Sample records for space flight control

  1. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  2. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  3. Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

  4. Electromechanical flight control actuator. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator that will follow a proportional control command with minimum wasted energy is developed. The feasibility of meeting space vehicle actuator requirements using advanced electromechanical concepts is demonstrated. Recommendations for further development are given.

  5. Effects of space flight on locomotor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Layne, Charles S.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Peters, Brian T.; Huebner, William P.; Reschke, Millard F.; Berthoz, Alain; Glasauer, Stefan; Newman, Dava; Jackson, D. Keoki

    1999-01-01

    In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.

  6. Flight Control Overview of STS-88, the First Space Station Assembly Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert; Kirchwey, Kim; Martin, Michael; Rosch, Gene; Zimpfer, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    When the Space Shuttle Endeavour undocked from the Zarya/Unity configuration on STS-88 it marked the completion of the most challenging shuttle mission to date and the beginning of an enormous task of assembling the International Space Station. The flight offered an array of complex dynamics and control related challenges to mate the American module 'Unity' to the Russian module 'Zarya'. Capability demonstrated on the flight included closed-loop thruster control in the presence of low frequency structural dynamics and mated-vehicle translational maneuvers in the presence of structural loads and thruster hardware constraints. The flight was a complete success from all aspects. This paper will give an overview of the flight control challenges encountered and the actual control performance observed for the on-orbit operations. Included will be the shuttle analysis and filtering strategies to ensure control system stability in the presence of low frequency flex-body dynamics.

  7. Shuttle orbit flight control design lessons - Direction for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Kenneth J.; Hattis, Philip D.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbit flight control system, which operates during all exo-atmospheric flight phases, has successfully met operational requirements. Many design integration and operational issues that required resolution during development and testing provide an experience base that will benefit the development of future space systems, particularly the Space Station. To this end, the applicable Shuttle and Space Station hardware/software is reviewed with some perspective provided on how current design groundrules were derived and how issues that affected the Shuttle orbit control system design are a pathway for the Space Station. Some of the most significant lessons learned from the Shuttle are summarized, with a discussion of the effect of performance and design of hardware, including the data processing system on software structures and usage procedures. Crew interface issues and important results from man-in-the-loop tests are summarized. Problems resulting from trying to meet difficult orbital operational objectives, including some sophisticated payload operations are characterized. Several proposed Shuttle flight control design improvements, developed in response to some of the lessons learned so far, are identified. Potential application of the Shuttle design lessons and new control technologies to the Space Station are discussed.

  8. Integrated Digital Flight Control System for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the integrated digital flight control system (DFCS) is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the computer complex and is equally insensitive to characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure is described of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure. The input and output, including jet selection are included. Specific estimation and control algorithm are shown for the various mission phases: cruise (including horizontal powered flight), entry, on-orbit, and boost. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are included.

  9. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  10. Space flight experience with the Shuttle Orbiter control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. J.; Daly, K. C.; Hattis, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Experience gained through the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test program has matured the engineering understanding of the Shuttle on-orbit control system. The geneology of the control systems (called digital autopilots, or DAPs, and used by the Shuttle for on-orbit operations) is reviewed, the flight experience gained during the flight test program is examined within the context of preflight analysis and test results, and issues for the operational phase of the Shuttle, including constraints upon both operations and analysis still required to increase confidence in the Shuttle's ability to handle capabilities not experienced during the flight test program are addressed. Two orbital autopilots have resulted from computer memory and time constraints on a flight control system, with many different, flight phase unique requirements. The transition DAP, used for insertion and deorbit, has more active sensors and redundancy but a less complex data processing scheme excluding state estimation with fewer choices of operational mode.

  11. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Reschke, Millard F.; Black, F. Owen; Dow, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    DSO 605 represents the first large study of balance control following spaceflight. Data collected during DSO 605 confirm the theory that postural ataxia following short duration spaceflight is of vestibular origin. We used the computerized dynamic posturography technique developed by Nashner et al. to study the role of the vestibular system in balance control in astronauts during quiet stance before and after spaceflight. Our results demonstrate unequivocally that balance control is disrupted in all astronauts immediately after return from space. The most severely affected returning crew members performed in the same way as vestibular deficient patients exposed to this test battery. We conclude that otolith mediated spatial reference provided by the terrestrial gravitational force vector is not used by the astronauts balance control systems immediately after spaceflight. Because the postflight ataxia appears to be mediated primarily by CNS adaptation to the altered vestibular inputs caused by loss of gravitational stimulation, we believe that intermittent periods of exposure to artificial gravity may provide an effective in-flight countermeasure. Specifically, we propose that in-flight centrifugation will allow crew members to retain their terrestrial sensory-motor adapted states while simultaneously developing microgravity adapted states. The dual-adapted astronaut should be able to make the transition from microgravity to unit gravity with minimal sensory-motor effects. We have begun a ground based program aimed at developing short arm centrifuge prescriptions designed to optimize adaptation to altered gravitational environments. Results from these experiments are expected to lead directly to in-flight evaluation of the proposed centrifuge countermeasure. Because our computerized dynamic posturography system was able to (1) quantify the postflight postural ataxia reported by crew members and observed by flight surgeons and scientists, (2) track the recovery of normal (preflight) balance control, (3) differentiate between rookie and veteran subjects, and (4) provide normative and clinical databases for comparison, and because our study successfully characterized postflight balance control recovery in a large cross-section of Shuttle crew members, we recommend that this system and protocol be adopted as a standard dependent measure for evaluating the efficacy of countermeasures and/or evaluating the postflight effects of changing mission durations or activities.

  12. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  13. Lateral stability and control derivatives extracted from space shuttle Challenger flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The vehicle stability and control surface effectiveness are compared across the flights and to preflight predicted values.

  14. Space shuttle on-orbit flight control software requirements, preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Software modules associated with various flight control functions for the space shuttle orbiter are described. Data flow, interface requirements, initialization requirements and module sequencing requirements are considered. Block diagrams and tables are included.

  15. A representational basis for the development of a distributed expert system for Space Shuttle flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helly, J. J., Jr.; Bates, W. V.; Cutler, M.; Kelem, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new representation of malfunction procedure logic which permits the automation of these procedures using Boolean normal forms is presented. This representation is discussed in the context of the development of an expert system for space shuttle flight control including software and hardware implementation modes, and a distributed architecture. The roles and responsibility of the flight control team as well as previous work toward the development of expert systems for flight control support at Johnson Space Center are discussed. The notion of malfunction procedures as graphs is introduced as well as the concept of hardware-equivalence.

  16. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  17. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  18. Conceptual Inquiry of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station GNC Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranzusch, Kara

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Mission Control was envisioned by Christopher Columbus Kraft in the 1960's. Instructed to figure out how to operate human space flight safely, Kraft envisioned a room of sub-system experts troubleshooting problems and supporting nominal flight activities under the guidance of one Flight Director who is responsible for the success of the mission. To facilitate clear communication, MCC communicates with the crew through a Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) who is an astronaut themselves. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be supported by such a MCC and successfully completed the first American EVA. The MCC seen on television is called the Flight Control Room (FCR, pronounced ficker) or otherwise known as the front room. While this room is the most visible aspect, it is a very small component of the entire control center. The Shuttle FCR is known as the White FCR (WFCR) and Station's as FCR-1. (FCR-1 was actually the first FCR built at JSC which was used through the Gemini, Apollo and Shuttle programs until the WFCR was completed in 1992. Afterwards FCR-1 was refurbished first for the Life Sciences Center and then for the ISS in 2006.) Along with supporting the Flight Director, each FCR operator is also the supervisor for usually two or three support personnel in a back room called the Multi-Purpose Support Room (MPSR, pronounced mipser). MPSR operators are more deeply focused on their specific subsystems and have the responsible to analyze patterns, and diagnose and assess consequences of faults. The White MPSR (WMPSR) operators are always present for Shuttle operations; however, ISS FCR controllers only have support from their Blue MPSR (BMPSR) while the Shuttle is docked and during critical operations. Since ISS operates 24-7, the FCR team reduces to a much smaller Gemini team of 4-5 operators for night and weekend shifts when the crew is off-duty. The FCR is also supported by the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) which is a collection of contractor engineers who provide analysis and long-term troubleshooting support. Each MER operator is an expert in a very small portion of a sub-system and each FCR console usually interfaces with several MER positions.

  19. Spacecraft flight control with the new phase space control law and optimal linear jet select

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergmann, E. V.; Croopnick, S. R.; Turkovich, J. J.; Work, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    An autopilot designed for rotation and translation control of a rigid spacecraft is described. The autopilot uses reaction control jets as control effectors and incorporates a six-dimensional phase space control law as well as a linear programming algorithm for jet selection. The interaction of the control law and jet selection was investigated and a recommended configuration proposed. By means of a simulation procedure the new autopilot was compared with an existing system and was found to be superior in terms of core memory, central processing unit time, firings, and propellant consumption. But it is thought that the cycle time required to perform the jet selection computations might render the new autopilot unsuitable for existing flight computer applications, without modifications. The new autopilot is capable of maintaining attitude control in the presence of a large number of jet failures.

  20. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  1. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy

    2002-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on guidance navigation and control innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The topics include: 1) NASA's vision; 2) NASA's Mission; 3) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE); 4) Guidance, Navigation and Control Division (GN&C); 5) Landsat-7 Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program; and 6) NASA ESE Vision.

  2. Space Crew Members' Microbial Flora in Space Flight and Prospective Approaches for Its Ecological Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iilyin, V. K.; Kornyushenkova, I. N.; Lizko, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the astronauts' microflora, the changes that occur during spaceflight and the control of microflora using drugs, is reported. A decrease in the quantity of lactibacilli in the mouth and throat cavities was observed during flight. The data showed that the susceptibility of the microflora to antibiotics increased during flight.

  3. Vestibular-Somatosensory Convergence in Head Movement Control During Locomotion after Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Ruttley, Tara; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Merkle, Lauren; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibular-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to somatosensory adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing (BLS) systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and BLS-mediated somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual acuity task. Data were collected using the same testing protocol from three independent subject groups; 1) normal subjects before and after exposure to 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, 2) bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients and 3) astronauts who performed the protocol before and after long duration space flight. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the LD patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. Astronaut subjects results showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation mediated by the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems.

  4. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses NASA's role in sponsoring on-going research projects involving innovations in spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems. Topics covered include: partnerships, ESE Spaceborne Missions, spacecraft systems supported and designed by NASA Goddard Flight Center, NASA's changing mission, Large Aperture Sensing Spectrum, Distributed Spacecraft Systems, Landsat-7/ Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program, and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna program.

  5. Space shuttle descent flight control design requirements and experiments Learned, Pt. 1 p 617-628

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafer, G.; Wilson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the lessons learned during the development of the Space Shuttle descent flight control system (FCS) are reviewed. Examples confirm the importance for requirements definition, systems level analyses, and testing. In sounding these experiences may have implication for future designs or suggest the discipline required in this engineering art.

  6. Space Flight Requirements

    E-print Network

    Space Flight Requirements Definition Hardware Ground Testing Hardware Mod Evaluation Hardware Science Glovebox), SpaceDrums (Levitator), EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System), PCDF (Protein Inserts for FSL/MSG/MSL/EMCS/BIOLAB/KUBIK/PCDF SpaceDrums utilization rights

  7. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper explains our mentoring approach and discusses its effectiveness and future applicability in promoting SFRM/CRM skills.

  8. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  9. International Space Station Mechanisms and Maintenance Flight Control Documentation and Training Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Colin C.

    2010-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) crew and flight controller training documentation is used to aid in training operations. The Generic Simulations References SharePoint (Gen Sim) site is a database used as an aid during flight simulations. The Gen Sim site is used to make individual mission segment timelines, data, and flight information easily accessible to instructors. The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) training schematic includes simple and complex fluid schematics, as well as overall hardware locations. It is used as a teaching aid during WHC lessons for both ISS crew and flight controllers. ISS flight control documentation is used to support all aspects of ISS mission operations. The Quick Look Database and Consolidated Tool Page are imagery-based references used in real-time to help the Operations Support Officer (OSO) find data faster and improve discussions with the Flight Director and Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). A Quick Look page was created for the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) by locating photos of the module interior, labeling specific hardware, and organizing them in schematic form to match the layout of the PMM interior. A Tool Page was created for the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) by gathering images, detailed drawings, safety information, procedures, certifications, demonstration videos, and general facts of each MWA component and displaying them in an easily accessible and consistent format. Participation in ISS mechanisms and maintenance lessons, mission simulation On-the-Job Training (OJT), and real-time flight OJT was used as an opportunity to train for day-to-day operations as an OSO, as well as learn how to effectively respond to failures and emergencies during mission simulations and real-time flight operations.

  10. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF FRACTURE CONTROL FOR STRUCTURAL SAFETY OF SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Lou

    Structural safety is paramount to space flight systems dueto the high financial 1 0SS and potential damage to national prestige caused by the failure of any space mission. For manned missions, such as NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station, structural safety becomes even more important for that personnel safety of the flight crew is an added concern. NASA requires that

  12. Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This training module was designed to help the user identify and grasp basic concepts associated with space travel and deep space missions. Separate sections deal with topics such as the physical environment of space (solar system, gravity, orbital mechanics), flight projects (mission concepts, system requirements, design, onboard systems and instruments), and flight operations (launch, cruise, encounter). Links to related topics are embedded in the text.

  13. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  14. Space flight hazards catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.

  15. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  16. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  17. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications, 'Reliability Program Requirements for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1A-l); 'Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems,' NHB 5300.4(1E); and 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1B).

  18. Using Web 2.0 (and Beyond?) in Space Flight Operations Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.

  19. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins may contribute to the disorders of Ca2+ metabolism induced by space flight.

  20. Space Flight and Manual Control: Implications for Sensorimotor Function on Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.

  1. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  2. Flights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic Controllers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible interactive space to support air traffic control of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment, an operational, complex system already based on basic mixedFlights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic

  3. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  4. Space Flight Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Flight Now offers the latest space news from around the world. Visitors can discover information on current missions, launch schedules, and mission reports. Along with providing the space news headlines, the web site supplies news archives so people can catch up on the activities of the space science world. Visitors can enjoy video footage from cameras onboard recent rocket launches. While users do have to subscribe to obtain many of the videos and audio recordings, individuals can benefit from the free up-to-date astronomy news stories and a few videos.

  5. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  6. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  7. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  8. Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas J.; Hyland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Many large space system concepts will require active vibration control to satisfy critical performance requirements such as line-of-sight accuracy. In order for these concepts to become operational it is imperative that the benefits of active vibration control be practically demonstrated in ground based experiments. The results of the experiment successfully demonstrate active vibration control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

  9. Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial is designed to help identify the range of concepts associated with deep space missions and illustrate the relationships among them. The three sections deal with the environment of space (e.g., the solar system, spatial coordinates and timing conventions, interplanetary trajectories); flight projects (how missions are concieved and designed, experimentation, spacecraft subsystems, etc.); and operations (launch phase, cruise phase, data-gathering, and similar subjects). Each chapter concludes with a quiz that lets users test their knowledge. There is also a user's guide, glossary, guide to units of measure, and links to additional information. A downloadable, printable version is provided.

  10. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  11. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

  12. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  13. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347

  14. Introduction Digital Flight Control

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    Introduction Digital Flight Control Research Using Microprocessor Technology ROBERT F. STENGEL Princetoin University Abstract The Flight Research Laboratory at Princeton University is en- gaged in an experimental program to investigate a variety of approaches to digital control by actual flight test. Experimen

  15. Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

  16. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  17. Erythropoietic effects of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Lange, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Various factors which are important in the regulation of erythropoiesis have been studied in dehydrated mice in the belief that some information would be gained relevant to the erythropoietic effects of space flight. Dehydration reduced the plasma volume and, because changes in red cell volume were minimal, the hematocrit was elevated. Thus a state of relative erythrocytosis was produced. Understanding of the mechanism whereby these changes decreased red cell production is uncertain and appears to differ somewhat from the erythroid suppression seen following elevation of the hematocrit in animals with an absolute erythrocytosis. It is suggested that factors outside of the normal erythropoietic control pathway (such as energy balance) may play an important role in the decrease in red cell volume seen in man following space flight.

  18. Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas; Hyland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to design controllers that would provide substantial reduction of line-of-sight control errors. The satisfaction of this objective required the controllers to attenuate the beam vibration significantly. Particular emphasis was placed on controller simplicity (i.e., reduced-order and decentralized controller architectures). Complexity reduction in control law implementation is of paramount interest due to stringent limitations on throughput of even state-of-the-art space qualified processors. The results of this experiment successfully demonstrate active vibrator control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the ACES structure at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

  19. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  20. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  1. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P V; Bloomberg, J J; Layne, C S

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered. PMID:9178226

  2. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  3. Space Flight: A Human Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Kathryn C.

    2006-12-01

    In this "Space Age" we are just beginning to explore the solar system, and human space flights into Earth orbit are our first baby steps off our home planet. Why do we go to space? What do we do there? What will we learn in this environment that will benefit future explorers? A four-time space flight veteran will describe experiences in space and opportunities for future explorers.

  4. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will show an onboard network architecture for a proposed new mission using Ethernet for science data transport.

  5. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  6. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  7. Effect of space flight on bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.

  8. NASA: Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online training module created by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) discusses the concepts related to deep space missions. Through a series of animations and quizzes within the eighteen chapters, visitors can learn about the solar system's environment, flight project details, and flight operations. The website is equipped with an astronomical glossary and a Units of Measure page. Although originally developed for JPL operations people, students and educators interested in interplanetary space flight will find this website very informative.

  9. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  10. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  11. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

  12. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  13. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration missions dominated these discussions and were driven by the paucity of data available. These issues along with more specific recommendations arising from the above discussions will be addressed an upcoming issue of the Journal of Vestibular Research.

  14. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  15. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  16. Alternative Approaches to Mission Control Automation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, Michael; Cooter, Miranda; Davis, George; Mackey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    To meet its objective of reducing operations costs without incurring a corresponding increase in risk, NASA is seeking new methods to automate mission operations. This paper examines the state of the art in automating ground operations for space missions. A summary of available technologies and methods for automating mission operations is provided. Responses from interviews with several space mission FOTs (Flight Operations Teams) to assess the degree and success of those technologies and methods implemented are presented. Mission operators that were interviewed approached automation using different tools and methods resulting in varying degrees of success - from nearly completely automated to nearly completely manual. Two key criteria for successful automation are the active participation of the FOT in the planning, designing, testing, and implementation of the system and the relative degree of complexity of the mission.

  17. Space Flight 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews many aspects of spaceflight. There are many pictures of the International Space Station. Some of the topics covered in this review are: Have you ever wondered why we have launch windows? Or why the attitude of the Space Station changes? The half-day seminar answers some of the many questions about why and how we fly in space. Topics in the course were: What's so valuable about micro gravity? How do we get to micro G so close to a huge gravity well like the Earth? How come such a big rocket gets so little payload to space? Why do we have daily launch windows, and why are they so short? What's the beta angle, why does it change so strangely, and why do we care so much about it? Why do we have launch seasons for the Shuttle? Why can't we just launch any old day? Why do we see the station some days, not on others, and at different times and directions? Why do we keep changing the attitude of the Space Station? What are the certified attitudes of the station, and why did we pick these few? Why do we keep changing the altitude of the Space Station among these three? What's the difference between Power Balance, Energy Balance, and Depth-of-Discharge? Where does all the uncertainty come from in our orbit predictions for phasing, collisions, communications coverage, etc? Why do we usually reboost only on days that we do attitude changes? What's F(10.7), what does it do, why do we care, and why does it vary so much? Why do we care about orbital phasing of the ISS? Can't we just do phasing with the arriving vehicles? Why is the Space Station built the way it is? What's Sun Slicer? (or Night Glider, or Dual Angle, or (coming soon!) Mixmaster, or Outrigger, or...) What's a BGA, and what is BGA conditioning all about? What's a Control Moment Gyroscope, and what does it do? What's a desat? Why is it more trouble now than it used to be? How much orbital debris is there, and how dangerous is it? Why aren't we more worried about meteor storms? What is atomic Oxygen? Where does it come from, and why is it a nuisance? What's a gravity gradient attitude, and why don't we use it? How come we see things like phantom torques and phantom spikes and other things that Shuttles and stations and capsules have never seen? and How are all these topics affecting our assembly plans for this year and through the life of station?

  18. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological significance of space flight-induced changes in immune parameters remains to be established; however, as duration of flights increases, the potential for difficulties due to impaired immune responses also increases.

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter http Space Flight Center's IPP Office #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpace SUA=Software Usage Agreement #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpace

  20. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning of February 1, 2003, in a much smaller matter, the scientific products of this experiment, successfully obtained on orbit, were lost as well. As we begin to plan for missions back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions remain to be answered. Counteracting bone loss is one of the greatest challenges. Calcium kinetics studies provide a valuable tool for assessing this loss, and evaluating countermeasures.

  1. SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

  2. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  3. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  4. Telerobot local-remote control architecture for space flight program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.

  5. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  6. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  7. Nutritional biochemistry of space flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Lane, H W

    1999-01-01

    Humans have flown in space for more than 35 years. Since that time, Americans have walked on the moon, launched two space stations (Skylab and the International Space Station), docked during orbit with a Soviet Soyuz space capsule and the Russian Mir space station, flown the only reusable space vehicle, and visited a Russian space station for more then 6 months at a time. Nutritional intake has not been considered a high priority during relatively brief flights of the Space Shuttle and other programs (i.e., less than 21 days). However, as we embark on extended-duration (i.e., > 30 days up to several years) missions, nutrition becomes a critical issue. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound. We are in the very early stages of understanding how space flight affects nutrient requirements and related issues such as absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Apart from the obvious role of providing energy and required nutrients, nutrition is also important in terms of enhancing psychosocial interactions among crews, and ameliorating some of the effects of microgravity on the body (i.e., acting as a "countermeasure"). The interrelationships among space flight, nutrition, and physiology suggest that a program of specified nutritional intake may be required to enhance mission safety and crew productivity. Defining which nutrients are essential for the space flight environment depends on a more complete understanding of how weightlessness affects physiology. Providing the required nutrients is also limited by the types of foods that can be provided by the food system on board the space craft, and the dietary habits of space crews. PMID:11541543

  8. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved with vibrotactile feedback of orientation.

  9. Challenges of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

  10. Mutations induced in Drosophila during space flight.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, M; Yoshikawa, I; Kojo, M; Ayaki, T; Ryo, H; Ishizaki, K; Kato, T; Yamamoto, H; Hara, R

    1997-12-01

    To examine the possible effects of space radiation on living organisms, fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster were loaded on the US Space Shuttle Endeavour, and after the flight we have analyzed two types of mutations, sex-linked recessive lethal mutations induced in male reproductive cells and somatic mutations which give rise to morphological changes in hairs growing on the surface of wing epidermal cells. Wild type strains and a radiation-sensitive strain mei-41 were used. The frequencies of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in flight groups were 2 and 3 times higher for wild type Canton-S and mei-41 strains, respectively, than those in ground control groups. By contrast, the frequencies of wing-hair somatic mutations differed little between flight and control groups. The possibility that the space environment causes mutations in certain types of cells such as male reproductive cells, is discussed. PMID:11541768

  11. Space Transportation: Marshall Space Flight Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is the location of an ongoing initiative to make access to space easier and more affordable. The center conducts extensive space propulsion research; four focus areas include advanced chemical propulsion, plasma propulsion, high-powered electrical propulsion, and propellantless propulsion. There is also a lot of information about the Integrated Space Transportation System and the Space Launch Initiative, which mainly deal with reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The space shuttle is the first generation RLV; second and third generation RLVs aim to increase safety while dramatically lowering launch costs.

  12. The radiation hazard during space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kolomenskiy, A. V.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Petrov, V. M.

    1973-01-01

    Galactic cosmic radiation is described. Distinctive features of radiation effects in space flights are discussed and space radiation hazards are estimated. Measures to provide radiation safety during space flights are given. The need for safety standards is emphasized.

  13. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  14. Velocity control propulsion subsystem of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite for Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braught, W.; Moore, E. K.; Steinberg, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Velocity Control Propulsion Subsystem (VCPS) was designed the propulsion required for trajectory and lunar orbit corrections of the spacecraft. A GFE clamp assembly physically attaches the VCPS to the spacecraft and the unit is ejected after completing the required corrections. The VCPS is physically and functionally separated from the spacecraft except for the electrical and telemetry interfaces. A GFE transtage provides the superstructure on which the VCPS is assembled. The subsystem consists of two 5 foot pound rocket engine assemblies, 4 propellant tanks, 2 latching valves, 2 fill and drain valves, a system filter, pressure transducer, gas and propellant manifolds and electrical heaters and thermostats. The RAE-B VCPS program covered the design, manufacture and qualification of one subsystem. This subsystem was to be manufactured, subjected to qualification tests; and refurbished, if necessary, prior to flight. The VCPS design and test program precluded the need for refurbishing the subsystem and the unit was delivered to GSFC at the conclusion of the program.

  15. Advanced Thermal control Flight Experiment (ATFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the design and performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment (ATFE) is presented. The ATFE studied in a space environment for five years the steady state, transient ground and flight performance of (1) a thermal diode heat pipe, (2) a phase change material, and (3) a feedback controlled variable conductance heat pipe. It was found that all were flight worthy and highly reliable.

  16. Immune response during space flight.

    PubMed

    Criswell-Hudak, B S

    1991-01-01

    The health status of an astronaut prior to and following space flight has been a prime concern of NASA throughout the Apollo series of lunar landings, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects (ASTP), and the new Spacelab-Shuttle missions. Both humoral and cellular immunity has been studied using classical clinical procedures. Serum proteins show fluctuations that can be explained with adaptation to flight. Conversely, cellular immune responses of lymphocytes appear to be depressed in both in vivo as well as in vitro. If this depression in vivo and in vitro is a result of the same cause, then man's adaptation to outer space living will present interesting challenges in the future. Since the cause may be due to reduced gravity, perhaps the designs of the experiments for space flight will offer insights at the cellular levels that will facilitate development of mechanisms for adaptation. Further, if the aging process is viewed as an adaptational concept or model and not as a disease process then perhaps space flight could very easily interact to supply some information on our biological time clocks. PMID:1915698

  17. Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

  18. Marshall Space Flight Center CFD overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutzenhofer, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been focused on hardware specific and research applications with strong emphasis upon benchmark validation. The purpose here is to provide insight into the MSFC CFD related goals, objectives, current hardware related CFD activities, propulsion CFD research efforts and validation program, future near-term CFD hardware related programs, and CFD expectations. The current hardware programs where CFD has been successfully applied are the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD), and Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). For the future near-term CFD hardware related activities, plans are being developed that address the implementation of CFD into the early design stages of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE), and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Finally, CFD expectations in the design environment will be delineated.

  19. Lytic Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D. T.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.

  20. Gene Kranz Visits Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On October 19, 2006, former NASA director of Mission Operations Gene Kranz was a keynote speaker at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 2006 Annual Safety Day program. The best selling author of 'Failure Is Not An Option' and past Apollo flight director was featured during a morning session called 'Coffee and Kranz'. Marshall employees hung on his every word as he told the fascinating story of Apollo 13. Kranz was the acting flight director during the Apollo 13 mission, a mission that seemed doomed to fail due to an onboard explosion. Kranz and his flight control team worked around the clock relentlessly, solving problem after problem, until the crew was returned safely to Earth.

  1. Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.

  2. Demonstration of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.

  3. Demonstration of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.

    1993-06-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.

  4. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  5. Correlation of predicted and flight derived stability and control derivatives with particular application to tailless delta wing configurations. [application to the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, J.

    1981-01-01

    Flight derived longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives were compared to wind-tunnel derived values. As a result of these comparisons, boundaries representing the uncertainties that could be expected from wind-tunnel predictions were established. These boundaries provide a useful guide for control system sensitivity studies prior to flight. The primary application for this data was the space shuttle, and as a result the configurations included in the study were those most applicable to the space shuttle. The configurations included conventional delta wing aircraft as well as the X-15 and lifting body vehicles.

  6. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  7. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  8. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    A program of flying qualities experiments as part of the Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is defined. Phase 1, published as CR-170391, reviewed flying qualities criteria and shuttle data. The review of applicable experimental and shuttle data to further define the OEX plan is continued. An unconventional feature of this approach is the use of pilot strategy model identification to relate flight and simulator results. Instrumentation, software, and data analysis techniques for pilot model measurements are examined. The relationship between shuttle characteristics and superaugmented aircraft is established. STS flights 1 through 4 are reviewed from the point of view of flying qualities. A preliminary plan for a coordinated program of inflight and simulator research is presented.

  9. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  10. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  11. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  12. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  13. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted on crewmembers. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  14. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted after astronauts return to Earth. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  15. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator dynamics. The architecture is demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor.

  16. Anesthetic Concerns of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.

  17. New Scientist: Commercial Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from New Scientist highlights the most recent actions that are bringing us closer to commercial space flight -- the granting of the first licence to a private company. The one-year license authorizes the launching of people up to 100 kilometers. Apparently, the company is competing with other companies to win a prize being offered by the X Prize Foundation, which will be awarded to "the first private group to send three people to the sub-orbital height of 100 kilometers twice in two weeks." The president of X Prize, Peter Diamandis, is quoted as saying he expects a winner by October 2004. So stay tuned!

  18. Insignia of the Gemini 9 space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Ensignia of the Gemini 9 space flight. Roman numeral indicates ninth flight in the Gemini series. Two spacecraft symbolize rendezvous and docking of Gemini with Agena. Astronaut and umbilical (tether) line denotes planned extravehicular activity.

  19. Metabolic and Regulatory Systems in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.

  20. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  1. Neural Networks for Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Neural networks are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to permit real-time adaptive control of time varying nonlinear systems, enhance the fault-tolerance of mission hardware, and permit online system reconfiguration. In general, the problem of controlling time varying nonlinear systems with unknown structures has not been solved. Adaptive neural control techniques show considerable promise and are being applied to technical challenges including automated docking of spacecraft, dynamic balancing of the space station centrifuge, online reconfiguration of damaged aircraft, and reducing cost of new air and spacecraft designs. Our experiences have shown that neural network algorithms solved certain problems that conventional control methods have been unable to effectively address. These include damage mitigation in nonlinear reconfiguration flight control, early performance estimation of new aircraft designs, compensation for damaged planetary mission hardware by using redundant manipulator capability, and space sensor platform stabilization. This presentation explored these developments in the context of neural network control theory. The discussion began with an overview of why neural control has proven attractive for NASA application domains. The more important issues in control system development were then discussed with references to significant technical advances in the literature. Examples of how these methods have been applied were given, followed by projections of emerging application needs and directions.

  2. Current Level of Mission Control Automation at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maks, Lori; Breed, Julie; Rackley, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is particularly concerned with reducing mission operations costs through increased automation. This paper examines the operations procedures within NASA Mission Control Centers in order to uncover the level of automation that currently exists within them. Based on an assessment of mission operations procedures within three representative control centers, this paper recommends specific areas where there is potential for mission cost reduction through increased automation.

  3. Large Space Shuttle Flight Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Jenkins

    1982-01-01

    It appears practical to challenge the Orbiter DAP with a large, attached structure. The definition of this capability is a fundamental step in the development of nearly all large space systems currently under consideration. Experiment features may be incorporated that apply to control systems for large space systems such as modal damping devices. In a relatively simple deployable structure, the

  4. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  5. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  6. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  7. Predictors of immune function in space flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Shearer; Shaojie Zhang; James M. Reuben; Bang-Ning Lee; Janet S. Butel

    2007-01-01

    Of all of the environmental conditions of space flight that might have an adverse effect upon human immunity and the incidence of infection, space radiation stands out as the single-most important threat. As important as this would be on humans engaged in long and deep space flight, it obviously is not possible to plan Earth-bound radiation and infection studies in

  8. Space Flight: The First 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.

  9. Young PHD's in Human Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. User and Task Analysis of the Flight Surgeon Console at the Mission Control Center of the NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy A.; Shek, Molly

    2003-01-01

    Astronauts in a space station are to some extent like patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medical support of a mission crew will require acquisition, transmission, distribution, integration, and archiving of significant amounts of data. These data are acquired by disparate systems and will require timely, reliable, and secure distribution to different communities for the execution of various tasks of space missions. The goal of the Comprehensive Medical Information System (CMIS) Project at Johnson Space Center Flight Medical Clinic is to integrate data from all Medical Operations sources, including the reference information sources and the electronic medical records of astronauts. A first step toward the full CMIS implementation is to integrate and organize the reference information sources and the electronic medical record with the Flight Surgeons console. In order to investigate this integration, we need to understand the usability problems of the Flight Surgeon's console in particular and medical information systems in general. One way to achieve this understanding is through the use of user and task analyses whose general purpose is to ensure that only the necessary and sufficient task features that match users capacities will be included in system implementations. The goal of this summer project was to conduct user and task analyses employing cognitive engineering techniques to analyze the task of the Flight Surgeons and Biomedical Engineers (BMEs) while they worked on Console. The techniques employed were user interviews, observations and a questionnaire to collect data for which a hierarchical task analysis and an information resource assessment were performed. They are described in more detail below. Finally, based on our analyses, we make recommendations for improvements to the support structure.

  11. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Space Vehicle's induction into the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.

  12. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  13. Effect of aerodynamic and angle-of-attack uncertainties on the May 1979 entry flight control system of the Space Shuttle from Mach 8 to 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A six degree of freedom simulation analysis was performed for the space shuttle orbiter during entry from Mach 8 to Mach 1.5 with realistic off nominal conditions by using the flight control systems defined by the shuttle contractor. The off nominal conditions included aerodynamic uncertainties in extrapolating from wind tunnel derived characteristics to full scale flight characteristics, uncertainties in the estimates of the reaction control system interaction with the orbiter aerodynamics, an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, the failure of two of the four reaction control system thrusters on each side, and a lateral center of gravity offset coupled with vehicle and flow asymmetries. With combinations of these off nominal conditions, the flight control system performed satisfactorily. At low hypersonic speeds, a few cases exhibited unacceptable performances when errors in deriving the angle of attack from the onboard instrumentation were modeled. The orbiter was unable to maintain lateral trim for some cases between Mach 5 and Mach 2 and exhibited limit cycle tendencies or residual roll oscillations between Mach 3 and Mach 1. Piloting techniques and changes in some gains and switching times in the flight control system are suggested to help alleviate these problems.

  14. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  15. Effect of space flight on cytokine production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    Space flight has been shown to alter many immunological responses. Among those affected are the production of cytokines, Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system that facilitate communication among cells that allow the interaction among cells leading to the development of immune responses. Included among the cytokines are the interferons, interleukins, and colony stimulating factors. Cytokines also facilitate communication between the immune system and other body systems, such as the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems. Some cytokines also have direct protective effects on the host, such as interferon, which can inhibit the replication of viruses. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that models of space flight as well as actual space flight alter the production and action of cytokines. Included among these changes are altered interferon production, altered responsiveness of bone marrow cells to granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor, but no alteration in the production of interleukin-3. This suggests that there are selective effects of space flight on immune responses, i.e. not all cytokines are affected in the same fashion by space flight. Tissue culture studies also suggest that there may be direct effects of space flight on the cells responsible for cytokine production and action. The results of the above study indicate that the effects of space flight on cytokines may be a fundamental mechanism by which space flight not only affects immune responses, but also other biological systems of the human.

  16. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  17. Living Together in Space: The International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Issues and Solutions-Sustaining Engineering Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center From 1998 to 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Roman, M. C.; Miller, L.

    2007-01-01

    On board the International Space Station, heat generated by the crew and equipment is removed by the internal active thermal control system to maintain a comfortable working environment and prevent equipment overheating. Test facilities simulating the internal active thermal control system (IATCS) were constructed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the sustaining engineering activities to address concerns related to operational issues, equipment capability, and reliability. A full-scale functional simulator of the Destiny lab module IATCS was constructed and activated prior to launch of Destiny in 2001. This facility simulates the flow and thermal characteristics of the flight system and has a similar control interface. A subscale simulator was built, and activated in 2000, with special attention to materials and proportions of wetted surfaces to address issues related to changes in fluid chemistry, material corrosion, and microbial activity. The flight issues that have arisen and the tests performed using the simulator facilities are discussed in detail. In addition, other test facilities at the MSFC have been used to perform specific tests related to IATCS issues. Future testing is discussed as well as potential modifications to the simulators to enhance their utility.

  18. Knowledge representation in space flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

  19. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  20. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in 2004 of evaluating the tolerance limits and safe operating bands called for in the Bioastronautics Strategy. Over the next several years, the concept of the "operating bands" were turned into Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS), developed by the technical resources of the SLSD at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These standards were developed and reviewed at the SLSD and then presented to the OCHMO for acceptance. The first set of standards was published in 2007 as the NASA-STD-3001, Volume 1, Crew Health that elaborated standards for several physiological areas such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, radiation exposure and nutrition. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Human Health was published in 2011, along with development guidance in the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Taken together, the SFHSS Volumes 1 and 2, and the HIDH replaced the NASA-STD-3000 with new standards and revisions of the older document. Three other changes were also taking place that facilitated the development of the human system risk management approach. In 2005, the life sciences research and development portfolio underwent a comprehensive review through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) that resulted in the reformulation of the Bioastronautics Program into Human Research Program (HRP) that was focused on appropriate mitigation results for high priority human health risks. The baseline HRP budget was established in August 2005. In addition, the OCHMO formulated the Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) in 2006 that established the position of the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the NASA JSC along with other key technical disciplines, and the OCHMO became the responsible office for the SFHSS as noted above. The final change was the establishment in 2008 of the Human System Risk Board (HSRB), chaired by the CMO with representation from the HRP, SLSD management and technical experts. The HSRB then began to review all human system risks, established a comprehensive risk managemen

  1. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program.

  2. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  3. Space flight and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Doty, St B

    2004-12-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth. PMID:15895501

  4. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  5. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  6. Trusted Autonomy for Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Bonasso, Pete; Ingham, Mitch; Kortenkamp, David; Perix, John

    2005-01-01

    NASA has long supported research on intelligent control technologies that could allow space systems to operate autonomously or with reduced human supervision. Proposed uses range from automated control of entire space vehicles to mobile robots that assist or substitute for astronauts to vehicle systems such as life support that interact with other systems in complex ways and require constant vigilance. The potential for pervasive use of such technology to extend the kinds of missions that are possible in practice is well understood, as is its potential to radically improve the robustness, safety and productivity of diverse mission systems. Despite its acknowledged potential, intelligent control capabilities are rarely used in space flight systems. Perhaps the most famous example of intelligent control on a spacecraft is the Remote Agent system flown on the Deep Space One mission (1998 - 2001). However, even in this case, the role of the intelligent control element, originally intended to have full control of the spacecraft for the duration of the mission, was reduced to having partial control for a two-week non-critical period. Even this level of mission acceptance was exceptional. In most cases, mission managers consider intelligent control systems an unacceptable source of risk and elect not to fly them. Overall, the technology is not trusted. From the standpoint of those who need to decide whether to incorporate this technology, lack of trust is easy to understand. Intelligent high-level control means allowing software io make decisions that are too complex for conventional software. The decision-making behavior of these systems is often hard to understand and inspect, and thus hard to evaluate. Moreover, such software is typically designed and implemented either as a research product or custom-built for a particular mission. In the former case, software quality is unlikely to be adequate for flight qualification and the functionality provided by the system is likely driven largely by the need to publish innovative work. In the latter case, the mission represents the first use of the system, a risky proposition even for relatively simple software.

  7. Smokey Visits Station Flight Control Room - Duration: 14 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Smokey Bear celebrated his 68th birthday with a special visit to the International Space Station Flight Control Room at Johnson Space Center in Houston. On May 14, Smokey went where no bear had gon...

  8. Research and Technology, 1987, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerny, Gene (editor); Moe, Karen (editor); Paddack, Steven (editor); Soffen, Gerald (editor); Sullivan, Walter (editor); Ballard, Jan (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research at Goddard Space Flight Center during 1987 is summarized. Topics addressed include space and earth sciences, technology, flight projects and mission definition studies, and institutional technology.

  9. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  10. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

  15. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

  16. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

  17. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143...GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

  18. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, located on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama,commemorates the designation of the Saturn V Rocket as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1980.

  19. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  20. Effect of aerodynamic and angle-of-attack uncertainties on the blended entry flight control system of the Space Shuttle from Mach 10 to 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis has been performed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry from Mach 10 to 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the entry flight control system specified in May 1978. The off-nominal conditions included the following: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties, (2) an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) the failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side, and (4) a lateral center-of-gravity offset. With combinations of the above off-nominal conditions, the control system performed satisfactorily with a few exceptions. The cases that did not exhibit satisfactory performance displayed the following main weaknesses. Marginal performance was exhibited at hypersonic speeds with a sensed angle-of-attack error of 4 deg. At supersonic speeds the system tended to be oscillatory, and the system diverged for several cases because of the inability to hold lateral trim. Several system modifications were suggested to help solve these problems and to maximize safety on the first flight: alter the elevon-trim and speed-brake schedules, delay switching to rudder trim until the rudder effectiveness is adequate, and reduce the overall rudder loop gain. These and other modifications were incorporated in a flight-control-system redesign in May 1979.

  1. Nutrition in Space Flight: Some Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.

  2. Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocharnuk, John B.; Guy, B. C.; Webster, Edward A.; Glim, Carl J.

    1993-02-01

    The paper describes the Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC) for DC-X, which is a transportable facility consisting of ground-based telemetry, computer equipment, control logic, communications, video monitoring, and other elements necessary to control and monitor all aspects of the preflight ground checkout, take-off, and flight operations of the DC-X vehicle. Particular attention is given to the FOCC van equipment layout, the use of FOCC on DC-X, and the extension of DC-X concepts to the operational Delta Clipper fleet. Schemes are presented of some of the screens used as control centers for the subsystem checkout and monitoring the DC-X vehicle during test flights.

  3. Comparing future options for human space flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Sherwood

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the “value proposition” for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $1010\\/year expense in the US. The original Mercury\\/Gemini\\/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill.

  4. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

  5. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

  6. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational training at the same time. Such efforts could support both improved health and performance on orbit and improved operational training in the most efficient manner.

  7. Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

    This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

  8. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  9. Effects of Space Flight on Rodent Tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.

    1997-01-01

    As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.

  10. Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

  11. Autorotation flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  12. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data inputs with the outputs provided to instrumentation only. The IFCS was not used to control the airplane. In another stage of the flight test, the Phase I pre-trained neural network was integrated into a Phase III version of the flight control system. The Phase I pretrained neural network provided realtime stability and control derivatives to a Phase III controller that was based on a stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique (SOFFT). This combined Phase I/III system was operated together with the research flight-control system (RFCS) of the F-15 ACTIVE during the flight test. The RFCS enables the pilot to switch quickly from the experimental- research flight mode back to the safe conventional mode. These initial IFCS ACP flight tests were completed in April 1999. The Phase I/III flight test milestone was to demonstrate, across a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions, that the pre-trained neural network could be used to supply real-time aerodynamic stability and control derivatives to the closed-loop optimal SOFFT flight controller. Additional objectives attained in the flight test included (1) flight qualification of a neural-network-based control system; (2) the use of a combined neural-network/closed-loop optimal flight-control system to obtain level-one handling qualities; and (3) demonstration, through variation of control gains, that different handling qualities can be achieved by setting new target parameters. In addition, data for the Phase-II (on-line-learning) neural network were collected, during the use of stacked-frequency- sweep excitation, for post-flight analysis. Initial analysis of these data showed the potential for future flight tests that will incorporate the real-time identification and on-line learning aspects of the IFCS.

  13. Visual-Vestibular Responses During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Paloski, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Given the documented disruptions that occur in spatial orientation during space flight and the putative sensory-motor information underlying eye and head spatial coding, the primary purpose of this paper is to examine components of the target acquisition system in subjects free to make head and eye movements in three dimensional space both during and following adaptation to long duration space flight. It is also our intention to suggest a simple model of adaptation that has components in common with cerebellar disorders whose neurobiological substrate has been identified.

  14. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  15. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama commemorates the Neutral Buoyancy Space Simulator as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1986 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  16. Goddard Space Flight Center- Visitor Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The homepage of the Visitor Center at Goddard Space Flight Center provides access to a variety of information about the history, missions, and upcoming events at the center. Users can find information on public exhibits, educational resources, and programs on space and Earth science and technology.

  17. Proposed Space Flight Experiment Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The primary thrust for this plan is to develop design tools and fundamental understanding that are timely and consistent with the goal of the various exploration initiatives. The plan will utilize ISS facilities, such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). A preliminary flow schematic of Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(phi)FFy) which would utilize FIR is shown in Figure 3. MSG can be utilized to use the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and Contact Line Dynamics Experiment (CLiDE) Facility. The T(phi)FFy system would have multiple test sections whereby different configurations of heat exchangers could be used to study boiling and condensation phenomena. The test sections would be instrumented for pressure drop, void fraction, heat fluxes, temperatures, high-speed imaging and other diagnostics. Besides a high-speed data acquisition system with a large data storage capability, telemetry could be used to update control and test parameters and download limited amounts of data. In addition, there would be multiple accumulators that could be used to investigate system stability and fluid management issues. The system could accommodate adiabatic tests through either the space station nitrogen supply or have an experiment-specific compressor to pressurize a sufficient amount of air or other non-condensable gas for reuse as the supply bottle is depleted.

  18. Metabolic changes in the animals subjected to space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Németh, Štefan; Kvet?anský, Richard; Ficková, Maria; Tigranian, Ruben A.; Serova, Ljubov

    1982-07-01

    The activity of the enzymes involved in aminoacid metabolism (tyrosine aminotransferase, TAT, tryptophan pyrrolase TP, serine dehydratase, SD) with rapid response to glucocorticoids and enzymes requiring for activity increase repeated administration of corticosterone (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, AST) in liver, the changes of lipolysis in adipose tissue and the plasma corticosterone levels were studied in rats subjected to space flight (F), in animals from synchron model experiments (SM, simulated conditions of space flight in laboratory) and in intact controls (C). The increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and of the activity of rapidly (TAT, TP, SD) and slowly activating enzymes (ALT, AST) was found in F group 6-10 hr after space flight (18.5 days on biosatellite COSMOS 1129). This suggested the presence of acute-stress (associated primarily with the landing) and chronic stress induced hypercorticosteronemia during the flight. After the short 6-day period of recovery the plasma corticosterone concentrations and the activities of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to repeated immobilization stress showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. No changes in basal lipolysis were observed in flight rats in comparison to intact controls, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lover in animals from F and SM groups. This lower response of lipolytic processes to norepinephrine was found in flight animals also after six days period of recovery. These results showed that there are important changes in the regulation of lipolytic processes in adipose tissue of rats after space flight and in the conditions of model experiments.

  19. Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to ensure that the beneficial effects are seen in space flight. As we begin to plan for missions to go back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions are yet to be answered. Maintaining bone is one of the greatest challenges, but with a better understanding of the mechanical processes of bone loss, countermeasures can be designed more efficiently, and the solution (or solutions) may be just over the horizon.

  20. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.

  1. Extraction of stability and control derivatives from orbiter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.

  2. Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, T. D.; Brower, M. E.; Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Streptomyces levoris provides a suitable biological test system to investigate the effects of space flight on the rhythms of vegetative and spore phase characteristics of both growth-rate periodicity and culture morphology during the pre-, in-, and post-flight periods of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The objectives of the American participation were to study the effects of space flight on the biorhythms of Streptomyces levoris based on a comparison of the growth-rate periodicity of the vegetative and spore phase within each culture, to examine the possible alteration of spore morphology and development by SEM, and to compare the effects of a 12-hr phase shift on the periodic growth characteristics of this microorganism in cultures which were exchanged during the joint activities of the space flight. No uniform differences in the biorhythm of Streptomyces levoris during space flight were observed. It appears that the single most variable factor related to the experiment was the lack of temperature control for the space-flight specimens.

  3. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  4. Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Robert R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

  5. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).

  6. Goddard Space Flight Center Education Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Education Programs provide teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use. These collections support the Earth system science curriculum developed by NASA scientists from the Earth Science Enterprise, a team of teachers from Anne Arundel County Public Schools, and the Education Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Site materials include a listing of featured programs, information on educational programs for the public, public schools-based programs, and programs for higher education. The Educator Resource Center (ERC) provides access to educational publications, teaching materials, educator workshops, video duplication and many other resources. There are also links to other NASA research and space flight centers, the Goddard media center, and state-specific listservs for educators.

  7. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  8. The combined effect of ionizing radiation and other space flight factors (results of flight experiments)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems and conditions of conducting radiobiological experiments in outer space are investigated. Effects of ionizing radiation and other prolonged space flight factors on animals are studied. Relationship of nonradiation space flight factors to radiation damage is evaluated.

  9. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  10. Metabolic energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

  11. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  12. NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  13. Transition Flight Control Room Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.

  14. Transition flight control room automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: (1) The fuel cell monitoring system (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multithreaded procedures, which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule-based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. (2) A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL) is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on shuttle or space station telemetry and trajectory data. (3) The design of a system will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. (4) A generic message management (GMM) system is being designed for real-time applications as a message management system which sends advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occur and to assist the developer in the devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application, and tool building activities, while determining the feasibility of a given approach.

  15. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other factors of space flight change direction of biological processes, and show a possibility to get special kinds of bioproducts with new properties.

  16. ZAG-Otolith: Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control during Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, <20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolithocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of postflight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved with vibrotactile feedback of orientation.

  17. Kinematic synthesis of flight control systems

    E-print Network

    Yaman, Yavuz

    and four bar position syntheses respectively. A case study of an elevator flight control system. The conventional primary flight control systems consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudder. They are used for movingKinematic synthesis of flight control systems for light aircrafts Yavuz Yaman Yunus Akman and Eres

  18. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  19. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  20. Effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, A. D.; Balish, E.

    1977-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes was studied in rats subjected to 20 days of flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 7820. Groups of rats were immunized with 1,000,000 formalin-killed Listeria suspended in Freunds Complete Adjuvant, 5 days prior to flight. Immunized rats subjected to the same environmental factors as the flight rats, except flight itself, and immunized and nonimmunized rats held in a normal animal colony served as controls. Following recovery, lymphocyte cultures were harvested from spleens of all rats, cultured in vitro in the presence of L. monocytogenes antigens, Phytohemagglutinin, Conconavlin A, or purified protein derivative (PPD), and measured for their uptake of H-3-thymidine. Although individual rats varied considerably, all flight and immunized control rats gave a blastogenic response to the Listeria antigens and PPD. With several mitogens, the lymphocytes of flight rats showed a significantly increased blastogenic response over the controls. The results of this study do not support a hypothesis of a detrimental effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity. The data suggest a possible suppressive effect of stress and gravity on an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity.

  1. MEMS for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are entering the stage of design and verification to demonstrate the utility of the technology for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for military, space, medical, industrial, consumer, automotive and instrumentation products.

  2. Space robotic experiment in JEM flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagatomo, Masanori; Tanaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    Japan is collaborating on the multinational space station program. The JEM, Japanese Experiment Module, has both a pressurized module and an Exposed Facility (EF). JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) will play a dominant role in handling/servicing payloads and the maintenance of the EF, and consists of two robotic arms, a main arm and a small fine arm. JEM Flight Demonstration (JFD) is a space robotics experiment using the prototype small fine arm to demonstrate its capability, prior to the Space Station operation. The small fine arm will be installed in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and operated by a crew from a dedicated workstation in the Aft Flight Deck of the orbiter.

  3. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  5. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Launch Vehicle as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1984 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  6. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Propulsion and Structural Test Facility as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service of the United States Interior. The site was designated as a landmark in 1985.

  7. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Small Business Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs

  9. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  10. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  11. Flight control design considerations for STOVL powered-lift flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.; Anex, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft rely on the propulsion system for the lift and control functions during slow speed flight. The propulsion system provides the entire lifting force and all of the control power for hovering flight at zero airspeed. STOVL designs such as the General Dynamics E-7D ejector configuration incorporate an integrated flight/propulsion control system to manage the aerodynamic and propulsive-lift control effectors and to reduce the pilot's workload for powered-lift flight. Desired flying qualities characteristics are implemented through the utilization of an explicit model following flight control system. With the model following control system, the pilot commands the desired response (e.g., throttle commands vertical velocity in hover, instead of power lever angle). Design considerations for developing a multivariable model-following flight control system are presented in this paper. When the regulator gains are defined in terms of generalized controls, the design problem becomes how to best transform the generalized controls to aerodynamic control surface, thrust and thrust vectoring commands.

  12. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

  13. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.

  14. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  15. Space Flight Plasma Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.

  16. Antimicrobial Medication Stability During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Berens, Kurt; Du, Jianping

    2004-01-01

    The current vision for manned space flight involves lunar and Martian exploration within the next two decades. In order for NASA to achieve these goals, a significant amount of preparation is necessary to assure crew health and safety. A mission critical component of this vision centers around the stability of pharmaceutical preparations contained in the space medicine kits. Evidence suggests that even brief periods of space flight have significant detrimental effects for some pharmaceutical formulations. The effects observed include decreases in physical stability of drug formulations of sufficient magnitude to effect bioavailability. Other formulations exhibit decreases in chemical stability resulting in a loss of potency. Physical or-chemical instability of pharmaceutical formulations i n space medicine kits could render the products ineffective. Of additional concern is the potential for formation of toxic degradation products as a result of the observed product instability. This proposal addresses Question number 11 of Clinical Capabilities in the Critical Path Roadmap. In addition, this proposal will reduce the risks and/or enhance the capabilities of humans exposed to the environments of space flight or an extraterrestrial destination by identifying drugs that may be unstable during spaceflight.

  17. Space flight and the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.

  18. Space flight and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, A

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon. PMID:8488698

  19. Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    vibrations are transduced by individual units of Johnston's organs at the base of their antennae of the flagellum restored their flight control. The antennae thus play a crucial role in maintaining flightAntennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1

  20. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  1. The effects of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.

  2. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  3. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students - Duration: 10:56.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  4. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's activities and purposes. MSFC seeks to build on previous contacts and relationships with Russian rocket institutions, to better understand Russian rocket products and technical capabilities. The US launch vehicle and spacecraft industry are already using many Russian propulsion products and MSFC needs better technical knowledge and understanding of these products as this use increases. Further details are given on MSFC's role in determining and developing the scope of space propulsion, NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan, Earth to Orbit propulsion systems, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, proposed Shuttle safety upgrades, and in-space propulsion systems. MSFC's role in the construction and support of the International Space Station is also described.

  5. Rehabilitation After International Space Station Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauvin, S. J.; Shepherd, B. A. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Taddeo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitating U.S. crew members to preflight status following flights on the Russian Mir Space Station required longer than six months for full functional recovery of some of the seven crew members. Additional exercise hardware has been added on the International Space Station as well as a rehabilitative emphasis on functional fitness/agility and proprioception. The authors will describe and present the results of the rehabilitation program for ISS and evaluate rehabilitative needs for longer missions. Pre- and in-flight programs emphasize strength and aerobic conditioning. One year before launch, crew members are assigned an Astronaut Strength and Conditioning specialist. Crew members are scheduled for 2 hours, 3 days a week, for pre-flight training and 2.5 hours, six days a week, for in-flight training. Crewmembers are tested on functional fitness, agility, isokinetic strength, and submaximal cycle ergometer evaluation before and after flight. The information from these tests is used for exercise prescriptions, comparison, and evaluation of the astronaut and training programs. The rehabilitation program lasts for 45 days and is scheduled for 2 hours during each crew workday. Phase 1 of the rehabilitation program starts on landing day and places emphasis on ambulation, flexibility, and muscle strengthening. Phase 2 adds proprioceptive exercise and cardiovascular conditioning. Phase 3 (the longest phase) focuses on functional development. All programs are tailored specifically for each individual according to their test results, preferred recreational activities, and mission roles and duties. Most crew members reached or exceeded their preflight test values 45 days after flight. Some crew members subjectively indicated the need for a longer rehabilitation period. The current rehabilitation program for returning ISS crew members seems adequate in content but may need to be extended for longer expeditions.

  6. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  7. BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

  8. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

  9. Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management Donna Swann Donna;Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management Employee Viewpoint Survey (EVS) The Federal individual agencies and their progress on strategic management of human capital 2 #12;Goddard Space Flight

  10. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  11. Digital flight control actuation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.

    1974-01-01

    Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.

  12. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  13. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  15. Sustaining Human Space Flight: From the Present to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the efforts to ensure that human space flight continues in NASA. With the aging shuttle orbiter fleet, some actions have been taken to assure safe operations. Some of these are: (1) the formation of a Corrosion Control Review Board (CCRB) that will assess the extent and cause of corrosion to the shuttle, and provide short term and long term corrective actions, among other objectives, (2) a formalization of an aging vehicle assessment (AVA) as part of a certification for the Return-to-Flight, (3) an assessment of the age life of the materials in the space shuttle, and (4) the formation of the Aging Orbiter Working Group (AOWG). There are also slides with information about the International Space Station. There is also information about the need to update the Kennedy Space Center, to sustain a 21st century launch complex and the requirement to further the aim of commercial launch capability.

  16. Inhibition of bone formation during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

  17. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  18. Basics of Space Flight - Gravitation and Mechanics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In any solar system, planets move in orbits around a star, bound to it by gravitation. Orbital paths are elliptical in shape. Users can explore concepts such as gravitational force, the properties of ellipses, Newton's principles of mechanics, Kepler's laws, orbital acceleration, and tidal effects. This is part of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Basics of Space Flight training module. A glossary, dictionary of units of measure, and links to other parts of the module and to related topics are provided.

  19. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-08-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  20. Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.

  1. Astronaut Susan Helms on aft flight deck with RMS controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck, astronaut Susan J. Helms handles controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The robot arm operated by Helms, who remained inside the cabin, was used to support task such as the release and retrieval of the free-flying Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) - 201, a six-hour space walk and the Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX).

  2. Multivariable adaptive algorithms for reconfigurable flight control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bodson; Joseph E. Groszkiewicz

    1997-01-01

    The application of multivariable adaptive control techniques to flight control reconfiguration is considered. The objective is to redesign automatically flight control laws to compensate for actuator failures or surface damage. Three adaptive algorithms for multivariable model reference control are compared. The availability of state measurements in this application leads to relatively simple algorithms. The respective advantages and disadvantages of the

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department is a resource for Educator, Students and Lifelong Learners. This paper will highlight the Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department with references to other NASA Education Departments nationwide. The principal focus will be on the responsibilities of the Pre-college Education Team which is responsible for supporting K- 12 teachers highlighting how many of the NASA Pre-college Offices engage teachers and their students in better understanding NASA's inspiring missions, unique facilities, and specialized workforce to carryout these many agency-wide tasks, goals and objectives. Attendee's will learn about the Marshall Educational Alliance Teams, as well, which is responsible for using NASA's unique assets to support all types of learning. All experience and knowledge levels, all grades K-12, and teachers in these specified groupings will gain a true appreciation of what is available for them, through Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department. An agency-wide blue directory booklet will be distributed to all attendees, for future references and related points of contact.

  4. How human sleep in space — investigations during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I. M.; Zdravev, T. K.; Yanev, T. K.

    Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.

  5. X-38 Application of Dynamic Inversion Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, Roger; Munday, Steve; Merkle, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of a nonlinear dynamic inversion (DI) flight control system (FCS) to an autonomous flight test vehicle in NASA's X-38 Project, a predecessor to the International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). Honeywell's Multi-Application Control-H (MACH) is a parameterized FCS design architecture including both model-based DI rate-compensation and classical P+I command-tracking. MACH was adopted by X-38 in order to shorten the design cycle time for different vehicle shapes and flight envelopes and evolving aerodynamic databases. Specific design issues and analysis results are presented for the application of MACH to the 3rd free flight (FF3) of X-38 Vehicle 132 (V132). This B-52 drop test, occurring on March 30, 2000, represents the first flight test of MACH and one of the first few known applications of DI in the primary FCS of an autonomous flight test vehicle.

  6. Flight Control Design using Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Stengel

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft in extreme flight conditions such as stalls and spins experience nonlinear forces and moments generated from high angles of attack and high angular rates. Flight control systems based upon nonlinear inverse dynamics offer the potential for providing improved levels of safety and performance in these flight conditions over the competing designs developed using linearizing assumptions. Inverse dynamics are generated

  7. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  9. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

  10. Research and technology, 1984: Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorehead, T. W. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts research programs in space sciences, materials processing in space, and atmospheric sciences, as well as technology programs in such areas as propulsion, materials, processes, and space power. This Marshall Space Flight Center 1984 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains summaries of the more significant scientific and technical results obtained during FY-84.

  11. Quadrocopter Control Design and Flight Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karwoski, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.

  12. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  13. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  15. Results of the First US Manned Orbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The results of the first United States manned orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962 are presented. The prelaunch activities, spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and postflight analyses presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  17. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  20. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  1. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  2. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  3. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  4. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  5. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  6. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  7. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  9. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  10. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  11. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  12. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  13. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  14. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  15. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  16. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  17. A Flight Control Approach for Small Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevacqoa, Tim; Adams, Tony; Zhu. J. Jim; Rao, P. Prabhakara

    2004-01-01

    Flight control of small crew return vehicles during atmospheric reentry will be an important technology in any human space flight mission undertaken in the future. The control system presented in this paper is applicable to small crew return vehicles in which reaction control system (RCS) thrusters are the only actuators available for attitude control. The control system consists of two modules: (i) the attitude controller using the trajectory linearization control (TLC) technique, and (ii) the reaction control system (RCS) control allocation module using a dynamic table-lookup technique. This paper describes the design and implementation of the TLC attitude control and the dynamic table-lookup RCS control allocation for nonimal flight along with design verification test results.

  18. F-15 IFCS: Intelligent Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.

  19. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  20. Insect flight dynamics: Stability and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mao

    2014-04-01

    Insects can hover, fly forward, climb, and descend with ease while demonstrating amazing stability, and they can also maneuver in impressive ways as no other organisms can. Is their flight inherently stable? If so, how can they maneuver so well? In recent years, significant progress has been made in revealing the dynamic flight stability and flight control mechanisms of insects and has partially answered these questions. Here the most recent advances in this active area are reviewed. The aim is to provide the background necessary to do research in the area and raise questions that need to be addressed in the future. This review begins with an overview of the flapping kinematics and aerodynamics of insect flight. It is followed by a summary of the governing equations of insect motion and the simplified theoretical models used for analysis of dynamic stability and control. Next, the stability properties of hovering flight and forward flight are scrutinized. Then the flight control properties are explored, dealing in turn with flight stabilization control, steady-state control for changing from hovering to forward flight and from one forward-flight speed to another, and control for maneuvers near hovering. Finally, remarks are given on the state of the art of this research field and speculation is made on its outlook in the near future.

  1. Role of Corticosteroids in Bone Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  2. Thermal control surfaces experiment: Initial flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of materials in the space environment continues to be a limiting technology for spacecraft and experiments. The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is the most comprehensive experiment flown to study the effects of the space environment on thermal control surfaces. Selected thermal control surfaces were exposed to the LDEF orbital environment and the effects of this exposure were measured. The TCSE combined in-space orbital measurements with pre and post-flight analyses of flight materials to determine the effects of long term space exposure. The TCSE experiment objective, method, and measurements are described along with the results of the initial materials analysis. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission is described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed.

  3. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, M E

    1998-01-01

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight. PMID:11541395

  4. The effects of space flight on the composition of the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The lumbar annuli of rats flown on a COSMOS space flight were compared with those of three control groups and a ground antigravity tail suspension model. The wet and dry weights of the space flight annuli were significantly smaller than the three control groups. In addition, the collagen-to-proteoglycan ratio was significantly greater in the flight group due to a proportional increase in collagen and a decrease in proteoglycan. Finally, it appears microgravity may have altered the nature of the proteoglycan population as more proteoglycans leached from the annuli of flight animals than control animals when immersed in water. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7719767

  5. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  6. Flight Dynamics and Controls Discipline Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.

  7. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center An Engine of Opportunity

    E-print Network

    the Future of Science and Exploration Marshall Space Flight Center plays a key role in NASA's missions ­ from space launch systems to support for living and working in space to exploring worlds beyond our ownNASA Marshall Space Flight Center An Engine of Opportunity marshallFY2009 Economic ImpactFY2009

  8. Pseudohyphal variations of yeasts exposed to specific space flight parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461

  9. Sodium sulfur battery cell space flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, J.C.; Baker, W.E.; Braun, W.; Kim, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Naval Center for Space Technology

    1995-12-31

    A Sodium Sulfur (NaS) battery cell for space applications has been in development, with Air Force sponsorship, since the early 1980`s. At 100 Wh/kg, NaS batteries have twice the energy density of advanced nickel hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) battery designs. Yet, the NaS battery cell is radically different from either nickel cadmium (NiCd) or NiH{sub 2} battery cells in two ways. First, NaS cells have a solid ceramic versus a liquid aqueous electrolyte. Second, NaS operates at 350 C versus 20 C for NiH{sub 2} and NiCd. How this unique battery cell operates in the zero-g environment of space is the purpose of the flight experiment described herein. The US Air Force Phillips Lab has tasked the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to design, fabricate and integrate a NaS battery cell flight experiment. The experiment will fly with the Wake Shield Facility Cross Bay Carrier on a NASA Space Shuttle launch in November 1996. The experiment will heat-up, cool-down and operate four series connected NaS cells through three different charge/discharge profiles. After the experiment is complete, the NaS battery cells will be returned to the PL for destructive physical analysis. This paper will describe the NRL experiment implementation and design.

  10. Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil D.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

  11. A fuzzy logic controller for aircraft flight control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence I. Larkin

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a model of an autopilot controller based on fuzzy algorithms. The controller maneuvers an aircraft from level flight into a final-approach flight path and maintains the aircraft along the glide path until just before touchdown. To evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the model, the aircraft response to controller actions is simulated using flight simulation techniques. The

  12. Research & Technology Report Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The main theme of this edition of the annual Research and Technology Report is Mission Operations and Data Systems. Shifting from centralized to distributed mission operations, and from human interactive operations to highly automated operations is reported. The following aspects are addressed: Mission planning and operations; TDRSS, Positioning Systems, and orbit determination; hardware and software associated with Ground System and Networks; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web. Flight projects are described along with the achievements in space sciences and earth sciences. Spacecraft subsystems, cryogenic developments, and new tools and capabilities are also discussed.

  13. Goddard Space Flight Center: Astrophysics Science Division

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The home page of the Astrophysics Science Division at Goddard Space Flight Center provides information on the division's research projects, missions, goals, and activities. Topics include the evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets; the diversity of worlds outside our solar system; the possibillity of life on those worlds; and astrophysics questions such as what powered the Big Bang, what is dark energy, and what happens at the edge of a black hole. Links are also provided to mission webpages, news articles and notifications of seminars and meetings.

  14. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri,Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  15. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  16. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  17. The manned maneuvering unit flight controller arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, K. E.

    1983-05-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and its support equipment provide an extravehicular astronaut mobility, and the ability to work outside the confines of the Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. The MMU design requirements are based on the highly successful Skylab M-509 maneuvering unit. Design of the MMU was started as an R&D effort in April 1975 and Flight Hardware design was started in August 1979 to support a possible requirement for in-space inspection and repair of Orbiter thermal protection tiles. Subsequently, the qualification test and production activities were slowed, and the current projected earliest first flight is now STS-11 in January, 1984. The MMU propulsion subsystem provides complete redundancy with two identical "system". Each system contains a high pressure gaseous nitrogen tank, an isolation valve, a regulator, and twelve 1.7 lbf (7.5 N) thrusters. The thrusters are packaged to provide the crew member six-degree-of-freedom control in response to commands from translational and rotational hand controllers. This paper discusses the MMU control arm requirements, design, and developmental history.

  18. 14 CFR 27.673 - Primary flight control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Primary flight control. 27.673 Section 27.673 ...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.673 Primary flight control. Primary flight controls are...

  19. 14 CFR 29.673 - Primary flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Primary flight controls. 29.673 Section 29.673 ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight controls are...

  20. 14 CFR 23.673 - Primary flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Primary flight controls. 23.673 Section 23.673 ...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight controls are...

  1. Human operator performance of remotely controlled tasks: Teleoperator research conducted at NASA's George C. Marshal Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N., Jr.; Piccione, F.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    The capabilities within the teleoperator laboratories to perform remote and teleoperated investigations for a wide variety of applications are described. Three major teleoperator issues are addressed: the human operator, the remote control and effecting subsystems, and the human/machine system performance results for specific teleoperated tasks.

  2. Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Trela

    2006-01-01

    Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)

  3. Utilizing HDTV as Data for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Lindblom, Walt

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident February 1, 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recognized the need for better video data from launch, on-orbit, and landing to assess the status and safety of the shuttle orbiter fleet. The board called on NASA to improve its imagery assets and update the Agency s methods for analyzing video. This paper will feature details of several projects implemented prior to the return to flight of the Space Shuttle, including an airborne HDTV imaging system called the WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment, use of true 60 Hz progressive scan HDTV for ground and airborne HDTV camera systems, and the decision to utilize a wavelet compression system for recording. This paper will include results of compression testing, imagery from the launch of STS-114, and details of how commercial components were utilized to image the shuttle launch from an aircraft flying at 400 knots at 60,000 feet altitude. The paper will conclude with a review of future plans to expand on the upgrades made prior to return to flight.

  4. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  5. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  6. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808

  7. Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W.; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E.; Lavella, Gabriel; VandenBrooks, John M.; Harrison, Jon F.; Maharbiz, Michel M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808

  8. Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

  9. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section...Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in...

  14. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge. Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  15. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 25.865 ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection...865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and...

  16. Life-sciences research opportunities in commercial suborbital space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Commercial suborbital space flights will reach altitudes above 100 km, with 3-5 min of weightlessness bracketed by high-g launch and landing phases. The proposed frequency of these flights, and the large passenger population, present interesting opportunities for researchers in the life sciences. The characteristics of suborbital flight are between those of parabolic and orbital flights, opening up new scientific possibilities and easing the burden for obtaining access to 0g. There are several areas where these flights might be used for research in the life sciences: (1) operational research: preparation for “real” space flight, such as rehearsal of medical procedures, (2) applied research-to answer questions relevant to long-term space flight; (3) passenger health and safety-effects on passengers, relevant to screening and training; (4) basic research in physiological mechanisms-to address issues of fundamental science. We describe possible projects in each of these categories. One in particular spans several areas. Based on the anticipated suborbital flight profiles, observations from parabolic flight, and the wide range of fitness and experience levels of suborbital passengers, sensorimotor disturbances such as motion sickness and disorientation are major concerns. Protocols for pre-flight adaptation of sensorimotor responses might help to alleviate some of these problems, based on results from research in the initial flights. This would improve the passenger experience and add to the knowledge base relevant to space flight more generally.

  17. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    propulsion, upper and in-space propulsion, separation and maneuvering systems, and launch abort motors, preburners and ignition systems, valves, actuators, and thrust vector control systems. 1NASA Marshall Space Program (Shuttle): external tank, space shuttle main engine, and reusable solid rocket boosters

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    propulsion, upper and in-space propulsion, separation and maneuvering systems, and launch abort motors, preburners, and ignition systems, valves, actuators, and thrust vector control systems. 1NASA Marshall Space Program (Shuttle): External tank, space shuttle main engine, and reusable solid rocket boosters

  20. [The countermeasure system for extended space flights].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaia, I B; Pestov, I D; Egorov, A D

    2008-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of developing countermeasures by the team of winners of the USSR state prize under the leadership of academician O.G. Gazenko, and ensuing investigations at the Institute for Biomedical Problems. The system of countermeasures against the debilitating developments in cosmonaut's organism first developed in Russia ensured successful completion of long-term SF (64 to 438 days) aboard the Salyut and Mir orbital stations. The system incorporates exercises on the treadmill and veloergometer, axial body loading in suit Pinguin, application of negative pressure on the lower part of the body vacuum suit Chibis and several others. The system proved high efficiency in preventing or smoothing over the negative effects of microgravity in the course and after long-term space flight. PMID:19238918

  1. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  3. Biodosimetry results from space flight Mir-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Durante, M.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.

  4. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  5. Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight.

    PubMed

    Thornton, W E; Biggers, W P; Thomas, W G; Pool, S L; Thagard, N E

    1985-08-01

    Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eight shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal. PMID:4021685

  6. Apollo experience report: Flight planning for manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, J. W.; Cotter, J. B.; Holloway, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    The history of flight planning for manned space missions is outlined, and descriptions and examples of the various evolutionary phases of flight data documents from Project Mercury to the Apollo Program are included. Emphasis is given to the Apollo flight plan. Time line format and content are discussed in relationship to the manner in which they are affected by the types of flight plans and various constraints.

  7. Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS) and verified that we received the same result using the internal version of LLIS for our logistics lesson searches. In conducting the research, information from multiple databases was consolidated into a single spreadsheet of 300 lessons learned. Keywords were applied for the purpose of sorting and evaluation. Once the lessons had been compiled, an analysis of the resulting data was performed, first sorting it by keyword, then finding duplication and root cause, and finally sorting by root cause. The data was then distilled into the top 7 lessons learned across programs, centers, and activities.

  8. Ground Support for the Space-Based Range Flight Demonstration 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkes, Darryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

  9. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  10. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  11. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  12. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  13. The Goddard Space Flight Center preferred parts list, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, N. E. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    A listing is presented of preferred electronic parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center space systems and ground support equipment.

  14. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2011-01-01

    This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.

  15. Experiment 305: Pathophysiology of Mineral Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Claude D.; Cann, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this SLS-2 experiment was to determine the pathophysiology of mineral loss during space flight. This was to be accomplished by (1) determining the concentrations of blood minerals and of calciotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone-PTH, vitamin D metabolites) before, during, and after a 14 day shuttle flight, and (2) determining, by calcium kinetic analysis (using stable calcium isotopes), the influence of space flight on intestinal calcium absorption .

  16. Using Fuzzy Clustering for Real-time Space Flight Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Lee; Darrin M. Hanna; Richard E. Haskell; Richard L. Alena

    2004-01-01

    To ensure space flight safety, it is necessary to monitor myriad sensor readings on the ground and in flight. Since a space shuttle has many sensors, monitoring data and drawing conclusions from information contained within the data in real time is challenging. The nature of the information can be critical to the success of the mission and safety of the

  17. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  18. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  19. Research and Technology Report. Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of Goddard Space Flight Center's annual report highlights the importance of mission operations and data systems covering mission planning and operations; TDRSS, positioning systems, and orbit determination; ground system and networks, hardware and software; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web use. The report also includes flight projects, space sciences, Earth system science, and engineering and materials.

  20. Space Station/Orbiter berthing dynamics during an assembly flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Wu, Shih-Chin

    1993-01-01

    A large-angle, multi-body, dynamic modeling capability was developed to help validate numerical simulations of the dynamic motion and control forces which occur while berthing Space Station Freedom to the Shuttle Orbiter during early assembly flights. The paper describes the dynamics and control of the station, the attached Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, and the Orbiter during a maneuver from a gravity-gradient attitude to a torque equilibrium attitude using the station reaction control jets. The influence of the elastic behavior of the station and of the remote manipulator system on the attitude control of the station/Orbiter system during the maneuver is investigated. The flexibility of the station and the arm had only a minor influence on the attitude control of the system during the maneuver.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  2. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  3. Ares I Flight Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

  4. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between aircraft and flight control system design parameters.

  5. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

  6. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

  7. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

  8. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as...

  9. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  10. Sub-orbital flights, a starting point for space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubatz, William A.

    2002-07-01

    While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met to ensure a pleasurable as well as adventurous experience. Sub-orbital flights offer an incremental approach to develop the market and the infrastructure, demonstrate the safety of space flight, obtain real flight information regarding the needs of general public passengers and demonstrate the profitability of space tourism. This paper will summarize some of the system, operations, and financial aspects of creating a sub-orbital space tourism business as a stepping-stone to public space travel. A sample business case will be reviewed and impacts of markets, operations and vehicle costs and lifetimes will be assessed.

  11. Effect of space flight on cytokine production and other immunologic parameters of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.

  12. Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA-2) Space Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Electro-Physics Branch is participating in the POSA-2 Space Flight Experiment to assess the effects of low Earth orbit and spacecraft environment contamination on power system materials and surfaces. This experiment package will be flown for 1 year in low Earth orbit and will be returned to Earth for subsequent evaluation of optical and thermal properties. Representative samples of solar array blanket materials, solar dynamic reflector materials, thermal control coatings, and sapphire are included in the experiment package.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    propulsion, upper and in-space propulsion, separation and maneuvering systems, and launch abort motors, preburners and ignition systems, valves, actuators, and thrust vector control systems. Integrated end Program (Shuttle): external tank, space shuttle main engine, and reusable solid rocket boosters

  14. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  15. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the hybrid adaptive flight controller, development of a Newton's method based online parameter update that is modified to include a step size which regulates the rate of change in the parameter estimates, comparison of the modified Newton's method and recursive least squares online parameter update algorithms, modification of the neural network's input structure to accommodate for the nature of the nonlinearities present in a launch vehicle's ascent flight, examination of both tracking error based and modeling error based neural network weight update laws, and integration of feedback filters for the purpose of preventing harmful interaction between the flight control system and flexible structural modes. To validate the hybrid adaptive controller, a high-fidelity Ares I ascent flight simulator and a classical gain-scheduled proportional-integral-derivative (PID) ascent flight controller were obtained from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The classical PID flight controller is used as a benchmark when analyzing the performance of the hybrid adaptive flight controller. Simulations are conducted which model both nominal and off-nominal flight conditions with structural flexibility of the vehicle either enabled or disabled. First, rigid body ascent simulations are performed with the hybrid adaptive controller under nominal flight conditions for the purpose of selecting the update laws which drive the indirect and direct adaptive components. With the neural network disabled, the results revealed that the recursive least squares online parameter update caused high frequency oscillations to appear in the engine gimbal commands. This is highly undesirable for long and slender launch vehicles, such as the Ares I, because such oscillation of the rocket nozzle could excite unstable structural flex modes. In contrast, the modified Newton's method online parameter update produced smooth control signals and was thus selected for use in the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle flight controller. In the simulations where the online parameter identification algorithm was disabled,

  16. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  17. Dynamic assertion testing of flight control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) software was used as a test case for assertion testing. The assertions were written and embedded in the code, then errors were inserted (seeded) one at a time and the code executed. Results indicate that assertion testing is an effective and efficient method of detecting errors in flight software. Most errors are eliminate at an earlier stage in the development than before.

  18. Satellite Formation Flight and Realignment Maneuver Demonstration aboard the International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe P. Mandy; Alvar Saenz-Otero; David W. Miller

    The Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES), developed by the MIT Space Systems Laboratory, enable the maturation of control, estimation, and autonomy algorithms for distributed satellite systems, including the relative control of spacecraft required for satellite formation flight. Three free-flyer microsatellites are currently on board the International Space Station (ISS). By operating under crew supervision and by

  19. Modeling Calcium Loss from Bones During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wastney, Meryl E.; Morukov, Boris V.; Larina, Irina M.; Abrams, Steven A.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss from bones during space flight creates a risk for astronauts who travel into space, and may prohibit space flights to other planets. The problem of calcium loss during space flight has been studied using animal models, bed rest (as a ground-based model), and humans in-flight. In-flight studies have typically documented bone loss by comparing bone mass before and after flight. To identify changes in metabolism leading to bone loss, we have performed kinetic studies using stable isotopes of calcium. Oral (Ca-43) and intravenous (Ca-46) tracers were administered to subjects (n=3), three-times before flight, once in-flight (after 110 days), and three times post-flight (on landing day, and 9 days and 3 months after flight). Samples of blood, saliva, urine, and feces were collected for up to 5 days after isotope administration, and were analyzed for tracer enrichment. Tracer data in tissues were analyzed using a compartmental model for calcium metabolism and the WinSAAM software. The model was used to: account for carryover of tracer between studies, fit data for all studies using the minimal number of changes between studies, and calculate calcium absorption, excretion, bone calcium deposition and bone calcium resorption. Results showed that fractional absorption decreased by 50% during flight and that bone resorption and urinary excretion increased by 50%. Results were supported by changes in biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Inflight bone loss of approximately 250 mg Ca/d resulted from decreased calcium absorption combined with increased bone resorption and excretion. Further studies will assess the time course of these changes during flight, and the effectiveness of countermeasures to mitigate flight-induced bone loss. The overall goal is to enable human travel beyond low-Earth orbit, and to allow for better understanding and treatment of bone diseases on Earth.

  20. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term exposure to microgravity and modelled weightlessness, may affect cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contribute to Ca(2+) and bone metabolism disorders induced by space flight.

  1. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  2. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. G. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories have initiated and completed, in part, a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the T700 and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  3. A Fixed-Based Flight Simulator Study: The Interdependence of Flight Control

    E-print Network

    A Fixed-Based Flight Simulator Study: The Interdependence of Flight Control Performance and Gaze- lationship between flight control performance and instrument scanning behavior. This work was performed in a fixed-based flight simulator. It targets the ability of untrained novices to pilot a lightweight

  4. Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zu Bentrup, K. Höner; Ramamurthy, R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClelland, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Norwood, K.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.; Goulart, C.; Rupert, M.; Stodieck, L.; Stafford, P.; Catella, L.; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; McCracken, J.; Allen, P.; Baker-Coleman, C.; Hammond, T.; Vogel, J.; Nelson, R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth. PMID:17901201

  5. Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) Flight Experiment Background and Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental problem in designing and delivering large space structures to orbit is to provide sufficient structural stiffness and static configuration precision to meet performance requirements. These requirements are directly related to control requirements and the degree of control system sophistication available to supplement the as-built structure. Background and rationale are presented for a research study in structures, structural dynamics, and controls using a relatively large, flexible beam as a focus. This experiment would address fundamental problems applicable to large, flexible space structures in general and would involve a combination of ground tests, flight behavior prediction, and instrumented orbital tests. Intended to be multidisciplinary but basic within each discipline, the experiment should provide improved understanding and confidence in making design trades between structural conservatism and control system sophistication for meeting static shape and dynamic response/stability requirements. Quantitative results should be obtained for use in improving the validity of ground tests for verifying flight performance analyses.

  6. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Murray, Richard M.

    and Pado, 2000) and a helicopter experi- ment in (Wan and Bogdanov, 2001). In (Singh and Fuller, 2001), MPCMODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT William B. Dunbar ,1 Mark B ducted fan, a thrust-vectored flight experiment. A real-time trajectory generation software based

  7. Detecting Latent Faults In Digital Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, John; Mulcare, Dennis; Larsen, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theory, conduct, and results of tests involving deliberate injection of low-level faults into digital flight-control system. Part of study of effectiveness of techniques for detection of and recovery from faults, based on statistical assessment of inputs and outputs of parts of control systems. Offers exceptional new capability to establish reliabilities of critical digital electronic systems in aircraft.

  8. The Electrostatic Levitation Facility at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert W.; Savage, Larry; Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Containerless processing is an important area of research in materials science. Electrostatic levitation (ESL) represents an emerging technology which permits containerless processing in a vacuum environment. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established a levitation facility to provide a critical resource to the microgravity materials science research community to continue and enhance ground-based research in the support of the development of flight experiments during the transition to Space Station. During ESL processing, charged specimens are levitated in the electrostatic field produced by the system's electrodes. Three sets of positioning electrodes represent the heart of the MSFC system. Two dual-axis position sensitive detectors provide input for the PID control-loop computer. Sample position is maintained by adjusting the control voltages for the power supplies of the positioning electrodes. A UV source refreshes the charge on specimens during processing via the photoelectric effect. Lasers permit sample heating independent of positioning. The processing chamber typically operates under vacuum condition approximately = 10(exp -7) Torr. Electrostatic levitation provides a materials science research tool for investigations of refractory solids and melts. Topics of investigation include thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable phase formation, undercooling and nucleation, time-temperature-transformation diagrams and other aspects of materials processing. Current capabilities and recent results of processing studies for metals, alloys and oxides will be reviewed.

  9. The effects of space radiation on flight film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holly, Mark H.

    1995-01-01

    The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.

  10. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  11. Calcium Kinetics During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S. A.; Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Oganov, V.; Shackelford, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss represents one of the most significant effects of space flight on the human body. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this loss is critical for maintaining crew health and safety during and after flight. This investigation documents the changes in bone metabolism and calcium kinetics during and after space flight. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects during and after a 115-d stay on the Russian space station Mir. We report here data on an additional three subjects, whose stays on Mir were approximately 4 (n=l) and 6 (n=2) mos. Previously published data are included for comparison.

  12. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  13. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  14. Space Station Freedom Attitude Determination and Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrod, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

  15. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  16. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-Duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth s gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight.

  17. Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

  18. Students Speak With Todd Quasny, ODIN Flight Controller - Duration: 23:22.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASAâ??s International Space Station Mission Control Center Todd Quasny, ODIN Flight Controller, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Northeast Nodaway Eleme...

  19. Students Speak With ODIN Flight Controller Amy Brezinski - Duration: 25:39.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASAâ??s International Space Station Mission Control Center ODIN Flight Controller Amy Brezinski participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Coppell Middle School i...

  20. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-01-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different when measured by DTA, but not by SDT. Laminate thermal expansion differences were significant for the 35 degrees C evaluations, but not for any higher temperatures.

  1. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-05-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different when measured by DTA, but not by SDT. Laminate thermal expansion differences were significant for the 35 degrees C evaluations, but not for any higher temperatures.

  2. Proteomic analysis of rice after different seed space flights by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

    To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.

  3. Human factors in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study, covering the behavioral, psychological, physiological, and medical factors of long duration manned space flight, is presented. An attempt was made to identify and resolve major obstacles and unknowns associated with such a flight. The costs and maintenance of the spacecraft system are also explored.

  4. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  5. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  6. Design of Tiltrotor Flight Control System Using Optical Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Yonghua; Yang Jun

    2007-01-01

    Tiltrotor can flight both airplane mode and helicopter mode by changing the propulsion thrust vector via angle of nacelle. Therefore tiltrotor has performance of vertical and short take-off and land (V\\/STOL), multi-purpose aircraft with excellent high-speed cruise. However, it is very difficult to design the flight control system for transforming the flight mode because both thrust vector and aerodynamic force

  7. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  8. Closing the Certification Gaps in Adaptive Flight Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last five decades, extensive research has been performed to design and develop adaptive control systems for aerospace systems and other applications where the capability to change controller behavior at different operating conditions is highly desirable. Although adaptive flight control has been partially implemented through the use of gain-scheduled control, truly adaptive control systems using learning algorithms and on-line system identification methods have not seen commercial deployment. The reason is that the certification process for adaptive flight control software for use in national air space has not yet been decided. The purpose of this paper is to examine the gaps between the state-of-the-art methodologies used to certify conventional (i.e., non-adaptive) flight control system software and what will likely to be needed to satisfy FAA airworthiness requirements. These gaps include the lack of a certification plan or process guide, the need to develop verification and validation tools and methodologies to analyze adaptive controller stability and convergence, as well as the development of metrics to evaluate adaptive controller performance at off-nominal flight conditions. This paper presents the major certification gap areas, a description of the current state of the verification methodologies, and what further research efforts will likely be needed to close the gaps remaining in current certification practices. It is envisioned that closing the gap will require certain advances in simulation methods, comprehensive methods to determine learning algorithm stability and convergence rates, the development of performance metrics for adaptive controllers, the application of formal software assurance methods, the application of on-line software monitoring tools for adaptive controller health assessment, and the development of a certification case for adaptive system safety of flight.

  9. Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management Integrated Human Capital Plan Center Office of Human Capital Management · Repository to document current and upcoming human capital ini4a4ves by directorate. Enables partnership between Directorates

  10. Qualification of Ball Grid Array Assemblies for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, K.; Walton, S.

    1997-01-01

    None given. From Background section: JPL, in partnership with an industrial consortium, is engaged in the investigation of reliability and quality issues of ball grid array (BGA) packages for space flight electronics applications.

  11. Columbia's first flight shakes down space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Young, D.; White, T.

    1981-01-01

    The first space shuttle mission is described. Topics include launch preparations, flight profile, trajectory, and landing operations. The spaceflight tracking and data network is discussed and the photography and television schedules are included.

  12. System security in the Space Flight Operations Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Wagner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's (US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development,

  13. Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

  14. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  15. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  16. Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (editor); Stewart, Donald F. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.

  17. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  18. Nutrient Considerations for Plants Grown Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    2006-01-01

    We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  19. Ares I Flight Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles; Lee, Chong; Jackson, Mark; Whorton, Mark; West, mark; Brandon, Jay; Hall, Rob A.; Jang, Jimmy; Bedrossian, Naz; Compton, Jimmy; Rutherford, Chad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the control challenges posed by the Ares I vehicle, the flight control system design and performance analyses used to test and verify the design. The major challenges in developing the control system are structural dynamics, dynamic effects from the powerful first stage booster, aerodynamics, first stage separation and large uncertainties in the dynamic models for all these. Classical control techniques were employed using innovative methods for structural mode filter design and an anti-drift feature to compensate for translational and rotational disturbances. This design was coded into an integrated vehicle flight simulation and tested by Monte Carlo methods. The product of this effort is a linear, robust controller design that is easy to implement, verify and test.

  20. Flapping Flight for Biomimetic Robotic Insects Part II: Flight Control Design

    E-print Network

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    1 Flapping Flight for Biomimetic Robotic Insects Part II: Flight Control Design Xinyan Deng, Luca with time-invariant dynamics using averaging theory and a biomimetic parametrization of wing trajectories stable flight in hovering mode. Index Terms-- flapping flight, micro aerial vehicles, biomimetic

  1. Thermal Stir Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.

  2. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  3. Real-time simulations of environmentally friendly flight control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chudy; P. Rzucidlo

    2011-01-01

    Presented work discusses a proposal of an environmentally friendly flight control system for Light Aircraft or Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). The noise and emissions reducing flight control system is based on Total X Control System (TXCS) and assumes the reduction of the total energy dissipation. A general description of the flight control system, control laws, as well as results of

  4. Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle orbital flight test program

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, S.L.; Nicogossian, A.

    1983-12-01

    On July 4, 1982, the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operations support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation, and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment. 9 references.

  5. Pegasus air-launched space booster flight test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

    1995-03-01

    Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

  6. Guidance and control of flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.; Franklin, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Progress reports on guidance and attitude control mechanisms of different flight vehicles are presented. The vehicles considered include orbiting spacecraft, supersonic aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. Data also cover orbital transfer using low thrust, automatic landing logic for aircraft, optimal and three dimensional turns for supersonic aircraft, and orbital rendezvous.

  7. Life-extending control for a highly maneuverable flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Si-Bok

    This dissertation investigates the feasibility and potential of life extension control logic for reducing fatigue within aerospace vehicle structural components. A key underpinning of this control logic is to exploit nonintuitive, optimal loading conditions which minimize nonlinear crack growth behavior, as predicted by analytical fatigue models with experimentally validated behavior. A major simplification in the development of life extension control logic is the observation and justification that optimal stress loading conditions, as described by overload magnitude ratio and application interval, are primarily independent of crack length and therefore, component age. This weak relationship between optimal stress loading and structural age implies the life extension control logic does not require tight integration with real-time health monitoring systems performing crack state estimation from measurement and model simulation. At a fundamental level, the life extension control logic conducts load alleviation and/or amplification tailoring of external and internal excitations to optimally exploit nonlinear crack retardation phenomenon. The life extension control logic is designed to be a simple, practical modification applied to an existing flight control system. A nonlinear autopilot for the nonlinear F-16 dynamics, coupled with a separate flexible F-16 wing model and a state space crack growth model, are used to demonstrate the life extension control concept. Results indicate that significant structural life savings is obtained by integrating life extending control logic dedicated for critical structural components to the existing flight control system. On the other hand, some components under life extending control showed minor reductions of structural life, particularly when the components are located in a low stress region where fatigue damage is of lower concern. Further, to achieve enhanced long-term structural integrity with life extending control, tradeoffs with flight system stability and performance may be required. Careful consideration is thus necessary when applying life extending logic to the aircraft flight control system. Although life extending control appears feasible with significant potential, full implementation of the concept requires further study.

  8. Automation of Commanding at NASA: Reducing Human Error in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Automation has been implemented in many different industries to improve efficiency and reduce human error. Reducing or eliminating the human interaction in tasks has been proven to increase productivity in manufacturing and lessen the risk of mistakes by humans in the airline industry. Human space flight requires the flight controllers to monitor multiple systems and react quickly when failures occur so NASA is interested in implementing techniques that can assist in these tasks. Using automation to control some of these responsibilities could reduce the number of errors the flight controllers encounter due to standard human error characteristics. This paper will investigate the possibility of reducing human error in the critical area of manned space flight at NASA.

  9. Scientific involvement in Skylab by the Space Sciences Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The involvement of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Laboratory in the Skylab program from the early feasibility studies through the analysis and publication of flight scientific and technical results is described. This includes mission operations support, the Apollo telescope mount, materials science/manufacturing in space, optical contamination, environmental and thermal criteria, and several corollary measurements and experiments.

  10. Regulation of erythropoiesis in rats during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Astronauts who have flown in microgravity have experienced a loss in red cell mass. The pathogenesis of the anemia of space flight has not been ascertained, but it is probably multifactorial. In 1978, the laboratory was selected to participate in life sciences studies to be carried out in the space shuttle in an attempt to study the pathogenesis of space anemia. In particular, the original studies were to be made in mice. This was later changed to study erythropoiesis in rats during space flight.

  11. Flight-control/navigation inertial reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design of a redundant strapdown navigation system for integrated flight-control/navigation use has been completed. Based on application of tuned-gimbal gyros, a compact configuration (13 in x 13 in x 14 in) has been achieved for fail-operational/fail-operational redundancy. Test data are presented for strapdown system test programs including flight testing of the LN-50 tuned-gimbal gyro system. Testing of a redundant sensor configuration is currently in process. Strapdown gyro development also includes ring laser and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  12. Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Colletti, Laura M.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Tam, Patricia Y.; Dinges, David F.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. No system currently exists to assist in managing alertness, and countermeasure options are limited. Surveys reveal many pilots use breaks as an in-flight countermeasure, but there have been no controlled studies of their effectiveness. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that brief, regular breaks could improve alertness and performance during an overnight flight. METHOD: A 6-h, uneventful, nighttime flight in a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator was flown by fourteen two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received 5 short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received 1 break in the middle of cruise. Continuous EEG/EOG, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance performance data were collected. RESULTS: During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15 min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity, and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25 min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. There was no evidence of objective vigilance performance improvement at 15-25 min post-break, with expected performance deterioration occurring due to elevated sleep drive and circadian time. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological and subjective data indicate the breaks reduced nighttime sleepiness for at least 15 min post-break and may have masked sleepiness for up to 25 min, suggesting the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure.

  13. Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.

  14. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  15. Nonlinear adaptive flight control using neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Calise; Rolf T. Rysdyk

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a controller architecture, which combines adaptive feedforward neural networks with feedback linearization, has been demonstrated on a variety of flight vehicles. The boundedness of tracking error and control signals is guaranteed. The architecture can accommodate both linear-in-the-parameters networks, as well as single-hidden-layer perceptron neural networks. Both theoretical and experimental research is planned to expand and improve the

  16. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvet?anský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  17. Training the Hubble space telescope flight team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Loftin; P. Kenney

    1995-01-01

    As the results demonstrate, members of the flight team judged, on average, that the use of a virtual environment for training had a positive effect on their job performance during the HST repair and maintenance mission. Moreover, audio and visual cues provided a positive aid in using the virtual environment. The discomfort experienced by some of the participants did not

  18. Effects of Space Flight on Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Valadez, Victoria A.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2000-01-01

    Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation, and the expression of selected surface markers were studied in 25 astronauts following 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85%. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and oxidative burst following the medium length (9 to 11 days) missions were lower than the control mean values. Whereas, following the short-duration (5 days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 were measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions.

  19. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  20. Helicopter Flight Control Using Inverse Optimal Control and Backstepping

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Helicopter Flight Control Using Inverse Optimal Control and Backstepping Hamid Teimoori, Hemanshu R helicopter in the presence of input time-delay. The controller is designed based on a two the backstepping technique to control the position and keep the helicopter on track. Finally, computer simulations

  1. Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

    For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude commands that orient the main ro- tor forces appropriately to generate required translational accelerations. Recent work in Neural Network based adaptive flight control may be applied to

  2. Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric N.

    Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude

  3. The 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of 194 articles addressing research and technology activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is given. Activities are divided into three major areas: advanced studies addressing transportation systems, space systems, and space science activities conducted primarily in the Program Development Directorate; research tasks carried out in the Space Science Laboratory; and technology programs hosted by a wide array of organizations at the Center. The theme for this year's report is 'Building for the Future'.

  4. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  5. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  6. Program to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a thermal control-mixing control device for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, T. S.; Larson, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The development and testing of a temperature sensor and pulse duration modulation (PDM) diverter valve for a thermal control-mixing control device are described. The temperature sensor selected for use uses a fluidic pin amplifier in conjunction with an expansion device. This device can sense changes of less than 0.25 F with greater than 15:1 signal to noise ratio when operating with a typical Freon pump supplied pressure. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 0.0019 F/kPa. The valve which was selected was tested and performed with 100% flow diversion. In addition, the valve operates with a flow efficiency of at least 95%, with the possibility of attaining 100% if the vent flow of the PDM can be channeled through the last stage of the diverter valve. A temperature sensor which utilized an orifice bridge circuit and proportional-vortex combination mixing valve were also evaluated, but the concepts were rejected due to various problems.

  7. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  8. Technology Validation of Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.

  9. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  10. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of immune parameters of both cellular and innate immunity indicate alterations in immune function in astronauts. Immune changes are due to stress and perhaps other factors associated with launch, flight, and landing phases. Medical relevance of observed changes is not known. The reactivation of latent viruses has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of specific viral DNA in body fluids. Initial studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during all 3 mission phases. EBV is shed in saliva following reactivation from B-cells. Incidence of EBV in saliva was higher than control subjects during all 3 mission phases. However, quantitative PCR revealed 10-fold higher levels of EBV DNA present in saliva collected during flight than found in pre- and post flight specimens. To determine if other latent viruses showed similar effects, cytomegalovirus (CMV), another herpes virus, shed in urine following reactivation was studied. A very low incidence (less than 2%) of CMV in urine is found in healthy, lowstressed individuals. However, 25-50% of astronauts shed CMV in their urine before, during, or after flight. Our studies are now focused on varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the etiological agent of chicken-pox during childhood and shingles later in life. We demonstrated reactivation of VZV and shedding of the virus during and after spaceflight in saliva of astronauts with no sign of active infection or symptoms. The maximum shedding of VZV occurred during the flight phase and diminishes rapidly during the first five days after landing. We have utilized the same PCR assay for VZV in a clinical study of shingles patients. Generally, shingles patients shed much more VZV in saliva than astronauts. However, the VZV levels in astronauts overlap with the lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients. Saliva from shingles patients and astronauts were cultured and infectious VZV was recovered from both groups. We have concluded that multiple latent viruses do reactivate before, during, and after spaceflight and serve as very sensitive indicators for diminished cellular immunity. Future plans will be focused on the clinical risks posed by the reactivation of these viruses. Initial efforts will determine the effect of longer missions on the International Space Station on the reactivation patterns of these viruses.

  11. Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.

  12. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

  14. The Payload Operations Center (POC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph show the Safety Coordination Manager (SCM) at a work station. The SCM monitors science experiments to ensure they are conducted in a safe manner in accordance with strict safety regulations.

  15. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  16. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  17. Body Fluid Regulation and Hemopoiesis in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Bodymass and Fluid Distribution During Longterm Spaceflight with and without Countermeasures; Plasma Volume, Extracellular Fluid Volume, and Regulatory Hormones During Long-Term Space Flight; Effect of Microgravity and its Ground-Based Models on Fluid Volumes and Hemocirculatory Volumes; Seventeen Weeks of Horizontal Bed Rest, Lower Body Negative Pressure Testing, and the Associated Plasma Volume Response; Evaporative Waterloss in Space Theoretical and Experimental Studies; Erythropoietin Under Real and Simulated Micro-G Conditions in Humans; and Vertebral Bone Marrow Changes Following Space Flight.

  18. Stock Footage of Goddard Space Flight Center and Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Produced for Century Teleproductions in Boston, MA this video is a camera master showing various views, with natural sound, of the space flight center during the late spring. This finished footage is used in an interactive laser disc presentation that is used at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center.

  19. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  20. History of nutrition in space flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L Feeback

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life

  1. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  2. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  3. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  4. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  5. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  6. Bone Density Following Long Duration Space Flight and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep; Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.

  7. Fly-by-light flight control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halski, Don J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fly-By-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program is developing Fly-By-Light (FBL) and Power-By-Wire (PBW) technologies for military and commercial aircraft. FLASH consists of three tasks. Task 1 is developing the fiber optic cable, connectors, testers and installation and maintenance procedures. Task 3 is developing advanced actuators. Task 2, which is the subject of this paper, focuses on integration of fiber optic sensors and data buses with cable plant components from Task 1 and PBW, smart and thin wing actuators from Task 3 into complete centralized and distributed flight control systems. Laboratory demonstrations will show applicability to widebody transport and tactical aircraft. Products include high throughput processors, neutral network applications to maintenance diagnostics and reconfiguration, hardware upset recovery, active sidestick controllers and application of the SAE AS-1773A protocol to the flight control system bus. This paper overviews the requirements, objectives, key technologies and demonstrations for each of the FLASH flight control system developments. Companion papers provide additional description of the Tasks 1 and 3 as well as further details on the individual developments within Task 2.

  8. Space flight affects magnocellular supraoptic neurons of young prepuberal rats: transient and permanent effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Ovejero, D.; Trejo, J. L.; Ciriza, I.; Walton, K. D.; Garcia-Segura, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on postural control and volume of extracellular fluids as well as stress associated with space flight may affect the function of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. Since environmental modifications in young animals may result in permanent alterations in neuroendocrine function, the present study was designed to determine the effect of a space flight on oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic magnocellular hypothalamic neurons of prepuberal rats. Fifteen-day-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-90, Neurolab mission, experiment 150) for 16 days. Age-matched litters remained on the ground in cages similar to those of the flight animals. Six animals from each group were killed on the day of landing and eight animals from each group were maintained under standard vivarium conditions and killed 18 weeks after landing. Several signs of enhanced transcriptional and biosynthetic activity were observed in magnocellular supraoptic neurons of flight animals on the day of landing compared to control animals. These include increased c-Fos expression, larger nucleoli and cytoplasm, and higher volume occupied in the neuronal perikaryon by mitochondriae, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and cytoplasmic inclusions known as nematosomes. In contrast, the volume occupied by neurosecretory vesicles in the supraoptic neuronal perikarya was significantly decreased in flight rats. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in oxytocin and vasopressin immunoreactive levels, suggestive of an increased hormonal release. Vasopressin levels, cytoplasmic volume and c-Fos expression returned to control levels by 18 weeks after landing. These reversible effects were probably associated to osmotic stimuli resulting from modifications in the volume and distribution of extracellular fluids and plasma during flight and landing. However, oxytocin levels were still reduced at 18 weeks after landing in flight animals compared to controls. This indicates that space flight during prepuberal age may induce irreversible modifications in the regulation of oxytocinergic neurons, which in turn may result in permanent endocrine and behavioral impairments.

  9. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  10. Perception and control of rotorcraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Dean H.

    1991-01-01

    Three topics which can be applied to rotorcraft flight are examined: (1) the nature of visual information; (2) what visual information is informative about; and (3) the control of visual information. The anchorage of visual perception is defined as the distribution of structure in the surrounding optical array or the distribution of optical structure over the retinal surface. A debate was provoked about whether the referent of visual event perception, and in turn control, is optical motion, kinetics, or dynamics. The interface of control theory and visual perception is also considered. The relationships among these problems is the basis of this article.

  11. The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented were derived from transcripts taken at the Tenth Annual Battery Workshop held at the Goddard Space Flight Center, November 15-17, 1977. The Workshop was attended by manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest results of testing, analysis, and development of the sealed nickel cadmium cell system. The purpose of the Workshop was to share flight and test experience, stimulate discussion on problem areas, and to review the latest technology improvements.

  12. Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Gregory, Irene M.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2008-01-01

    This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique "Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive Control" has been developed at NASA ARC to address the needs for stability margin metrics for adaptive control that potentially enables future V&V of adaptive systems. The technique "Direct Adaptive Control With Unknown Actuator Failures" is developed at NASA LaRC to deal with unknown actuator failures. The technique "Adaptive Control with Adaptive Pilot Element" is being researched at NASA LaRC to investigate the effects of pilot interactions with adaptive flight control that can have implications of stability and performance.

  13. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  14. Adaptive flight control surfaces, wings, rotors, and active aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Barrett; Fred Brozoski

    1996-01-01

    This study outlines active flight control materials, structural arrangements, and several new active flight control methods for rotorcraft, airplanes and missiles. A system-level comparison shows that flight control actuator systems using materials like piezoceramics have approximately double the mass-specific energy and 4 to 6 times the volume specific energy of conventional actuators. New fabrication techniques centered on the principal of

  15. Implications of Responsive Space on the Flight Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmot, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Responsive Space initiative has several implications for flight software that need to be addressed not only within the run-time element, but the development infrastructure and software life-cycle process elements as well. The runtime element must at a minimum support Plug & Play, while the development and process elements need to incorporate methods to quickly generate the needed documentation, code, tests, and all of the artifacts required of flight quality software. Very rapid response times go even further, and imply little or no new software development, requiring instead, using only predeveloped and certified software modules that can be integrated and tested through automated methods. These elements have typically been addressed individually with significant benefits, but it is when they are combined that they can have the greatest impact to Responsive Space. The Flight Software Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing the runtime, infrastructure and process elements needed for rapid integration with the Core Flight software System (CFS) architecture. The CFS architecture consists of three main components; the core Flight Executive (cFE), the component catalog, and the Integrated Development Environment (DE). This paper will discuss the design of the components, how they facilitate rapid integration, and lessons learned as the architecture is utilized for an upcoming spacecraft.

  16. Thermal comfort and thermoregulation in manned space flight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Fei, Jin-Xue; Yu, Xue-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out. PMID:24654534

  17. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Igarashi, M.; Guedry, F.; Anderson, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  18. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  19. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Bone metabolism in space flight and long-duration bed rest].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-12-01

    Bone loss and urolithiasis are inevitable outcome in human space flight and long-duration bet rest. The rate of space flight induced bone loss is 10 times faster than in those with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss at weight bearing bones, elevated urinary calcium excretion, and un-coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are observed during the long-term bed rest study. Improvements of resistive exercise device and vitamin-D supplementation for astronauts in International Space Station can partially maintain bone mass, however, they can not fully supress bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during space flight. JAXA and NASA are performing joint study to validate the mitigration effects on bone resorption and urolithiasis of bisphosphonate supplement in conjunction with excercise. PMID:23187072

  20. Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

  1. Life Sciences Research and Development Opportunities During Suborbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Suborbital space platforms provide a unique opportunity for Space Life Sciences in the next few years. The opportunities include: physiological characterization of the first few minutes of space flight; evaluation of a wide-variety of medical conditions during periods of hyper and hypo-gravity through physiological monitoring; and evaluation of new biomedical and environmental health technologies under hyper and hypo-gravity conditions

  2. Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F. [Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmidt, G.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voss, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reynolds, E.L. [Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

  3. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  4. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  5. Degradation of learned skills. Effectiveness of practice methods on simulated space flight skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.; Berge, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Manual flight control and emergency procedure task skill degradation was evaluated after time intervals of from 1 to 6 months. The tasks were associated with a simulated launch through the orbit insertion flight phase of a space vehicle. The results showed that acceptable flight control performance was retained for 2 months, rapidly deteriorating thereafter by a factor of 1.7 to 3.1 depending on the performance measure used. Procedural task performance showed unacceptable degradation after only 1 month, and exceeded an order of magnitude after 4 months. The effectiveness of static rehearsal (checklists and briefings) and dynamic warmup (simulator practice) retraining methods were compared for the two tasks. Static rehearsal effectively countered procedural skill degradation, while some combination of dynamic warmup appeared necessary for flight control skill retention. It was apparent that these differences between methods were not solely a function of task type or retraining method, but were a function of the performance measures used for each task.

  6. Radiation and Long-term Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Data on the carcinogenic effects of space radiation on humans are available from the Russian MIR Space Station and the US Space Shuttle missions but are limited to tissue-level studies rather than the organ-level studies which are necessary to accurately determine radiation doses. Now, NASA's National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has instigated an experiment, called the "torso-experiment," that will use a fully instrumented phantom torso (with head) to provide the necessary depth-dose-equivalent measurements on the International Space Station. Depth-dose-equivalent measurements will be taken as a function of spacecraft altitude, attitude, location, and time, and measurements internal to the phantom torso will be supported by other radiation measurements from the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the Charged Particle Direction Spectrometer. Read more about this somewhat bizarre-looking experiment at this Webpage from NSBRI.

  7. The biomedical challenges of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

  8. Advances in food systems for space flight.

    PubMed

    Bourland, C T

    1998-01-01

    Food for space has evolved from cubes and tubes to normal Earth-like food consumed with common utensils. U.S. space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. When on-board water was abundant (e.g., Apollo and Shuttle fuel cells produced water) then dehydrated food was used extensively. The International Space Station will have limited water available for food rehydration so there is little advantage for using dehydrated foods. Experience from Skylab and the Russian Mir space station emphasizes that food variety and quality are important elements in the design of food for closed systems. The evolution of space food has accentuated Earth-like foods, which should be a model for closed environment food systems. PMID:11540467

  9. Interface control document between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Department of Interior EROS Data Center (EDC) for LANDSAT-D. Thematic mapper high resolution 241 mm film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The 241 mm photographic product produced by the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Management System for LANDSAT-D is described. Film type and format, image dimensions, frame ID, gray scale, resolution patterns, registration marks, etc. are addressed.

  10. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  11. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.

  12. Designing to Control Flight Crew Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Willshire, Kelli F.

    1997-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human error is a major contributing factor in aircraft accidents. There has been a significant amount of research in why these errors occurred, and many reports state that the design of flight deck can actually dispose humans to err. This research has led to the call for changes in design according to human factors and human-centered principles. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center has initiated an effort to design a human-centered flight deck from a clean slate (i.e., without constraints of existing designs.) The effort will be based on recent research in human-centered design philosophy and mission management categories. This design will match the human's model of the mission and function of the aircraft to reduce unnatural or non-intuitive interfaces. The product of this effort will be a flight deck design description, including training and procedures, and a cross reference or paper trail back to design hypotheses, and an evaluation of the design. The present paper will discuss the philosophy, process, and status of this design effort.

  13. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  14. Systems integration in space flight environmental risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Schulz, Jon R.; Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Barrett, Ted G.

    This paper reviews the issues that must be addressed to define and integrate technologies, countermeasures, and medical care systems into space systems which will be developed for long duration space flight. This paper considers combined and cumulative effects, the broad range of space environmental health issues, including some examples, and a discussion of a management approach to these risks. While the primary emphasis is on space environmental health issues, other aspects of the space environment are also considered. Allocation of finite resources for optimal risk management is also considered.

  15. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  16. Implementation and Qualifications Lessons Learned for Space Flight Photonic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process for implementation and qualification of space flight photonic components. It discusses the causes for most common anomalies for the space flight components, design compatibility, a specific failure analysis of optical fiber that occurred in a cable in 1999-2000, and another ExPCA connector anomaly involving pins that broke off. It reviews issues around material selection, quality processes and documentation, and current projects that the Photonics group is involved in. The importance of good documentation is stressed.

  17. The 1991 research and technology report, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (editor); Ottenstein, Howard (editor); Montgomery, Harry (editor); Truszkowski, Walter (editor); Frost, Kenneth (editor); Sullivan, Walter (editor); Boyle, Charles (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) earth sciences including upper atmosphere, lower atmosphere, oceans, hydrology, and global studies; (2) space sciences including solar studies, planetary studies, Astro-1, gamma ray investigations, and astrophysics; (3) flight projects; (4) engineering including robotics, mechanical engineering, electronics, imaging and optics, thermal and cryogenic studies, and balloons; and (5) ground systems, networks, and communications including data and networks, TDRSS, mission planning and scheduling, and software development and test.

  18. R and T report: Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) flight projects; (2) space sciences including cosmology, high energy, stars and galaxies, and the solar system; (3) earth sciences including process modeling, hydrology/cryology, atmospheres, biosphere, and solid earth; (4) networks, planning, and information systems including support for mission operations, data distribution, advanced software and systems engineering, and planning/scheduling; and (5) engineering and materials including spacecraft systems, material and testing, optics and photonics and robotics.

  19. [Protein turnover during and after extended space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Larina, I. M.; Leskiv, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 15N-glycine tracer technique was used to study protein turnover in four Russian cosmonauts and two U.S. astronauts who had spent long time aboard the Russian orbital station MIR. As was shown, in space flight protein synthesis falls by 46% on the average, which substantially exceeds estimations made on the basis of data about bed-rested human subjects. Reduction in protein synthesis during space flight is connected with the negative energy balance; therefore, it appears imperative to keep balance between energy intake (foodstuffs) and expenditure by cosmonauts on long-term mission.

  20. Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

  1. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  2. Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2007-02-01

    This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

  3. Users manual for flight control design programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, J. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

  4. Transient loads analysis for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thampi, S. K.; Vidyasagar, N. S.; Ganesan, N.

    1992-01-01

    A significant part of the flight readiness verification process involves transient analysis of the coupled Shuttle-payload system to determine the low frequency transient loads. This paper describes a methodology for transient loads analysis and its implementation for the Spacelab Life Sciences Mission. The analysis is carried out using two major software tools - NASTRAN and an external FORTRAN code called EZTRAN. This approach is adopted to overcome some of the limitations of NASTRAN's standard transient analysis capabilities. The method uses Data Recovery Matrices (DRM) to improve computational efficiency. The mode acceleration method is fully implemented in the DRM formulation to recover accurate displacements, stresses, and forces. The advantages of the method are demonstrated through a numerical example.

  5. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective weighting of cutaneous receptor feedback and associated balance impairments following short duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2015-04-10

    The present study investigated the perception of low frequency (3Hz) vibration on the foot sole and its relationship to standing balance following short duration space flight in nine astronauts. Both 3Hz vibration perception threshold (VPT) and standing balance measures increased on landing day compared to pre-flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, a positive linear relationship between these measures was not observed; however astronauts with the most sensitive skin (lowest 3Hz VPT) were found to have the largest sway on landing day. While the change in foot sole sensitivity does not appear to directly relate to standing balance control, an exploratory strategy may be employed by astronauts whose threshold to pressure information is lower. Understanding sensory adaptations and balance control has implications to improve balance control strategies following space flight and in sensory impaired populations on earth. PMID:25711797

  7. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Dunbar, William

    MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT William B. Dunbar ,1 Mark B Author to whom correspondence should be addressed, email: dunbar@cds.caltech.edu. Fig. 1. Caltech ducted the computational demand of attempting to use MPC with first principles-based models. Following the large number

  8. Development and flight test experiences with a flight-crucial digital control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.

    1988-01-01

    Engineers and scientists in the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16 program investigated the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. AFTI's three major technologies included: flight-crucial digital control, decoupled aircraft flight control, and integration of avionics, flight control, and pilot displays. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, researchers studied the generic problems confronting the designers of highly integrated flight-crucial digital control. An overview is provided of both the advantages and problems of integration digital control systems. Also, an examination of the specification, design, qualification, and flight test life-cycle phase is provided. An overview is given of the fault-tolerant design, multimoded decoupled flight control laws, and integrated avionics design. The approach to qualifying the software and system designs is discussed, and the effects of design choices on system qualification are highlighted.

  9. Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews of STI were not fully qualified to conduct those reviews and that the reviews often did not occur until after the STI had been publicly released. NASA guidance requires that STI, defined as the results of basic and applied scientific, technical, and related engineering research and development, undergo certain reviews prior to being released outside of NASA or to audiences that include foreign nationals. The process includes technical, national security, export control, copyright, and trade secret (e.g., proprietary data) reviews. The review process was designed to preclude the inappropriate dissemination of sensitive information while ensuring that NASA complies with a requirement of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (the Space Act)1 to provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information resulting from NASA research activities. We focused our audit on evaluating the STI review process: specifically, determining whether the roles and responsibilities for the review, approval, and release of STI were adequately defined and documented in NASA and Center-level guidance and whether that guidance was effectively implemented at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Johnson was included in the review because it was the source of the initial complaint, and Goddard, Langley, and Marshall were included because those Centers consistently produce significant amounts of STI.

  10. Learning Operational Space Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Peters; Stefan Schaal

    2006-01-01

    While operational space control is of essential im- portance for robotics and well-understood from an analytical point of view, it can be prohibitively hard to achieve accurate control in face of modeling errors, which are inevitable in complex robots, e.g., humanoid robots. In such cases, learning control methods can offer an interesting alternative to analytical control algorithms. However, the resulting

  11. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1996-01-01

    Negative calcium balances are seen in humans during spaceflight and bed rest, an analog of space flight. Due to the infrequency and costliness of space flight and the difficulties, cost, and restraints in using invasive procedures in bed rest studies, several ground based animal models of space flight have been employed. The most useful and well developed of these models is hind limb unloading in the rat. In this model the hind limbs are non-weight bearing (unloaded) but still mobile; there is a cephalad fluid shift similar to that seen in astronauts in flight; the animals are able to feed, groom and locomote using their front limbs; the procedure is reversible; and, importantly, the model has been validated by comparison to space flight. Several laboratories have studied calcium balance using rats in hind limb unweighting. Roer and Dillaman used young male rats to study calcium balance in this model for 25 days. They found no differences in dietary calcium intake, percent calcium absorption, urinary and fecal excretion, hence indicating no differences in calcium balance between control and unloaded rats. In another study, employing 120 day old females, rats' hind limbs were unloaded for 28 days. While negative calcium balances were observed during a 25 day recovery period no balance measurements were possible during unweighting since the researchers did not employ appropriate metabolic cages. In a recent study from this laboratory, using 200 g rats in the space flight model for two weeks, we found depressed intestinal calcium absorption and increased fecal calcium excretion (indicating less positive calcium balances) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The above studies indicate that there remains a dearth of information on calcium balance during the hind limb unloading rat space flight model, especially in mature rats, whose use is a better model for planned manned space flight than juvenile or growing animals. With the aid of a newly designed metabolic cage developed in our laboratory it is now possible to accurately measure urinary and fecal calcium excretions in this space flight model. The purpose of this study, then, was to extend and enlarge our previous findings viz: to measure calcium balances in mature rats exposed to a space flight model.

  12. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  13. Space Flight Effects on Antioxidant Molecules in Dry Tardigrades: The TARDIKISS Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola

    2015-01-01

    The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research. PMID:25654086

  14. Space flight effects on antioxidant molecules in dry tardigrades: the TARDIKISS experiment.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The TARDIKISS (Tardigrades in Space) experiment was part of the Biokon in Space (BIOKIS) payload, a set of multidisciplinary experiments performed during the DAMA (Dark Matter) mission organized by Italian Space Agency and Italian Air Force in 2011. This mission supported the execution of experiments in short duration (16 days) taking the advantage of the microgravity environment on board of the Space Shuttle Endeavour (its last mission STS-134) docked to the International Space Station. TARDIKISS was composed of three sample sets: one flight sample and two ground control samples. These samples provided the biological material used to test as space stressors, including microgravity, affected animal survivability, life cycle, DNA integrity, and pathways of molecules working as antioxidants. In this paper we compared the molecular pathways of some antioxidant molecules, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and fatty acid composition between flight and control samples in two tardigrade species, namely, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. In both species, the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, the total content of glutathione, and the fatty acids composition between flight and control samples showed few significant differences. TARDIKISS experiment, together with a previous space experiment (TARSE), further confirms that both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades represent useful animal tool for space research. PMID:25654086

  15. Rat Gestation During Space Flight: Outcomes for Dams and Their Offspring Born After Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andre M.; DeSantis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  16. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to establish a schedule. The method has been expanded to search a two-dimensional control space. Simulation results demonstrate the ability to maximize range by optimizing stabilator deflection and an airspeed set point. Another set of results minimize power required in high speed flight by optimizing collective pitch and stabilator deflection. Results show that the control laws effectively hold the flight condition while the FTO method is effective at improving performance. Optimizations show there can be issues when the control laws regulating altitude push the collective control towards it limits. So a modification was made to the control law to regulate airspeed and altitude using propeller pitch and angle of attack while the collective is held fixed or used as an optimization variable. A dynamic trim limit avoidance algorithm is applied to avoid control saturation in other axes during optimization maneuvers. Range and power optimization FTO simulations are compared with comprehensive sweeps of trim solutions and FTO optimization shown to be effective and reliable in reaching an optimal when optimizing up to two redundant controls. Use of redundant controls is shown to be beneficial for improving performance. The search method takes almost 25 minutes of simulated flight for optimization to be complete. The optimization maneuver itself can sometimes drive the power required to high values, so a power limit is imposed to restrict the search to avoid conditions where power is more than5% higher than that of the initial trim state. With this modification, the time the optimization maneuver takes to complete is reduced down to 21 minutes without any significant change in the optimal power value.

  17. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  18. Evolution of Space Shuttle Range Safety Ascent Flight Envelope Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Joan; Davis, Jerel; Glenn, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    For every space vehicle launch from the Eastern Range in Florida, the range user must provide specific Range Safety (RS) data products to the Air Force's 45th Space Wing in order to obtain flight plan approval. One of these data products is a set of RS ascent flight envelope trajectories that define the normal operating region of the vehicle during powered flight. With the Shuttle Program launching 135 manned missions over a 30-year period, 135 envelope sets were delivered to the range. During this time, the envelope methodology and design process evolved to support mission changes, maintain high data quality, and reduce costs. The purpose of this document is to outline the shuttle envelope design evolution and capture the lessons learned that could apply to future spaceflight endeavors.

  19. Use of telescience for biomedical research during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Schneider, Howard J.; Karamanos, Gayle M.

    1991-01-01

    When the U.S. first embarked on a manned space flight program, NASA's use of medical telescience was focused on crew health monitoring. In recent years, medical telescience use has been expanded to include support of basic research in space medicine. It enables ground support personnel to assist on-board crews in the performance of experiments and improves the quality and quantity of data return. NASA is continuing to develop its telescience capabilities. Future plans include telemedicine that will enable physicians on Earth to support crewmembers during flight and telescience that will enable investigators at their home institutions to support and conduct in-flight medical research. NASA's use of telescience for crew safety and biomedical research from Project Mercury to the present is described and NASA's plans for the future are presented.

  20. Designing Low Bandwidth Propulsive-Only Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, Daniel J.; Azzano, Christopher P.

    1996-01-01

    Results from an investigation of using engine commands to control flight attitude are described. In-flight operation with simulated failed flight controls is reviewed and ground simulations of piloted propulsive-only control to touchdown are analyzed. A design of an optimal control law to assist the pilot is presented. Recommendations are made for more robust design and implementation. Results to date indicate that simply and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations.