the spacecraft except for the electrical and telemetry interfaces. A GFE transtage provides the superstructure on which the VCPS is assembled. The subsystem consists of two 5 foot pound rocket engine assemblies, 4 propellant tanks, 2 latching valves, 2 fill and drain valves, a system filter, pressure transducer, gas and propellant manifolds and electrical heaters and thermostats. The RAE-B VCPS program covered the design, manufacture and qualification of one subsystem. This subsystem was to be manufactured, subjected to qualification tests; and refurbished, if necessary, prior to flight. The VCPS design and test program precluded the need for refurbishing the subsystem and the unit was delivered to GSFC at the conclusion of the program.

Braught, W.; Moore, E. K.; Steinberg, R. L.

1973-01-01

72

Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

1978-01-01

73

Flight simulator with spaced visuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight simulator arrangement wherein a conventional, movable base flight trainer is combined with a visual cue display surface spaced a predetermined distance from an eye position within the trainer. Thus, three degrees of motive freedom (roll, pitch and crab) are provided for a visual proprioceptive, and vestibular cue system by the trainer while the remaining geometric visual cue image alterations are developed by a video system. A geometric approach to computing runway image eliminates a need to electronically compute trigonometric functions, while utilization of a line generator and designated vanishing point at the video system raster permits facile development of the images of the longitudinal edges of the runway.

Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor); Thurston, Marlin O. (Inventor); Olson, Karl W. (Inventor); Ventola, Ronald W. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

74

Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

2011-01-01

75

Physical examination during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

1997-01-01

76

Lytic Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.

Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D. T.

1999-01-01

77

Gene Kranz Visits Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 19, 2006, former NASA director of Mission Operations Gene Kranz was a keynote speaker at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 2006 Annual Safety Day program. The best selling author of 'Failure Is Not An Option' and past Apollo flight director was featured during a morning session called 'Coffee and Kranz'. Marshall employees hung on his every word as he told the fascinating story of Apollo 13. Kranz was the acting flight director during the Apollo 13 mission, a mission that seemed doomed to fail due to an onboard explosion. Kranz and his flight control team worked around the clock relentlessly, solving problem after problem, until the crew was returned safely to Earth.

2006-01-01

78

Neural Flight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

Gundy-Burlet, Karen

2003-01-01

79

Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of flying qualities experiments as part of the Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is defined. Phase 1, published as CR-170391, reviewed flying qualities criteria and shuttle data. The review of applicable experimental and shuttle data to further define the OEX plan is continued. An unconventional feature of this approach is the use of pilot strategy model identification to relate flight and simulator results. Instrumentation, software, and data analysis techniques for pilot model measurements are examined. The relationship between shuttle characteristics and superaugmented aircraft is established. STS flights 1 through 4 are reviewed from the point of view of flying qualities. A preliminary plan for a coordinated program of inflight and simulator research is presented.

Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

1983-01-01

80

Space flight and oxidative stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

Stein, T. P.

2002-01-01

81

Metabolic and Regulatory Systems in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.

1997-01-01

82

Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

1974-01-01

83

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter http Space Flight Center's IPP Office #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddard/category ­ Processing requests for software release · Benefits of Reporting · Summary #12;National Aeronautics and Space

Christian, Eric

84

Space Flight: The First 30 Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.

1991-01-01

85

International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

2000-01-01

86

The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

2011-01-01

87

The pilot's role in manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation regarding the pilot's role in manned space flight takes into account space missions conducted with the Mercury capsule, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is concluded that advancements in digital systems and automation technology have made many of the space pilot's tasks easier. However, these advancements have also made the space pilot's training more complicated. He must be familiar with the interrelated failure effects in highly complex vehicle systems. The nominal performance of the Shuttle fly-by-wire entry control system depends, for instance, on nominal electrical power from three fuel cells, nominal performance of three hydraulic auxiliary power units, five computers, other equipment, and microwave landing systems. The pilot must monitor and manage failures in these systems, and, in addition, must be prepared to intervene if an abort situation creates off-nominal conditions.

North, W. J.

1982-01-01

88

Advanced flight control system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

1982-01-01

89

Neural Networks for Flight Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to permit real-time adaptive control of time varying nonlinear systems, enhance the fault-tolerance of mission hardware, and permit online system reconfiguration. In general, the problem of controlling time varying nonlinear systems with unknown structures has not been solved. Adaptive neural control techniques show considerable promise and are being applied to technical challenges including automated docking of spacecraft, dynamic balancing of the space station centrifuge, online reconfiguration of damaged aircraft, and reducing cost of new air and spacecraft designs. Our experiences have shown that neural network algorithms solved certain problems that conventional control methods have been unable to effectively address. These include damage mitigation in nonlinear reconfiguration flight control, early performance estimation of new aircraft designs, compensation for damaged planetary mission hardware by using redundant manipulator capability, and space sensor platform stabilization. This presentation explored these developments in the context of neural network control theory. The discussion began with an overview of why neural control has proven attractive for NASA application domains. The more important issues in control system development were then discussed with references to significant technical advances in the literature. Examples of how these methods have been applied were given, followed by projections of emerging application needs and directions.

Jorgensen, Charles C.

1996-01-01

90

Insect Inspired Visual Control of Translatory Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flying insects use highly efficient visual strategies to control their self-motion in three-dimensional space. We present a biologically inspired, min- imalistic model for visual flight control in an autonomous agent. Large, special- ized receptive fields exploit the distribution of local intensities and local motion in an omnidirectional field of view, extracting the information required for attitude control, course stabilization, obstacle

Titus R. Neumann; Heinrich H. Bülthoff

2001-01-01

91

The endocrine system in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

92

Living Together in Space: The International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Issues and Solutions-Sustaining Engineering Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center From 1998 to 2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On board the International Space Station, heat generated by the crew and equipment is removed by the internal active thermal control system to maintain a comfortable working environment and prevent equipment overheating. Test facilities simulating the internal active thermal control system (IATCS) were constructed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the sustaining engineering activities to address concerns related to operational issues, equipment capability, and reliability. A full-scale functional simulator of the Destiny lab module IATCS was constructed and activated prior to launch of Destiny in 2001. This facility simulates the flow and thermal characteristics of the flight system and has a similar control interface. A subscale simulator was built, and activated in 2000, with special attention to materials and proportions of wetted surfaces to address issues related to changes in fluid chemistry, material corrosion, and microbial activity. The flight issues that have arisen and the tests performed using the simulator facilities are discussed in detail. In addition, other test facilities at the MSFC have been used to perform specific tests related to IATCS issues. Future testing is discussed as well as potential modifications to the simulators to enhance their utility.

Wieland, P. O.; Roman, M. C.; Miller, L.

2007-01-01

93

Knowledge representation in space flight operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

Busse, Carl

1989-01-01

94

Space Flight Operations Center local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing Mission Control and Computer Center at JPL will be replaced by the Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC). One part of the SFOC is the LAN-based distribution system. The purpose of the LAN is to distribute the processed data among the various elements of the SFOC. The SFOC LAN will provide a robust subsystem that will support the Magellan launch configuration and future project adaptation. Its capabilities include (1) a proven cable medium as the backbone for the entire network; (2) hardware components that are reliable, varied, and follow OSI standards; (3) accurate and detailed documentation for fault isolation and future expansion; and (4) proven monitoring and maintenance tools.

Goodman, Ross V.

1988-01-01

95

Space flight and bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

Doty, St B.

2004-01-01

96

Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program.

Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

2010-01-01

97

Aircraft flight test trajectory control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

1988-01-01

98

Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flown. The objective of the TCSE on the LDEF was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post-flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low Earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in the lab. The performance of the TCSE flight system on the LDEF was excellent.

Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

1992-01-01

99

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2011-01-01

100

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2012-01-01

101

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2010-01-01

102

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2014-01-01

103

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2013-01-01

104

Research and Technology, 1987, Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research at Goddard Space Flight Center during 1987 is summarized. Topics addressed include space and earth sciences, technology, flight projects and mission definition studies, and institutional technology.

Guerny, Gene (editor); Moe, Karen (editor); Paddack, Steven (editor); Soffen, Gerald (editor); Sullivan, Walter (editor); Ballard, Jan (editor)

1987-01-01

105

Trusted Autonomy for Space Flight Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has long supported research on intelligent control technologies that could allow space systems to operate autonomously or with reduced human supervision. Proposed uses range from automated control of entire space vehicles to mobile robots that assist or substitute for astronauts to vehicle systems such as life support that interact with other systems in complex ways and require constant vigilance. The potential for pervasive use of such technology to extend the kinds of missions that are possible in practice is well understood, as is its potential to radically improve the robustness, safety and productivity of diverse mission systems. Despite its acknowledged potential, intelligent control capabilities are rarely used in space flight systems. Perhaps the most famous example of intelligent control on a spacecraft is the Remote Agent system flown on the Deep Space One mission (1998 - 2001). However, even in this case, the role of the intelligent control element, originally intended to have full control of the spacecraft for the duration of the mission, was reduced to having partial control for a two-week non-critical period. Even this level of mission acceptance was exceptional. In most cases, mission managers consider intelligent control systems an unacceptable source of risk and elect not to fly them. Overall, the technology is not trusted. From the standpoint of those who need to decide whether to incorporate this technology, lack of trust is easy to understand. Intelligent high-level control means allowing software io make decisions that are too complex for conventional software. The decision-making behavior of these systems is often hard to understand and inspect, and thus hard to evaluate. Moreover, such software is typically designed and implemented either as a research product or custom-built for a particular mission. In the former case, software quality is unlikely to be adequate for flight qualification and the functionality provided by the system is likely driven largely by the need to publish innovative work. In the latter case, the mission represents the first use of the system, a risky proposition even for relatively simple software.

Freed, Michael; Bonasso, Pete; Ingham, Mitch; Kortenkamp, David; Perix, John

2005-01-01

106

Aircraft flight test trajectory control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.

Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

1988-01-01

107

Nutrition in Space Flight: Some Thoughts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.

Johnson, P. C., Jr.

1985-01-01

108

Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

109

Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

2002-01-01

110

Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

2008-01-01

111

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

Garshnek, V

1988-05-01

112

14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

2010-01-01

113

14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

2012-01-01

114

Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

Thornton, William

1991-01-01

115

Effects of Space Flight on Rodent Tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.

Worgul, Basil V.

1997-01-01

116

Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

117

Mouse infection models for space flight immunology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

2005-01-01

118

DESIGN OF A FLIGHT CONTROLLER FOR HYPERSONIC FLIGHT EXPERIMENT VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan launched a hypersonic flight experiment vehicle (HYFLEX) for flight experiment of reentry phase to the top of the atmosphere in 1996. Flight condition in the experiment varied from an altitude of 107km and a speed of Mach 15 to an altitude of 30km and a speed of Mach

Yoshimasa Ochi

2004-01-01

119

Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

1999-01-01

120

Computational Physics for Space Flight Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on computational physics for space flight applications. The topics include: 1) Introduction to space radiation effects in microelectronics; 2) Using applied physics to help NASA meet mission objectives; 3) Example of applied computational physics; and 4) Future directions in applied computational physics.

Reed, Robert A.

2004-01-01

121

Proposed Space Flight Experiment Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary thrust for this plan is to develop design tools and fundamental understanding that are timely and consistent with the goal of the various exploration initiatives. The plan will utilize ISS facilities, such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). A preliminary flow schematic of Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(phi)FFy) which would utilize FIR is shown in Figure 3. MSG can be utilized to use the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and Contact Line Dynamics Experiment (CLiDE) Facility. The T(phi)FFy system would have multiple test sections whereby different configurations of heat exchangers could be used to study boiling and condensation phenomena. The test sections would be instrumented for pressure drop, void fraction, heat fluxes, temperatures, high-speed imaging and other diagnostics. Besides a high-speed data acquisition system with a large data storage capability, telemetry could be used to update control and test parameters and download limited amounts of data. In addition, there would be multiple accumulators that could be used to investigate system stability and fluid management issues. The system could accommodate adiabatic tests through either the space station nitrogen supply or have an experiment-specific compressor to pressurize a sufficient amount of air or other non-condensable gas for reuse as the supply bottle is depleted.

2003-01-01

122

Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to ensure that the beneficial effects are seen in space flight. As we begin to plan for missions to go back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions are yet to be answered. Maintaining bone is one of the greatest challenges, but with a better understanding of the mechanical processes of bone loss, countermeasures can be designed more efficiently, and the solution (or solutions) may be just over the horizon.

Smith, Scott M.

2004-01-01

123

History of manned space flight  

SciTech Connect

This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

Baker, D.

1981-01-01

124

Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

1991-01-01

125

Flight experience with flight control redundancy management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

1980-01-01

126

Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.

Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie

2008-01-01

127

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

128

Robotic welding at the Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center is developing welding and robotics technologies to improve manufacturing of space hardware. Commercial robots are used for these development programs, but they are teamed with advanced sensors, process controls, and computer simulation to form highly productive manufacturing systems. Application of welding robotics and controls to structural welding for the space shuttle and space station Freedom programs is addressed. Several advanced welding process sensors under development for application to space hardware are discussed, as well as the application of commercial robotic simulation software to provide offline programming.

Jones, Clyde S.

1992-01-01

129

Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).

Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy

2008-01-01

130

Increased Renal Solute Excretion in Rats Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.

1995-01-01

131

Infectious Considerations in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

Haddon, Robert

2009-01-01

132

Metabolic energy requirements for space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

Lane, Helen W.

1992-01-01

133

NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

2011-01-01

134

Immune resistance of man in space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of ?-interferon remained unchanged while that of ?-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.

Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.

135

Space robotic experiment in JEM flight demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Japan is collaborating on the multinational space station program. The JEM, Japanese Experiment Module, has both a pressurized module and an Exposed Facility (EF). JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) will play a dominant role in handling/servicing payloads and the maintenance of the EF, and consists of two robotic arms, a main arm and a small fine arm. JEM Flight Demonstration (JFD) is a space robotics experiment using the prototype small fine arm to demonstrate its capability, prior to the Space Station operation. The small fine arm will be installed in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and operated by a crew from a dedicated workstation in the Aft Flight Deck of the orbiter.

Nagatomo, Masanori; Tanaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi

1994-01-01

136

Space flights with electric propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric propulsion systems are not always favoured because of their low-thrust performance. However they can significantly reduce the weight of the propulsion system and improve its effectiveness in comparison with conventional, i.e. chemical, propulsion systems. In the future electric propulsion will be widely used for spacecraft operations, both in near-earth and deep-space missions. The paper describes the global history of

Wim J. F. Simons; Kirill I. Simon

1996-01-01

137

Robotics program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard telerobotic program is structured to increase the scope and efficiency of what man can accomplish in space through the use of robotics. The main focus is to service Space Station Freedom and its payloads, but robotic assembly of Space Station Freedom and platforms is also anticipated. The approach being taken to achieve this by telerobotics, where manipulators can be controlled by human operators or computer programs. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the responsability to develop the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) for Space Station Freedom. The current plan at GSFC in support of telerobotics for Space Station Freedom and the in-orbit servicing of platforms are reviewed. Plans for ground demonstrations involving the use of an engineering test bed and an operational facility are discussed.

Ollendorf, Stanford

1989-01-01

138

Marshall Space Flight Center Small Business Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs

Garrison, Lynn

2007-01-01

139

Period Analysis of Space Flight EEG.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reported illustrates how different combinations of three descriptors of the EEG may be used to delineate space flight sleep patterns. The three descriptors examined are the zero crossings, points of zero slope, and points of zero change in sl...

A. J. Welch

1971-01-01

140

Technology infusion for space-flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tremendous amount of difficulty is encountered in moving technologies from laboratory demonstration (NASA technology readiness level (TRL) 3) to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (TRL 6). This ability to infuse technologies into NASA space flight programs is limited by a number of factors. Most research funding is for R&D activities that fund tasks from TRL1 to TRL3 (concept

Andrew A. Shapiro

2004-01-01

141

Skeletal Alterations in Rats During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during space flight were a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, a decreased trabecular bone volume, and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

1981-01-01

142

Jeremy Werdell NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

E-print Network

Jeremy Werdell NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Ocean Observatories Workshop Ocean Optics XXI Conference 7 Oct 2012 #12;PJW, NASA, 7 Oct 2012, OOW @ OO2012 great field data enable great satellite data/QC metrics are essential (or this all falls apart) #12;PJW, NASA, 7 Oct 2012, OOW @ OO2012 field work funded

Boss, Emmanuel S.

143

Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

1999-01-01

144

Extraction of stability and control derivatives from orbiter flight data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

1993-01-01

145

Flight test trajectory control analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

1983-01-01

146

Space Flight Plasma Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.

Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.

2009-01-01

147

Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.

Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

2009-01-01

148

Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

1972-01-01

149

Antimicrobial Medication Stability During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current vision for manned space flight involves lunar and Martian exploration within the next two decades. In order for NASA to achieve these goals, a significant amount of preparation is necessary to assure crew health and safety. A mission critical component of this vision centers around the stability of pharmaceutical preparations contained in the space medicine kits. Evidence suggests that even brief periods of space flight have significant detrimental effects for some pharmaceutical formulations. The effects observed include decreases in physical stability of drug formulations of sufficient magnitude to effect bioavailability. Other formulations exhibit decreases in chemical stability resulting in a loss of potency. Physical or-chemical instability of pharmaceutical formulations i n space medicine kits could render the products ineffective. Of additional concern is the potential for formation of toxic degradation products as a result of the observed product instability. This proposal addresses Question number 11 of Clinical Capabilities in the Critical Path Roadmap. In addition, this proposal will reduce the risks and/or enhance the capabilities of humans exposed to the environments of space flight or an extraterrestrial destination by identifying drugs that may be unstable during spaceflight.

Putcha, Lakshmi; Berens, Kurt; Du, Jianping

2004-01-01

150

Space flight and the immune system.  

PubMed

Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon. PMID:8488698

Cogoli, A

1993-01-01

151

Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

152

Transition flight control room automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: (1) The fuel cell monitoring system (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multithreaded procedures, which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule-based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. (2) A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL) is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on shuttle or space station telemetry and trajectory data. (3) The design of a system will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. (4) A generic message management (GMM) system is being designed for real-time applications as a message management system which sends advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occur and to assist the developer in the devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application, and tool building activities, while determining the feasibility of a given approach.

Welborn, Curtis Ray

1990-01-01

153

Transition Flight Control Room Automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.

Welborn, Curtis Ray

1990-01-01

154

An automated water iodinating subsystem for manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.

Houck, O. K.; Wynveen, R. A.

1974-01-01

155

Microgravity Science in Space Flight Gloveboxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity science studies the influences of gravity on phenomena in fluids, materials processes, combustion, and human cell growth in the low acceleration environment of space flight. During the last decade, the accomplishment of the flight research in the field has evolved into an effective cooperation between the flight crew in the Shuttle and the ground-based investigator using real-time communication via voice and video links. This team structure has led to interactive operations in which the crew performs the experimentation while guided, as necessary, by the science investigator who formulated the investigation and who will subsequently interpret and analyze the data. One of the primary challenges to implementing this interactive research has been the necessity of structuring a means of handling fluids, gases, and hazardous materials in a manned laboratory that exhibits the novelty of weightlessness. Developing clever means of designing experiments in closed vessels is part of the solution- but the space flight requirement for one and two failure-tolerant containment systems leads to serious complications in the physical handling of sample materials. In response to the conflict between the clear advantage of human operation and judgment, versus the necessity to isolate the experiment from the crewmember and the spacecraft environment, the Microgravity Research Program has initiated a series of Gloveboxes in the various manned experiment carriers. These units provide a sealed containment vessel whose interior is under a negative pressure with respect to the ambient environment but is accessible to a crewmember through the glove ports.

Baugher, Charles; Bennett, Nancy; Cockrell, David; Jex, David; Musick, Barry; Poe, James; Roark, Walter

1998-01-01

156

Dynamic and thermal control of an electromagnetic formation flight testbed  

E-print Network

Formation flight of multiple spacecraft is an emerging method for completing complex space missions in an efficient manner. A limitation found in maintaining such formations is the need for precise control at all times. ...

Neave, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

2005-01-01

157

Lateral and longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle discovery as determined from flight test data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Discovery vehicle was found to have longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics similar to those of the Columbia and Challenger vehicles. The values of the lateral and longitudinal parameters are compared with the preflight data book. The lateral parameters showed the same trends as the data book. With the exception of C sub l sub Beta for Mach numbers greater than 15, C sub n sub delta r for Mach numbers greater than 2 and for Mach numbers less than 1.5, where the variation boundaries were not well defined, ninety percent of the extracted values of the lateral parameters fell within the predicted variations. The longitudinal parameters showed more scatter, but scattered about the preflight predictions. With the exception of the Mach 1.5 to .5 region of the flight envelope, the preflight predictions seem a reasonable representation of the Shuttle aerodynamics. The models determined accounted for ninety percent of the actual flight time histories.

Suit, William T.; Schiess, James R.

1988-01-01

158

How human sleep in space--investigations during space flights.  

PubMed

Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods. PMID:12971417

Stoilova, I M; Zdravev, T K; Yanev, T K

2003-01-01

159

Reactivity of organism in prolonged space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.

Vasilyev, P. V.

1980-01-01

160

Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

Noneman, S. R.

1986-01-01

161

BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

1997-01-01

162

T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

1999-01-01

163

Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

Sonnenfeld, G.

1985-01-01

164

Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

2005-01-01

165

Long-term space flights - personal impressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

Polyakov, V. V.

166

Inhibition of bone formation during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

1978-01-01

167

[Genetic and immunologic studies after space flight].  

PubMed

The effect of spaceflight on lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was investigated in the Austrian cosmonaut flying the Austro-Soviet mission Austromir. Blood was sampled before and after flight, and the following parameters studied: quantities of lymphocytic subsets (T cells, helper cells, suppressor cells, B cells and natural killer cells); mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes--DNA (= deoxyribonucleic acid) synthesis and expression of Interleukin-2-receptor; structural modification of DNA, unscheduled DNA synthesis and sister chromatid exchanges. Besides reducing the number of natural killer cells, spaceflight caused on impairment of lymphocyte activity and a slight modification of DNA structure. 4 weeks after flight, control values were reestablished, indicating efficient repair mechanisms. PMID:8178526

Tuschl, H; Kovac, R; Klein, W; Ott, E; Voronkov, Y I; Kaidakow, M

1993-01-01

168

Research and technology, 1984: Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts research programs in space sciences, materials processing in space, and atmospheric sciences, as well as technology programs in such areas as propulsion, materials, processes, and space power. This Marshall Space Flight Center 1984 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains summaries of the more significant scientific and technical results obtained during FY-84.

Moorehead, T. W. (editor)

1984-01-01

169

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

2011-01-01

170

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

2013-01-01

171

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

2010-01-01

172

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

2014-01-01

173

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

2012-01-01

174

Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

Reed, Billie M.

1997-01-01

175

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

Lowrey, Nikki M.

2011-01-01

176

NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

LeBeau, Gerald J.

2011-01-01

177

Marshall Space Flight Center battery activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include a flight program history and in-house activities. Some of the in-house activities addressed include secondary battery/cell testing and Hubble Space Telescope Test data updates involving the NiCd type 40 test - battery 1 and 2, the NiCd type 41 test battery, the general electric battery, the NiCd six-battery system, the six four-cell packs, fourteen-cell pack, three four-cell packs, the NiH2 six-battery system, and the flight spare battery. A general test data update is also presented for the twelve-cell pack, the four four-cell packs, the reconditioning test, and planned Ni-MH testing.

Lowery, Eric

1993-01-01

178

Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight.  

PubMed

Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight. PMID:15797312

Pierson, D L; Stowe, R P; Phillips, T M; Lugg, D J; Mehta, S K

2005-05-01

179

Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

Nelson, W. E., Jr.

1984-01-01

180

The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

Johnson, Christopher D.

2013-12-01

181

Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

Gosling, Christina

2011-01-01

182

Human cellular immune responsiveness following space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peripheral circulating lymphocytes were separated from astronaut blood samples three times before and two times after the first four US Space Shuttle flights. The ability of the in vitro T lymphocytes to respond to Phytohemagglutinin by blastogenesis was found to be reduced for each crewmember following spaceflight. In addition, the astronauts experienced a postflight increase in neutrophils and a decrease in eosinophils. These postflight changes in leukocytes are shown to increase with subjectively-evaluated increases in the incidence of inflight stress, indicating that stress, and not hypogravity, is likely to be the major effector of these changes.

Taylor, G. R.; Dardano, J. R.

1983-01-01

183

Research & Technology Report Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main theme of this edition of the annual Research and Technology Report is Mission Operations and Data Systems. Shifting from centralized to distributed mission operations, and from human interactive operations to highly automated operations is reported. The following aspects are addressed: Mission planning and operations; TDRSS, Positioning Systems, and orbit determination; hardware and software associated with Ground System and Networks; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web. Flight projects are described along with the achievements in space sciences and earth sciences. Spacecraft subsystems, cryogenic developments, and new tools and capabilities are also discussed.

Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

1995-01-01

184

Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

Faruque, Imraan

185

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

186

Digital flight control actuation system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.

Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.

1974-01-01

187

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

Hughes, Phil D.

1990-01-01

188

Design techniques for mutlivariable flight control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.

1981-01-01

189

Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

Leach, Carolyn S.

1991-01-01

190

48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

2012-10-01

191

48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

2013-10-01

192

48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

2011-10-01

193

48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

2010-10-01

194

The endocrine system in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

1988-01-01

195

The influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is described the purpose of which is to measure specific factors relative to the control of erythrokinetics in man which might be altered during the first seven days of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. It is anticipated that these data will provide information relative to the mechanism by which the red cell mass is reduced during space flight. Specifically, the experiment is designed to establish: (1) if there is a significant change in red cell mass and plasma volume during the initial period of exposure to weightlessness; (2) if the plasma concentration of erythropoietin is reduced; (3) if there is an increase in the plasma concentration of erythropoietin inhibitors; (4) if there is a change in the effectiveness of erythropoiesis; and (5) if the number and age distribution of reticulocytes are altered.

Leach, C. S.

1981-01-01

196

A Flight Control Approach for Small Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight control of small crew return vehicles during atmospheric reentry will be an important technology in any human space flight mission undertaken in the future. The control system presented in this paper is applicable to small crew return vehicles in which reaction control system (RCS) thrusters are the only actuators available for attitude control. The control system consists of two modules: (i) the attitude controller using the trajectory linearization control (TLC) technique, and (ii) the reaction control system (RCS) control allocation module using a dynamic table-lookup technique. This paper describes the design and implementation of the TLC attitude control and the dynamic table-lookup RCS control allocation for nonimal flight along with design verification test results.

Bevacqoa, Tim; Adams, Tony; Zhu. J. Jim; Rao, P. Prabhakara

2004-01-01

197

Biodosimetry results from space flight Mir-18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.

Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Durante, M.; Fedorenko, B. S.

1997-01-01

198

Optimizing Medical Kits for Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) uses Monte Carlo methodologies to predict the occurrence of medical events, their mitigation, and the resources required during space flight. The model includes two modules that utilize output from a single model simulation to identify an optimized medical kit for a specified mission scenario. This poster describes two flexible optimization routines built into SAS 9.1. The first routine utilizes a systematic process of elimination to maximize (or minimize) outcomes subject to attribute constraints. The second routine uses a search and mutate approach to minimize medical kit attributes given a set of outcome constraints. There are currently 273 unique resources identified that are used to treat at least one of 83 medical conditions currently in the model.

Minard, Charles G.; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Iyengar, M. Sriram

2010-01-01

199

Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

1997-01-01

200

Life-sciences research opportunities in commercial suborbital space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial suborbital space flights will reach altitudes above 100 km, with 3-5 min of weightlessness bracketed by high-g launch and landing phases. The proposed frequency of these flights, and the large passenger population, present interesting opportunities for researchers in the life sciences. The characteristics of suborbital flight are between those of parabolic and orbital flights, opening up new scientific possibilities and easing the burden for obtaining access to 0g. There are several areas where these flights might be used for research in the life sciences: (1) operational research: preparation for “real” space flight, such as rehearsal of medical procedures, (2) applied research-to answer questions relevant to long-term space flight; (3) passenger health and safety-effects on passengers, relevant to screening and training; (4) basic research in physiological mechanisms-to address issues of fundamental science. We describe possible projects in each of these categories. One in particular spans several areas. Based on the anticipated suborbital flight profiles, observations from parabolic flight, and the wide range of fitness and experience levels of suborbital passengers, sensorimotor disturbances such as motion sickness and disorientation are major concerns. Protocols for pre-flight adaptation of sensorimotor responses might help to alleviate some of these problems, based on results from research in the initial flights. This would improve the passenger experience and add to the knowledge base relevant to space flight more generally.

Shelhamer, Mark

2014-11-01

201

Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions performed by crew and ground controllers. This experience has also identified the need for new approaches to staffing and training for both crew and ground controllers. This paper provides a brief overview of the mission capabilities provided by the 2nd Gen RLV, a description of NASA's approach to developing the 2nd Gen RLV, a discussion of operations concepts, and a list of challenges to implementing those concepts.

Hagopian, Jeff

2002-01-01

202

Total energy based flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated aircraft longitudinal flight control system uses a generalized thrust and elevator command computation (38), which accepts flight path angle, longitudinal acceleration command signals, along with associated feedback signals, to form energy rate error (20) and energy rate distribution error (18) signals. The engine thrust command is developed (22) as a function of the energy rate distribution error and the elevator position command is developed (26) as a function of the energy distribution error. For any vertical flight path and speed mode the outerloop errors are normalized (30, 34) to produce flight path angle and longitudinal acceleration commands. The system provides decoupled flight path and speed control for all control modes previously provided by the longitudinal autopilot, autothrottle and flight management systems.

Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

203

Biotelemeters for Space Flights and Fetal Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.

Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.

1999-01-01

204

Human-Rated Space Vehicle Backup Flight Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human rated space vehicles have historically employed a Backup Flight System (BFS) for the main purpose of mitigating the loss of the primary avionics control system. Throughout these projects, however, the underlying philosophy and technical implementation vary greatly. This paper attempts to coalesce each of the past space vehicle program's BFS design and implementation methodologies with the accompanying underlining philosophical arguments that drove each program to such decisions. The focus will be aimed at Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle However, the ideologies and implementation of several commercial and military aircraft are incorporated as well to complete the full breadth view of BFS development across the varying industries. In particular to the non-space based vehicles is the notion of deciding not to utilize a BFS. A diverse analysis of BFS to primary system benefits in terms of reliability against all aspects of project development are reviewed and traded. The risk of engaging the BFS during critical stages of flight (e.g. ascent and entry), the level of capability of the BFS (subset capability of main system vs. equivalent system), and the notion of dissimilar hardware and software design are all discussed. Finally, considerations for employing a BFS on future human-rated space missions are reviewed in light of modern avionics architectures and mission scenarios implicit in exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

Davis, Jeffrey A.; Busa, Joseph L.

2004-01-01

205

X-29 flight control system: Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-29A aircraft were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center over a period of eight years. The airplanes' unique features are the forward-swept wing, variable incidence close-coupled canard and highly relaxed longitudinal static stability (up to 35-percent negative static margin at subsonic conditions). This paper describes the primary flight control system and significant modifications made to this system, flight test techniques used during envelope expansion, and results for the low- and high-angle-of-attack programs. Throughout the paper, lessons learned will be discussed to illustrate the problems associated with the implementation of complex flight control systems.

Clarke, Robert; Burken, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Bauer, Jeffrey E.

1995-01-01

206

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.

LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

2011-01-01

207

Experiment 305: Pathophysiology of Mineral Loss During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this SLS-2 experiment was to determine the pathophysiology of mineral loss during space flight. This was to be accomplished by (1) determining the concentrations of blood minerals and of calciotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone-PTH, vitamin D metabolites) before, during, and after a 14 day shuttle flight, and (2) determining, by calcium kinetic analysis (using stable calcium isotopes), the influence of space flight on intestinal calcium absorption .

Arnaud, Claude D.; Cann, Christopher E.

1995-01-01

208

Research and Technology Report. Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This issue of Goddard Space Flight Center's annual report highlights the importance of mission operations and data systems covering mission planning and operations; TDRSS, positioning systems, and orbit determination; ground system and networks, hardware and software; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web use. The report also includes flight projects, space sciences, Earth system science, and engineering and materials.

Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

1996-01-01

209

Remote radio control of insect flight.  

PubMed

We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808

Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

2009-01-01

210

Ground Support for the Space-Based Range Flight Demonstration 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

Burkes, Darryl A.

2007-01-01

211

Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

1976-01-01

212

Sub-orbital flights, a starting point for space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met to ensure a pleasurable as well as adventurous experience. Sub-orbital flights offer an incremental approach to develop the market and the infrastructure, demonstrate the safety of space flight, obtain real flight information regarding the needs of general public passengers and demonstrate the profitability of space tourism. This paper will summarize some of the system, operations, and financial aspects of creating a sub-orbital space tourism business as a stepping-stone to public space travel. A sample business case will be reviewed and impacts of markets, operations and vehicle costs and lifetimes will be assessed.

Gaubatz, William A.

2002-07-01

213

AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

Stengle, Tom (Editor)

1998-01-01

214

Robust and reconfigurable flight control system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconfigurable flight control system is a control system which can automatically adapt itself to maintain the performance of a damaged aircraft to be as close as possible to that of the normal or undamaged one. This research focuses mainly on Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) reconfigurable flight control for an aircraft with damaged actuator(s) which may greatly affect the performance and control of the aircraft, and also pose a challenging flight control problem. The foundation of the control system is a baseline controller and an adaptive module which constitutes a reconfigurable part. The baseline controller ensures that the aircraft has acceptable performance and handling qualities throughout the flight envelope. The combination of a Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Pre-Design Technique (PDT) and a Reduced-order, Linear, Dynamic Inversion (RLDI) control strategy yields a flight control system with good tracking performance and handling qualities with no Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) tendencies throughout the designated set of flight conditions. In addition, the system is highly immune to large uncertainties in the aircraft dynamics. The modified filtered-? adaptive algorithm is developed and utilized in the adaptive module of the system. This adaptive algorithm performs well with MIMO system with the added advantage of not having to pre-identify the dynamics of the damaged aircraft, provided that the conditions of reconfigurability are met. An example of the proposed control system with the NASA F-18 HARV vehicle model and a damaged actuator demonstrates the effectiveness of the concept.

Siwakosit, Wichai

2001-07-01

215

Infectivity and egg production of Nematospiroides dubius as affected by space flight and ultraviolet irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nematospiroides dubius was tested to determine the infective potential of the third stage larvae and the egg-production and egg-viability rates of the resulting adults after they are exposed to space flight and solar ultraviolet irradiation. The results are indicative that space-flown larvae exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation were rendered noninfective in C57 mice, whereas flight control larvae that received no solar ultraviolet irradiation matured at the same rate as the ground control larvae. However, depressed egg viability was evident in the flight control larvae.

Long, R. A.; Ellis, W. L.; Taylor, G. R.

1973-01-01

216

Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

Leach, C. S.

1992-01-01

217

Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald

1987-01-01

218

Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) Flight Experiment Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) Flight Experiment Program consists of a series of four Shuttle-attached experiments specifically designed to systematically evaluate algorithms and techniques for on-orbit systems identification and flexible body control of large flexible structures, and as such, develops the enabling technologies for future NASA missions such as the evolutionary Space Station and large orbital antennas. These flight experiments are conducted on 1-year centers starting in 1989. This paper presents a description of the test article for the first two flights (COFS-I) and a discussion of the strategy for conducting the various experiments. A guest investigator program provides the opportunity for the research community to participate in the structures/controls research associated with the multi-flight COFS Program.

Fontana, A.; Hanks, B. R.

1985-01-01

219

In-flight cabin smoke control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft

Thor I. Eklund

1996-01-01

220

Robust and reconfigurable flight control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconfigurable flight control system is a control system which can automatically adapt itself to maintain the performance of a damaged aircraft to be as close as possible to that of the normal or undamaged one. This research focuses mainly on Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) reconfigurable flight control for an aircraft with damaged actuator(s) which may greatly affect the performance and

Wichai Siwakosit

2001-01-01

221

Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

222

14 CFR 23.673 - Primary flight controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Primary flight controls. 23.673 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight...

2011-01-01

223

14 CFR 27.673 - Primary flight control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Primary flight control. 27.673 Section 27...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.673 Primary flight control. Primary flight...

2010-01-01

224

14 CFR 27.673 - Primary flight control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Primary flight control. 27.673 Section 27...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.673 Primary flight control. Primary flight...

2011-01-01

225

14 CFR 29.673 - Primary flight controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Primary flight controls. 29.673 Section 29...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight...

2011-01-01

226

14 CFR 29.673 - Primary flight controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Primary flight controls. 29.673 Section 29...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight...

2010-01-01

227

14 CFR 23.673 - Primary flight controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Primary flight controls. 23.673 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight...

2010-01-01

228

Low bandwidth robust controllers for flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.

Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan

1993-01-01

229

Low Bandwidth Robust Controllers for Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.

Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan

1993-01-01

230

Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

2003-01-01

231

Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

2010-01-01

232

Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term exposure to microgravity and modelled weightlessness, may affect cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contribute to Ca(2+) and bone metabolism disorders induced by space flight.

Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

233

Technical Seminar: "Towards Intelligent Flight Control"  

NASA Video Gallery

The idea behind intelligent flight control is to provide more autonomy in an aircraft cockpit. Such systems must allow for all different kinds of situations and for human factors that occur in loss...

234

Interactive flight control system analysis program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.

1984-01-01

235

Flying qualities criteria and flight control design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

Berry, D. T.

1981-01-01

236

The Electrostatic Levitation Facility at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing is an important area of research in materials science. Electrostatic levitation (ESL) represents an emerging technology which permits containerless processing in a vacuum environment. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established a levitation facility to provide a critical resource to the microgravity materials science research community to continue and enhance ground-based research in the support of the development of flight experiments during the transition to Space Station. During ESL processing, charged specimens are levitated in the electrostatic field produced by the system's electrodes. Three sets of positioning electrodes represent the heart of the MSFC system. Two dual-axis position sensitive detectors provide input for the PID control-loop computer. Sample position is maintained by adjusting the control voltages for the power supplies of the positioning electrodes. A UV source refreshes the charge on specimens during processing via the photoelectric effect. Lasers permit sample heating independent of positioning. The processing chamber typically operates under vacuum condition approximately = 10(exp -7) Torr. Electrostatic levitation provides a materials science research tool for investigations of refractory solids and melts. Topics of investigation include thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable phase formation, undercooling and nucleation, time-temperature-transformation diagrams and other aspects of materials processing. Current capabilities and recent results of processing studies for metals, alloys and oxides will be reviewed.

Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert W.; Savage, Larry; Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

237

Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

238

Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

Jeff Penrod

1990-01-01

239

Space Station Freedom Attitude Determination and Control System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

Penrod, Jeff

1990-01-01

240

PTTI-aided ephemeris calculation and rapid data link acquisition for manned space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity of future manned space flight mission control can be significantly reduced by integrating GPS, the PTTI source, into telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C). Future telecommunications, space tracking electronic intelligence, metrology, navigation, and data acquisition will thereby be served, including: on-board ephemeris determination, reduced synchronization time for time division multiple access (TDMA) links, and in-flight clock calibration, increasing on-board autonomy

Alfred Anderman

1993-01-01

241

Ares I Flight Control System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

2010-01-01

242

Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

Curry, Donald M.

1993-01-01

243

14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

To obtain a launch license, an applicant proposing to conduct a launch with flight crew or a space flight participant on board must demonstrate compliance with §§ 460.5, 460.7, 460.11, 460.13, 460.15, 460.17, 460.51 and 460.53 of this subchapter. [Doc. No. FAA-2005-23449, 71 FR 75632,...

2010-01-01

244

14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space flight participant on board the vehicle must demonstrate compliance with §§ 460.5, 460.7, 460.11, 460.13, 460.15, 460.17, 460.51 and 460.53 of this subchapter. [Doc. No. FAA-2005-23449, 71 FR 75632, Dec. 15,...

2010-01-01

245

Human factors in long-duration space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study, covering the behavioral, psychological, physiological, and medical factors of long duration manned space flight, is presented. An attempt was made to identify and resolve major obstacles and unknowns associated with such a flight. The costs and maintenance of the spacecraft system are also explored.

1972-01-01

246

Environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces: Tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 1: Specimens 1 to 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/USAF program on Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets and second surface mirrors of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicle were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that the ground connection of the metal layers of the blanket, as made by the baseline grounding technique using serrated washers and grommets, deteriorated with time at test. The discharges observed on the blankets were the glow type, not the 'lightning' strike observed on past specimens. Testing was performed at ambient laboratory temperatures.

Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Berkopec, F. D.

1976-01-01

247

Proteomic analysis of rice after different seed space flights by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.

Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

248

14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

2010-01-01

249

14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.  

... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

2014-01-01

250

14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

2011-01-01

251

14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

2012-01-01

252

14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

2013-01-01

253

Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

1997-01-01

254

Test and Analysis Capabilities of the Space Environment Effects Team at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world-class space environmental effects testing facilities to simulate the space environment. The combined environmental effects test system exposes temperature-controlled samples to simultaneous protons, high- and low-energy electrons, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and near-ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. Separate chambers for studying the effects of NUV and VUV at elevated temperatures are also available. The Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility exposes samples to atomic oxygen of 5 eV energy to simulate low-Earth orbit (LEO). The LEO space plasma simulators are used to study current collection to biased spacecraft surfaces, arcing from insulators and electrical conductivity of materials. Plasma propulsion techniques are analyzed using the Marshall magnetic mirror system. The micro light gas gun simulates micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Candidate materials and hardware for spacecraft can be evaluated for durability in the space environment with a variety of analytical techniques. Mass, solar absorptance, infrared emittance, transmission, reflectance, bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and surface morphology characterization can be performed. The data from the space environmental effects testing facilities, combined with analytical results from flight experiments, enable the Environmental Effects Group to determine optimum materials for use on spacecraft.

Finckenor, M. M.; Edwards, D. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Schneider, T. A.; Hovater, M. A.; Hoppe, D. T.

2002-01-01

255

The Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer and the human  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and its human-machine interaction issues are described. Included is a discussion of the FTS strawman concept and the FTS workstation human factor issues.

Willshire, Kelli F.; Watzin, James G.; Millen, Phyllis K.

1989-01-01

256

ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...

257

UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO  

E-print Network

UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO Rogelio LOZANO Version 0.5, hal-00923127,version. Modeling and Control of Mini UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G. Flores , J.A. Guerrero , J2014 #12;x hal-00923127,version1-2Jan2014 #12;Chapter 1 Modeling and Control of Mini UAV This Chapter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

The NDRE-AUV flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flight control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (NDRE) is presented. A mathematical model of the vehicle is derived and discussed. The system is separated into lightly interacting subsystems, and three autopilots are designed for steering, diving, and speed control. The design of the separate controllers is based on PID techniques.

Bjom Jalving

1994-01-01

259

Safety enhanced digital flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the general idea, design, and implementation of control system for general aviation aircraft which reduces pilot workload. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Proposed indirect flight control system framework is intended to simplify piloting, reduce pilot workload, and allow low-end general aviation aircraft to operate under deteriorated meteorological conditions. Classical control theory is used

Peter Chudý; Andrzej Tomczyk; Pawel Rzucidlo

2009-01-01

260

Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.

Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (editor); Stewart, Donald F. (editor)

1989-01-01

261

Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

Smith, Scott M.

2002-01-01

262

Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the hybrid adaptive flight controller, development of a Newton's method based online parameter update that is modified to include a step size which regulates the rate of change in the parameter estimates, comparison of the modified Newton's method and recursive least squares online parameter update algorithms, modification of the neural network's input structure to accommodate for the nature of the nonlinearities present in a launch vehicle's ascent flight, examination of both tracking error based and modeling error based neural network weight update laws, and integration of feedback filters for the purpose of preventing harmful interaction between the flight control system and flexible structural modes. To validate the hybrid adaptive controller, a high-fidelity Ares I ascent flight simulator and a classical gain-scheduled proportional-integral-derivative (PID) ascent flight controller were obtained from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The classical PID flight controller is used as a benchmark when analyzing the performance of the hybrid adaptive flight controller. Simulations are conducted which model both nominal and off-nominal flight conditions with structural flexibility of the vehicle either enabled or disabled. First, rigid body ascent simulations are performed with the hybrid adaptive controller under nominal flight conditions for the purpose of selecting the update laws which drive the indirect and direct adaptive components. With the neural network disabled, the results revealed that the recursive least squares online parameter update caused high frequency oscillations to appear in the engine gimbal commands. This is highly undesirable for long and slender launch vehicles, such as the Ares I, because such oscillation of the rocket nozzle could excite unstable structural flex modes. In contrast, the modified Newton's method online parameter update produced smooth control signals and was thus selected for use in the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle flight controller. In the simulations where the online parameter identification algorithm was disabled,

Lefevre, Brian D.

263

Adaptive Flight Control Research at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad overview of current adaptive flight control research efforts at NASA is presented, as well as some more detailed discussion of selected specific approaches. The stated objective of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, one of NASA s Aviation Safety programs, is to advance the state-of-the-art of adaptive controls as a design option to provide enhanced stability and maneuverability margins for safe landing in the presence of adverse conditions such as actuator or sensor failures. Under this project, a number of adaptive control approaches are being pursued, including neural networks and multiple models. Validation of all the adaptive control approaches will use not only traditional methods such as simulation, wind tunnel testing and manned flight tests, but will be augmented with recently developed capabilities in unmanned flight testing.

Motter, Mark A.

2008-01-01

264

The effect of space flight on human cellular immunity.  

PubMed

T-lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogens is depressed by an average of 56% in humans (129 subjects) tested during and after space flight. Although there is not yet conclusive evidence of a clinical significance of the test, it is clear that factors of space flight like stress, closed environment and cosmic radiation may affect immune responsiveness. The data obtained from space crews may be compared to the depression seen in subjects undergoing heavy physical stress of head down tilt bedrest. Recently, delayed hypersensitivity [correction of hypersensivity] response was tested on crews of the US space shuttle and of the orbital station MIR by means of a commercially available "skin test". Again, the response was lower in 14 of the 15 subjects tested. In two cases, a strong in flight depression could be related to heavy physical and psychological stress experienced in flight. The data available today are not sufficient to draw conclusions on the hazard of infectious diseases during and after space flight. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flights on space stations in an Earth orbit and to other planets like Mars and the Moon. PMID:12211252

Cogoli, A

1993-01-01

265

An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

1993-01-01

266

Dynamic assertion testing of flight control software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) software was used as a test case for assertion testing. The assertions were written and embedded in the code, then errors were inserted (seeded) one at a time and the code executed. Results indicate that assertion testing is an effective and efficient method of detecting errors in flight software. Most errors are eliminate at an earlier stage in the development than before.

Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.

1985-01-01

267

Nutrient Considerations for Plants Grown Under Space Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

2006-01-01

268

Distributed optimization and flight control using collectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing complexity of aerospace systems demands new approaches for their design and control. Approaches are required to address the trend towards aerospace systems comprised of a large number of inherently distributed and highly nonlinear components with complex and sometimes competing interactions. This work introduces collectives to address these challenges. Although collectives have been used for distributed optimization problems in computer science, recent developments based upon Probability Collectives (PC) theory enhance their applicability to discrete, continuous, mixed, and constrained optimization problems. Further, they are naturally applied to distributed systems and those involving uncertainty, such as control in the presence of noise and disturbances. This work describes collectives theory and its implementation, including its connections to multi-agent systems, machine learning, statistics, and gradient-based optimization. To demonstrate the approach, two experiments were developed. These experiments built upon recent advances in actuator technology that resulted in small, simple flow control devices. Miniature-Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTE), consisting of a small, 1-5% chord, moveable surface mounted at the wing trailing edge, are used for the experiments. The high bandwidth, distributed placement, and good control authority make these ideal candidates for rigid and flexible mode control of flight vehicles. This is demonstrated in two experiments: flutter suppression of a flexible wing, and flight control of a remotely piloted aircraft. The first experiment successfully increased the flutter speed by over 25%. The second experiment included a novel distributed flight control system based upon the MiTEs that includes distributed sensing, logic, and actuation. Flight tests validated the control capability of the MiTEs and the associated flight control architecture. The collectives approach was used to design controllers for the distributed flight control system. These controllers increased the flight vehicle stability by 85% and alleviated gust loads by 78%, when compared with open loop. This work demonstrates the use of collectives for the range of optimization problems of interest in aerospace systems, provides the mathematical foundations and implementation details, and focuses on applications to nonlinear, robust, distributed control. The two successful experiments validate both the collectives approach and the use of MiTEs for the control of flight vehicles.

Bieniawski, Stefan Richard

269

Metabolic Cage for a Space Flight Model in the Rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new cage facilitates the collection of 24-h specimens of separated urine and feces apparently uncontaminated by food, as required for precise nutritional and metabolic studies, while maintaining the large floor area and suspension method of Holton's design (3). Although the cage was evaluated, using 6-month-old rats weighing 408 to 488 g, it can be easily adjusted for smaller rats. It also was successfully used to collect post-flight urine after the recent Spacelab Life Sciences-2 space shuttle flight. With its flexibility and ease of use, this new cage design adds a new tool to study the physiologic effects of simulated space flight and other disuse conditions.

Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

1994-01-01

270

Regulation of erythropoiesis in rats during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts who have flown in microgravity have experienced a loss in red cell mass. The pathogenesis of the anemia of space flight has not been ascertained, but it is probably multifactorial. In 1978, the laboratory was selected to participate in life sciences studies to be carried out in the space shuttle in an attempt to study the pathogenesis of space anemia. In particular, the original studies were to be made in mice. This was later changed to study erythropoiesis in rats during space flight.

Lange, Robert D.

1989-01-01

271

Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

2007-01-01

272

The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

1981-01-01

273

Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.

Leonard, J. I.

1985-01-01

274

Advanced flight control technology achievements at Boeing Helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, flight control system requirements have been in a state of transition. Rotary wing missions have become more demanding, requiring vehicle management systems capable of conducting highly aggressive missions under night\\/adverse-weather conditions in severe electromagnetic environments. The digital, fly-by-wire\\/optics control system technologies developed at Boeing Defense and Space Group, Helicopters Divison to meet these air vehicle

KENNETH H. LANDIS; JAMES M. DAVIS; CHARLES DABUNDO; JAMES F. KELLER

1994-01-01

275

Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.  

PubMed

Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments about all three axes (as used by most conventional aircraft) has only been proven for larger flies and dragonflies, but is likely to be widespread in insects given the number of independent control inputs available to them. Unlike in conventional aircraft, however, insects' control inputs are likely to be highly non-orthogonal, and this will tend to complicate the neural processing required to separate the various motions. PMID:11762490

Taylor, G K

2001-11-01

276

The 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center research and technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of 194 articles addressing research and technology activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is given. Activities are divided into three major areas: advanced studies addressing transportation systems, space systems, and space science activities conducted primarily in the Program Development Directorate; research tasks carried out in the Space Science Laboratory; and technology programs hosted by a wide array of organizations at the Center. The theme for this year's report is 'Building for the Future'.

1991-01-01

277

Planetary Aeronomy Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MSIS-83 empirical model of temperature, density and composition is a revision of the original MSIS model (including longitude\\/UT effects) and is based on tempera- ture, density, and composition data from a comprehensive summary of rocket flights, seven satellites, and five incoherent scatter radars, including data from high solar activity. The model extends the previous description of neutral parameters to

A. E. Hedin

1983-01-01

278

Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

Stewart, James F.

1992-01-01

279

Aircraft digital flight control technical review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

1993-01-01

280

Automation of Commanding at NASA: Reducing Human Error in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation has been implemented in many different industries to improve efficiency and reduce human error. Reducing or eliminating the human interaction in tasks has been proven to increase productivity in manufacturing and lessen the risk of mistakes by humans in the airline industry. Human space flight requires the flight controllers to monitor multiple systems and react quickly when failures occur so NASA is interested in implementing techniques that can assist in these tasks. Using automation to control some of these responsibilities could reduce the number of errors the flight controllers encounter due to standard human error characteristics. This paper will investigate the possibility of reducing human error in the critical area of manned space flight at NASA.

Dorn, Sarah J.

2010-01-01

281

Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

2010-01-01

282

Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

1977-01-01

283

Effects of Space Flight on Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation, and the expression of selected surface markers were studied in 25 astronauts following 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85%. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and oxidative burst following the medium length (9 to 11 days) missions were lower than the control mean values. Whereas, following the short-duration (5 days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 were measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions.

Kaur, Indreshpal; Valadez, Victoria A.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Pierson, Duane L.

2000-01-01

284

Program to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a thermal control-mixing control device for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and testing of a temperature sensor and pulse duration modulation (PDM) diverter valve for a thermal control-mixing control device are described. The temperature sensor selected for use uses a fluidic pin amplifier in conjunction with an expansion device. This device can sense changes of less than 0.25 F with greater than 15:1 signal to noise ratio when operating with a typical Freon pump supplied pressure. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 0.0019 F/kPa. The valve which was selected was tested and performed with 100% flow diversion. In addition, the valve operates with a flow efficiency of at least 95%, with the possibility of attaining 100% if the vent flow of the PDM can be channeled through the last stage of the diverter valve. A temperature sensor which utilized an orifice bridge circuit and proportional-vortex combination mixing valve were also evaluated, but the concepts were rejected due to various problems.

Thurston, T. S.; Larson, R. H.

1976-01-01

285

Application of GPS navigation to space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated GPS navigation projects for the space shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and the X-38 (prototype crew return vehicle, or CRV) in the 1990s. While application of GPS technology to the shuttle and the ISS was successful, far more technical difficulties were encountered than were originally anticipated, and many lessons were learned. GPS receivers

J. L. Goodman

2005-01-01

286

Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

Wehrend, W. R., Jr.

1979-01-01

287

Technology Validation of Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.

Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

288

Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.

2005-01-01

289

Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides.  

PubMed

Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel. PMID:16044627

Kulkarni, A D; Yamauchi, K; Sundaresan, A; Ramesh, G T; Pellis, N R

2005-06-01

290

Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

1998-01-01

291

Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Walton, K.

1998-01-01

292

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual System Design Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE) is one of a number of initiatives under development through NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Advanced Engineering Services and Environments (AESE) Office. The AESE Science Team, a broad cross section of Earth and space scientists, identified needs and challenges they face in their daily work and collaboration with GSFC engineers. Prominent amid these

J. Mapar; K. Brown; J. Medina; K. Laskey; C. Conaty

2001-01-01

293

Radiation: risk and protection in manned space flight.  

PubMed

Space radiation is the primary source of hazard for orbital and interplanetary space flight. Radiation levels for different space mission durations, have been established in order to determine the level of hazard. The risk of exceeding the established levels should not be more than 1%. Radiation environment models have been developed to estimate these values. It is possible to build spacecraft shielding based on the calculation of doses and the risk of exceeding these. By reviewing various calculated estimates of the risk, the radiation hazard and the efficiency of protective measures can be established for specific flights. PMID:11543099

Petrov, V M; Kovalev, E E; Sakovich, V A

1981-01-01

294

Bat wing sensors support flight control  

PubMed Central

Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2011-01-01

295

Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.

Hoffman, David S.

1993-01-01

296

Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

2000-01-01

297

Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

1980-01-01

298

NASA Associate Administrator for Space Flight Rothenberg addresses guests at ribbon cutting for the  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Associate Administrator for Space Flight Joseph Rothenberg addresses attendees at a ribbon cutting for the new Checkout and Launch Control System (CLCS) at the Hypergolic Maintenance Facility (HMF). The CLCS was declared operational in a ribbon cutting ceremony earlier. The new control room will be used to process the Orbital Maneuvering System pods and Forward Reaction Control System modules at the HMF. This hardware is removed from Space Shuttle orbiters and routinely taken to the HMF for checkout and servicing.

2000-01-01

299

University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Flight Systems & Control  

E-print Network

1 University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Flight Systems & Control The UTIAS Fight Control and applications (2003- now) Flight dynamics and control in MDO (2002-now) Control of UAVs and HIL-03) Robust Flight Control, RT Investigation (2000-02) 4 F-18A Close-Formation Control Formation (coupling

Liu, Hugh H.T.

300

NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains satellite sighting information by city. Other highlights of the page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information. The page is structured in this fashion: NASA television, landing ground tracks, sighting opportunities, orbital tracking, satellite tracking, orbital elements, and weather. Each provides a different perspective on the topic. This is a comprehensive look at many different topics in spaceflight. Many of these programs require a JAVA installation.

2009-04-30

301

The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers presented were derived from transcripts taken at the Tenth Annual Battery Workshop held at the Goddard Space Flight Center, November 15-17, 1977. The Workshop was attended by manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest results of testing, analysis, and development of the sealed nickel cadmium cell system. The purpose of the Workshop was to share flight and test experience, stimulate discussion on problem areas, and to review the latest technology improvements.

1977-01-01

302

The Paylod Operations Center (POC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Photo and TV Operations Manager (PHANTOM) at a work station. The PHANTOM configures all video systems aboard the ISS and ensures they are working properly, providing a video link from the ISS to the POC.

2001-01-01

303

Cosmonauts' haemostasis system status before and after space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. It is known that cosmonauts expose themselves to psychophysical effort in different phases of space flights as well as in pre- and post-flight period. Stress affects different body systems functioning changes including haemostasis system. It is shown that adrenalin directly activates XII coagulation cascade factor [McKay D. G., Latour I. G., Parrish M. N.,1970], initiating intrinsic clotting pathway and affects fibrinogen concentration increase in plasma [Zubairov D. M., 1978]. A post-flight increase in the fibrinogen concentration was revealed with its drop up to the pre-flight level within rehabilitation period [T. Peter Stein, Margaret D., 2006]. Stress agents influence on haemostasis system is physiologically determined and directed to body preparation before probable blood loss. One can consider this process as a function of intrinsic clotting pathway. But in case of blood loss absence the preliminary permanent coagulation activation can lead to appearance of thrombosis risk. Purpose. The purpose was to study haemostasis system main components functional activity features before and after space flights. Methods. In the citrated plasma of astronauts who performed short-term (10 to 11 days) or long-term (196 to 199 days) the following values were determined: activated partial thrombin time (APTT); prothrombin time; prothrombin index; international normalized ratio; thrombin time (TT); activity of enzymes influencing the function of proteins involved in the formation and lysis of a clot such as antithrombin III, protein C, plasminogen, antiplasmin; content of fibrinogen, as well as intermediate products of formation and degradation of fibrin such as D-dimer, soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC). Sampling of biomaterial was perfomed 30 to 45 days prior to the flight, during the 1st day of the post flight period (all the examined persons), and in the 7th and 14th day (long-term flights member only) Results. In pre-flight period cosmonauts’ APTT indices was increased as compared with general population physiological norms. During the 1st day after long- and short-term flights a tendency for activation of coagulation system along inner and terminal pathways emerged (APTT, TT shortening, an increase in the SFMC concentration). After short-term space flights a tendency for activation of fibrin forming (an increase in the fibrin concentration) was evidenced, and, as a compensatory factor, for activation of fibrinolysis (an increase in fibrynolytic activity and D-dimer concentration). On the contrary, after long-term space flights, a tendency for fibrinolysys decline was observed (fibrinolytic activity and D-dimer concentration decreased at this the fibrinogen concentration remained virtually constant relative to the background level). During the 14th day of the post-flight period normalization of all studied parameters was observed. Discussion. After space flights a tendency for activation of haemostasis procoagulant component is observed. However, during short-term space flights compensatory systems become activated, which may be connected with developing of stress reactions of adaptation to weightlessness conditions and post-flight re-adaptation to ground conditions, while after long-term spaceflights the compensatory effect of fibrinolysis is not pronounced, possibly, due to metabolic process intensity reduction developing during long-duration stay in weightlessness conditions [Grigoriev A.I., Kaplansky A.S., Popova I.A., 1992]. Probably the relatively inactivated cosmonauts’ intrinsic pathway coagulation in pre-flight period (prolonged APTT) is one of the prerequisites of the high resistance to stress factors influence. Plausible this status of intrinsic pathway subject to consequent activation by adrenalin promotes body protection against thrombophilic tendency.

Kuzichkin, Dmitry; Markin, Andrey; Morukov, Boris

304

Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed

Duane L. Pierson; Monjula Chidambaram; Joe Don Heath; Laura Mallary; Saroj K. Mishra; Baldev Sharma; George M. Weinstock

1996-01-01

305

SpaceX Readies Operational Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from ...

306

Advances in food systems for space flight.  

PubMed

Food for space has evolved from cubes and tubes to normal Earth-like food consumed with common utensils. U.S. space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. When on-board water was abundant (e.g., Apollo and Shuttle fuel cells produced water) then dehydrated food was used extensively. The International Space Station will have limited water available for food rehydration so there is little advantage for using dehydrated foods. Experience from Skylab and the Russian Mir space station emphasizes that food variety and quality are important elements in the design of food for closed systems. The evolution of space food has accentuated Earth-like foods, which should be a model for closed environment food systems. PMID:11540467

Bourland, C T

1998-01-01

307

The biomedical challenges of space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

Williams, David R.

2003-01-01

308

Implications of Responsive Space on the Flight Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Responsive Space initiative has several implications for flight software that need to be addressed not only within the run-time element, but the development infrastructure and software life-cycle process elements as well. The runtime element must at a minimum support Plug & Play, while the development and process elements need to incorporate methods to quickly generate the needed documentation, code, tests, and all of the artifacts required of flight quality software. Very rapid response times go even further, and imply little or no new software development, requiring instead, using only predeveloped and certified software modules that can be integrated and tested through automated methods. These elements have typically been addressed individually with significant benefits, but it is when they are combined that they can have the greatest impact to Responsive Space. The Flight Software Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing the runtime, infrastructure and process elements needed for rapid integration with the Core Flight software System (CFS) architecture. The CFS architecture consists of three main components; the core Flight Executive (cFE), the component catalog, and the Integrated Development Environment (DE). This paper will discuss the design of the components, how they facilitate rapid integration, and lessons learned as the architecture is utilized for an upcoming spacecraft.

Wilmot, Jonathan

2006-01-01

309

Life Sciences Research and Development Opportunities During Suborbital Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suborbital space platforms provide a unique opportunity for Space Life Sciences in the next few years. The opportunities include: physiological characterization of the first few minutes of space flight; evaluation of a wide-variety of medical conditions during periods of hyper and hypo-gravity through physiological monitoring; and evaluation of new biomedical and environmental health technologies under hyper and hypo-gravity conditions

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2010-01-01

310

[Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Bone metabolism in space flight and long-duration bed rest].  

PubMed

Bone loss and urolithiasis are inevitable outcome in human space flight and long-duration bet rest. The rate of space flight induced bone loss is 10 times faster than in those with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss at weight bearing bones, elevated urinary calcium excretion, and un-coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are observed during the long-term bed rest study. Improvements of resistive exercise device and vitamin-D supplementation for astronauts in International Space Station can partially maintain bone mass, however, they can not fully supress bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during space flight. JAXA and NASA are performing joint study to validate the mitigration effects on bone resorption and urolithiasis of bisphosphonate supplement in conjunction with excercise. PMID:23187072

Ohshima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

2012-12-01

311

Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

2002-01-01

312

Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

1988-01-01

313

Space flight affects magnocellular supraoptic neurons of young prepuberal rats: transient and permanent effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of microgravity on postural control and volume of extracellular fluids as well as stress associated with space flight may affect the function of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. Since environmental modifications in young animals may result in permanent alterations in neuroendocrine function, the present study was designed to determine the effect of a space flight on oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic magnocellular hypothalamic neurons of prepuberal rats. Fifteen-day-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-90, Neurolab mission, experiment 150) for 16 days. Age-matched litters remained on the ground in cages similar to those of the flight animals. Six animals from each group were killed on the day of landing and eight animals from each group were maintained under standard vivarium conditions and killed 18 weeks after landing. Several signs of enhanced transcriptional and biosynthetic activity were observed in magnocellular supraoptic neurons of flight animals on the day of landing compared to control animals. These include increased c-Fos expression, larger nucleoli and cytoplasm, and higher volume occupied in the neuronal perikaryon by mitochondriae, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and cytoplasmic inclusions known as nematosomes. In contrast, the volume occupied by neurosecretory vesicles in the supraoptic neuronal perikarya was significantly decreased in flight rats. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in oxytocin and vasopressin immunoreactive levels, suggestive of an increased hormonal release. Vasopressin levels, cytoplasmic volume and c-Fos expression returned to control levels by 18 weeks after landing. These reversible effects were probably associated to osmotic stimuli resulting from modifications in the volume and distribution of extracellular fluids and plasma during flight and landing. However, oxytocin levels were still reduced at 18 weeks after landing in flight animals compared to controls. This indicates that space flight during prepuberal age may induce irreversible modifications in the regulation of oxytocinergic neurons, which in turn may result in permanent endocrine and behavioral impairments.

Garcia-Ovejero, D.; Trejo, J. L.; Ciriza, I.; Walton, K. D.; Garcia-Segura, L. M.

2001-01-01

314

Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

Polansky, G.F. [Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmidt, G.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voss, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reynolds, E.L. [Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD (United States)

1994-10-01

315

Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

1966-01-01

316

Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

2002-01-01

317

Flight-control/navigation inertial reference system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of a redundant strapdown navigation system for integrated flight-control/navigation use has been completed. Based on application of tuned-gimbal gyros, a compact configuration (13 in x 13 in x 14 in) has been achieved for fail-operational/fail-operational redundancy. Test data are presented for strapdown system test programs including flight testing of the LN-50 tuned-gimbal gyro system. Testing of a redundant sensor configuration is currently in process. Strapdown gyro development also includes ring laser and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

Ebner, R. E.

1977-01-01

318

Life-extending control for a highly maneuverable flight vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the feasibility and potential of life extension control logic for reducing fatigue within aerospace vehicle structural components. A key underpinning of this control logic is to exploit nonintuitive, optimal loading conditions which minimize nonlinear crack growth behavior, as predicted by analytical fatigue models with experimentally validated behavior. A major simplification in the development of life extension control logic is the observation and justification that optimal stress loading conditions, as described by overload magnitude ratio and application interval, are primarily independent of crack length and therefore, component age. This weak relationship between optimal stress loading and structural age implies the life extension control logic does not require tight integration with real-time health monitoring systems performing crack state estimation from measurement and model simulation. At a fundamental level, the life extension control logic conducts load alleviation and/or amplification tailoring of external and internal excitations to optimally exploit nonlinear crack retardation phenomenon. The life extension control logic is designed to be a simple, practical modification applied to an existing flight control system. A nonlinear autopilot for the nonlinear F-16 dynamics, coupled with a separate flexible F-16 wing model and a state space crack growth model, are used to demonstrate the life extension control concept. Results indicate that significant structural life savings is obtained by integrating life extending control logic dedicated for critical structural components to the existing flight control system. On the other hand, some components under life extending control showed minor reductions of structural life, particularly when the components are located in a low stress region where fatigue damage is of lower concern. Further, to achieve enhanced long-term structural integrity with life extending control, tradeoffs with flight system stability and performance may be required. Careful consideration is thus necessary when applying life extending logic to the aircraft flight control system. Although life extending control appears feasible with significant potential, full implementation of the concept requires further study.

Yu, Si-Bok

319

Control information in visual flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.

Naish, J. M.

1972-01-01

320

Systems integration in space flight environmental risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the issues that must be addressed to define and integrate technologies, countermeasures, and medical care systems into space systems which will be developed for long duration space flight. This paper considers combined and cumulative effects, the broad range of space environmental health issues, including some examples, and a discussion of a management approach to these risks. While the primary emphasis is on space environmental health issues, other aspects of the space environment are also considered. Allocation of finite resources for optimal risk management is also considered.

Morgenthaler, George W.; Schulz, Jon R.; Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Barrett, Ted G.

321

Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

Tinker, Mike

2014-01-01

322

Interface control document between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Department of Interior EROS Data Center (EDC) for LANDSAT-D. Thematic mapper high resolution 241 mm film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 241 mm photographic product produced by the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Management System for LANDSAT-D is described. Film type and format, image dimensions, frame ID, gray scale, resolution patterns, registration marks, etc. are addressed.

1982-01-01

323

A low-complexity flight controller for Unmanned Aircraft Systems with constrained control allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a framework for joint allocation and constrained control design of flight controllers for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The actuator configuration is used to map actuator constraint set into the space of the aircraft generalised forces. By constraining the demanded generalised forces, we ensure that the allocation problem is always feasible; and therefore, it can be

Pierre de Lamberterie; Tristan Perez; Alejandro Donaire

2011-01-01

324

Low bandwidth robust controllers for flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the final reporting period (Jun. - Dec. 1992), analyses of the longitudinal and lateral flying qualities were made for propulsive-only flight control (POFC) of a Boeing 720 aircraft model. Performance resulting from compensators developed using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) is documented and analyzed. This report is a first draft of a thesis to be presented by graduate student Hwei-Lan Chou. The final thesis will be presented to NASA when it is completed later this year. The latest landing metrics related to bandwidth criteria and based on the Neal-Smith approach to flying qualities prediction were used in developing performance criteria for the controllers. The compensator designs were tested on the NASA simulator and exhibited adequate performance for piloted flight. There was no significant impact of QFT on performance of the propulsive-only flight controllers in either the longitudinal or lateral modes of flight. This was attributed to the physical limits of thrust available and the engine rate of response, both of whiih severely limited the available bandwidth of the closed-loop system.

Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan

1992-01-01

325

The 1991 research and technology report, Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1991 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) earth sciences including upper atmosphere, lower atmosphere, oceans, hydrology, and global studies; (2) space sciences including solar studies, planetary studies, Astro-1, gamma ray investigations, and astrophysics; (3) flight projects; (4) engineering including robotics, mechanical engineering, electronics, imaging and optics, thermal and cryogenic studies, and balloons; and (5) ground systems, networks, and communications including data and networks, TDRSS, mission planning and scheduling, and software development and test.

Soffen, Gerald (editor); Ottenstein, Howard (editor); Montgomery, Harry (editor); Truszkowski, Walter (editor); Frost, Kenneth (editor); Sullivan, Walter (editor); Boyle, Charles (editor)

1991-01-01

326

Implementation and Qualifications Lessons Learned for Space Flight Photonic Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process for implementation and qualification of space flight photonic components. It discusses the causes for most common anomalies for the space flight components, design compatibility, a specific failure analysis of optical fiber that occurred in a cable in 1999-2000, and another ExPCA connector anomaly involving pins that broke off. It reviews issues around material selection, quality processes and documentation, and current projects that the Photonics group is involved in. The importance of good documentation is stressed.

Ott, Melanie N.

2010-01-01

327

Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

Mccutcheon, E. P.

1977-01-01

328

Serving the Marshall Space Flight Center Community National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

've come since the Jupiter-C rocket put America into the space race and Saturn V put twelve ApolloServing the Marshall Space Flight Center Community National Aeronautics and Space Administration years in the areas of propulsion, space exploration and science. It is very impressive how far we

329

Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

2003-01-01

330

Physiology, Medicine, Long-Duration Space Flight and the NSBRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

White, R. J.; Sutton, J. P.; McPhee, J. C.

331

Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

2003-08-01

332

Effects of space flight on GLUT4 content in rat plantaris muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 14 days of space flight on the glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were studied in the plantaris muscle of\\u000a growing 9-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly separated into five groups: pre-flight vivarium ground\\u000a controls (PF-VC) sacrificed approximately 2?h after launch; flight groups sacrificed either approximately 5?h (F-R0) or 9\\u000a days (F-R9) after the return from

I. Tabata; Kentaro Kawanaka; Chiharu Sekiguchi; Shunji Nagaoka; Yoshinobu Ohira

1998-01-01

333

[From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].  

PubMed

The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine. PMID:21848209

Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

2011-01-01

334

Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

2007-02-01

335

Analytic redundance management for flight control sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of 12 duplex control sensor signals (24 in all) being monitored are reviewed. The technique uses like signal differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable, irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm used sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a hard failed sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy. This study represents a proof of concept demonstration of a methodology that is applied to duplex or higher flight control sensor configurations and, in addition, can monitor the health of one simplex signal per analytic redundancy relationship.

Deckert, J. C.; Szalai, K. J.

1983-01-01

336

Degradation of learned skills. Effectiveness of practice methods on simulated space flight skill retention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manual flight control and emergency procedure task skill degradation was evaluated after time intervals of from 1 to 6 months. The tasks were associated with a simulated launch through the orbit insertion flight phase of a space vehicle. The results showed that acceptable flight control performance was retained for 2 months, rapidly deteriorating thereafter by a factor of 1.7 to 3.1 depending on the performance measure used. Procedural task performance showed unacceptable degradation after only 1 month, and exceeded an order of magnitude after 4 months. The effectiveness of static rehearsal (checklists and briefings) and dynamic warmup (simulator practice) retraining methods were compared for the two tasks. Static rehearsal effectively countered procedural skill degradation, while some combination of dynamic warmup appeared necessary for flight control skill retention. It was apparent that these differences between methods were not solely a function of task type or retraining method, but were a function of the performance measures used for each task.

Sitterley, T. E.; Berge, W. A.

1972-01-01

337

The Goddard Space Flight Center ergonomics program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Screening Program started in 1984, we have made many changes to accommodate the growing number of participants. As a result of these changes, screening of KSC employees has become more efficient and productive. Various aspects of the program are covered.

Batson, Eileen; Unite, Theodore

1993-01-01

338

Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations.

Glenn, J. H. Jr

1963-01-01

339

Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude commands that orient the main ro- tor forces appropriately to generate required translational accelerations. Recent work in Neural Network based adaptive flight control may be applied to

Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

340

Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

2004-01-01

341

The Flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-119)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, Discovery launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the "CBS News" space consultant. The spreadsheet provides detailed and authentic information about the prediction of the ascent of flight STS-119, the 36th flight of Discovery and the 125th shuttle flight to date. We have used the data for our calculations and the production of the graphs. A limited version of the ascent data is available on the "CBS News" STS-119 trajectory timeline.

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-03-01

342

A new day: Challenger and space flight thereafter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 28, 1986, at an altitude of 14 kilometers, the Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart by an explosion of the external tank. The effects of the accident are undoubtedly far-reaching; they have broad repercussions that affect NASA's international partner organizations. The effects of the postponed shuttle flights on European space programs are discussed. A review of the German participation in the American space program is presented. The need to continue the future projects such as the space station is examined in light of its importance as a springboard for further exploration.

Vonputtkamer, Jesco

1986-01-01

343

Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

Smith, Dan

2011-01-01

344

Human Aspirations in the History of Space Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chief concern of this brief article is to remember the pioneers and early advocates of space flight and their aspirations: specifically, I refer to the period prior to the commencement of the `space age' with the launch of Sputnik I in 1957. Since that time unmanned scientific satellites and probes have been especially successful, granting us unparalleled access to other worlds and the deep recesses of the Cosmos. For our pioneers, however, the exploration of space was not of exclusively scientific importance: rather, it also held out the promise of uniting nations and even of serving as a conduit for the improvement of our race. When one considers all the data acquired by scientific probes one may legitimately ask, “for what purpose is this information sought?” The pioneers discussed in this article help to remind us that space flight is a human not only a scientific enterprise: this is why this article has been written.

Favell, I.

345

Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

2010-01-01

346

In-flight cabin smoke control.  

PubMed

Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and flight test methodologies. Augmenting available ventilation for smoke control remains a design and safety challenge. PMID:9016748

Eklund, T I

1996-12-31

347

Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

1996-01-01

348

System security in the space flight operations center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

Wagner, David A.

1988-01-01

349

Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in body fluids, electrolytes and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g deconditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

1986-01-01

350

Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

1988-01-01

351

Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

1989-01-01

352

Walt Disney visited Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Walt Disney toured the West Test Area during his visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center on April 13, 1965. The three in center foreground are Karl Heimburg, Director, Test Division; Dr. von Braun, Director, MSFC; and Walt Disney. The Dynamic Test Stand with the S-1C stage being installed is in the background.

1965-01-01

353

HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

1974-01-01

354

The Space Flight Operations Center first phase - Lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a retrospective look at the Space Flight Operations Center Project; a large, complex, multimission ground data system which is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena. The Project was established in February 1984 and will be completed in April 1992 when the Magellan, Voyager, Ulysses, Galileo and Mars Observer Projects will be fully supported.

A. J. Gainsborough

1991-01-01

355

Flight Projects 2 Technology and Space Program Development 13  

E-print Network

#12;Flight Projects 2 Technology and Space Program Development 13 Tracking and Data Acquisition 22 obtained-was taken by Voyager 1 on September 1B, 19n. Because the earth Is brighter than the moon, computer are sunlit. Above: Voyager 2 launch at cape Kennedy. " Voyager 1achieves all of Its science goals at Saturn

Waliser, Duane E.

356

NASA's First New Millenium Deep-Space Technology Validation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned for launch in 1998, the first flight of NASA's New Millenium Program will validate selected breakthrough technologies required for future low-cost, low-mass, space science missions. The principal objective is to validate these advanced technologies thoroughly enough that subsequent users may be confident of their performance, thus reducing the cost and risk of science missions in the 21st century.

Lehman, David H.; Rayman, Marc D.

1996-01-01

357

Geographic information systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic functions of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the different ways that a GIS may be implemented are described. It surveys that GIS software packages that are currently in operation at the Goddard Space Flight Center and discusses the types of applications for which they are best suited. Future plans for in-house GIS research and development are outlined.

Goldberg, M.

1982-01-01

358

Marshall Space Flight Center 1989 annual chronology of events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chronological listing of the major events for the Marshall Space Flight Center for the calendar year 1989 is provided. The MSFC Historian, Management Operations Office, compiled the chronology from various sources and from supplemental information provided by the major MSFC organizations.

Wright, Michael

1990-01-01

359

Marshall Space Flight Center 1990 annual chronology of events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chronological listing is provided of the major events for the Marshall Space Flight Center for the calendar year 1990. The MSFC Historian, Management Operations Office, compiled the chronology from various sources and from supplemental information provided by the major MSFC organizations.

Wright, Michael

1991-01-01

360

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

Kelly, Michael P.

2011-01-01

361

Magnetospheric-ionospheric changes caused by flights of space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of formation and disappearance of an ionospheric “hole” in the F2 layer caused by the ejection of water molecules during the flight of a space vehicle has been considered using the method of computational experiment based on the mathematical ionospheric-magnetospheric model in a coordinate system fixed on the magnetic force line of the Earth.

Ishanov, S. A.; Levanov, E. I.; Medvedev, V. V.; Zalesskaya, V. A.; Zharkova, Yu. S.

2006-11-01

362

Mechanisms for vestibular disorders in space flight. Facts and hypotheses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article discusses the vestibular disorders associated with space flight. It is found there is still no complete understanding of the changes occurring in the sensory systems of the body during weightlessness. Results of studies are presented, including results of a ground model.

Matsnev, E. I.

1980-01-01

363

Space Shuttle main engine performance assessment - Columbia's first flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design features and performance of the Shuttle main engines first flight are presented. Each of the three engines produces 470,000 lb of thrust, operates at 3,012 psia, and has a 77.5 to 1 nozzle expansion ratio. The engines are designed for a 7.5 hr operational life, and will be tested at 109% capacity in future Shuttle flights. The developmental program is outlined, and includes 127,000 sec of operational testing on 19 engines. Engine operations and components are described, noting 100% burning of the hydrogen and oxidizer, high pressure fuel turbopumps, the controller assembly, etc.; details of solutions to fatigue failures and subsequent certification are provided. The nine minute first flight firing revealed a radiant heating of a control sensor transducer, which was shielded for succeeding flights. Alternatives are given for thrust augmentation, for which each 1% yields an additional 800 lb payload increase capability, and can be implemented by 1987.

Thompson, J. R., Jr.

1981-01-01

364

Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

1973-01-01

365

Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous changes between HDBR and space flight. Primary differences across short duration, long duration space flight and HDBR are related to the length of exposure associated with both space flight and HDBR.

Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

2013-01-01

366

Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

1992-01-01

367

Helicopter Flight Control Using Inverse Optimal Control and Backstepping  

E-print Network

Helicopter Flight Control Using Inverse Optimal Control and Backstepping Hamid Teimoori, Hemanshu R. Pota, Matt Garratt and Mahendra K. Samal School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW helicopter in the presence of input time-delay. The controller is designed based on a two

Pota, Himanshu Roy

368

Marshall Space Flight Center ECLSS technology activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology activities are presented. Topics covered include: analytical development; ECLSS modeling approach; example of water reclamation modeling needs; and hardware development and testing.

Wieland, Paul

1990-01-01

369

Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

2006-11-01

370

Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

2002-01-01

371

Inheritance of induction radiation sensitivity of space flight environments and ?-radiation on rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many factors affecting living things during space flight, such as microgravity, cosmic radiation, etc. A large number of plant mutants have been obtained after space flight on satellite in China in the last decade and some commercial crop varieties were released. However, little consideration has so far been given to the genetic mechanisms underlying sensitivity of plant seeds to space flight environments. To reveal the genetic mechanisms associated with induction radiation sensitivity (IRS), a set of 226 recombination inbred lines (RILs) derived from Lemont (japonica)/ Teqing (indica) F13, were analyzed using 164 well-distributed DNA markers and assayed for the traits related to IRS including rate of survival seedling (RSS), seedling height (SH), seed setting rate (SSR) and total physiological damage (TPD) in replicated trials after space flight on Chinese Shenzhou IV Spacecraft and? -radiation treatment (35000 rad) on the ground in 2002. Seedling growth of Lemont was accelerated after space flight with the SH of 116.2% of ground control while growth suppression was happened for Teqing with the SH of 85.7% of ground control. ? -radiation treatment resulted in significant decrease in all tested traits for the two parents, indicating space flight and ? -radiation treatment had different biological effects on the two parents. Significant differences were detected among the RILs for their responses to space flight environments and ? -radiation, reflected as the difference in the four tested traits. Space flight resulted in stimulation on growth for 57.1% lines while? -radiation had suppression on growth for most lines. Seventeen putative main-effect QTLs was identified for the four traits related to IRS under space flight and ? -radiation, which totally explained significant portions of the total trait variation (4.4% for RSS, 27.2% for SH, 4% for SSR and 15.8% for TPD for space flight; 10.4% for RSS, 15.1% for SH, 8.2% for SSR and 6.1% for TPD for? -radiation). Same QTLs affecting some of the four tested traits after space flight and? -radiation treatment were identified, suggesting that space flight environments and? -radiation partially shared the same genetic mechanisms for mutation. Forty-nine epistatic pairs affecting the four traits was detected and totally explained significant portions of the phenotypic variation (49.7% for RSS, 49.8% for SH, 14.3% for SSR and 40.2% for TPD for space flight; 30.5% for RSS, 18.1% for SH, 34.3% for SSR, 31.9% for TPD for? -radiation). It indicated that IRS is a very complicated trait and epistasis may play an important role in underlying its genetic mechanism. Based on these results, the genetic basis of IRS and its application in plant mutation breeding was discussed.

Xu, J.; Wang, J.; Wei, L.; Li, Z.; Sun, Y.

372

Designing to Control Flight Crew Errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is widely accepted that human error is a major contributing factor in aircraft accidents. There has been a significant amount of research in why these errors occurred, and many reports state that the design of flight deck can actually dispose humans to err. This research has led to the call for changes in design according to human factors and human-centered principles. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center has initiated an effort to design a human-centered flight deck from a clean slate (i.e., without constraints of existing designs.) The effort will be based on recent research in human-centered design philosophy and mission management categories. This design will match the human's model of the mission and function of the aircraft to reduce unnatural or non-intuitive interfaces. The product of this effort will be a flight deck design description, including training and procedures, and a cross reference or paper trail back to design hypotheses, and an evaluation of the design. The present paper will discuss the philosophy, process, and status of this design effort.

Schutte, Paul C.; Willshire, Kelli F.

1997-01-01

373

Rhythmic variation in heart rate and respiration rate during space flight - Apollo 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the operational biomedical monitoring for Apollo manned missions, ECG and respiration rate are telemetered at selected intervals to mission control. The data were collected as part of this monitoring program. These data were evaluated for circadian and ultradian rhythmicity because of their uniqueness. The ability to detect and quantitate biorhythms in living systems during space flight is an important aspect of evaluating hypotheses concerning the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena. Circadian variation in heart rate during space flight is demonstrated here. In analyzing generated time series data it has been found that period discrimination is much better than the theoretical limit.

Rummel, J. A.

1974-01-01

374

The Role of Nutritional Research in the Success of Human Space Flight12  

PubMed Central

The United States has had human space flight programs for >50 y and has had a continued presence in space since 2000. Providing nutritious and safe food is imperative for astronauts because space travelers are totally dependent on launched food. Space flight research topics have included energy, protein, nutritional aspects of bone and muscle health, and vision issues related to 1-carbon metabolism. Research has shown that energy needs during flight are similar to energy needs on Earth. Low energy intakes affect protein turnover. The type of dietary protein is also important for bone health, plant-based protein being more efficacious than animal protein. Bone loss is greatly ameliorated with adequate intakes of energy and vitamin D, along with routine resistive exercise. Astronauts with lower plasma folate concentrations may be more susceptible to vision changes. Foods for space flight were developed initially by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine in conjunction with the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and NASA. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point safety standards were specifically developed for space feeding. Prepackaged foods for the International Space Station were originally high in sodium (5300 mg/d), but NASA has recently reformulated >90 foods to reduce sodium intake to 3000 mg/d. Food development has improved nutritional quality as well as safety and acceptability. PMID:24038244

Lane, Helen W.; Bourland, Charles; Barrett, Ann; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.

2013-01-01

375

Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter  

E-print Network

Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls

Johnson, Eric N.

376

Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

Bosworth, John T.

2008-01-01

377

Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

Johnson, Charles L.

2007-01-01

378

Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

2014-01-01

379

Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

2003-01-01

380

Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly is being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this photo, one of many segments of the mirror assembly is being set up inside the 24-ft vacuum chamber where it will undergo x-ray calibration tests. MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

2003-01-01

381

Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly is being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this photo, an MSFC employee is inspecting one of many segments of the mirror assembly for flaws. MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

2003-01-01

382

Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo (rear view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

2003-01-01

383

Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo (a side view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

2003-01-01

384

Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic measurements during hardware motion and contact. While performing dynamic testing of an active docking system, researchers found that the data from the motion platform, test hardware and two external measurement systems exhibited frame offsets and rotational errors. While the errors were relatively small when considering the motion scale overall, they substantially exceeded the individual accuracies for each component. After evaluating both the static and dynamic measurements, researchers found that the static measurements introduced significantly more error into the system than the dynamic measurements even though, in theory, the static measurement errors should be smaller than the dynamic. In several cases, the magnitude of the errors varied widely for the static measurements. Upon further investigation, researchers found the larger errors to be a consequence of hardware alignment issues, frame location and measurement technique whereas the smaller errors were dependent on the number of measurement points. This paper details and quantifies the individual and cumulative errors of the docking system and describes methods for reducing the overall measurement error. The overall quality of the dynamic docking tests for flight hardware verification was improved by implementing these error reductions.

Winnitoy, Susan

2012-01-01

385

Instrumented personal exercise during long-duration space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work reports the results of instrumented personal exercise performed in flight by Skylab 3 and 4 crewmen. Inflight cycle ergometer data provide conclusive evidence that man can perform earthbound equivalent maximum levels of physical work while in the zero-G environment. Moreover, SL4 crewmen were able to improve their physical condition during 84 days of space flight relative to launch condition, due to rigorous personal exercise regimens. Biological data measured included oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute volume, and heart rate.

Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

386

Loads Combination Research at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the result of a study conducted by the Structural Dynamics Division of the Marshall Space Flight Center concerning the combination of low- and high-frequency dynamic loads for spacecraft design. Low-frequency transient loads are combined with high frequency acoustically induced loads to arrive at a limit load, for design purposes. Different methods are used for combining the loads which can lead to considerable variation in limit loads, depending on which NASA Center did the calculation. This study investigates several different combination methods and compares the combination methods with Spacelab 1 flight data. In addition, the relative timing of low- and high-frequency loads is examined.

Ferebee, R.

2000-01-01

387

The 1987 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of the 20th annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 4-5, 1987. The workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included lithium cell technology and safety improvements, nickel-cadmium electrode technology along with associated modifications, flight experience and life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, and nickel-hydrogen applications and technology.

Morrow, George (editor); Yi, Thomas Y. (editor)

1993-01-01

388

The 1987 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document contains the proceedings of the 20th annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 4-5, 1987. The workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included lithium cell technology and safety improvements, nickel-cadmium electrode technology along with associated modifications, flight experience and life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, and nickel-hydrogen applications and technology.

Morrow, George; Yi, Thomas Y.

389

Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

2011-01-01

390

Inflight exercise affects stand test responses after space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crew members during short-duration space flights (9-16 d) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 h of landing. METHODS: Thirty crew members performed self-selected inflight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. Two subjects participated in this investigation during two different flights. A 10-min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10-15 d before launch (PRE) and within 4 h of landing (POST). Based upon their inflight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: > or = 3 times/week, HR > or = 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 11), medium (MEDex: > or = 3 times/week, HR < 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 10), or low (LOex: < or = 3 times/week, HR and duration variable, N = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, P < or = 0.05). RESULTS: There were no PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared with PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36 +/- 5 bpm) compared with HIex or MEDex groups (25 +/- 1 bpm; 22 +/- 2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after space flight in the MEDex and HIex groups but was significantly greater in the LOex group (PRE: -9 +/- 3; POST: -19 +/- 4 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, moderate to high levels of inflight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after space flight.

Lee, S. M.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Schneider, S. M.

1999-01-01

391

Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.

Williams, Peggy S.

2004-01-01

392

Users manual for flight control design programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

Nalbandian, J. Y.

1975-01-01

393

Spacecraft Materials in the Space Flight Environment: International Space Station-May 2002 to May 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space flight are reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are described. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting, in part, for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions with the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs.

Golden, Johnny L.; Koontz, Steven L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Graves, Russell F.; Lorenz, Mary J.; Alred, John W.; O'Rourke, Mary Jane E.

2009-01-01

394

L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

2010-01-01

395

View of USSR flight controllers in Mission Control during touchdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall view of the group of Soviet Union flight controllers who served at the Mission Control Center during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission. They are applauding the successful touchdown of the Soyuz spacecraft in Central Asia. The television monitor had just shown the land landing of the Soyuz descent vehicle.

1975-01-01

396

Some results of the effect of space flight factors on Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Chromosomal effects of space flight factors were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster flown aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. Drosophila males heterozygous for four linked traits were exposed to space flight conditions for periods of eight days, and the progeny when the males were mated with homozygous recessive females were compared with those from control flies exposed to the same vibration and acceleration environment, and the progeny of laboratory controls. Increases in recombination and nondisjunction frequencies were observed in the flies exposed to the space environment, with recombinant flies also found in the F1 generation of the vibration and acceleration controls. Results suggest that it is the action of heavy particles that accounts for the major portion of the genetic effects observed. 17 references.

Filatova, L.P.; Vaulina, E.N.

1983-01-01

397

A new guidance strategy for unpowered Space Shuttle orbiter flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new guidance strategy for use during the TAEM (terminal area energy management) phase of the Shuttle reentry flight has been developed. This guidance system steers the vehicle from initial conditions at about 70,000 ft altitude and Mach 1.5 to the beginning of the final landing maneuver. Explicit control of the vehicle's total energy (potential plus kinetic) via the energy dissipation rate allows this system to effectively control the vehicle's energy in the presence of a head or tail wind without a-priori knowledge of the wind. Furthermore, this is accomplished while maintaining a wings-level attitude during most of the flight.

Elias, A.

1974-01-01

398

Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

1990-01-01

399

Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

400

Update on the Effects of Space Flight on Development of Immune Responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study has been completed, and the following is an update of the results as published. Pregnant rats were flown on the Space Shuttle in the NIH.R I mission for 11 days, and pregnant control rats were maintained in animal enclosure modules in a ground-based chamber under conditions approximating those in flight. Additional controls were in standard housing. The effects of the flight on immunological parameters (including blastogenesis, interferon-gamma production, response to colony stimulating factor and total immunoglobulin levels) of dams, fetuses, and pups was determined.

Sonnenfeld, G.; Foster, M.; Morton, D.; Bailliard, F.; Fowler, N. A.; Hakenwewerth, A. M.; Bates, R.; Miller, E. S.

1999-01-01

401

Spur Gear Wear Investigated in Support of Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA s Return-To-Flight efforts, the Space Operations Program investigated the condition of actuators for the orbiter s rudder speed brake. The actuators control the position of the rudder panels located in the tail of the orbiter, providing both steering control and braking during reentry, approach, and landing. Inspections of flight hardware revealed fretting and wear damage to the critical working surfaces of the actuator gears. To best understand the root cause of the observed damage and to help establish an appropriate reuse and maintenance plan for these safety critical parts, researchers completed a set of gear wear experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

Krantz, Timothy L.; Oswald, Fred B.

2005-01-01

402

Research on robust tracking control based PTC for flight simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flight simulator is one kind of servo system with uncertainties and disturbances. To obtain high tracking performance and good robustness for the flight simulator, we present robust tracking control based perfect tracking controller(PTC) which realizes no magnitude error and phase error for flight simulator during working in a wide frequency range. Firstly, system model of fight simulator is described

Zhenghua Liu; Han Li; Wang Jingjing

2010-01-01

403

Development and flight test experiences with a flight-crucial digital control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers and scientists in the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16 program investigated the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. AFTI's three major technologies included: flight-crucial digital control, decoupled aircraft flight control, and integration of avionics, flight control, and pilot displays. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, researchers studied the generic problems confronting the designers of highly integrated flight-crucial digital control. An overview is provided of both the advantages and problems of integration digital control systems. Also, an examination of the specification, design, qualification, and flight test life-cycle phase is provided. An overview is given of the fault-tolerant design, multimoded decoupled flight control laws, and integrated avionics design. The approach to qualifying the software and system designs is discussed, and the effects of design choices on system qualification are highlighted.

Mackall, Dale A.

1988-01-01

404

Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

2001-01-01

405

NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.

Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

406

In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to establish a schedule. The method has been expanded to search a two-dimensional control space. Simulation results demonstrate the ability to maximize range by optimizing stabilator deflection and an airspeed set point. Another set of results minimize power required in high speed flight by optimizing collective pitch and stabilator deflection. Results show that the control laws effectively hold the flight condition while the FTO method is effective at improving performance. Optimizations show there can be issues when the control laws regulating altitude push the collective control towards it limits. So a modification was made to the control law to regulate airspeed and altitude using propeller pitch and angle of attack while the collective is held fixed or used as an optimization variable. A dynamic trim limit avoidance algorithm is applied to avoid control saturation in other axes during optimization maneuvers. Range and power optimization FTO simulations are compared with comprehensive sweeps of trim solutions and FTO optimization shown to be effective and reliable in reaching an optimal when optimizing up to two redundant controls. Use of redundant controls is shown to be beneficial for improving performance. The search method takes almost 25 minutes of simulated flight for optimization to be complete. The optimization maneuver itself can sometimes drive the power required to high values, so a power limit is imposed to restrict the search to avoid conditions where power is more than5% higher than that of the initial trim state. With this modification, the time the optimization maneuver takes to complete is reduced down to 21 minutes without any significant change in the optimal power value.

Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

407

Detection of Renal Tissue and Urinary Tract Proteins in the Human Urine after Space Flight  

PubMed Central

The urine protein composition samples of ten Russian cosmonauts (male, aged of 35 up to 51) performed long flight missions and varied from 169 up to 199 days on the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed. As a control group, urine samples of six back-up cosmonauts were analyzed. We used proteomic techniques to obtain data and contemporary bioinformatics approaches to perform the analysis. From the total number of identified proteins (238) in our data set, 129 were associated with a known tissue origin. Preflight samples contained 92 tissue-specific proteins, samples obtained on Day 1 after landing had 90 such proteins, while Day 7 samples offered 95 tissue-specific proteins. Analysis showed that consistently present proteins in urine (under physiological conditions and after space flight) are cubilin, epidermal growth factor, kallikrein-1, kininogen-1, megalin, osteopontin, vitamin K-dependent protein Z, uromodulin. Variably present proteins consists of: Na(+)/K(+) ATPase subunit gamma, ?-defensin-1, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, maltasa-glucoamilasa, cadherin-like protein, neutral endopeptidase and vascular cell adhesion protein 1. And only three renal proteins were related to the space flight factors. They were not found in the pre-flight samples and in the back-up cosmonaut urine, but were found in the urine samples after space flight: AFAM (afamin), AMPE (aminopeptidase A) and AQP2 (aquaporin-2). This data related with physiological readaptation of water-salt balance. The proteomic analysis of urine samples in different phases of space missions with bioinformation approach to protein identification provides new data relative to biomechemical mechanism of kidney functioning after space flight. PMID:23967230

Pastushkova, Lyudmila Kh.; Kireev, Kirill S.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Tiys, Evgeny S.; Popov, Igor A.; Starodubtseva, Natalia L.; Dobrokhotov, Igor V.; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A.; Larina, Irina M.; Kolchanov, Nicolay A.; Nikolaev, Evgeny N.

2013-01-01

408

Detection of renal tissue and urinary tract proteins in the human urine after space flight.  

PubMed

The urine protein composition samples of ten Russian cosmonauts (male, aged of 35 up to 51) performed long flight missions and varied from 169 up to 199 days on the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed. As a control group, urine samples of six back-up cosmonauts were analyzed. We used proteomic techniques to obtain data and contemporary bioinformatics approaches to perform the analysis. From the total number of identified proteins (238) in our data set, 129 were associated with a known tissue origin. Preflight samples contained 92 tissue-specific proteins, samples obtained on Day 1 after landing had 90 such proteins, while Day 7 samples offered 95 tissue-specific proteins. Analysis showed that consistently present proteins in urine (under physiological conditions and after space flight) are cubilin, epidermal growth factor, kallikrein-1, kininogen-1, megalin, osteopontin, vitamin K-dependent protein Z, uromodulin. Variably present proteins consists of: Na(+)/K(+) ATPase subunit gamma, ?-defensin-1, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, maltasa-glucoamilasa, cadherin-like protein, neutral endopeptidase and vascular cell adhesion protein 1. And only three renal proteins were related to the space flight factors. They were not found in the pre-flight samples and in the back-up cosmonaut urine, but were found in the urine samples after space flight: AFAM (afamin), AMPE (aminopeptidase A) and AQP2 (aquaporin-2). This data related with physiological readaptation of water-salt balance. The proteomic analysis of urine samples in different phases of space missions with bioinformation approach to protein identification provides new data relative to biomechemical mechanism of kidney functioning after space flight. PMID:23967230

Pastushkova, Lyudmila Kh; Kireev, Kirill S; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Tiys, Evgeny S; Popov, Igor A; Starodubtseva, Natalia L; Dobrokhotov, Igor V; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A; Larina, Irina M; Kolchanov, Nicolay A; Nikolaev, Evgeny N

2013-01-01

409

Endocrine responses in long-duration manned space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Endocrine measurements to assess the physiological cost of the combined stresses of space flight are considered from two aspects. First, fluid and electrolyte balance are correlated with weight loss, changes in the excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin and fluid compartments. The second area involves estimation of the physiological cost of maintaining a given level of performance during space flight by analysis of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. Inter-individual variability is demonstrated for most experimental indices measured. The measured changes are consistent with the hypothesis that a relative increase in thoracic blood volume upon transition to the zero-gravity environment can be interpreted as a true volume expansion resulting in an osmotic diuresis.

Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

1975-01-01

410

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-04-01

411

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-01-01

412

Goddard Space Flight Center Solar Array Missions, Requirements and Directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are "in house" spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are "out of house" spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC "in house" and "out of house" spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

1994-01-01

413

Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developi