VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.
A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.
Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.
A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.
Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.
The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.
The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.
Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.
Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.
Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Layne, Charles S.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Peters, Brian T.; Huebner, William P.; Reschke, Millard F.; Berthoz, Alain; Glasauer, Stefan; Newman, Dava; Jackson, D. Keoki
In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.
Cooke, D. R.
A unique approach for obtaining vehicle aerodynamic characteristics during entry has been developed for the Space Shuttle. This is due to the high cost of Shuttle testing, the need to open constraints for operational flights, and the fact that all flight regimes are flown starting with the first flight. Because of uncertainties associated with predicted aerodynamic coefficients, nine flight conditions have been identified at which control problems could occur. A detailed test plan has been developed for testing at these conditions and is presented. Due to limited testing, precise computer initiated maneuvers are implemented. These maneuvers are designed to optimize the vehicle motion for determining aerodynamic coefficients. Special sensors and atmospheric measurements are required to provide stability and control flight data during an entire entry. The techniques employed in data reduction are proven programs developed and used at NASA/DFRC.
Hall, Robert; Kirchwey, Kim; Martin, Michael; Rosch, Gene; Zimpfer, Douglas
When the Space Shuttle Endeavour undocked from the Zarya/Unity configuration on STS-88 it marked the completion of the most challenging shuttle mission to date and the beginning of an enormous task of assembling the International Space Station. The flight offered an array of complex dynamics and control related challenges to mate the American module 'Unity' to the Russian module 'Zarya'. Capability demonstrated on the flight included closed-loop thruster control in the presence of low frequency structural dynamics and mated-vehicle translational maneuvers in the presence of structural loads and thruster hardware constraints. The flight was a complete success from all aspects. This paper will give an overview of the flight control challenges encountered and the actual control performance observed for the on-orbit operations. Included will be the shuttle analysis and filtering strategies to ensure control system stability in the presence of low frequency flex-body dynamics.
Beckers, F.; Verheyden, B.; Morukov, B.; Aubert, Ae
baseline condition. Mean systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly before during and after space flight. In space both LF and HF were decreased compared the standing measurements pre- and post-flight. No evolution was present in BPV after return to Earth. Conclusion: During space flight autonomic modulation is characterised by a vagal predominance. Immediately after return to Earth overall autonomic modulation is extremely depressed. Vasomotor autonomic control is restored rather quickly after space flight, while the restoration of autonomic modulation of heart rate is very slow.
The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.
Cox, K. J.; Daly, K. C.; Hattis, P. D.
Experience gained through the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test program has matured the engineering understanding of the Shuttle on-orbit control system. The geneology of the control systems (called digital autopilots, or DAPs, and used by the Shuttle for on-orbit operations) is reviewed, the flight experience gained during the flight test program is examined within the context of preflight analysis and test results, and issues for the operational phase of the Shuttle, including constraints upon both operations and analysis still required to increase confidence in the Shuttle's ability to handle capabilities not experienced during the flight test program are addressed. Two orbital autopilots have resulted from computer memory and time constraints on a flight control system, with many different, flight phase unique requirements. The transition DAP, used for insertion and deorbit, has more active sensors and redundancy but a less complex data processing scheme excluding state estimation with fewer choices of operational mode.
Paloski, William H.; Reschke, Millard F.; Black, F. Owen; Dow, R. S.
DSO 605 represents the first large study of balance control following spaceflight. Data collected during DSO 605 confirm the theory that postural ataxia following short duration spaceflight is of vestibular origin. We used the computerized dynamic posturography technique developed by Nashner et al. to study the role of the vestibular system in balance control in astronauts during quiet stance before and after spaceflight. Our results demonstrate unequivocally that balance control is disrupted in all astronauts immediately after return from space. The most severely affected returning crew members performed in the same way as vestibular deficient patients exposed to this test battery. We conclude that otolith mediated spatial reference provided by the terrestrial gravitational force vector is not used by the astronauts balance control systems immediately after spaceflight. Because the postflight ataxia appears to be mediated primarily by CNS adaptation to the altered vestibular inputs caused by loss of gravitational stimulation, we believe that intermittent periods of exposure to artificial gravity may provide an effective in-flight countermeasure. Specifically, we propose that in-flight centrifugation will allow crew members to retain their terrestrial sensory-motor adapted states while simultaneously developing microgravity adapted states. The dual-adapted astronaut should be able to make the transition from microgravity to unit gravity with minimal sensory-motor effects. We have begun a ground based program aimed at developing short arm centrifuge prescriptions designed to optimize adaptation to altered gravitational environments. Results from these experiments are expected to lead directly to in-flight evaluation of the proposed centrifuge countermeasure. Because our computerized dynamic posturography system was able to (1) quantify the postflight postural ataxia reported by crew members and observed by flight surgeons and scientists, (2) track the recovery of
Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.
This paper reviews issues, data, and analyses relevant to the longitudinal flying qualities of the Space Shuttle in approach and landing. The manual control of attitude and path are first examined theoretically to demonstrate the unconventional nature of the Shuttle's augmented pitch and path response characteristics. The time domain pitch rate transient response criterion used for design of the Shuttle flight control system is examined in context with data from recent flying qualities experiments and operational aircraft. Questions arising from this examination are addressed through comparisons with MIL-F-8785C and other proposed flying qualities criteria which indicate potential longitudinal flying qualities problems. However, it is shown that these criteria, based largely on data from conventional aircraft, may be inappropriate for assessing the Shuttle.
Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey
The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.
Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffles, Paul; Hua, Grace
An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (Dep1Ex for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The Dep1Ex also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of Dep1Ex in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.
Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Hua, Grace
An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (DeplEx for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The DeplEx also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of DeplEx in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.
Schiess, James R.
Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The vehicle stability and control surface effectiveness are compared across the flights and to preflight predicted values.
Software modules associated with various flight control functions for the space shuttle orbiter are described. Data flow, interface requirements, initialization requirements and module sequencing requirements are considered. Block diagrams and tables are included.
Helly, J. J., Jr.; Bates, W. V.; Cutler, M.; Kelem, S.
A new representation of malfunction procedure logic which permits the automation of these procedures using Boolean normal forms is presented. This representation is discussed in the context of the development of an expert system for space shuttle flight control including software and hardware implementation modes, and a distributed architecture. The roles and responsibility of the flight control team as well as previous work toward the development of expert systems for flight control support at Johnson Space Center are discussed. The notion of malfunction procedures as graphs is introduced as well as the concept of hardware-equivalence.
Taylor, J. T.
In-flight thermal control system testing of a complex manned spacecraft such as the space shuttle orbiter and the considerations attendant to the definition of the tests are described. Design concerns, design mission requirements, flight test objectives, crew vehicle and mission risk considerations, instrumentation, data requirements, and real-time mission monitoring are discussed. An overview of the tests results is presented.
Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.
The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.
The concept of Mission Control was envisioned by Christopher Columbus Kraft in the 1960's. Instructed to figure out how to operate human space flight safely, Kraft envisioned a room of sub-system experts troubleshooting problems and supporting nominal flight activities under the guidance of one Flight Director who is responsible for the success of the mission. To facilitate clear communication, MCC communicates with the crew through a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) who is an astronaut themselves. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be supported by such a MCC and successfully completed the first American EVA. The MCC seen on television is called the Flight Control Room (FCR, pronounced ficker) or otherwise known as the front room. While this room is the most visible aspect, it is a very small component of the entire control center. The Shuttle FCR is known as the White FCR (WFCR) and Station's as FCR-1. (FCR-1 was actually the first FCR built at JSC which was used through the Gemini, Apollo and Shuttle programs until the WFCR was completed in 1992. Afterwards FCR-1 was refurbished first for the Life Sciences Center and then for the ISS in 2006.) Along with supporting the Flight Director, each FCR operator is also the supervisor for usually two or three support personnel in a back room called the Multi-Purpose Support Room (MPSR, pronounced mipser). MPSR operators are more deeply focused on their specific subsystems and have the responsible to analyze patterns, and diagnose and assess consequences of faults. The White MPSR (WMPSR) operators are always present for Shuttle operations; however, ISS FCR controllers only have support from their Blue MPSR (BMPSR) while the Shuttle is docked and during critical operations. Since ISS operates 24-7, the FCR team reduces to a much smaller Gemini team of 4-5 operators for night and weekend shifts when the crew is off-duty. The FCR is also supported by the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) which is a collection of contractor engineers
Watenpaugh, D E
Space flight exerts substantial effects on fluid volume control in humans. Cardiac distension occurs during the first 1-2 days of space flight relative to supine and especially upright 1g conditions. Plasma volume contraction occurs quickly in microgravity, probably as a result of transcapillary fluid filtration into upper-body interstitial spaces. No natriuresis or diuresis has been observed in microgravity, such that diuresis cannot explain microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Reduction of fluid intake occurs irrespective of space motion sickness and leads to hypovolemia. The fourfold elevation of urinary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels on flight day 1 probably results from acceleration exposures and other stresses of launch. Nevertheless, it is fascinating that elevated ADH levels and reduced fluid intake occur simultaneously early in flight. Extracellular fluid volume decreases by 10-15% in microgravity, and intracellular fluid volume appears to increase. Total red blood cell mass decreases by approximately 10% within 1 week in space. Inflight Na(+) and volume excretory responses to saline infusion are approximately half those seen in pre-flight supine conditions. Fluid volume acclimation to microgravity sets the central circulation to homeostatic conditions similar to those found in an upright sitting posture on Earth. Fluid loss in space contributes to reduced exercise performance upon return to 1g, although not necessarily in flight. In-flight exercise training may help prevent microgravity-induced losses of fluid and, therefore, preserve the capacity for upright exercise post-flight. Protection of orthostatic tolerance during space flight probably requires stimulation of orthostatic blood pressure control systems in addition to fluid maintenance or replacement. PMID:11581336
The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.
Muratore, John F.
The techniques utilized by NASA to manage risk in the development and operations of flight software and Mission Control Center software for the Space Shuttle are reviewed. Particular attention is given to independent software in the backup flight system, structured requirements and design techniques, multiple levels of testing in development and production, independent testing following production, and independence of development and production, and the Mission Control Center model for Real Time Data System project.
Bergmann, E. V.; Croopnick, S. R.; Turkovich, J. J.; Work, C. C.
An autopilot designed for rotation and translation control of a rigid spacecraft is described. The autopilot uses reaction control jets as control effectors and incorporates a six-dimensional phase space control law as well as a linear programming algorithm for jet selection. The interaction of the control law and jet selection was investigated and a recommended configuration proposed. By means of a simulation procedure the new autopilot was compared with an existing system and was found to be superior in terms of core memory, central processing unit time, firings, and propellant consumption. But it is thought that the cycle time required to perform the jet selection computations might render the new autopilot unsuitable for existing flight computer applications, without modifications. The new autopilot is capable of maintaining attitude control in the presence of a large number of jet failures.
Iilyin, V. K.; Kornyushenkova, I. N.; Lizko, N. N.
An analysis of the astronauts' microflora, the changes that occur during spaceflight and the control of microflora using drugs, is reported. A decrease in the quantity of lactibacilli in the mouth and throat cavities was observed during flight. The data showed that the susceptibility of the microflora to antibiotics increased during flight.
O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis
As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.
This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…
Shirshakov, A. E.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Kazakevich, Yu. V.; Kalashnikov, A. I.
The article covers the current status of activities on development of "ExoMars-2018" robotic interplanetary space station in terms of SC Composite flight program, results of onboard systems interaction functional design study. Organizational structure of p]Russian part of ground control and management of its interaction with European part of ground control are proposed.
Zlatkin, Yu. M.; Rzhemovskiy, V. P.; Kuznyetsov, Yu. A.
We consider the questions of dynamics and control of sheaf of first two blocks of the International Space Station "Alpha" during economic long flight. The results of flight tests are given. The influence on sheaf dynamics of the aerodynamic moment is analysed in view of the operation of the solar batteries orentation system in the passage of the sheaf through shadow parts of an orbit.
Scallion, W. I.; Compton, H. R.; Suit, W. T.; Powell, R. W.; Blackstock, T. A.; Bates, B. L.
Flight data obtained from three Space Transportation System orbiter entries (STS-1, 2, and 3) are processed and analyzed to determine the roll interactions caused by the firing of the entry reaction control system (RCS). Comparisons between the flight-derived parameters and the predicted derivatives without interaction effects are made. The flight-derived RCS Plume flow-field interaction effects are independently deduced by direct integration of the incremental changes in the wing upper surface pressures induced by RCS side thruster firings. The separately obtained interaction effects are compared to the predicted values and the differences are discussed.
Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Ruttley, Tara; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Merkle, Lauren; Bloomberg, Jacob
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibular-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to somatosensory adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing (BLS) systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and BLS-mediated somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual acuity task. Data were collected using the same testing protocol from three independent subject groups; 1) normal subjects before and after exposure to 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, 2) bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients and 3) astronauts who performed the protocol before and after long duration space flight. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the LD patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. Astronaut subjects results showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation mediated by the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems.
Cooke, D. R.
The subsonic stability and control testing of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in its two test flights in the tailcone-off configuration is discussed, and test results are presented. Flight test maneuvers were designed to maximize the quality and quantity of stability and control data in the minimal time allotted using the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator and the Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MMLE) programs, and coefficients were determined from standard sensor data sets using the MMLE, despite problems encountered in timing due to the different measurement systems used. Results are included for lateral directional and longitudinal maneuvers as well as the Space Shuttle aerodynamic data base obtained using the results of wind tunnel tests. The flight test data are found to permit greater confidence in the data base since the differences found are well within control system capability. It is suggested that the areas of major differences, including lateral directional data with open speedbrake, roll due to rudder and normal force due to elevon, be investigated in any further subsonic flight testing. Improvements in sensor data and data handling techniques for future orbital test flights are indicated.
Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey
The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper
Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.
Daugherty, Colin C.
International Space Station (ISS) crew and flight controller training documentation is used to aid in training operations. The Generic Simulations References SharePoint (Gen Sim) site is a database used as an aid during flight simulations. The Gen Sim site is used to make individual mission segment timelines, data, and flight information easily accessible to instructors. The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) training schematic includes simple and complex fluid schematics, as well as overall hardware locations. It is used as a teaching aid during WHC lessons for both ISS crew and flight controllers. ISS flight control documentation is used to support all aspects of ISS mission operations. The Quick Look Database and Consolidated Tool Page are imagery-based references used in real-time to help the Operations Support Officer (OSO) find data faster and improve discussions with the Flight Director and Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). A Quick Look page was created for the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) by locating photos of the module interior, labeling specific hardware, and organizing them in schematic form to match the layout of the PMM interior. A Tool Page was created for the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) by gathering images, detailed drawings, safety information, procedures, certifications, demonstration videos, and general facts of each MWA component and displaying them in an easily accessible and consistent format. Participation in ISS mechanisms and maintenance lessons, mission simulation On-the-Job Training (OJT), and real-time flight OJT was used as an opportunity to train for day-to-day operations as an OSO, as well as learn how to effectively respond to failures and emergencies during mission simulations and real-time flight operations.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.
Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.
Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.
In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.
Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances
The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?
Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.
This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.
The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.
Lim, Tae W.; Cooper, Paul A.
In the current design, the Space Station first-flight configuration will be assembled in a LEO and reboosted to a higher altitude such that the orbital decay due to atmospheric drag forces will lower the spacecraft to the proper altitude at the appropriate time to rendezvous with the next-assembly flight of the orbiter. The reboost maneuver will be performed by firing the on/off reaction control system jets to increase the forward velocity. This paper describes the design of a basic orbital reboost maneuver based on a burn-coast-burn scenario and a closed-loop attitude control system which will control the firing sequences of the jets to maintain the spacecraft attitude within required bounds. The design is then used to investigate the infuence of the elastic component response on the reboost jet firing logic.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.
Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248
Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R
Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248
Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.
Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.
Scott, David W.
Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.
Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie
This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.
This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications
Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie
Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.
Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa
Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.
Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.
Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins
Dittemore, Gary D.
Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.
Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.
The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Suit, William T.
Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.
Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki
The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.
Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie
Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.
In this paper, based on the scenes of stars seen by astronauts in their orbital flights, we have studied the mathematical model which must be constructed for CGI system to realize the space flight visual simulation. Considering such factors as the revolution and rotation of the Earth, exact date, time and site of orbital injection of the spacecraft, as well as its orbital flight and attitude motion, etc., we first defined all the instantaneous lines of sight and visual fields of astronauts in space. Then, through a series of coordinate transforms, the pictures of the scenes of stars changing with time-space were photographed one by one mathematically. In the procedure, we have designed a method of three-times "mathematical cutting." Finally, we obtained each instantaneous picture of the scenes of stars observed by astronauts through the window of the cockpit. Also, the dynamic conditions shaded by the Earth in the varying pictures of scenes of stars could be displayed. PMID:11542842
Davis, Jeffrey R.
The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).
Mowery, D. K.; Winder, S. W.
The prediction of flight loads and their potential reduction, using various control logics for the space shuttle vehicles, is very complex. Some factors, not found on previous launch vehicles, that increase the complexity are large lifting surfaces, unsymmetrical structure, unsymmetrical aerodynamics, trajectory control system coupling, and large aeroelastic effects. Discussed are these load producing factors and load reducing techniques. Identification of potential technology areas is included.
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas J.; Hyland, David C.
Many large space system concepts will require active vibration control to satisfy critical performance requirements such as line-of-sight accuracy. In order for these concepts to become operational it is imperative that the benefits of active vibration control be practically demonstrated in ground based experiments. The results of the experiment successfully demonstrate active vibration control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.
Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy
The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347
Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.
The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.
Downing, John P.; Bauer, Frank H.; Surber, Jeffrey L.
The ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software is under development at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The design goal is to provide a wide selection of controls analysis tools at the personal computer level, as well as the capability to upload compute-intensive jobs to a mainframe or supercomputer. In the last three years the ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software has been under development. ASTEC is meant to be an integrated collection of controls analysis tools for use at the desktop level. MODEL (Multi-Optimal Differential Equation Language) is a translator that converts programs written in the MODEL language to FORTRAN. An upgraded version of the MODEL program will be merged into ASTEC. MODEL has not been modified since 1981 and has not kept with changes in computers or user interface techniques. This paper describes the changes made to MODEL in order to make it useful in the 90's and how it relates to ASTEC.
Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.
Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.
Shearer, William T.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....
Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.
Space flight represents a form of sensory stimulus rearrangement requiring modification of established terrestrial response patterns through central reinterpretation. Evidence of sensory reinterpretation is manifested as postflight modifications of eye/head coordination, locomotor patterns, postural control strategies, and illusory perceptions of self or surround motion in conjunction with head movements. Under normal preflight conditions, the head is stabilized during locomotion, but immediately postflight reduced head stability, coupled with inappropriate eye/head coordination, results in modifications of gait. Postflight postural control exhibits increased dependence on vision which compensates for inappropriate interpretation of otolith and proprioceptive inputs. Eye movements compensatory for perceived self motion, rather than actual head movements have been observed postflight. Overall, the in-flight adaptive modification of head stabilization strategies, changes in head/eye coordination, illusionary motion, and postural control are maladaptive for a return to the terrestrial environment.
Dunn, C. D. R.; Lange, R. D.
Various factors which are important in the regulation of erythropoiesis have been studied in dehydrated mice in the belief that some information would be gained relevant to the erythropoietic effects of space flight. Dehydration reduced the plasma volume and, because changes in red cell volume were minimal, the hematocrit was elevated. Thus a state of relative erythrocytosis was produced. Understanding of the mechanism whereby these changes decreased red cell production is uncertain and appears to differ somewhat from the erythroid suppression seen following elevation of the hematocrit in animals with an absolute erythrocytosis. It is suggested that factors outside of the normal erythropoietic control pathway (such as energy balance) may play an important role in the decrease in red cell volume seen in man following space flight.
The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.
Jevitt, S. J.
A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.
The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and collective controls may not exhibit excessive breakout force,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and collective controls may not exhibit excessive breakout force,...
McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.
We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.
Lane, Helen W.
Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.
Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.
Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.
Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will
Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.
Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.
To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.
From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...
Smith, Scott M.
Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng
Paloski, William H.
Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration
Musgrave, F. S.
A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.
This viewgraph presentation reviews many aspects of spaceflight. There are many pictures of the International Space Station. Some of the topics covered in this review are: Have you ever wondered why we have launch windows? Or why the attitude of the Space Station changes? The half-day seminar answers some of the many questions about why and how we fly in space. Topics in the course were: What's so valuable about micro gravity? How do we get to micro G so close to a huge gravity well like the Earth? How come such a big rocket gets so little payload to space? Why do we have daily launch windows, and why are they so short? What's the beta angle, why does it change so strangely, and why do we care so much about it? Why do we have launch seasons for the Shuttle? Why can't we just launch any old day? Why do we see the station some days, not on others, and at different times and directions? Why do we keep changing the attitude of the Space Station? What are the certified attitudes of the station, and why did we pick these few? Why do we keep changing the altitude of the Space Station among these three? What's the difference between Power Balance, Energy Balance, and Depth-of-Discharge? Where does all the uncertainty come from in our orbit predictions for phasing, collisions, communications coverage, etc? Why do we usually reboost only on days that we do attitude changes? What's F(10.7), what does it do, why do we care, and why does it vary so much? Why do we care about orbital phasing of the ISS? Can't we just do phasing with the arriving vehicles? Why is the Space Station built the way it is? What's Sun Slicer? (or Night Glider, or Dual Angle, or (coming soon!) Mixmaster, or Outrigger, or...) What's a BGA, and what is BGA conditioning all about? What's a Control Moment Gyroscope, and what does it do? What's a desat? Why is it more trouble now than it used to be? How much orbital debris is there, and how dangerous is it? Why aren't we more worried about meteor storms
Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)
A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.
Rackley, Michael; Cooter, Miranda; Davis, George; Mackey, Jennifer
To meet its objective of reducing operations costs without incurring a corresponding increase in risk, NASA is seeking new methods to automate mission operations. This paper examines the state of the art in automating ground operations for space missions. A summary of available technologies and methods for automating mission operations is provided. Responses from interviews with several space mission FOTs (Flight Operations Teams) to assess the degree and success of those technologies and methods implemented are presented. Mission operators that were interviewed approached automation using different tools and methods resulting in varying degrees of success - from nearly completely automated to nearly completely manual. Two key criteria for successful automation are the active participation of the FOT in the planning, designing, testing, and implementation of the system and the relative degree of complexity of the mission.
Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.
Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological
Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.
Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning
Hirzinger, Gerd; Landzettel, Klaus L.; Heindl, J.
In early 1993 the space robot technology experiment ROTEX flew with the space-shuttle Columbia (spacelab mission D2 on flight STS-55 from April 26 to May 6). A multisensory robot on board the space-craft successfully worked in autonomous modes, teleoperated by astronauts, as well as in different telerobotic ground control modes. These include on-line teleoperation and tele-sensor-programming, a task-level oriented programming technique involving `learning by showing' concepts in a virtual environment. The robot's key features were its multisensory gripper and the local sensory feedback schemes which are the basis for shared autonomy. The corresponding man-machine interface concepts using a 6 dof non-force- reflecting control ball and visual feedback to the human operator are explained. Stereographic simulation on ground was used to predict not only the robot's free motion but even the sensor based path refinement on board; prototype tasks performed by this space robot were the assembly of a truss structure, connecting/disconnecting an electric plug (orbit replaceable unit exchange ORU), and grasping free-floating objects.
Olsen, Carrie D.; Horvath, Timothy J.; Davis, Sally P.
The International Space Station (ISS) has been in operation with a permanent human presence in space for over five years, and plans for continued operations stretch ten years into the future. Ground control and support operations are, likewise, a 15-year enterprise. This long-term, 24-hour per day, 7 day per week support has presented numerous challenges in the areas of ground crew training, initial and continued certification, and console staffing. The Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas and the Payload Operations Center in Huntsville, Alabama have both tackled these challenges, with similar, yet distinct, approaches. This paper describes the evolution of the staffing and training policies of both control centers in a chronological progression. The relative merits and shortcomings of the various policies employed are discussed and a summary of "lessons learned" is presented. Finally, recommendations are made as best practices for future long-term space missions.
VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.
Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.
Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.
Stengel, Robert F.
The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.
Berry, C. A.
Review of experience obtained from space flight to evaluate man's physiological capability to function in space. Results of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The space medicine requirements which were necessary for assuring man's safe journey into and return from space have resulted in hardware and techniques of great value to terrestrial medicine. The need to monitor the physiologic function of crewmen led to the development of miniaturized, nonirritating, and highly reliable sensors.
Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.
A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.
Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John
The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.
Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T
It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers. PMID:12361785
Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.
It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.
Semkova, J V; Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Baynov, P T; Tomov, B T; Botolier-Depois, J F; Nguen, V D; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Siegrist, M; Duvivier, E; Almarcha, B; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Makhmutov, V S
Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system RADIUS-MD have been developed for the future MARS-96 mission. On the base of the results and experience of these investigations a conception for a new radiation dose control system for the future orbital stations, lunar bases and interplanetary space ships is proposed. The proposed system which consists of different instruments will allow personal radiation control for crew members, radiation monitoring inside and outside each habitat, analysis and forecasting of the situation and will suggest procedures to minimize the radiation risk. PMID:11540998
Semkova, J. V.; Dachev, Ts. P.; N. Matviichuk, Yu.; Koleva, R. T.; Baynov, P. T.; Tomov, B. T.; Botolier-Depois, J. F.; Nguen, V. D.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Siegrist, M.; Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B.; Petrov, V. M.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Makhmutov, V. S.
Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system RADIUS-MD have been developed for the future MARS-96 mission. On the base of the results and experience of these investigations a conception for a new radiation dose control system for the future orbital stations, lunar bases and interplanetary space ships is proposed. The proposed system which consists of different instruments will allow personal radiation control for crew members, radiation monitoring inside and outside each habitat, analysis and forecasting of the situation and will suggest procedures to minimize the radiation risk.
Huntoon, C. L.
Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.
The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.
Scarffe, V. A.
NASA is focusing on small, low-cost spacecraft for both planetary and earth science missions. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission to be launched by the NMP. The New Millennium Project (NMP) is designed to develop and test new technology that can be used on future science missions with lower cost and risk. The NMP is finding ways to reduce cost not only in development, but also in operations. DS 1 was approved for an extended mission, but the budget was not large, so the project began looking into part time team members shared with other projects. DS1 launched on October 24, 1998, in it's primary mission it successfully tested twelve new technologies. The extended mission started September 18, 1999 and ran through the encounter with Comet Borrelly on September 22,2001. The Flight Control Team (FCT) was one team that needed to use part time or multi mission people. Circumstances led to a situation where for the few months before the Borrelly encounter in September of 2001 DSl had no certified full time Flight Control Engineers also known as Aces. This paper examines how DS 1 utilized cross-project support including the communication between different projects, and the how the tools used by the Flight Control Engineer fit into cross-project support.
Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.
The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.
Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.
Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved
Mccarty, B. J.
System function aspects of the first Space Shuttle mission are assessed. Almost 90 mission anomalies have been identified by a mission evaluation team, which were variously attributed to instrumentation sensor failures, improper operation, or design deficiencies. The two most significant problems encountered were Solid Rocket Booster ignition wave overpressure, which exceeded maximum expected pressure by a factor of 2:1 over most of the Orbiter and 5:1 at a sensor location on the aft bulkhead, near the engines, and an inoperative tumble valve, which would normally have imparted to the Space Shuttle External Tank a tumbling motion, after Tank separation, that insures disintegration of the large structure during reentry. The first problem has been solved by strengthening six support struts, and the second by ensuring that the tumble valve is moisture-free.
Bacal, Kira; Billica, Roger; Bishop, Sheryl
Neurovestibular symptoms experienced by astronauts in the post-flight period were examined using data from medical debriefs contained in the NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health database. Ten symptoms were identified (clumsiness, difficulty concentrating, persisting sensation aftereffects, nausea, vomiting, vertigo while walking, vertigo while standing, difficulty walking a straight line, blurred vision, and dry heaves), of which eight were crossed with twelve demographic parameters (mission duration, astronaut gender, age, one-g piloting experience, previous space flight experience, g-suit inflation, g-suit deflation, in-flight space motion sickness, in-flight exercise, post-flight exercise, mission role, fluid loading). Three symptoms were experienced by a majority of subjects, and another two by more than a quarter of the subjects. Intensity of the symptoms was mild, suggesting that they are unlikely to pose a risk to the crew during landing and the post-flight period. Seven of the symptoms and eight of the parameters under study were found to be significantly associated with each other. PMID:14757912
Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto
A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.
Braught, W.; Moore, E. K.; Steinberg, R. L.
The Velocity Control Propulsion Subsystem (VCPS) was designed the propulsion required for trajectory and lunar orbit corrections of the spacecraft. A GFE clamp assembly physically attaches the VCPS to the spacecraft and the unit is ejected after completing the required corrections. The VCPS is physically and functionally separated from the spacecraft except for the electrical and telemetry interfaces. A GFE transtage provides the superstructure on which the VCPS is assembled. The subsystem consists of two 5 foot pound rocket engine assemblies, 4 propellant tanks, 2 latching valves, 2 fill and drain valves, a system filter, pressure transducer, gas and propellant manifolds and electrical heaters and thermostats. The RAE-B VCPS program covered the design, manufacture and qualification of one subsystem. This subsystem was to be manufactured, subjected to qualification tests; and refurbished, if necessary, prior to flight. The VCPS design and test program precluded the need for refurbishing the subsystem and the unit was delivered to GSFC at the conclusion of the program.
... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...
This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.
Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)
Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.
The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.
Criswell-Hudak, B S
The health status of an astronaut prior to and following space flight has been a prime concern of NASA throughout the Apollo series of lunar landings, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects (ASTP), and the new Spacelab-Shuttle missions. Both humoral and cellular immunity has been studied using classical clinical procedures. Serum proteins show fluctuations that can be explained with adaptation to flight. Conversely, cellular immune responses of lymphocytes appear to be depressed in both in vivo as well as in vitro. If this depression in vivo and in vitro is a result of the same cause, then man's adaptation to outer space living will present interesting challenges in the future. Since the cause may be due to reduced gravity, perhaps the designs of the experiments for space flight will offer insights at the cellular levels that will facilitate development of mechanisms for adaptation. Further, if the aging process is viewed as an adaptational concept or model and not as a disease process then perhaps space flight could very easily interact to supply some information on our biological time clocks. PMID:1915698
Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor); Thurston, Marlin O. (Inventor); Olson, Karl W. (Inventor); Ventola, Ronald W. (Inventor)
A flight simulator arrangement wherein a conventional, movable base flight trainer is combined with a visual cue display surface spaced a predetermined distance from an eye position within the trainer. Thus, three degrees of motive freedom (roll, pitch and crab) are provided for a visual proprioceptive, and vestibular cue system by the trainer while the remaining geometric visual cue image alterations are developed by a video system. A geometric approach to computing runway image eliminates a need to electronically compute trigonometric functions, while utilization of a line generator and designated vanishing point at the video system raster permits facile development of the images of the longitudinal edges of the runway.
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd
OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.
Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data. PMID:12971415
Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.
A program of flying qualities experiments as part of the Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is defined. Phase 1, published as CR-170391, reviewed flying qualities criteria and shuttle data. The review of applicable experimental and shuttle data to further define the OEX plan is continued. An unconventional feature of this approach is the use of pilot strategy model identification to relate flight and simulator results. Instrumentation, software, and data analysis techniques for pilot model measurements are examined. The relationship between shuttle characteristics and superaugmented aircraft is established. STS flights 1 through 4 are reviewed from the point of view of flying qualities. A preliminary plan for a coordinated program of inflight and simulator research is presented.
Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.
Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.
Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.
Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.
Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)
A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to
Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances
After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and
An impulse measurement device and analysis package was conceived, designed, constructed, tested, and demonstrated to be capable of: measuring nanoNewton-seconds to milliNewton-seconds of impulse due to laser-ablation; being transported as carry-on baggage; set-up and tear-down times of less than an hour; target exchange times of less than two minutes (targets can be ablated at multiple positions for thousands of shots); measurements in air and in vacuum; error of just a few percent; repeatability over a wide range of potential systematic error sources; and time between measurements, including ring-down and analysis, of less than 30 seconds. The instrument consists of a cantilever (i.e. leaf spring), whose time-dependent displacement/oscillation is measured and analyzed to determine the impulse imparted by a laser pulse to a target. These shapes are readily/commercially available, and any target material can be used, provided it can be fashioned in the form of a cantilever, or as a coating/film/tape, suitable for mounting on a cantilever of known geometry. The instrument was calibrated both statically and dynamically, and measurements were performed on brass, steel, and Aluminum, using laser pulses of ~7ns, ~500ps, and ~500fs. The results agree well with those published in the literature, with surface effects, atmosphere, and pre-/post-pulses demonstrating interesting effects and indicating areas for further study. In addition to exploring space-propulsion applications, measurements were performed to explore the strong beneficial effects of depositing lines of energy ahead of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. This deposition creates a low-density channel, through which a vehicle can travel with dramatically reduced drag. Temperature and pressure are both also reduced on the front surfaces of the vehicle, while density and pressure are increased at the vehicle base. When applied off-center, this technique can be used to control the vehicle, employing the entire
On October 19, 2006, former NASA director of Mission Operations Gene Kranz was a keynote speaker at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 2006 Annual Safety Day program. The best selling author of 'Failure Is Not An Option' and past Apollo flight director was featured during a morning session called 'Coffee and Kranz'. Marshall employees hung on his every word as he told the fascinating story of Apollo 13. Kranz was the acting flight director during the Apollo 13 mission, a mission that seemed doomed to fail due to an onboard explosion. Kranz and his flight control team worked around the clock relentlessly, solving problem after problem, until the crew was returned safely to Earth.
The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.
Gamble, J. D.
The process used in the application of aerodynamic uncertainties for the design and verification of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry Flight Control System is presented. The uncertainties were used to help set center of gravity, angle of attack and dynamic pressure lateral control divergence parameter as well as C sub n sub beta dynamic were instrumental in setting these placards.
Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D. T.
Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.
Stein, T P
Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress. PMID:12361781
Yang, Tang-bin; Zhong, Ping; Qu, Li-na; Yuan, Yan-hong
Space flight is associated with an increase of peroxidative damage after returning to 1 g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight and can even last for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduced blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha, and 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha and 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes are attributed to a combination of energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleted muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by studies in rodents, which showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity afterflight. The changes in rodents were attributed to the stress associated with re-entry into Earth's gravity. Reducing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply antioxidants in diet may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress. PMID:15008196
Stein, T. P.
Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.
De Sio, Antonio; Pace, Emanuele; Giannini, A.; Bruzzi, Mara; Miglio, Stefania; Scaringella, Monica; Bucciolini, Marta; Woerner, Eckhard; Wild, Christoph; Donati, Alessandro; Zolesi, Valfredo; Cotronei, Vittorio
Biological experiments in space and ongoing human space missions devoted to the solar system exploration require significant advancements in the radiation environment monitoring systems. Radiation hazard has to be continuously monitored and the evaluation of the biological damage suffered should be calculated within short time. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of using polycrystalline diamond films as dosimeters for space applications. The charge trapped into deep intra-gap defect levels during radiation exposure, and released during a high-temperature thermal scan to give thermally stimulated current (TSC), has been integrated as a function of time to evaluate the absorbed dose. The capability of diamond films to detect low doses has been demonstrated down to the mGys range. First application of these dosimeters in a real twelve-day, low Earth orbit, space mission has been carried out. TSC results have been proved to give correct evaluation of the dose absorbed during the space mission, assessing the capabilities of synthetic diamond and TSC read-out system as a proper dosimetry technique for space applications.
We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.
Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb
Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other...
The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted after astronauts return to Earth. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.
The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted on crewmembers. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.
Norfleet, William T.
Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.
Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.
The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.
Maks, Lori; Breed, Julie; Rackley, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)
NASA is particularly concerned with reducing mission operations costs through increased automation. This paper examines the operations procedures within NASA Mission Control Centers in order to uncover the level of automation that currently exists within them. Based on an assessment of mission operations procedures within three representative control centers, this paper recommends specific areas where there is potential for mission cost reduction through increased automation.
In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.
Sarver, George L. (Inventor)
A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.
Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.
The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.
Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.
Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.
Gartner, W. B.; Baldwin, K. M.
A study of the display requirements for final approach management of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is presented. An experimental display concept, providing a more direct, pictorial representation of the vehicle's movement relative to the selected approach path and aiming points, was developed and assessed as an aid to manual flight path control. Both head-up, windshield projections and head-down, panel mounted presentations of the experimental display were evaluated in a series of simulated orbiter approach sequence. Data obtained indicate that the experimental display would enable orbiter pilots to exercise greater flexibility in implementing alternative final approach control strategies. Touchdown position and airspeed dispersion criteria were satisfied on 91 percent of the approach sequences, representing various profile and wind effect conditions. Flight path control and airspeed management satisfied operationally-relevant criteria for the two-segment, power-off orbiter approach and were consistently more accurate and less variable when the full set of experimental display elements was available to the pilot. Approach control tended to be more precise when the head-up display was used; however, the data also indicate that the head-down display would provide adequate support for the manual control task.
A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.
International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance
Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.
As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.
Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Harm, Deborah L.; Paloski, William H.
From a sensory point of view, space flight represents a form of stimulus rearrangement requiring modification of established terrestrial response patterns through central reinterpretation. Evidence of sensory reinterpretation is manifested as postflight modifications of eye/head coordination, locomotor patterns, postural control strategies, and illusory perceptions of self or surround motion in conjunction with head movements. Under normal preflight conditions, the head is stabilized during locomotion, but immediately postflight reduced head stability, coupled with inappropriate eye/head coordination, results in modifications of gait. Postflight postural control exhibits increased dependence on vision which compensates for inappropriate interpretation of otolith and proprioceptive inputs. Eye movements compensatory for perceived self motion, rather than actual head movements have been observed postflight. Overall, the in-flight adaptive modification of head stabilization strategies, changes in head/eye coordination, illusionary motion, and postural control are maladaptive for a return to the terrestrial environment. Appropriate countermeasures for long-duration flights will rely on preflight adaptation and in-flight training.
Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.
The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.
The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.
Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.
The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each required flight crewmember...
North, W. J.
The present investigation regarding the pilot's role in manned space flight takes into account space missions conducted with the Mercury capsule, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is concluded that advancements in digital systems and automation technology have made many of the space pilot's tasks easier. However, these advancements have also made the space pilot's training more complicated. He must be familiar with the interrelated failure effects in highly complex vehicle systems. The nominal performance of the Shuttle fly-by-wire entry control system depends, for instance, on nominal electrical power from three fuel cells, nominal performance of three hydraulic auxiliary power units, five computers, other equipment, and microwave landing systems. The pilot must monitor and manage failures in these systems, and, in addition, must be prepared to intervene if an abort situation creates off-nominal conditions.
Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor
Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator
Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Gaiser, Karen K.; Teeter, Ronald C.
In space, adaptive physiological changes have been observed in virtually all body systems, but how far these changes progress with time is not known. Their time course demonstrates variable patterns; some systems show evidence of gradual and progressive change. Biomedical postflight data have shown that a compensatory period of readaptation to one gravity is required after space flight, with longer intervals required for longer missions. Consistent readaptation trends include orthostatic intolerance and neurovestibular difficulties. For the long-duration missions of the exploration era, it is critical to determine the extent to which deleterious changes (e.g., bone loss and possible immunological changes) can be reversed upon return to earth. Radiation protection is another critical enabling element for missions beyond low earth orbit. Radiation exposure guidelines have not been established for exploration missions. Currently our experience is insufficient to prescribe countermeasures for the stay times associated with a lunar base or a mission to Mars. Artificial gravity may provide a solution, but the level and duration of exposure necessary to prevent deconditioning must be determined. Central issues for medical care in remote settings are preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic care and the minimization of risk.
The evaluation of space radiation hazards and shielding requirements is discussed. The proton and electron exposures encountered in earth orbit from the earth radiation belts and solar-flare activity are calculated as functions of orbital altitude and inclination, and the probabilities of exceeding a given dose equivalent are given in tables for missions of varying duration. The Galactic space radiation is characterized and shown to be significant only beyond the earth's vicinity. The Radiation Shielding Design Criteria approved by the USSR Ministry of Health are discussed, and the need for a more heavily shielded shelter module to be used whenever solar-flare activity is detected is indicated. The shielding of interplanetary spacecraft is considered, and it is shown that much heavier shielding is needed for missions longer than about 2 yrs during solar minimum or 3 yrs during solar maximum, or for spacecraft with nuclear energy installations (NEI). A typical shielding thickness requirement is 20 g/sq cm for the radiation shelter of a spacecraft powered by liquid propellant or by a nuclear rocket engine (but without an NEI) on a 600-d interplanetary flight. 7 references.
Johnson, Kathy A.; Shek, Molly
Astronauts in a space station are to some extent like patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medical support of a mission crew will require acquisition, transmission, distribution, integration, and archiving of significant amounts of data. These data are acquired by disparate systems and will require timely, reliable, and secure distribution to different communities for the execution of various tasks of space missions. The goal of the Comprehensive Medical Information System (CMIS) Project at Johnson Space Center Flight Medical Clinic is to integrate data from all Medical Operations sources, including the reference information sources and the electronic medical records of astronauts. A first step toward the full CMIS implementation is to integrate and organize the reference information sources and the electronic medical record with the Flight Surgeons console. In order to investigate this integration, we need to understand the usability problems of the Flight Surgeon's console in particular and medical information systems in general. One way to achieve this understanding is through the use of user and task analyses whose general purpose is to ensure that only the necessary and sufficient task features that match users capacities will be included in system implementations. The goal of this summer project was to conduct user and task analyses employing cognitive engineering techniques to analyze the task of the Flight Surgeons and Biomedical Engineers (BMEs) while they worked on Console. The techniques employed were user interviews, observations and a questionnaire to collect data for which a hierarchical task analysis and an information resource assessment were performed. They are described in more detail below. Finally, based on our analyses, we make recommendations for improvements to the support structure.
Venneri, Samuel L.
The topics addressed are covered in viewgraph form. The objective of the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) programs is to study gravity dependent nonlinearities associated with fluid slosh and truss structure dynamics. MODE provides a reusable facility for on-orbit dynamics testing of small scale test articles in the shirt sleeve environment on the Shuttle middeck. Flight program objective of Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is to study gravity effects on the performance and stability of controlled structures.
Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert
This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.
Juridical aspects of space flights and international law are elaborated. Considered are manned orbital space stations, as well as lunar or planetary bases and the international exploration of extraterrestrial resources.
Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clement, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C..
Control of vehicles and other complex systems is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS). It requires well-functioning subsystem performance, including good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Evidence from space flight research demonstrates that the function of each of these subsystems is altered by removing gravity, a fundamental orientation reference, which is sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, posture, navigation, and coordination of movements. The available evidence also shows that the degree of alteration of each subsystem depends on a number of crew- and mission-related factors. There is only limited operational evidence that these alterations cause functional impacts on mission-critical vehicle (or complex system) control capabilities. Furthermore, while much of the operational performance data collected during space flight has not been available for independent analysis, those that have been reviewed are somewhat equivocal owing to uncontrolled (and/or unmeasured) environmental and/or engineering factors. Whether this can be improved by further analysis of previously inaccessible operational data or by development of new operational research protocols remains to be seen. The true operational risks will be estimable only after we have filled the knowledge gaps and when we can accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings (Paloski et al. 2008). Thus, our current understanding of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight is limited primarily to extrapolation of scientific research findings, and, since there are limited ground-based analogs of the sensorimotor and vestibular changes associated with space flight, observation of their functional
Space flight has been shown to alter many immunological responses. Among those affected are the production of cytokines, Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system that facilitate communication among cells that allow the interaction among cells leading to the development of immune responses. Included among the cytokines are the interferons, interleukins, and colony stimulating factors. Cytokines also facilitate communication between the immune system and other body systems, such as the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems. Some cytokines also have direct protective effects on the host, such as interferon, which can inhibit the replication of viruses. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that models of space flight as well as actual space flight alter the production and action of cytokines. Included among these changes are altered interferon production, altered responsiveness of bone marrow cells to granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor, but no alteration in the production of interleukin-3. This suggests that there are selective effects of space flight on immune responses, i.e. not all cytokines are affected in the same fashion by space flight. Tissue culture studies also suggest that there may be direct effects of space flight on the cells responsible for cytokine production and action. The results of the above study indicate that the effects of space flight on cytokines may be a fundamental mechanism by which space flight not only affects immune responses, but also other biological systems of the human.
The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.
Filatova, L P; Vaulina, E N; Lapteva, N Sh; Grozdova, T Ia
An experiment with Drosophila melanogaster males was performed aboard the Artificial Satellite "Kosmos-1667". Mutagenic effects of a 7-day space flight on intergene recombination in chromosome 2 were studied. The space flight factors decreased the frequency of recombination. A model experiment on a laboratory centrifuge demonstrated insignificant increase in recombination frequency caused by acceleration. PMID:3135244
Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.
A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.
Jorgensen, Charles C.
Neural networks are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to permit real-time adaptive control of time varying nonlinear systems, enhance the fault-tolerance of mission hardware, and permit online system reconfiguration. In general, the problem of controlling time varying nonlinear systems with unknown structures has not been solved. Adaptive neural control techniques show considerable promise and are being applied to technical challenges including automated docking of spacecraft, dynamic balancing of the space station centrifuge, online reconfiguration of damaged aircraft, and reducing cost of new air and spacecraft designs. Our experiences have shown that neural network algorithms solved certain problems that conventional control methods have been unable to effectively address. These include damage mitigation in nonlinear reconfiguration flight control, early performance estimation of new aircraft designs, compensation for damaged planetary mission hardware by using redundant manipulator capability, and space sensor platform stabilization. This presentation explored these developments in the context of neural network control theory. The discussion began with an overview of why neural control has proven attractive for NASA application domains. The more important issues in control system development were then discussed with references to significant technical advances in the literature. Examples of how these methods have been applied were given, followed by projections of emerging application needs and directions.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space...
Living Together in Space: The International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Issues and Solutions-Sustaining Engineering Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center From 1998 to 2005
Wieland, P. O.; Roman, M. C.; Miller, L.
On board the International Space Station, heat generated by the crew and equipment is removed by the internal active thermal control system to maintain a comfortable working environment and prevent equipment overheating. Test facilities simulating the internal active thermal control system (IATCS) were constructed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the sustaining engineering activities to address concerns related to operational issues, equipment capability, and reliability. A full-scale functional simulator of the Destiny lab module IATCS was constructed and activated prior to launch of Destiny in 2001. This facility simulates the flow and thermal characteristics of the flight system and has a similar control interface. A subscale simulator was built, and activated in 2000, with special attention to materials and proportions of wetted surfaces to address issues related to changes in fluid chemistry, material corrosion, and microbial activity. The flight issues that have arisen and the tests performed using the simulator facilities are discussed in detail. In addition, other test facilities at the MSFC have been used to perform specific tests related to IATCS issues. Future testing is discussed as well as potential modifications to the simulators to enhance their utility.
Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.
Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.
The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.
The papers presented in this report represent the classified portion of the Second Manned Space Flight Meeting which was held in Dallas, TX, on April 22-24, 1963. The meeting was co-sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The following subjects are discussed in the report: Manned Space Flight Programs, Launch Vehicles, Spacecraft Design, and Guidance and Control.
This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.
Doty, St B.
Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.
Patha, J. T.; Noess, K. A.; Lines, M. V.
The atmospheric ascent flight phase of the mated composite booster and orbiter is discussed. The composite recoverable space shuttle booster and orbiter exhibits unique flight control characteristics. This uniqueness results from large lifting surfaces and aerodynamic and structural assymetrics. An effective load relief technique reduces aerodynamic loads on both the booster and the orbiter. Reducing aerodynamic loads permits decreasing the structural weight of the lifting and stabilizing surfaces. An orbiter payload penalty is caused by trajectory deviations resulting from load relief. However, the net effect of an effective load relief technique is an increase in payload capability. Atmospheric launch dynamics investigations have been carried out for different configuration types, which include expendable, straight wing, delta wing, and ballistic recoverable boosters.
In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.
Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.
A six degree of freedom simulation analysis was performed for the space shuttle orbiter during entry from Mach 8 to Mach 1.5 with realistic off nominal conditions by using the flight control systems defined by the shuttle contractor. The off nominal conditions included aerodynamic uncertainties in extrapolating from wind tunnel derived characteristics to full scale flight characteristics, uncertainties in the estimates of the reaction control system interaction with the orbiter aerodynamics, an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, the failure of two of the four reaction control system thrusters on each side, and a lateral center of gravity offset coupled with vehicle and flow asymmetries. With combinations of these off nominal conditions, the flight control system performed satisfactorily. At low hypersonic speeds, a few cases exhibited unacceptable performances when errors in deriving the angle of attack from the onboard instrumentation were modeled. The orbiter was unable to maintain lateral trim for some cases between Mach 5 and Mach 2 and exhibited limit cycle tendencies or residual roll oscillations between Mach 3 and Mach 1. Piloting techniques and changes in some gains and switching times in the flight control system are suggested to help alleviate these problems.
Nicogossian, A.; Rambaut, P.; Pool, S.
Among the various manned space missions expected during the next 10 years are flights of up to 6 months duration in low earth orbit as well as short excursions to geosynchronous orbit. Research activities are described which cover the full spectrum of physiological and psychological problems presented by such flights as well as by ongoing Shuttle flights. This paper includes a summary of the major technical thrusts needed for habitation in space. It concludes that there is a high probability of developing countermeasures that will alleviate the neurophysiological and cardiovascular effects encountered during Shuttle flights and that the resolution of musculoskeletal, psychological and radiobiological problems will also prove possible.
Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.
The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency...
Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.
Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the
Woodcock, Gordon; Wingo, Dennis
A modular design for a solar-electric tug was analyzed to establish flight control requirements and methods. Thrusters are distributed around the periphery of the solar array. This design enables modules to be berthed together to create a larger system from smaller modules. It requires a different flight mode than traditional design and a different thrust direction scheme, to achieve net thrust in the desired direction, observe thruster pointing constraints that avoid plume impingement on the tug, and balance moments. The array is perpendicular to the Sun vector for maximum electric power. The tug may maintain a constant inertial attitude or rotate around the Sun vector once per orbit. Either non-rotating or constant angular velocity rotation offers advantages over the conventional flight mode, which has highly variable roll rates. The baseline single module has 12 thrusters: two 2-axis gimbaling main thrusters, one at each ``end'', and two back-to-back Z axis thrusters at each corner of the array. Thruster pointing and throttling were optimized to maximize net thrust effectiveness while observing constraints. Control design used a spread sheet with Excel Solver to calculate nominal thruster pointing and throttling. These results are used to create lookup tables. A conventional control system generates a thruster pointing and throttling overlay on the nominals to maintain active attitude control. Gravity gradients can cause major attitude perturbations during occultation periods if thrust is off during these periods. Thrust required to maintain attitude is about 4% of system rated power. This amount of power can be delivered by a battery system, avoiding the performance penalty if chemical propulsion thrusters were used to maintain attitude.
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.
Walter, Virginia A.
The best CD-ROMs for young people about space and flight exploit the promise of hypermedia to create informative simulations. This article provides an annotated bibliography of CD-ROMs on astronomy and flight for K-12 students; suggests book and Internet connections; and highlights poetry for astronomers, science fiction, a biography of Charles…
Stewart, R. A., Jr.
Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…
Freed, Michael; Bonasso, Pete; Ingham, Mitch; Kortenkamp, David; Perix, John
NASA has long supported research on intelligent control technologies that could allow space systems to operate autonomously or with reduced human supervision. Proposed uses range from automated control of entire space vehicles to mobile robots that assist or substitute for astronauts to vehicle systems such as life support that interact with other systems in complex ways and require constant vigilance. The potential for pervasive use of such technology to extend the kinds of missions that are possible in practice is well understood, as is its potential to radically improve the robustness, safety and productivity of diverse mission systems. Despite its acknowledged potential, intelligent control capabilities are rarely used in space flight systems. Perhaps the most famous example of intelligent control on a spacecraft is the Remote Agent system flown on the Deep Space One mission (1998 - 2001). However, even in this case, the role of the intelligent control element, originally intended to have full control of the spacecraft for the duration of the mission, was reduced to having partial control for a two-week non-critical period. Even this level of mission acceptance was exceptional. In most cases, mission managers consider intelligent control systems an unacceptable source of risk and elect not to fly them. Overall, the technology is not trusted. From the standpoint of those who need to decide whether to incorporate this technology, lack of trust is easy to understand. Intelligent high-level control means allowing software io make decisions that are too complex for conventional software. The decision-making behavior of these systems is often hard to understand and inspect, and thus hard to evaluate. Moreover, such software is typically designed and implemented either as a research product or custom-built for a particular mission. In the former case, software quality is unlikely to be adequate for flight qualification and the functionality provided by the system is
Johnson, P. C., Jr.
Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.
This sign, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Redstone Test Site as a National Historic Landmark. The site was inducted into the National Register of Historical Places in 1976.
Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.
The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flown. The objective of the TCSE on the LDEF was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post-flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low Earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in the lab. The performance of the TCSE flight system on the LDEF was excellent.
Guerny, Gene (Editor); Moe, Karen (Editor); Paddack, Steven (Editor); Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Sullivan, Walter (Editor); Ballard, Jan (Editor)
Research at Goddard Space Flight Center during 1987 is summarized. Topics addressed include space and earth sciences, technology, flight projects and mission definition studies, and institutional technology.
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.
Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234
Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853
Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina
Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 125.311... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.311 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...
This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in
Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.
Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational
Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.
A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis has been performed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry from Mach 10 to 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the entry flight control system specified in May 1978. The off-nominal conditions included the following: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties, (2) an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) the failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side, and (4) a lateral center-of-gravity offset. With combinations of the above off-nominal conditions, the control system performed satisfactorily with a few exceptions. The cases that did not exhibit satisfactory performance displayed the following main weaknesses. Marginal performance was exhibited at hypersonic speeds with a sensed angle-of-attack error of 4 deg. At supersonic speeds the system tended to be oscillatory, and the system diverged for several cases because of the inability to hold lateral trim. Several system modifications were suggested to help solve these problems and to maximize safety on the first flight: alter the elevon-trim and speed-brake schedules, delay switching to rudder trim until the rudder effectiveness is adequate, and reduce the overall rudder loop gain. These and other modifications were incorporated in a flight-control-system redesign in May 1979.
Worgul, Basil V.
As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.
A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.
Shearer, William T.; Zhang, Shaojie; Reuben, James M.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Butel, Janet S.
Of all of the environmental conditions of space flight that might have an adverse effect upon human immunity and the incidence of infection, space radiation stands out as the single-most important threat. As important as this would be on humans engaged in long and deep space flight, it obviously is not possible to plan Earth-bound radiation and infection studies in humans. Therefore, we propose to develop a murine model that could predict the adverse effects of space flight radiation and reactivation of latent virus infection for humans. Recent observations on the effects of gamma and latent virus infection demonstrate latent virus reactivation and loss of T cell mediated immune responses in a murine model. We conclude that using this small animal method of quantitating the amounts of radiation and latent virus infection and resulting alterations in immune responses, it may be possible to predict the degree of immunosuppression in interplanetary space travel for humans. Moreover, this model could be extended to include other space flight conditions, such as microgravity, sleep deprivation, and isolation, to obtain a more complete assessment of space flight risks for humans.
Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron
The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.
Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.
This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.
Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)
Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.
This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)
Reed, Robert A.
This paper presents viewgraphs on computational physics for space flight applications. The topics include: 1) Introduction to space radiation effects in microelectronics; 2) Using applied physics to help NASA meet mission objectives; 3) Example of applied computational physics; and 4) Future directions in applied computational physics.
Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.
Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.
Smith, Scott M; Uchakin, Peter N; Tobin, Brian W
Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section. PMID:12361789
A survey of the training in the cosmonaut center 'Yuri Gagarin' near Moscow (U.S.S.R.) and of the preparation for the joint Soviet-Austrian space flight from 2-10 Oct. 1991 is given. The flight in Soyuz-TM 13 with the most important systems, as well as a short description of the Space Station Mir, the life on board the Station with the basic systems, like energy supply, life support, radio, and television are described. The possibilities of exploitation of the Space Station Mir and an outlook to the future is given.
Metter, E.; Milman, M. H.
The Space Station will be assembled in low earth orbit by a combination of deployable and space erectable modules that are progressively integrated during successive flights of the Shuttle. The crew assisted space construction will result in a configuration which is a large scale composite of structural elements having connectivity with a wide range of possible end conditions and imprecisely known dynamic characteristics. The generic applications of Flight Dynamics Identification to the candidate Space Station configurations currently under consideration are described. Identification functions are categorized, and the various methods for extracting parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of specific characteristics of interest to both engineering subsystems and users of the Station's commercial and scientific facilities. Onboard implementation architecture and constraints are discussed from the viewpoint of maximizing integration of the Identification process with the flight subsystem's data and signal flow.
Kurzhals, P. R.; Deloach, R.
In connection with advances in technology, mainly in the electronic area, aircraft flight control applications have evolved from simple pilot-relief autopilots to flight-critical and redundant fly-by-wire and active control systems. For flight-critical implementations which required accommodation of inflight failures, additional levels of redundancy were incorporated to provide fail-safe and fail-operative performance. The current status of flight control systems reliability is examined and high-reliability approaches are discussed. Attention is given to the design of ring laser gyros and magnetohydrodynamic rate sensors, redundancy configurations for component failure protection, improvements of hydraulic actuators made on the component level, integrated actuators, problems of software reliability, lightning considerations, and failure detection methods for component and system failures.
Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim
The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.
Mohler, Robert R. J.
Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)
A totally reusable space shuttle configuration has been analyzed during ascent flight to determine its response to atmospheric turbulence. Responses in the form of booster and orbiter body accelerations and booster wing root shear, bending moment and turque were obtained due to random and quasi-square-wave discrete turbulence. The configuration was also analyzed with booster aerodynamic surfaces removed to simulate an expendable booster. Symmetric and antisymmetric analyses were performed. Propellant sloshing, gust penetration, and automatic control system effects were included. It was found that the symmetric responses were generally higher than the antisymmetric ones. The stability augmentation system tended to lower the booster accelerations in the symmetric case, while increasing the orbiter accelerations.
Annable, R V
The hybrid cryogenic cooler is an intermittent Joule-Thomson refrigerator with a precooler in the form of a passive radiator. The properties of the J-T expansion and the gas storage vessel are used to select fluids on the basis of available refrigeration per unit mass. Surface forces and container geometry are used to confine and control the liquid cryogen in a zero-gravity environment. The precooler and vaporized liquid are used to reduce parasitic thermal inputs to the point where most of the heat of vaporization is available for useful purposes. Modifications can be made to increase the efficiency or extend the temperature range. Ambient storage combined with efficient operation make the hybrid cooler attractive for space flight applications. PMID:20203860
Brand, V. D.
An account is given of the flight testing development phase of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Because of its low lift-to-drag ratio, the Orbiter must make its 280-kt landing approach in the lower atmosphere with a steep descent angle of 19 deg, pulling up at 1800 feet altitude to a 1-1.5 deg descent angle, and finally gliding to a landing at 195 kt. The Orbiter has almost neutral aerodynamic static stability in pitch and yaw, requiring the use of electronic stabilization to augment the vehicle's natural stability. Attention is given to the flight test program, which comprised the first four flights of the Space Shuttle, and which substantially relied on preflight analysis to establish confidence in Shuttle flight performance. Also discussed are the solar radiation absorption and aerodynamic heating characteristics
Smith, Scott M.
Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to
Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie
Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.
Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...
Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.
Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.
Smokey Bear celebrated his 68th birthday with a special visit to the International Space Station Flight Control Room at Johnson Space Center in Houston. On May 14, Smokey went where no bear had gon...
Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy
This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).
Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.
The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.
Nechitailo, Galina S.
Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other
Lane, Helen W.
The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.
Macho, Ladislav; Németh, Štefan; Kvetňanský, Richard; Ficková, Maria; Tigranian, Ruben A.; Serova, Ljubov
The activity of the enzymes involved in aminoacid metabolism (tyrosine aminotransferase, TAT, tryptophan pyrrolase TP, serine dehydratase, SD) with rapid response to glucocorticoids and enzymes requiring for activity increase repeated administration of corticosterone (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, AST) in liver, the changes of lipolysis in adipose tissue and the plasma corticosterone levels were studied in rats subjected to space flight (F), in animals from synchron model experiments (SM, simulated conditions of space flight in laboratory) and in intact controls (C). The increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and of the activity of rapidly (TAT, TP, SD) and slowly activating enzymes (ALT, AST) was found in F group 6-10 hr after space flight (18.5 days on biosatellite COSMOS 1129). This suggested the presence of acute-stress (associated primarily with the landing) and chronic stress induced hypercorticosteronemia during the flight. After the short 6-day period of recovery the plasma corticosterone concentrations and the activities of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to repeated immobilization stress showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. No changes in basal lipolysis were observed in flight rats in comparison to intact controls, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lover in animals from F and SM groups. This lower response of lipolytic processes to norepinephrine was found in flight animals also after six days period of recovery. These results showed that there are important changes in the regulation of lipolytic processes in adipose tissue of rats after space flight and in the conditions of model experiments.
Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.
Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.
Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L
Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770
Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.
Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.
Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)
The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.
Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clément, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C.
We examine the various dimensions of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight by reviewing the research and operational evidence demonstrating sensorimotor performance decrements during and after space flight. These sensorimotor performance decrements might affect vehicle and complex system control, including decreased visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Sensorimotor performance decrements might also affect the ability to egress and walk away from the vehicle in case of an emergency or an extravehicular activity on a planetary surface. We also review the countermeasures that have been tested, including medication, prevention techniques and training exercises, physical rehabilitation, and mechanical devices. Furthermore, we identify the current knowledge and mitigation gaps that must be filled through further research and/or data mining efforts before the risk can be fully mitigated. We conclude that the true operational risks associated with the impacts of adaptive sensorimotor changes on mobility and crew abilities to control vehicles and other complex systems will only be estimable after the gaps have been filled and we have been able to accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings. A large body of sensorimotor research data obtained from space flight experiments over the past half-century demonstrates significant decrements in oculomotor control, eye-hand coordination, spatial orientation, posture\\locomotor control and cognition during space flight missions. While these changes are most severe during and after G-transitions, the most crucial time for many critical operational tasks (e.g., landing and egress), only limited information is available to assess the operational impacts of these changes. Some of the operational observations are
Six, N. F. (Compiler)
The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm
Nagatomo, Masanori; Tanaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi
Japan is collaborating on the multinational space station program. The JEM, Japanese Experiment Module, has both a pressurized module and an Exposed Facility (EF). JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) will play a dominant role in handling/servicing payloads and the maintenance of the EF, and consists of two robotic arms, a main arm and a small fine arm. JEM Flight Demonstration (JFD) is a space robotics experiment using the prototype small fine arm to demonstrate its capability, prior to the Space Station operation. The small fine arm will be installed in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and operated by a crew from a dedicated workstation in the Aft Flight Deck of the orbiter.
Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.
The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of α-interferon remained unchanged while that of γ-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.
Naumov, I A; Kornilova, L N; Glukhikh, D O; Pavlova, A S; Khabarova, E V; Ekimovsky, G A; Vasin, A V
Results of the vestibular function testing of 32 cosmonauts on return from repeated 125- to 215-day space flights (SF) on the International space station are presented. The cosmonauts were tested twice before flight (baseline data collection) and on days 1-2, 4-5 and 8-9 after landing. Electro- and video-oculography were used to register simultaneously eye and head movements. It was found that deadaptation following a repeated stay in long-duration SF takes statistically much shorter time. Most often, atypical vestibular disorders and changed patterns of the otolith-semicircular canal interaction are observed in cosmonauts who have made their maiden flights to microgravity. PMID:26934788
Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken
This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs
Colombo, G. V.
Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.
Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.
This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.
Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III
Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.
Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.
Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.
Ortega, M. Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K.
We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23420085
From NASAâs International Space Station Mission Control Center Todd Quasny, ODIN Flight Controller, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Northeast Nodaway Eleme...
From NASAâs International Space Station Mission Control Center ODIN Flight Controller Amy Brezinski participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Coppell Middle School i...
Wood, S. J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.
Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, <20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolithocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of postflight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual
Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael
Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.
Putcha, Lakshmi; Berens, Kurt; Du, Jianping
The current vision for manned space flight involves lunar and Martian exploration within the next two decades. In order for NASA to achieve these goals, a significant amount of preparation is necessary to assure crew health and safety. A mission critical component of this vision centers around the stability of pharmaceutical preparations contained in the space medicine kits. Evidence suggests that even brief periods of space flight have significant detrimental effects for some pharmaceutical formulations. The effects observed include decreases in physical stability of drug formulations of sufficient magnitude to effect bioavailability. Other formulations exhibit decreases in chemical stability resulting in a loss of potency. Physical or-chemical instability of pharmaceutical formulations i n space medicine kits could render the products ineffective. Of additional concern is the potential for formation of toxic degradation products as a result of the observed product instability. This proposal addresses Question number 11 of Clinical Capabilities in the Critical Path Roadmap. In addition, this proposal will reduce the risks and/or enhance the capabilities of humans exposed to the environments of space flight or an extraterrestrial destination by identifying drugs that may be unstable during spaceflight.
Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon. PMID:8488698
Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.
Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott
The NASA SLR Operational Center is responsible for: 1) NASA SLR network control, sustaining engineering, and logistics; 2) ILRS mission operations; and 3) ILRS and NASA SLR data operations. NASA SLR network control and sustaining engineering tasks include technical support, daily system performance monitoring, system scheduling, operator training, station status reporting, system relocation, logistics and support of the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group. These activities ensure the NASA SLR systems are meeting ILRS and NASA mission support requirements. ILRS mission operations tasks include mission planning, mission analysis, mission coordination, development of mission support plans, and support of the ILRS Missions Working Group. These activities ensure than new mission and campaign requirements are coordinated with the ILRS. Global Normal Points (NP) data, NASA SLR FullRate (FR) data, and satellite predictions are managed as part of data operations. Part of this operation includes supporting the ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group. Global NP data operations consist of receipt, format and data integrity verification, archiving and merging. This activity culminates in the daily electronic transmission of NP files to the CDDIS. Currently of all these functions are automated. However, to ensure the timely and accurate flow of data, regular monitoring and maintenance of the operational software systems, computer systems and computer networking are performed. Tracking statistics between the stations and the data centers are compared periodically to eliminate lost data. Future activities in this area include sub-daily (i.e., hourly) NP data management, more stringent data integrity tests, and automatic station notification of format and data integrity issues.
Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) is a suite of software applications that can be used to monitor and control assets in space or on the ground. The Telescience Resource Kit was originally developed for the International Space Station program. Since then it has been used to support a variety of NASA programs and projects including the WB-57 Ascent Vehicle Experiment (WAVE) project, the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT) project, and the Constellation Program. The Payloads Operations Center (POC), also known as the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), provides the capability for payload users to operate their payloads at their home sites. In this environment, TReK provides local ground support system services and an interface to utilize remote services provided by the POC. TReK provides ground system services for local and remote payload user sites including International Partner sites, Telescience Support Centers, and U.S. Investigator sites in over 40 locations worldwide. General Capabilities: Support for various data interfaces such as User Datagram Protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, and Serial interfaces. Data Services - retrieve, process, record, playback, forward, and display data (ground based data or telemetry data). Command - create, modify, send, and track commands. Command Management - Configure one TReK system to serve as a command server/filter for other TReK systems. Database - databases are used to store telemetry and command definition information. Application Programming Interface (API) - ANSI C interface compatible with commercial products such as Visual C++, Visual Basic, LabVIEW, Borland C++, etc. The TReK API provides a bridge for users to develop software to access and extend TReK services. Environments - development, test, simulations, training, and flight. Includes standalone training simulators.
Sackheim, Robert L.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's activities and purposes. MSFC seeks to build on previous contacts and relationships with Russian rocket institutions, to better understand Russian rocket products and technical capabilities. The US launch vehicle and spacecraft industry are already using many Russian propulsion products and MSFC needs better technical knowledge and understanding of these products as this use increases. Further details are given on MSFC's role in determining and developing the scope of space propulsion, NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan, Earth to Orbit propulsion systems, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, proposed Shuttle safety upgrades, and in-space propulsion systems. MSFC's role in the construction and support of the International Space Station is also described.
Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.
The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data
Oberright, John; Mccain, Harry; Whitman, Ruth I.
The Space Station flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), a flight robotic system for use on the first Space Station launch, is described. The objectives of the FTS program include: (1) the provision of an alternative crew EVA by supporting the crew in assembly, maintenance, and servicing activities, and (2) the improvement of crew safety by performing hazardous tasks such as spacecraft refueling or thermal and power system maintenance. The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model provides the generic, hierarchical, structured functional control definition for the system. It is capable of accommodating additional degrees of machine intelligence in the future.
Walker, R.; Gupta, N.
Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.
Mandel, A. D.; Balish, E.
The cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes was studied in rats subjected to 20 days of flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 7820. Groups of rats were immunized with 1,000,000 formalin-killed Listeria suspended in Freunds Complete Adjuvant, 5 days prior to flight. Immunized rats subjected to the same environmental factors as the flight rats, except flight itself, and immunized and nonimmunized rats held in a normal animal colony served as controls. Following recovery, lymphocyte cultures were harvested from spleens of all rats, cultured in vitro in the presence of L. monocytogenes antigens, Phytohemagglutinin, Conconavlin A, or purified protein derivative (PPD), and measured for their uptake of H-3-thymidine. Although individual rats varied considerably, all flight and immunized control rats gave a blastogenic response to the Listeria antigens and PPD. With several mitogens, the lymphocytes of flight rats showed a significantly increased blastogenic response over the controls. The results of this study do not support a hypothesis of a detrimental effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity. The data suggest a possible suppressive effect of stress and gravity on an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity.
Jones, L. W.; Fisher, M. F.; Mccool, A. A.; Mccarty, J. P.
The history of propulsion development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is summarized, beginning with the development of the propulsion system for the Redstone missile. This course of propulsion development continues through the Jupiter IRBM, the Saturn family of launch vehicles and the engines that powered them, the Centaur upper stage and RL-10 engine, the Reactor In-Flight Test stage and the NERVA nuclear engine. The Space Shuttle Main Engine and Solid Rocket Boosters are covered, as are spacecraft propulsion systems, including the reaction control systems for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory and the Space Station. The paper includes a description of several technology efforts such as those in high pressure turbomachinery, aerospike engines, and the AS203 cyrogenic fluid management flight experiment. These and other propulsion projects are documented, and the scope of activities in support of these efforts at Marshall delineated.
Ott, Melanie N.
For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.
Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.
The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.
Smith, R. F.; Stanton, K.; Stoop, D.; Brown, D.; Janusz, W.; King, P.
To assess the effects of space flight on cardiac electrical properties, vectorcardiograms were taken on the 9 Skylab astronauts during the flights of 28, 59, and 84 days. The Frank lead system was used and observations were made at rest; during 25%, 50% and 75% of maximum exercise; during a short pulse of exercise (150 watts, 2 minutes); and after exercise. Data from 131 in-flight tests were analyzed by computer and compared to preflight and postflight values. Statistically significant increase in QRS vector magnitude (six of nine crewmen); T vector magnitude (five of nine crewmen); and resting PR interval duration (six of nine crewmen) occurred. During exercise the PR interval did not differ from preflight. Exercise heart rates inflight were the same as preflight, but increased in the immediate postflight period. With the exception of the arrhythmias, no deleterious vectorcardiographic changes were observed during the Skylab missions.
Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)
The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.
Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.
Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.
Chauvin, S. J.; Shepherd, B. A. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Taddeo, T.
Rehabilitating U.S. crew members to preflight status following flights on the Russian Mir Space Station required longer than six months for full functional recovery of some of the seven crew members. Additional exercise hardware has been added on the International Space Station as well as a rehabilitative emphasis on functional fitness/agility and proprioception. The authors will describe and present the results of the rehabilitation program for ISS and evaluate rehabilitative needs for longer missions. Pre- and in-flight programs emphasize strength and aerobic conditioning. One year before launch, crew members are assigned an Astronaut Strength and Conditioning specialist. Crew members are scheduled for 2 hours, 3 days a week, for pre-flight training and 2.5 hours, six days a week, for in-flight training. Crewmembers are tested on functional fitness, agility, isokinetic strength, and submaximal cycle ergometer evaluation before and after flight. The information from these tests is used for exercise prescriptions, comparison, and evaluation of the astronaut and training programs. The rehabilitation program lasts for 45 days and is scheduled for 2 hours during each crew workday. Phase 1 of the rehabilitation program starts on landing day and places emphasis on ambulation, flexibility, and muscle strengthening. Phase 2 adds proprioceptive exercise and cardiovascular conditioning. Phase 3 (the longest phase) focuses on functional development. All programs are tailored specifically for each individual according to their test results, preferred recreational activities, and mission roles and duties. Most crew members reached or exceeded their preflight test values 45 days after flight. Some crew members subjectively indicated the need for a longer rehabilitation period. The current rehabilitation program for returning ISS crew members seems adequate in content but may need to be extended for longer expeditions.
Lippay, A. L.; Kruk, R.; King, M.; Morgan, M.
A six-axis displacement-stick sidearm controller was developed to enable single-handed control of remote manipulator operations in space. With a working model available, piloted evaluation became possible in a fly-by-computer variable-stability research aircraft, originally a Bell 205 helicopter. The original mechanization was limited to three rotational axes and a linear one, analogous to the collective stick. A newly designed short stickgrip was mounted and the spring force pattern adjusted to suit the helicopter flight control environment. A standard set of test maneuvers was flown by four experimental pilots with conventional helicopter flight controls and with sidearm controllers equipped with two different handgrips. Existing data from flight tests with an isometric-stick controller were added to complete the comparison. The displacement controller consistently achieved a rating of 3.0 to 3.5 on the Cooper-Harper scale, on par with the conventional controls. The same basic controller design was tested in spacecraft and remote manipulator simulations with very promising results. In each application operator/system integration was rapid and positive. The results demonstrate feasibility and support the design philosphy of using deflection as well as force to generate proprioceptive feedback.
Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.
The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.
Welborn, Curtis Ray
The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.
Stoilova, I. M.; Zdravev, T. K.; Yanev, T. K.
Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.
Stoilova, I M; Zdravev, T K; Yanev, T K
Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods. PMID:12971417
Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria
Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51 Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space...
Andersen, George J.
Issues important in rotorcraft flight control are discussed. A perceptual description is suggested of what is believed to be the major issues in flight control. When the task is considered of a pilot controlling a helicopter in flight, the task is decomposed in several subtasks. These subtasks include: (1) the control of altitude, (2) the control of speed, (3) the control of heading, (4) the control of orientation, (5) the control of flight over obstacles, and (6) the control of flight to specified positions in the world. The first four subtasks can be considered to be primary control tasks as they are not dependent on any other subtasks. However, the latter two subtasks can be considered hierarchical tasks as they are dependent on other subtasks. For example, the task of flight control over obstacles can be decomposed as a task requiring the control of speed, altitude, and heading. Thus, incorrect control of altitude should result in poor control of flight over an obstacle.
Weiss, Bernard; Utell, Mark; Morrow, Paul
This paper draws attention to the needs and mechanisms for shielding crewmembers on long-duration space flights from hazards related to chemical toxicants. Specific attention is given to existing data on sources of impaired performance, namely, neurotoxicants, respiratory infections, pulmonary function. The behavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to volatile organic solvents can impair crucial functional parameters of space flight and mission objectives. Respiratory infections contribute to performance decrements of up to 20 percent, and pulmonary function can be impaired by contaminants such as ozone leading to reduced performance. It is concluded that these and other sources of toxicologically induced performance reductions be studied since they impinge on vehicle design and mission objectives.
Vasilyev, P. V.
An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.
Smith, Scott M; Heer, Martina
Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss. PMID:12361777
Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina
Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.
Noneman, S. R.
Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.
Cherepakhin, M A; Purakhin, Y N; Petukhov, B N; Pervushin, V I
Studies have been carried out 18-30 days before the flight and on the second day after landing. The recovery kinetics of cosmonauts who completed the 18-day space flight was followed for 30 days after their return. Muscle tone, indices of muscle strength and parameters of the functions of the extremities were examined, and the ability to maintain vertical posture was studied (stabilography). Flights of short duration did not cause any serious disturbances in the neuromuscular system. Together with this fact, the analysis of the results revealed a certain regularity in the physiological effects as reflected by a decrease in the strength of the torso extensors and the muscle tone of the lower extremities, The tone and strength of the arms altered insignificantly, and the alterations were not an indication of muscular atrophy. Stabilographic studies showed a decrement in the stability of the vertical posture of the cosmonauts. The above alterations were particularly pronounced in the crew members of Soyuz 9. As distinct from the previous flights of the Soyuz spaceships the crew members of Soyuz 9 showed normality in the regulation of vertical posture only on the tenth day after the flight. One of the reasons for the above alterations in postural regulation may be the decrease in muscle tone noted repeatedly after both of the previous space flights and in experiments with simulation of separate effects of weightlessness. Another reason for the deterioration in postural regulation is probably the changes in interaction between the neutral analysers. A possible reason for the apparent defects in stability may be the disturbance of the interaction between various muscle groups, i.e. the disturbance in synergism which is required for the maintenance of vertical posture. Similar alterations were observed in people who had been subjected to bed rest for a long time. Readaptation to the ground environment appeared to proceed in stages. The comparative evaluation of post-flight
Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.
Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.
Houck, O. K.; Wynveen, R. A.
Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.
Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department is a resource for Educator, Students and Lifelong Learners. This paper will highlight the Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department with references to other NASA Education Departments nationwide. The principal focus will be on the responsibilities of the Pre-college Education Team which is responsible for supporting K- 12 teachers highlighting how many of the NASA Pre-college Offices engage teachers and their students in better understanding NASA's inspiring missions, unique facilities, and specialized workforce to carryout these many agency-wide tasks, goals and objectives. Attendee's will learn about the Marshall Educational Alliance Teams, as well, which is responsible for using NASA's unique assets to support all types of learning. All experience and knowledge levels, all grades K-12, and teachers in these specified groupings will gain a true appreciation of what is available for them, through Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department. An agency-wide blue directory booklet will be distributed to all attendees, for future references and related points of contact.
Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.
Hamilton, Jeffrey T.
The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.
Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)
The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.
Johnson, W G
The aim and direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) programs of research in optics has been to produce the technology base and to gain the knowledge prerequisite to the support of launch vehicle development. MSFC conducts and sponsors in industry research leading to the development of new orimproved optical system components, including lenses, filters, laser sources, detectors, modulators, imaging devices, and beam scanners. Much of this effort is directed primarily toward assuring that such components will survive and perform adequately in the hostile environment created by a large space booster. This research involves the development techniques for the effective utilization of optical instrumentation in measuring systems, and the extension of fundamental principles and processes developed in the field of optics to other areas of research. The current direction of the MSFC program in optics is toward development of optical systems for use in space and integrating such systems into space vehicles as principal payloads. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) is our major program in this area, but efforts are already under way to establish the base technology to support larger, more versatile, more universal optical facilities for flight-borne space science research. PMID:20076196
White, Nicholas E.
The Sciences and Exploration Directorate of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the largest Earth and space science research organization in the world. Its scientists advance understanding of the Earth and its life-sustaining environment, the Sun, the solar system, and the wider universe beyond. Researchers in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate work with engineers, computer programmers, technologists, and other team members to develop the cutting-edge technology needed for space-based research. Instruments are also deployed on aircraft, balloons, and Earth's surface. I will give an overview of the current research activities and programs at GSFC including the James Web Space Telescope (JWST), future Earth Observing programs, experiments that are exploring our solar system and studying the interaction of the Sun with the Earth's magnetosphere.
Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.
Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.
LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.
Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.
This slide presentation reviews some of the efforts to ensure that human space flight continues in NASA. With the aging shuttle orbiter fleet, some actions have been taken to assure safe operations. Some of these are: (1) the formation of a Corrosion Control Review Board (CCRB) that will assess the extent and cause of corrosion to the shuttle, and provide short term and long term corrective actions, among other objectives, (2) a formalization of an aging vehicle assessment (AVA) as part of a certification for the Return-to-Flight, (3) an assessment of the age life of the materials in the space shuttle, and (4) the formation of the Aging Orbiter Working Group (AOWG). There are also slides with information about the International Space Station. There is also information about the need to update the Kennedy Space Center, to sustain a 21st century launch complex and the requirement to further the aim of commercial launch capability.
The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...
Moorehead, T. W. (Editor)
The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts research programs in space sciences, materials processing in space, and atmospheric sciences, as well as technology programs in such areas as propulsion, materials, processes, and space power. This Marshall Space Flight Center 1984 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains summaries of the more significant scientific and technical results obtained during FY-84.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...
Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.
Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.
Gamble, J. D.; Young, J. C.
In connection with the decision to conduct with the Shuttle an orbital, manned mission on its first launch, certain problems arose related to mission safety, which had to be provided without the benefit of either a graduated flight test program or an initial unmanned flight concept. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the philosophy was adopted to provide a reasonable estimate of maximum possible errors in the preflight predicted aerodynamics. The flight control system (FCS) was to be certified on the basis of the estimated errors prior to STS-1. A set of 'worst case' aerodynamic uncertainties, defined as variations, was developed. As part of the first flight certification, variations, combined with other system uncertainties, were used to 'stress' the FCS through a multitude of simulations. Attention is given to an Orbiter description, the entry mission, the correlation of aerodynamic uncertainties, the application of aerodynamic variation in FCS and trajectory design, and the flight test results.
Reed, Billie M.
The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.
Pierson, D. L.
Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.
Pechner, Adam Daniel
With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.
Brody, Adam R. (Editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor)
A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.
The results of the first United States manned orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962 are presented. The prelaunch activities, spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and postflight analyses presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Lowrey, Nikki M.
NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.
LeBeau, Gerald J.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.
Johnson, Christopher D.
In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.
Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.
Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.
Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.
The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.
Vazquez, M E
Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight. PMID:11541395
Human-system interactions have been largely overlooked in the traditional systems engineering process. Awareness of human factors (HF) has increased in the past few years, but the involvement of HF specialists is still often too little and too late. In systems involving long-duration human space flight, it is essential that the human component be properly considered in the initial architectural definition phase, as well as throughout the system design process. HF analysis must include not only the strengths and limitations of humans in general, but the variability between individuals and within an individual over time, and the dynamics of group interactions.
Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)
The main theme of this edition of the annual Research and Technology Report is Mission Operations and Data Systems. Shifting from centralized to distributed mission operations, and from human interactive operations to highly automated operations is reported. The following aspects are addressed: Mission planning and operations; TDRSS, Positioning Systems, and orbit determination; hardware and software associated with Ground System and Networks; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web. Flight projects are described along with the achievements in space sciences and earth sciences. Spacecraft subsystems, cryogenic developments, and new tools and capabilities are also discussed.
Taylor, G. R.; Dardano, J. R.
Peripheral circulating lymphocytes were separated from astronaut blood samples three times before and two times after the first four US Space Shuttle flights. The ability of the in vitro T lymphocytes to respond to Phytohemagglutinin by blastogenesis was found to be reduced for each crewmember following spaceflight. In addition, the astronauts experienced a postflight increase in neutrophils and a decrease in eosinophils. These postflight changes in leukocytes are shown to increase with subjectively-evaluated increases in the incidence of inflight stress, indicating that stress, and not hypogravity, is likely to be the major effector of these changes.
Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.
NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.
Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.
Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts
Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.
Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine
The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.
Nelson, W. E., Jr.
The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.
Shields, N., Jr.; Piccione, F.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.
The capabilities within the teleoperator laboratories to perform remote and teleoperated investigations for a wide variety of applications are described. Three major teleoperator issues are addressed: the human operator, the remote control and effecting subsystems, and the human/machine system performance results for specific teleoperated tasks.
Levine, H. G.
A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.
Shields, N., Jr.; Piccione, F.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.
The combination of human and machine capabilities into an integrated engineering system which is complex and interactive interdisciplinary undertaking is discussed. Human controlled remote systems referred to as teleoperators, are reviewed. The human factors requirements for remotely manned systems are identified. The data were developed in three principal teleoperator laboratories and the visual, manipulator and mobility laboratories are described. Three major sections are identified: (1) remote system components, (2) human operator considerations; and (3) teleoperator system simulation and concept verification.
Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)
Grubbs, Rodney; Lindblom, Walt
In the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident February 1, 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recognized the need for better video data from launch, on-orbit, and landing to assess the status and safety of the shuttle orbiter fleet. The board called on NASA to improve its imagery assets and update the Agency s methods for analyzing video. This paper will feature details of several projects implemented prior to the return to flight of the Space Shuttle, including an airborne HDTV imaging system called the WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment, use of true 60 Hz progressive scan HDTV for ground and airborne HDTV camera systems, and the decision to utilize a wavelet compression system for recording. This paper will include results of compression testing, imagery from the launch of STS-114, and details of how commercial components were utilized to image the shuttle launch from an aircraft flying at 400 knots at 60,000 feet altitude. The paper will conclude with a review of future plans to expand on the upgrades made prior to return to flight.
Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.
Volz, P A; Hunter, R L
Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461
Haase, H; Kovalenko, E A; Vacek, A; Bobrovnickij, M P; Jarsumbeck, B; Semencov, V N; Sarol, Z; Hideg, J; Zlatarev, K
A survey of the results of the experiment "Oxygen," carried out within the scope of the INTER-KOSMOS program in members of the permanent crews and of international visiting expeditions to the Soviet orbital station Salyut-6, is given. During the 7-day space flights of the international visiting expeditions a significant decrease in pO2ic by 3.28 kPa was observed. Local oxygen utilization reduced significantly by 0.44 kPa. During hyperventilation testing after return to earth a statistically significant decrease in the peak value by 1.39 kPa was noted. In the long-term crews of the orbital station Salyut-6 the highest decrease in pO2ic of 3.8 kPa and the absolutely lowest value of 3.4 -/+ 0.5 kPa during space flight were observed. The decrease in local oxygen utilization during the flight of 0.8 kPa/min was greater than that of the visiting crews. The results indicate the importance of investigating the dynamics of the oxygen regimen for medical control of the crew members both during the space flight and during the readaptation phase after return to earth. PMID:11542832
LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri,Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi
Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.
Hughes, Phil D.
Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.
Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sudar, Martin; Timm, Marc; Yost, Bruce
An atmosphere exchange system (AES) has been designed to provide a conditioned atmosphere supply to plant specimens in flight without incurring the large weight and volume associated with bottled gases. The paper examines the atmosphere filter cartridge (AFC) designed to remove trace organic atmosphere contaminants from the Space Shuttle cabin and to condition the cabin atmosphere prior to exposure to plant specimens. The AES and AFC are described and illustrated. The AFC design requirements are discussed and results are presented from tests on the performance of the AFC. Also, consideration is given to the potential applications of the AFC and future design concepts for atmosphere control.
Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.
Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.
Runnells, James A.
Human Space Flight payload hardware designs must address both mission success and safety requirements for flight on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station(ISS), or International Partner(IP) Launch Vehicles. Flight hardware generally can be considered either Government Furnished Equipment(GFE) or Payload hardware, although some Commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) hardware is also flown. In this case we will use the payload flight hardware system safety perspective, which closely resembles the GFE system safety process with a few exceptions. Why is Human space flight hardware treated differently than ground hardware? The key reason flight hardware is treated more conservatively than ground hardware is the relative impact to crew and vehicle, and the relative inability to provide immediate recovery of a disabled space vehicle or crewmember on-orbit. One aspect of safe payload flight hardware design is Electrical Power Systems(EPS), including the safe design and operations of electrical power systems for payloads.
Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.
Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.
A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.
Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.
Piszczor, Michael F.; Curtis, Henry B.; Guidice, Donald A.; Severance, Paul S.
An overview of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment is presented in outline and graphic form. The goal of the experiment is to test a variety of photovoltaic cell and array technologies under various space environmental conditions. Experiment objectives, flight hardware, experiment control and diagnostic instrumentation, and illuminated thermal vacuum testing are addressed.
A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.
Maynard, J. A.
The lumbar annuli of rats flown on a COSMOS space flight were compared with those of three control groups and a ground antigravity tail suspension model. The wet and dry weights of the space flight annuli were significantly smaller than the three control groups. In addition, the collagen-to-proteoglycan ratio was significantly greater in the flight group due to a proportional increase in collagen and a decrease in proteoglycan. Finally, it appears microgravity may have altered the nature of the proteoglycan population as more proteoglycans leached from the annuli of flight animals than control animals when immersed in water. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7719767
Tanaka, Futoshi; Ohmi, Toshiatsu; Kuroda, Shigeaki; Hirasawa, Kazuhiro
In this paper, we show an approach to elucidate the free flight of an insect using a simulation. We modeled a fly, Drosophila, by using aerodynamics, body dynamics, and control theory. The modeled virtual insect performs free flight in virtual space generated by a computer. We simulated the free flight of a virtual insect having two dimensions and two degrees of freedom. The flight pass and flight velocity of the virtual insect during a free flight were calculated by Newton’s equations of motion. The aerodynamic force generated by the flapping motion of the virtual insect was estimated by using the blade element theory. An optimal regulator theory was used as a control law. The flight pass from the initial position to the target position and the wing motion was obtained from the results of the free flight simulation of the virtual insect. We can presume the wing motion of an insect in free flight by using the flight simulation of a virtual insect. These results have suggested that the approach based on the simulation is effective in elucidating the free flight of an insect.
Wacker, Roger; Munday, Steve; Merkle, Scott
This paper summarizes the application of a nonlinear dynamic inversion (DI) flight control system (FCS) to an autonomous flight test vehicle in NASA's X-38 Project, a predecessor to the International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). Honeywell's Multi-Application Control-H (MACH) is a parameterized FCS design architecture including both model-based DI rate-compensation and classical P+I command-tracking. MACH was adopted by X-38 in order to shorten the design cycle time for different vehicle shapes and flight envelopes and evolving aerodynamic databases. Specific design issues and analysis results are presented for the application of MACH to the 3rd free flight (FF3) of X-38 Vehicle 132 (V132). This B-52 drop test, occurring on March 30, 2000, represents the first flight test of MACH and one of the first few known applications of DI in the primary FCS of an autonomous flight test vehicle.
Rediess, H. A.
A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.
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... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...
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Leach, Carolyn S.
Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.
Kozlovskaya, I B; Kreidich YuV; Oganov, V S; Koserenko, O P
The influence of weightlessness on different parts of the motor system have been studied in crew members of 140 and 175 days space flights. It has been shown that weightlessness affects all parts of the motor system including (i) the leg and trunk muscles, in which severe atonia, a decrease of strength and an increase of electromyographic cost of contraction have been observed, (ii) the proprioceptive elements and the spinal reflex mechanisms in which decreased thresholds accompanied by decreases of maximal amplitude of reflexes and disturbances in cross reflex mechanisms have been found. and (iii) the central mechanisms that control characteristics of postural and locomotor activities. The intensities and durations of disturbances of different parts of the motor system did not correlate to each other, but did correlate with prophylactic activity during space flight. The data suggest a different nature of disturbances caused by weightlessness in different parts of the motor system. PMID:11543096
Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard
Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.
Pierson, Duane L.
This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.
Thornton, W E; Biggers, W P; Thomas, W G; Pool, S L; Thagard, N E
Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eight shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal. PMID:4021685
Thornton, William E.; Biggers, W. P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thomas, W. G.; Thagard, Norman E.
Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eighth shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal.
Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Durante, M.; Fedorenko, B. S.
Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.
Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.
Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.
This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.
Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Harm, Deborah L.; Paloski, William H.; Satake, Hirotaka
Both during and following early space missions, little neurosensory change in the astronauts was noted as a result of their exposure to microgravity. It is believed that this lack of in-flight adaptation in the spatial orientation and perceptual-motor system resulted from short exposure times and limited interaction with the new environment. Parker and Parker (1990) have suggested that while spatial orientation and motion information can be detected by a passive observer, adaptation to stimulus rearrangement is greatly enhanced when the observer moves through or acts on the environment. Experience with the actual consequences of action can be compared with those consequences expected on the basis of prior experience. Space flight today is of longer duration, and space craft volume has increased. These changes have forced the astronauts to interact with the new environment of microgravity, and as a result substantial changes occur in the perceptual and sensory-motor repsonses reflecting adaptation to the stimulus rearrangement of space flight. We are currently evaluating spatial orientation and the perceptual-motor systems' adaptation to microgravity by examining responses of postural control, head and gaze stability during locomotion, goal oriented vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and structured quantitative perceptual reports. Evidence suggests that humans can successfully replace the gravitational reference available on Earth with cues available within the spacecraft or within themselves, but that adaptation to microgravity is not appropriate for a return to Earth. Countermeasures for optimal performance on-orbit and a successful return to earth will require development of preflight and in-flight training to help the astronauts acquire and maintain a dual adaptive state. An understanding of spatial orientation and motion perception, postural control, locomotion, and the VOR will aid in this process.
Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.
The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.
Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah
The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned
An application of the Multi-Purpose System Simulation /MPSS/ model to the Monitor and Control Display System /MACDS/ at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration /NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center /GSFC/
Mill, F. W.; Krebs, G. N.; Strauss, E. S.
The Multi-Purpose System Simulator (MPSS) model was used to investigate the current and projected performance of the Monitor and Control Display System (MACDS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center in processing and displaying launch data adequately. MACDS consists of two interconnected mini-computers with associated terminal input and display output equipment and a disk-stored data base. Three configurations of MACDS were evaluated via MPSS and their performances ascertained. First, the current version of MACDS was found inadequate to handle projected launch data loads because of unacceptable data backlogging. Second, the current MACDS hardware with enhanced software was capable of handling two times the anticipated data loads. Third, an up-graded hardware ensemble combined with the enhanced software was capable of handling four times the anticipated data loads.
This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.
Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.
Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge
With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions
Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.
Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.
Bevacqoa, Tim; Adams, Tony; Zhu. J. Jim; Rao, P. Prabhakara
Flight control of small crew return vehicles during atmospheric reentry will be an important technology in any human space flight mission undertaken in the future. The control system presented in this paper is applicable to small crew return vehicles in which reaction control system (RCS) thrusters are the only actuators available for attitude control. The control system consists of two modules: (i) the attitude controller using the trajectory linearization control (TLC) technique, and (ii) the reaction control system (RCS) control allocation module using a dynamic table-lookup technique. This paper describes the design and implementation of the TLC attitude control and the dynamic table-lookup RCS control allocation for nonimal flight along with design verification test results.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section 121.543 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...
A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.
Farmer, N. B.
Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.
Theodore, Colin R.
This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.
Oneill, J. W.; Cotter, J. B.; Holloway, T. W.
The history of flight planning for manned space missions is outlined, and descriptions and examples of the various evolutionary phases of flight data documents from Project Mercury to the Apollo Program are included. Emphasis is given to the Apollo flight plan. Time line format and content are discussed in relationship to the manner in which they are affected by the types of flight plans and various constraints.
Johnson, Walter W.; Phatak, Anil V.
The simplest model for a human operator is a gain with a time delay. However, there have been no comprehensive studies evaluating human control strategies in visually controlled flight. The results of preliminary studies on this topic are described. Human visually guided flight control is important both in low level flight, where it predominates, and in higher altitude flights, where instrument failure is always a potential danger. Two general approaches to this problem, one founded on high order perceptual psychophysics and the other on control systems engineering, are described. Initial results show that the use of control engineering modeling techniques, together with a psychophysical analysis of information in the perspective scene, holds promise for capturing the manual control strategies used during visual flight.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...
Davis, Jeffrey A.; Busa, Joseph L.
Human rated space vehicles have historically employed a Backup Flight System (BFS) for the main purpose of mitigating the loss of the primary avionics control system. Throughout these projects, however, the underlying philosophy and technical implementation vary greatly. This paper attempts to coalesce each of the past space vehicle program's BFS design and implementation methodologies with the accompanying underlining philosophical arguments that drove each program to such decisions. The focus will be aimed at Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle However, the ideologies and implementation of several commercial and military aircraft are incorporated as well to complete the full breadth view of BFS development across the varying industries. In particular to the non-space based vehicles is the notion of deciding not to utilize a BFS. A diverse analysis of BFS to primary system benefits in terms of reliability against all aspects of project development are reviewed and traded. The risk of engaging the BFS during critical stages of flight (e.g. ascent and entry), the level of capability of the BFS (subset capability of main system vs. equivalent system), and the notion of dissimilar hardware and software design are all discussed. Finally, considerations for employing a BFS on future human-rated space missions are reviewed in light of modern avionics architectures and mission scenarios implicit in exploration beyond low Earth orbit.
Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.
Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.
Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)
An integrated aircraft longitudinal flight control system uses a generalized thrust and elevator command computation (38), which accepts flight path angle, longitudinal acceleration command signals, along with associated feedback signals, to form energy rate error (20) and energy rate distribution error (18) signals. The engine thrust command is developed (22) as a function of the energy rate distribution error and the elevator position command is developed (26) as a function of the energy distribution error. For any vertical flight path and speed mode the outerloop errors are normalized (30, 34) to produce flight path angle and longitudinal acceleration commands. The system provides decoupled flight path and speed control for all control modes previously provided by the longitudinal autopilot, autothrottle and flight management systems.
Tyson, N. E. (Editor)
A listing is presented of preferred electronic parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center space systems and ground support equipment.
Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron
Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.
Arnaud, Claude D.; Cann, Christopher E.
The objective of this SLS-2 experiment was to determine the pathophysiology of mineral loss during space flight. This was to be accomplished by (1) determining the concentrations of blood minerals and of calciotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone-PTH, vitamin D metabolites) before, during, and after a 14 day shuttle flight, and (2) determining, by calcium kinetic analysis (using stable calcium isotopes), the influence of space flight on intestinal calcium absorption .
LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.
This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.
Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)
This issue of Goddard Space Flight Center's annual report highlights the importance of mission operations and data systems covering mission planning and operations; TDRSS, positioning systems, and orbit determination; ground system and networks, hardware and software; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web use. The report also includes flight projects, space sciences, Earth system science, and engineering and materials.
This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.
Barr, S. L.; Mehta, A.
The 472 Dimpled Ball Grid Array (D-BGA) package has not been used in past space flight environments, therefore it is necessary to determine the robustness and reliability of the solder joints. The 472 D-BGA packages passed the above environmental tests within the specifications and are now qualified for use on space flight electronics.
Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.
The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.
Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.
There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.
Gaubatz, William A.
While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met to ensure a pleasurable as well as adventurous experience. Sub-orbital flights offer an incremental approach to develop the market and the infrastructure, demonstrate the safety of space flight, obtain real flight information regarding the needs of general public passengers and demonstrate the profitability of space tourism. This paper will summarize some of the system, operations, and financial aspects of creating a sub-orbital space tourism business as a stepping-stone to public space travel. A sample business case will be reviewed and impacts of markets, operations and vehicle costs and lifetimes will be assessed.
An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.
Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W.; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E.; Lavella, Gabriel; VandenBrooks, John M.; Harrison, Jon F.; Maharbiz, Michel M.
We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808
Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Wu, Shih-Chin
A large-angle, multi-body, dynamic modeling capability was developed to help validate numerical simulations of the dynamic motion and control forces which occur while berthing Space Station Freedom to the Shuttle Orbiter during early assembly flights. The paper describes the dynamics and control of the station, the attached Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, and the Orbiter during a maneuver from a gravity-gradient attitude to a torque equilibrium attitude using the station reaction control jets. The influence of the elastic behavior of the station and of the remote manipulator system on the attitude control of the station/Orbiter system during the maneuver is investigated. The flexibility of the station and the arm had only a minor influence on the attitude control of the system during the maneuver.
Leach, C. S.
Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.
Su, Longxiang; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Jinwen; Cen, Zhong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Tao; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Yin, Sanjun; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Yuping; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting
The environment in space could affect microorganisms by changing a variety of features, including proliferation rate, cell physiology, cell metabolism, biofilm production, virulence, and drug resistance. However, the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of a space environment on Bacillus cereus, a strain of B. cereus was sent to space for 398 h by ShenZhou VIII from November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011. A ground simulation with similar temperature conditions was simultaneously performed as a control. After the flight, the flight and control strains were further analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to explore the divergence of B. cereus in a space environment. The flight strains exhibited a significantly slower growth rate, a significantly higher amikacin resistance level, and changes in metabolism relative to the ground control strain. After the space flight, three polymorphic loci were found in the flight strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis was performed, and this analysis revealed that the flight strains had changes in genes/proteins relevant to metabolism. In addition, certain genes/proteins that are relevant to structural function, gene expression modification and translation, and virulence were also altered. Our study represents the first documented analysis of the phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes that occur in B. cereus during space flight, and our results could be beneficial to the field of space microbiology.
The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.
Burkes, Darryl A.
The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.
Stengle, Tom (Editor)
This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.
Stengle, Tom (Editor)
This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.
Space flight has been shown to affect expression of several cell surface markers. These markers play important roles in regulation of immune responses, including CD4 and CD8. The studies have involved flight of experimental animals and humans followed by analysis of tissue samples (blood in humans, rats and monkeys, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and bone marrow in rodents). The degree and direction of the changes induced by space flight have been determined by the conditions of the flight. Also, there may be compartmentalization of the response of surface markers to space flight, with differences in the response of cells isolated from blood and local immune tissue. The same type of compartmentalization was also observed with cell adhesion molecules (integrins). In this case, the expression of integrins from lymph node cells differed from that of splenocytes isolated from rats immediately after space flight. Cell culture studies have indicated that there may be an inhibition in conversion of a precursor cell line to cells exhibiting mature macrophage characteristics after space flight, however, these experiments were limited as a result of technical difficulties. In general, it is clear that space flight results in alterations of cell surface markers. The biological significance of these changes remains to be established.
Long, R. A.; Ellis, W. L.; Taylor, G. R.
Nematospiroides dubius was tested to determine the infective potential of the third stage larvae and the egg-production and egg-viability rates of the resulting adults after they are exposed to space flight and solar ultraviolet irradiation. The results are indicative that space-flown larvae exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation were rendered noninfective in C57 mice, whereas flight control larvae that received no solar ultraviolet irradiation matured at the same rate as the ground control larvae. However, depressed egg viability was evident in the flight control larvae.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. Â§ 1214.1705 Section Â§ 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a)...
Allen, Mike; Clar, Harry E.
The East Test Area at Marshall Space Flight Center has five major test stands, each of which has two or more test positions, not counting the SSME and RD-180 engine test facilities in the West Test Area. These research and development facilities are capable of testing high pressure pumps, both fuel and oxidizer, injectors, chambers and sea-level engine assemblies, as well as simulating deep space environments in the 12, 15 and 20 foot vacuum chambers. Liquid propellant capabilities are high pressure hydrogen (liquid and gas), methane (liquid and gas), and RP-1 and high pressure LOX. Solid propellant capability includes thrust measurement and firing capability up to 1/6 scale Shuttle SRB segment. In the past six months MSFC supported multiple space access and exploration programs in the previous six months. Major programs were Space Exploration, Shuttle External Tank research, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) development, as well as research programs for NASA and other customers. At Test Stand 115 monopropellant ignition testing was conducted on one position. At the second position multiple ignition/variable burn time cycles were conducted on Vacuum Plasma Spatter (VPS) coated injectors. Each injector received fifty cycles; the propellants were LOX Hydrogen and the ignition source was TEA. Following completion of the monopropellant test series the stand was reconfigured to support ignition testing on a LOX Methane injector system. At TS 116 a thrust stand used to test Booster Separation Motors from the Shuttle SRB system was disassembled and moved from Chemical Systems Division s Coyote Canyon plant to MSFC. The stand was reassembled and readied for BSM testing. Also, a series of tests was run on a Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Low Element Density (LED) injector engine. The propellants for this engine are LOX and LH2. At TS 300 the 20 foot vacuum chamber was configured to support hydrogen testing in the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) test article. This testing
Hartman, Richard M.
DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.
Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.
During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.
Wastney, Meryl E.; Morukov, Boris V.; Larina, Irina M.; Abrams, Steven A.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)
Calcium loss from bones during space flight creates a risk for astronauts who travel into space, and may prohibit space flights to other planets. The problem of calcium loss during space flight has been studied using animal models, bed rest (as a ground-based model), and humans in-flight. In-flight studies have typically documented bone loss by comparing bone mass before and after flight. To identify changes in metabolism leading to bone loss, we have performed kinetic studies using stable isotopes of calcium. Oral (Ca-43) and intravenous (Ca-46) tracers were administered to subjects (n=3), three-times before flight, once in-flight (after 110 days), and three times post-flight (on landing day, and 9 days and 3 months after flight). Samples of blood, saliva, urine, and feces were collected for up to 5 days after isotope administration, and were analyzed for tracer enrichment. Tracer data in tissues were analyzed using a compartmental model for calcium metabolism and the WinSAAM software. The model was used to: account for carryover of tracer between studies, fit data for all studies using the minimal number of changes between studies, and calculate calcium absorption, excretion, bone calcium deposition and bone calcium resorption. Results showed that fractional absorption decreased by 50% during flight and that bone resorption and urinary excretion increased by 50%. Results were supported by changes in biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Inflight bone loss of approximately 250 mg Ca/d resulted from decreased calcium absorption combined with increased bone resorption and excretion. Further studies will assess the time course of these changes during flight, and the effectiveness of countermeasures to mitigate flight-induced bone loss. The overall goal is to enable human travel beyond low-Earth orbit, and to allow for better understanding and treatment of bone diseases on Earth.
Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.
Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.
Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.
Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.
During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.
Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.
There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.
Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)
The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short
Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan
Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.
Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan
Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.
Schneider, V.; Oganov, V.; LeBlanc, A.; Rakmonov, A.; Taggart, L.; Bakulin, A.; Huntoon, C.; Grigoriev, A.; Varonin, L.
Long duration space flight has shown us that humans have significant bone loss and mineral changes because they are living in microgravity. Skylab and the longer Salyut and Mir missions, are providing us useful data and allowing us to explore the mechanism involved in skeletal turnover. Bone redistribution occurs throughout space flight with bone loss predominately in the weight bearing bones of posture and locomotion. The primary health hazards which may occur during space flight induced by skeletal changes include signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, and the risk of kidney stones and metastatic calcification. After flight lengthy recovery of bone mass and the possible increase in the risk of bone fracture should be considered. Continued research studies are being directed toward determining the mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures by both the US (Schneider and McDonald, 1984 and Schneider, LeBlanc & Huntoon, 1993) and Russian (Grigoriev et. al., 1989) space programs.
Thomas, Walter B., III
A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different
Thomas, Walter B., III
A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different
Holly, Mark H.
The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.
Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.
New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.
The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.
Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S. A.; Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Oganov, V.; Shackelford, L. C.
Bone loss represents one of the most significant effects of space flight on the human body. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this loss is critical for maintaining crew health and safety during and after flight. This investigation documents the changes in bone metabolism and calcium kinetics during and after space flight. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects during and after a 115-d stay on the Russian space station Mir. We report here data on an additional three subjects, whose stays on Mir were approximately 4 (n=l) and 6 (n=2) mos. Previously published data are included for comparison.
Gao, Hong; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin
Space flight experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect cellular processes in microorganisms. To simulate the microgravity environment on earth, several models have been developed and applied to examine the effect of microgravity on secondary metabolism. In this paper, studies of effects of space flight on secondary metabolism are exemplified and reviewed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the current models used for simulating microgravity. This discussion is both significant and timely to researchers considering the use of simulated microgravity or space flight to explore effects of weightlessness on secondary metabolism. PMID:22180084
Burcham, Frank W. (Inventor); Gilyard, Glenn B (Inventor); Conley, Joseph L. (Inventor); Stewart, James F. (Inventor); Fullerton, Charles G. (Inventor)
A backup flight control system for controlling the flightpath of a multi-engine airplane using the main drive engines is introduced. The backup flight control system comprises an input device for generating a control command indicative of a desired flightpath, a feedback sensor for generating a feedback signal indicative of at least one of pitch rate, pitch attitude, roll rate and roll attitude, and a control device for changing the output power of at least one of the main drive engines on each side of the airplane in response to the control command and the feedback signal.
The idea behind intelligent flight control is to provide more autonomy in an aircraft cockpit. Such systems must allow for all different kinds of situations and for human factors that occur in loss...
Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert W.; Savage, Larry; Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
Containerless processing is an important area of research in materials science. Electrostatic levitation (ESL) represents an emerging technology which permits containerless processing in a vacuum environment. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established a levitation facility to provide a critical resource to the microgravity materials science research community to continue and enhance ground-based research in the support of the development of flight experiments during the transition to Space Station. During ESL processing, charged specimens are levitated in the electrostatic field produced by the system's electrodes. Three sets of positioning electrodes represent the heart of the MSFC system. Two dual-axis position sensitive detectors provide input for the PID control-loop computer. Sample position is maintained by adjusting the control voltages for the power supplies of the positioning electrodes. A UV source refreshes the charge on specimens during processing via the photoelectric effect. Lasers permit sample heating independent of positioning. The processing chamber typically operates under vacuum condition approximately = 10(exp -7) Torr. Electrostatic levitation provides a materials science research tool for investigations of refractory solids and melts. Topics of investigation include thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable phase formation, undercooling and nucleation, time-temperature-transformation diagrams and other aspects of materials processing. Current capabilities and recent results of processing studies for metals, alloys and oxides will be reviewed.
Weisshaar, T. A.
Aeroservoelastic optimization techniques were studied to determine a methodology for maximization of the stable flight envelope of an idealized, actively controlled, flexible airfoil. The equations of motion for the airfoil were developed in state-space form to include time-domain representations of aerodynamic forces and active control. The development of an optimization scheme to stabilize the aeroelastic system over a range of airspeeds, including the design airspeed is outlined. The solution approach was divided in two levels: (1) the airfoil structure, with a design variable represented by the shear center position; and (2) the control system. An objective was stated in mathematical form and a search was conducted with the restriction that each subsystem be constrained to be optimal in some sense. Analytical expressions are developed to compute the changes in the eigenvalues of the closed-loop, actively controlled system. A stability index is constructed to ensure that stability is present at the design speed and at other airspeeds away from the design speed.
Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.
Michurina, T. V.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Nikonova, T. M.; Khrushchov, N. G.
Ribbed newts were used for studying the effect of space flight on board of the biosatellite (Cosmos-2229) on blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells. In blood of newts of the flight group, the relative proportion of neutrophils increased, whereas that of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Space flight did not result in loss of the ability of newt blood cells to incorporate H^3-thymidine. Analysis of clonogenic hemopoietic cells was performed using the method of hemopoietic colony formation on cellulose acetate membranes implanted into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated newts. To analyze reconstitution of hemopoiesis after irradiation donor hemopoietic cells from flight or control newts were transplanted into irradiated newts whose hemopoietic organs were investigated. The newt can be considered an adequate model for studying hemopoiesis under the conditions of the space flight. Previous studies on rats subjected to 5- to 19-day space flights revealed a decrease in the number of clonogenic cells in their hemopoietic organs accompanied by specific changes in the precursor cell compartment and in blood /1,2/. Hence, it was interesting to analyze blood and hemopoietic tissue of lower vertebrates after a space flight and to compare the response to it of animals belonging to different taxonomic groups. We analyzed blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of ribbed newts, Pleurodeles waltl (age one year, weight 20-28 g) subjected to a 12-day space flight on board of a Cosmos-2229 biosatellite. The same animals were used in studies on limb and lens regeneration. The results were compared with those obtained with control groups of newts: (1) basic control, operated newts sacrificed on the day of biosatellite launching (BC); (2) synchronous control, operated newts kept in the laboratory under simulated space flight conditions (SC); and (3) intact newts (IC).
Humphries, W. R.
The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) solar facility is described herein, and test results obtained from late May 1974 to September 1974 are discussed. This facility was assembled to provide operational experience in the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling buildings. The major subsystems are the solar collector, the energy storage tank, the simulated living space, the air conditioning and heating subsystems, and the controls. These subsystems are described with emphasis placed on major results and conclusions. A cursory evaluation of the system for cooling is given from energy and power consumption viewpoints. This data evaluation indicates the current system is capable of supplying 50 per cent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. A preliminary evaluation of winter data indicates that more than 90 per cent of the heating required can be provided by the solar system.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls. 417.415 Section 417.415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.415 Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard...
Curry, Donald M.
The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.
A study, covering the behavioral, psychological, physiological, and medical factors of long duration manned space flight, is presented. An attempt was made to identify and resolve major obstacles and unknowns associated with such a flight. The costs and maintenance of the spacecraft system are also explored.
Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zu Bentrup, K. Höner; Ramamurthy, R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClelland, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Norwood, K.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.; Goulart, C.; Rupert, M.; Stodieck, L.; Stafford, P.; Catella, L.; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; McCracken, J.; Allen, P.; Baker-Coleman, C.; Hammond, T.; Vogel, J.; Nelson, R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.
A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth. PMID:17901201
Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.
The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between
Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark
The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.
Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.
PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.
NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...
Taylor, Peter William
Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit. PMID:26251622
Garrett, D.; Young, D.; White, T.
The first space shuttle mission is described. Topics include launch preparations, flight profile, trajectory, and landing operations. The spaceflight tracking and data network is discussed and the photography and television schedules are included.
Taylor, Peter William
Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit. PMID:26251622
SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft launched from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 10:43 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Dec. 8. This is first demonstration flight for NAS...
Finckenor, M. M.; Edwards, D. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Schneider, T. A.; Hovater, M. A.; Hoppe, D. T.
Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world-class space environmental effects testing facilities to simulate the space environment. The combined environmental effects test system exposes temperature-controlled samples to simultaneous protons, high- and low-energy electrons, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and near-ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. Separate chambers for studying the effects of NUV and VUV at elevated temperatures are also available. The Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility exposes samples to atomic oxygen of 5 eV energy to simulate low-Earth orbit (LEO). The LEO space plasma simulators are used to study current collection to biased spacecraft surfaces, arcing from insulators and electrical conductivity of materials. Plasma propulsion techniques are analyzed using the Marshall magnetic mirror system. The micro light gas gun simulates micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Candidate materials and hardware for spacecraft can be evaluated for durability in the space environment with a variety of analytical techniques. Mass, solar absorptance, infrared emittance, transmission, reflectance, bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and surface morphology characterization can be performed. The data from the space environmental effects testing facilities, combined with analytical results from flight experiments, enable the Environmental Effects Group to determine optimum materials for use on spacecraft.
Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.
Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (Editor); Stewart, Donald F. (Editor)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.
Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.
Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.
Smith, Scott M
Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood. PMID:12361780
Smith, Scott M.
Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.
Barr, S. L.; Mehta, A.
A 472 dimpled ball grid array (D-BGA) package has not been used in past space flight environments, therefore it was necessary to develop a process that would yield robust and reliable solder joints. The process developing assembly, inspection and rework techniques, were verified by conducting environmental tests. Since the 472 D-BGA packages passed the above environmental tests within the specifications, the process was successfully developed for space flight electronics.
Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)
The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.
Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing
To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.
Winkler, C. E. (Editor)
The involvement of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Laboratory in the Skylab program from the early feasibility studies through the analysis and publication of flight scientific and technical results is described. This includes mission operations support, the Apollo telescope mount, materials science/manufacturing in space, optical contamination, environmental and thermal criteria, and several corollary measurements and experiments.
Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian
The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.
In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.
Mulavara, A. P.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth s gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight.
Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.
We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.
Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.
Lange, Robert D.
Astronauts who have flown in microgravity have experienced a loss in red cell mass. The pathogenesis of the anemia of space flight has not been ascertained, but it is probably multifactorial. In 1978, the laboratory was selected to participate in life sciences studies to be carried out in the space shuttle in an attempt to study the pathogenesis of space anemia. In particular, the original studies were to be made in mice. This was later changed to study erythropoiesis in rats during space flight.
Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.
The new cage facilitates the collection of 24-h specimens of separated urine and feces apparently uncontaminated by food, as required for precise nutritional and metabolic studies, while maintaining the large floor area and suspension method of Holton's design (3). Although the cage was evaluated, using 6-month-old rats weighing 408 to 488 g, it can be easily adjusted for smaller rats. It also was successfully used to collect post-flight urine after the recent Spacelab Life Sciences-2 space shuttle flight. With its flexibility and ease of use, this new cage design adds a new tool to study the physiologic effects of simulated space flight and other disuse conditions.
Pool, S.L.; Nicogossian, A.
On July 4, 1982, the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operations support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation, and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment. 9 references.
Motter, Mark A.
A broad overview of current adaptive flight control research efforts at NASA is presented, as well as some more detailed discussion of selected specific approaches. The stated objective of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, one of NASA s Aviation Safety programs, is to advance the state-of-the-art of adaptive controls as a design option to provide enhanced stability and maneuverability margins for safe landing in the presence of adverse conditions such as actuator or sensor failures. Under this project, a number of adaptive control approaches are being pursued, including neural networks and multiple models. Validation of all the adaptive control approaches will use not only traditional methods such as simulation, wind tunnel testing and manned flight tests, but will be augmented with recently developed capabilities in unmanned flight testing.
Ding, Robert J.
Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.
Chapes, Stephen K.; Ortega, M. Teresa
In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA)1 were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to “vertical” FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data. PMID:24432200
Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.
Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.
Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.
Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) software was used as a test case for assertion testing. The assertions were written and embedded in the code, then errors were inserted (seeded) one at a time and the code executed. Results indicate that assertion testing is an effective and efficient method of detecting errors in flight software. Most errors are eliminate at an earlier stage in the development than before.
Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control
Leonard, J. I.
The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.
Thurston, T. S.; Larson, R. H.
The development and testing of a temperature sensor and pulse duration modulation (PDM) diverter valve for a thermal control-mixing control device are described. The temperature sensor selected for use uses a fluidic pin amplifier in conjunction with an expansion device. This device can sense changes of less than 0.25 F with greater than 15:1 signal to noise ratio when operating with a typical Freon pump supplied pressure. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 0.0019 F/kPa. The valve which was selected was tested and performed with 100% flow diversion. In addition, the valve operates with a flow efficiency of at least 95%, with the possibility of attaining 100% if the vent flow of the PDM can be channeled through the last stage of the diverter valve. A temperature sensor which utilized an orifice bridge circuit and proportional-vortex combination mixing valve were also evaluated, but the concepts were rejected due to various problems.
Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.
Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.
Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas
A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.
A compilation of 194 articles addressing research and technology activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is given. Activities are divided into three major areas: advanced studies addressing transportation systems, space systems, and space science activities conducted primarily in the Program Development Directorate; research tasks carried out in the Space Science Laboratory; and technology programs hosted by a wide array of organizations at the Center. The theme for this year's report is 'Building for the Future'.
Miller, Chris J.
The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.
Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.
During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (g-levels from 0.01-g to 2-g) for direct comparisons between μg and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glove☐ for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation
Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.
The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.
Johnston, D. W. H.
The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.
Kaur, Indreshpal; Valadez, Victoria A.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Pierson, Duane L.
Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation, and the expression of selected surface markers were studied in 25 astronauts following 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85%. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and oxidative burst following the medium length (9 to 11 days) missions were lower than the control mean values. Whereas, following the short-duration (5 days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 were measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions.
Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.
Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.
Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.
Lane, Helen W.; Schulz, Leslie O.
This historical review of nutritionally related research in the U.S. and Soviet space programs discusses the uses of nutrition as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, with respect to body composition and to exercise. Available information is reviewed from space and ground research in the nutritional requirements for energy, protein, fluids, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals. Past, present, and future systems for nutrient delivery in space are described, and finally, future directions and challenges are presented.
NASA established the Space Flight Participant Program as a means to offer periodic opportunities for private citizens to fly on Space Shuttle missions. With the purpose of communicating the mission experience with the general public, it is expected that Space Flight Participants will be included on the crews of two to three Shuttle missions per year. This paper discusses the first flight opportunity - the NASA Teacher in Space Project - provided under this new initiative. Included in the discussion is a review of the events that led to the establishment of the Space Flight Participant Program, a review of the process that led to the selection of Christa McAuliffe as the first Space Flight Participant, a summary of the training activities to prepare a participant for a mission, and an outline of educational activities that will be offered by NASA in conjunction with Shuttle mission 51-L in January 1986 on which Ms. McAuliffe will fly.
Raney, David L.; Lallman, Frederick J.
This research investigates an approach to provide precise, coordinated maneuver control during excursions from a hypersonic cruise flight path while observing the necessary flight condition constraints. The approach achieves specified guidance commands by resolving altitude and cross-range errors into a load factor and bank angle command through a coordinate transformation which acts as an interface between outer loop guidance controls and inner loop flight controls. This interface, referred to as a 'resolver', applies constraints on angle-of-attack and dynamic pressure perturbations while prioritizing altitude regulation over crossrange. An unpiloted test simulation, in which the resolver was used to drive inner-loop flight controls, produced time histories of responses to guidance commands at Mach numbers of 6, 10, 15, and 20. It is shown that angle-of-attack and throttle perturbation constraints, combined with high-speed flight effects and the desire to maintain constant dynamic pressure, significantly impact the maneuver envelope for a hypersonic vehicle. Turn rate, climb rate, and descent rate limits are expressed in terms of these constraints.
Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.
The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.
Plotkin, Henry H.
Viewgraphs on technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presented to Civil Space Technology Development workshop on technology transfer and effectiveness are provided. Topics covered include: obstacles to technology transfer; technology transfer improvement program at GSFC: communication between technology developers and users; and user feedback to technologists.
The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.
We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.
In this session, Session JA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Bodymass and Fluid Distribution During Longterm Spaceflight with and without Countermeasures; Plasma Volume, Extracellular Fluid Volume, and Regulatory Hormones During Long-Term Space Flight; Effect of Microgravity and its Ground-Based Models on Fluid Volumes and Hemocirculatory Volumes; Seventeen Weeks of Horizontal Bed Rest, Lower Body Negative Pressure Testing, and the Associated Plasma Volume Response; Evaporative Waterloss in Space Theoretical and Experimental Studies; Erythropoietin Under Real and Simulated Micro-G Conditions in Humans; and Vertebral Bone Marrow Changes Following Space Flight.
Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.
Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.
Jorgensen, C. C.; Mah, R. W.; Ross, J.; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
NASA Ames Research Center has an ongoing program in neural network control technology targeted toward real time flight demonstrations using a modified F-15 which permits direct inner loop control of actuators, rapid switching between alternative control designs, and substitutable processors. An important part of this program is the ACTIVE flight project which is examining the feasibility of using neural networks in the design, control, and system identification of new aircraft prototypes. This paper discusses two research applications initiated with this objective in mind: utilization of neural networks for wind tunnel aircraft model identification and rapid learning algorithms for on line reconfiguration and control. The first application involves the identification of aerodynamic flight characteristics from analysis of wind tunnel test data. This identification is important in the early stages of aircraft design because complete specification of control architecture's may not be possible even though concept models at varying scales are available for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. Testing of this type is often a long and expensive process involving measurement of aircraft lift, drag, and moment of inertia at varying angles of attack and control surface configurations. This information in turn can be used in the design of the flight control systems by applying the derived lookup tables to generate piece wise linearized controllers. Thus, reduced costs in tunnel test times and the rapid transfer of wind tunnel insights into prototype controllers becomes an important factor in more efficient generation and testing of new flight systems. NASA Ames Research Center is successfully applying modular neural networks as one way of anticipating small scale aircraft model performances prior to testing, thus reducing the number of in tunnel test hours and potentially, the number of intermediate scaled models required for estimation of surface flow effects.
SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from ...
Dorn, Sarah J.
Automation has been implemented in many different industries to improve efficiency and reduce human error. Reducing or eliminating the human interaction in tasks has been proven to increase productivity in manufacturing and lessen the risk of mistakes by humans in the airline industry. Human space flight requires the flight controllers to monitor multiple systems and react quickly when failures occur so NASA is interested in implementing techniques that can assist in these tasks. Using automation to control some of these responsibilities could reduce the number of errors the flight controllers encounter due to standard human error characteristics. This paper will investigate the possibility of reducing human error in the critical area of manned space flight at NASA.
Mallik, Udayan; Lyon, Richard; Petrone, Peter; McElwain, Michael; Benford, Dominic; Clampin, Mark; HIcks, Brian
This paper discusses charge blooming and starlight saturation - two potential technical problems - when using an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) type detector in a high-contrast instrument for imaging exoplanets. These problems especially affect an interferometric type coronagraph - coronagraphs that do not use a mask to physically block starlight in the science channel of the instrument. These problems are presented using images taken with a commercial Princeton Instrument EMCCD camera in the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC), Interferometric Coronagraph facility. In addition, this paper discusses techniques to overcome such problems. This paper also discusses the development and architecture of a Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital-to-Analog Converter based shaped clock controller for a photon-counting EMCCD camera. The discussion contained here will inform high-contrast imaging groups in their work with EMCCD detectors.
Hoffman, David S.
Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.