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1

Space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wayne Littles will take over the job of Associate Administrator for Space Flight at NASA from Maj.Gen. Jeremiah W. Pearson, who has resigned from the post. Littles, now NASA's Chief Engineer, was formerly deputy director of the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

2

Automation of Telemetry Subsystem Monitoring and Control in Space Flight Telemetry and Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article introduces the realization of space flight telemetry and control system monitoring and control automation. Specific discussions are made of methods to realize automation of monitoring and control associated with monitoring and control process...

L. Xiaodong

1996-01-01

3

Space flight experience with the Shuttle Orbiter control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience gained through the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test program has matured the engineering understanding of the Shuttle on-orbit control system. The geneology of the control systems (called digital autopilots, or DAPs, and used by the Shuttle for on-orbit operations) is reviewed, the flight experience gained during the flight test program is examined within the context of preflight analysis and test

K. J. Cox; K. C. Daly; P. D. Hattis

1983-01-01

4

Adaptive control of tunable laser spectrometers for space flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Adaptive in this context refers to the real-time autonomous response of software and electronics to the harsh and hard-to-predict conditions that can be encountered in space flight missions. This approach takes advantage of both software tools as well as

Gregory Flesch; Didier Keymeulen

2010-01-01

5

Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Parameters as Determined from Space Shuttle Challenger Flight Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha)...

W. T. Suit

1989-01-01

6

Space Flight. Teacher Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

2001

7

Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD, named for Dr Robert H Goddard, a pioneer in rocket research, was established in 1959. Since that time, GSFC has played a major role in space and Earth science....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

8

Basics of Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This training module was designed to help the user identify and grasp basic concepts associated with space travel and deep space missions. Separate sections deal with topics such as the physical environment of space (solar system, gravity, orbital mechanics), flight projects (mission concepts, system requirements, design, onboard systems and instruments), and flight operations (launch, cruise, encounter). Links to related topics are embedded in the text.

9

Introduction to Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online lecture notes introduce students to the basics of space flight. Topics covered include: rocket motors, history of rockets, the scientific method, astronomy basics, the solar system, the universe, space flight missions, spacecraft, remote sensing, astronauts, and future spaceflight missions. This website also provides useful links and exercises intended for students taking this course. These exercises can provide teachers with ideas for their own classes.

Erickson, Lance

2005-06-07

10

IMPLEMENTATION OF FRACTURE CONTROL FOR STRUCTURAL SAFETY OF SPACE FLIGHT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural safety is paramount to space flight systems dueto the high financial 1 0SS and potential damage to national prestige caused by the failure of any space mission. For manned missions, such as NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station, structural safety becomes even more important for that personnel safety of the flight crew is an added concern. NASA requires that

Michael C. Lou

11

Lateral Stability and Control Derivatives Extracted from Space Shuttle Challenger Flight Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is appl...

J. R. Schiess

1988-01-01

12

Space Flight Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Flight Now offers the latest space news from around the world. Visitors can discover information on current missions, launch schedules, and mission reports. Along with providing the space news headlines, the web site supplies news archives so people can catch up on the activities of the space science world. Visitors can enjoy video footage from cameras onboard recent rocket launches. While users do have to subscribe to obtain many of the videos and audio recordings, individuals can benefit from the free up-to-date astronomy news stories and a few videos.

13

Flight Control Designs of Unmanned Space VehicleUsing Linear Interpolation Gain Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents flight control designs of an unmanned space vehicle, HOPE-X, vehicle using interpolation gain scheduling techniques. There are three flight phases from deorbit to landing in HOPE-X; reentry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), and approach and landing. This paper is addressed to the TAEM phase in which an amount of lateral maneuvers are required. Two interpolation gain scheduled state feedback laws were designed with respect to the Lyapunov functions used for guaranteeing the global stability of the closed-loop system, and were applied to the numerical simulations of the HOPE-X. As a result, the gain scheduled control law showed better control performance in the entire of TAEM phase than fixed state feedback laws. The gain scheduling using a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function was superior to the one using a conventional Lyapunov function.

Fujimori, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Manabu; Terui, Fuyuto

14

Basics of Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to help identify the range of concepts associated with deep space missions and illustrate the relationships among them. The three sections deal with the environment of space (e.g., the solar system, spatial coordinates and timing conventions, interplanetary trajectories); flight projects (how missions are concieved and designed, experimentation, spacecraft subsystems, etc.); and operations (launch phase, cruise phase, data-gathering, and similar subjects). Each chapter concludes with a quiz that lets users test their knowledge. There is also a user's guide, glossary, guide to units of measure, and links to additional information. A downloadable, printable version is provided.

15

Cardiovascular function in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L+O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L+2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

Nicgossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

16

Control over the cosmic radiation level during flight of space vehicles Vostok 3, Vostok 4, Vostok 5 and Vostok 6.  

PubMed

1. During the flights of the"Vostok"series of spaceships the radiation conditions in space were kept under operative control which comprised: a. The solar activity observation and forecasting of the solar flares followed by the appearance of proton fluxes in the near space. b. Probing the upper atmosphere with the help of balloon launchings at high altitudes. c. Direct measuring radiation level inside the "Vostok" spaceships. 2. The radiation dose received by the cosmonauts during the flights of the "Vostok" spaceships is given. Contributions of various components of cosmic radiation are considered. 3. The possibility of flights of the "Vostok" series of spaceships at high altitudes is evaluated. PMID:12035803

Savenko, I A; Pisarenko, N F; Shavrin, P I; Nesterov, V E

1965-01-01

17

Spacecraft flight control with the new phase space control law and optimal linear jet select  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autopilot designed for rotation and translation control of a rigid spacecraft is described. The autopilot uses reaction control jets as control effectors and incorporates a six-dimensional phase space control law as well as a linear programming algorithm for jet selection. The interaction of the control law and jet selection was investigated and a recommended configuration proposed. By means of

E. V. Bergmann; S. R. Croopnick; J. J. Turkovich; C. C. Work

1977-01-01

18

Space Flight: A Human Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this "Space Age" we are just beginning to explore the solar system, and human space flights into Earth orbit are our first baby steps off our home planet. Why do we go to space? What do we do there? What will we learn in this environment that will benefit future explorers? A four-time space flight veteran will describe experiences in space and opportunities for future explorers.

Thornton, Kathryn C.

2006-12-01

19

ROTEX: space telerobotic flight experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1993 the space robot technology experiment ROTEX flew with the space-shuttle Columbia (spacelab mission D2 on flight STS-55 from April 26 to May 6). A multisensory robot on board the space-craft successfully worked in autonomous modes, teleoperated by astronauts, as well as in different telerobotic ground control modes. These include on-line teleoperation and tele-sensor-programming, a task-level oriented programming technique involving `learning by showing' concepts in a virtual environment. The robot's key features were its multisensory gripper and the local sensory feedback schemes which are the basis for shared autonomy. The corresponding man-machine interface concepts using a 6 dof non-force- reflecting control ball and visual feedback to the human operator are explained. Stereographic simulation on ground was used to predict not only the robot's free motion but even the sensor based path refinement on board; prototype tasks performed by this space robot were the assembly of a truss structure, connecting/disconnecting an electric plug (orbit replaceable unit exchange ORU), and grasping free-floating objects.

Hirzinger, Gerd; Landzettel, Klaus L.; Heindl, J.

1993-12-01

20

Artificial gravity in space flight.  

PubMed

Clearly, physiologic adaptation to terrestrial life for all animals is assured only by frequent encounters with gravity. Indeed, upon exposure to weightlessness in space flight, losses of physiologic functions quickly begin. Some physiologic parameters change more rapidly than others, but the deconditioning process starts rapidly. The rates of functional losses for all affected parameters are interesting in that they appear to approach a limit; i.e., losses of these functions may not continue until indefinitely. The regulation of this functional asymptotic response to space is not known, but probably based on functional requirements of the body to life itself and perhaps genetic expression. The latter controlling mechanism (DNA) functions only on aquatic (weightless) animals on Earth--land animals must stimulate these physiologic functions as they relate to gravity on a regular frequent basis. This loss of regulation upon entering the weightless environment is fascinating since land-based animals including the humans have evolved from millions (perhaps billions) of years of terrestrially adapted ancestors. One would expect some DNA involvement in the regulation of its physiology, but it appears to be absent. Therefore, if the functional debilitation of space is to be denied, we must begin to understand the adaptation process of the sole basis for the control of our physiologic processes on land; i.e., how gravity regulates our biologic functions. To learn about this regulatory mechanism, some inquiry into how aquatic animals first adapted to living on land might be helpful. PMID:11538747

Burton, R R

1994-05-01

21

Functional testing of space flight induced changes in tonic motor control by using limb-attached excitation and load devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term space flights induce atrophy and contractile changes on postural muscles such effecting tonic motor control. Functional testing of tonic motor control structures is a challenge because of the difficulties to deliver appropriate test forces on crew members. In this paper we propose two approaches for functional testing by using limb attached loading devices. The first approach is based on a frequency and amplitude controllable moving magnet exciter to deliver sinusoidal test forces during limb postures. The responding limb deflection is recorded by an embedded accelerometer to obtain limb impedance. The second approach is based on elastic limb loading to evoke self-excited oscillations during arm extensions. Here the contraction force at the oscillation onset provides information about limb stiffness. The rationale for both testing approaches is based on Feldman's ?-model. An arm expander based on the second approach was probed in a 6-month MIR space flight. The results obtained from the load oscillations, confirmed that this device is well suited to capture space flight induced neuromuscular changes.

Gallasch, Eugen; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

2007-02-01

22

Space flight effects on bacterial physiology.  

PubMed

The study of bacterial behavior under space flight conditions is highly important for the early detection of changes in bacterial communities and bacteria with medical, environmental, or life support consequences for survival of the crew in closed space environments. Although many species of prokaryotes have been studied in ground simulation facilities or have been flown in space flights, at present only few hard research data are available to predict the effects of cosmic radiation, microgravity, vibration and hypervelocity on microbial behavior in space flight. The results that are available tend to be fragmentary and often lack a classical, controlled experimental context to interpret them. Thus, many basic questions concerning the effects of space on microbial behavior have yet to be resolved. PMID:15471227

Leys, N M E J; Hendrickx, L; De Boever, P; Baatout, S; Mergeay, M

23

Space Transportation: Marshall Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is the location of an ongoing initiative to make access to space easier and more affordable. The center conducts extensive space propulsion research; four focus areas include advanced chemical propulsion, plasma propulsion, high-powered electrical propulsion, and propellantless propulsion. There is also a lot of information about the Integrated Space Transportation System and the Space Launch Initiative, which mainly deal with reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The space shuttle is the first generation RLV; second and third generation RLVs aim to increase safety while dramatically lowering launch costs.

24

Space Flight 101.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews many aspects of spaceflight. There are many pictures of the International Space Station. Some of the topics covered in this review are: Have you ever wondered why we have launch windows. Or why the attitude of the Space...

J. Bacon

2006-01-01

25

Ethernet for space flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability\\/scalability with developments ongoing in

E. Webb

2002-01-01

26

Immune response during space flight.  

PubMed

The health status of an astronaut prior to and following space flight has been a prime concern of NASA throughout the Apollo series of lunar landings, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects (ASTP), and the new Spacelab-Shuttle missions. Both humoral and cellular immunity has been studied using classical clinical procedures. Serum proteins show fluctuations that can be explained with adaptation to flight. Conversely, cellular immune responses of lymphocytes appear to be depressed in both in vivo as well as in vitro. If this depression in vivo and in vitro is a result of the same cause, then man's adaptation to outer space living will present interesting challenges in the future. Since the cause may be due to reduced gravity, perhaps the designs of the experiments for space flight will offer insights at the cellular levels that will facilitate development of mechanisms for adaptation. Further, if the aging process is viewed as an adaptational concept or model and not as a disease process then perhaps space flight could very easily interact to supply some information on our biological time clocks. PMID:1915698

Criswell-Hudak, B S

1991-01-01

27

Large Space Shuttle Flight Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It appears practical to challenge the Orbiter DAP with a large, attached structure. The definition of this capability is a fundamental step in the development of nearly all large space systems currently under consideration. Experiment features may be incorporated that apply to control systems for large space systems such as modal damping devices. In a relatively simple deployable structure, the correlation of flight test results with ground test and analysis should provide a basis for extrapolation to more complex structures. Initial experiment concepts will provide a starting point for the examination of antenna feed mast requirements with the objective changing the design to produce a representative test article. Correlation of construction operations with ground simulations will provide for better task and time-line definition. EVA needs to be a direct benefit to the conduct of the experiment. Early consideration of safety issues is a precaution against defining an unacceptable experiment concept. Integration of many objectives seems feasible and is generally perceived as the only way to justify a relatively expensive experiment.

Jenkins, L. M.

1982-03-01

28

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...officially designate candidates for training, certify candidates as qualified space flight participants, and assign space flight participants to specific Space Shuttle flights is reserved to the...

2013-01-01

29

Neuroplasticity changes during space flight.  

PubMed

Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data. PMID:12971415

Slenzka, K

2003-01-01

30

Neuroplasticity changes during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

Slenzka, K.

31

Flight Control Systems Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedbac...

H. P. Whitaker Y. Baram Y. Cheng

1973-01-01

32

Space flights with electric propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric propulsion systems are not always favoured because of their low-thrust performance. However they can significantly reduce the weight of the propulsion system and improve its effectiveness in comparison with conventional, i.e. chemical, propulsion systems. In the future electric propulsion will be widely used for spacecraft operations, both in near-earth and deep-space missions. The paper describes the global history of electric propulsion development. With respect to the way the working fluid is accelerated, electrothermal, electrostatic and electromagnetic propulsion are considered. Various types of space power plants, like chemical sources, solar arrays, radioisotope batteries and nuclear reactors are compared in regard with their application in different space missions. The paper presents some computations for flight trajectories of spacecraft with electric propulsion. A comparative analysis with identical missions carried out by conventional propulsion, is also included.

Simons, Wim J. F.; Simon, Kirill I.

33

New Scientist: Commercial Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from New Scientist highlights the most recent actions that are bringing us closer to commercial space flight -- the granting of the first licence to a private company. The one-year license authorizes the launching of people up to 100 kilometers. Apparently, the company is competing with other companies to win a prize being offered by the X Prize Foundation, which will be awarded to "the first private group to send three people to the sub-orbital height of 100 kilometers twice in two weeks." The president of X Prize, Peter Diamandis, is quoted as saying he expects a winner by October 2004. So stay tuned!

34

Effect of space flight on cytokine production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space flight has been shown to alter many immunological responses. Among those affected are the production of cytokines, Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system that facilitate communication among cells that allow the interaction among cells leading to the development of immune responses. Included among the cytokines are the interferons, interleukins, and colony stimulating factors. Cytokines also facilitate communication between the immune system and other body systems, such as the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems. Some cytokines also have direct protective effects on the host, such as interferon, which can inhibit the replication of viruses. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that models of space flight as well as actual space flight alter the production and action of cytokines. Included among these changes are altered interferon production, altered responsiveness of bone marrow cells to granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor, but no alteration in the production of interleukin-3. This suggests that there are selective effects of space flight on immune responses, i.e. not all cytokines are affected in the same fashion by space flight. Tissue culture studies also suggest that there may be direct effects of space flight on the cells responsible for cytokine production and action. The results of the above study indicate that the effects of space flight on cytokines may be a fundamental mechanism by which space flight not only affects immune responses, but also other biological systems of the human.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald

35

The endocrine system in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

36

Maskmaking Facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and development maskmaking facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Information is provided on the level of cleanliness and the environmental control within the various work areas. The available equipment and its function in ...

D. E. Routh

1972-01-01

37

Smart flight control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire technology was used as primary flight control actuators on a 99-inch wingspan remote controlled aircraft. Modifications were made to a Dynaflite Butterfly and its Futaba remote control system. Comparisons were recorded between the original Futaba electric motor servo system and the SMA actuator system in terms of input power requirement, response time, actuation geometry, output power, and proportional control characteristics. The advantages and limitations of this application of SMA technology were exposed. This project shed light on further possibilities for use of SMA technology that could eliminate much of the weight, complexity, and cost associated with current use of remote actuation and linkage systems. It is the author's hope that the information presented herein will help facilitate further development of SMA in highly critical miniature applications.

Larson, Brett; Bartlett, James P.; O'Hearn, Steve; Adams, Clinton

2001-04-01

38

Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…

Stewart, R. A., Jr.

1988-01-01

39

14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT...

2012-01-01

40

Prototype Space Flight Intravenous Injection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition...

G. V. Colombo

1985-01-01

41

Marshall Space Flight Center CFD Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been focused on hardware specific and research applications with strong emphasis upon benchmark validation. The purpose here is to provide insight into the MSFC CFD ...

L. A. Schutzenhofer

1989-01-01

42

Marshall Space Flight Center Robotics Academy  

NASA Website

[Students Higher Education] [Available: Nationally] NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Robotics Academy is a 10-week resident summer internship for students specifically interested in robotics. Participants must be rising college freshmen or ...

43

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

Garshnek, V

1988-05-01

44

Soviet space flight: the human element.  

PubMed

Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

Garshnek, V

1989-07-01

45

14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space flight...applicant proposing to conduct a reusable launch vehicle mission with flight crew or a space flight...

2013-01-01

46

Design and Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Intelligent Flight Controls System program is a collaborative effort between Boeing, NASA, small business and academia\\u000a to implement and flight demonstrate neural-adaptive flight controls technology. IFCS employs neural networks to provide augmentation\\u000a to the nominal aircraft flight controls in the case of failure conditions to the aircraft. The presence of the neural-adaptive\\u000a elements in the flight control software presents

Tim Smith; Jim Barhorst; James M. Urnes

2010-01-01

47

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460...Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2009-01-01

48

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460...Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2010-01-01

49

14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460...Section 460.51 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2013-01-01

50

Prospective Automatic Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a describion of nonlinear self adjusting and variable structure automatic control systems for piloted and pilotless flight vehicles. Control problems considered include load stabilization, limitation of critical regimes, and control of...

A. D. Aleksandrov

1972-01-01

51

Goddard Space Flight Center- Visitor Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Visitor Center at Goddard Space Flight Center provides access to a variety of information about the history, missions, and upcoming events at the center. Users can find information on public exhibits, educational resources, and programs on space and Earth science and technology.

52

Gravitational Orbits and Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes discuss Newton's theories of dynamics and gravity. The various kinds of possible orbits are described in this lecture. The evolution of space technology such as rockets, the Space Shuttle, dozens of robot spacecraft, and the human space program are also discussed.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

53

Validating Metrics for Ensuring Space Shuttle Flight Software Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we cover the validation of software quality metrics for the Space Shuttle. Experiments with Space Shuttle flight software show that the Boolean OR discriminator function can successfully validate metrics for controlling and predicting quality. Further, we found that statement count and node count are the metrics most closely associated with the discrepancy reports count, and that with

Norman F. Schneidewind

1994-01-01

54

NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including t...

G. J. LeBeau

2011-01-01

55

NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wondering when that spacecraft will be cruising over your city during the next ten days? Visit the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page to find out. Satellite sighting information by city is provided by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Visitors to the site can choose a city from the list provided or enter their location using the nifty NASA Skywatch Java applet. Other highlights of the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks (.gif) and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information that includes altitude, location coordinates, speed, and more. Definitions and illustrations of orbital tracking elements and coordinate system terminology make the site accessible to general audiences.

2001-01-01

56

Hybrid cryogenic cooler for space flight applications.  

PubMed

The hybrid cryogenic cooler is an intermittent Joule-Thomson refrigerator with a precooler in the form of a passive radiator. The properties of the J-T expansion and the gas storage vessel are used to select fluids on the basis of available refrigeration per unit mass. Surface forces and container geometry are used to confine and control the liquid cryogen in a zero-gravity environment. The precooler and vaporized liquid are used to reduce parasitic thermal inputs to the point where most of the heat of vaporization is available for useful purposes. Modifications can be made to increase the efficiency or extend the temperature range. Ambient storage combined with efficient operation make the hybrid cooler attractive for space flight applications. PMID:20203860

Annable, R V

1978-09-01

57

History of manned space flight  

SciTech Connect

This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

Baker, D.

1981-01-01

58

Goddard Space Flight Center Education Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Goddard Space Flight Center Education Programs provide teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use. These collections support the Earth system science curriculum developed by NASA scientists from the Earth Science Enterprise, a team of teachers from Anne Arundel County Public Schools, and the Education Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Site materials include a listing of featured programs, information on educational programs for the public, public schools-based programs, and programs for higher education. The Educator Resource Center (ERC) provides access to educational publications, teaching materials, educator workshops, video duplication and many other resources. There are also links to other NASA research and space flight centers, the Goddard media center, and state-specific listservs for educators.

59

Three Dimensional Formation Flight Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automating the control of an aircraft flying in formation necessitates the extension of the theory of formation flight control to allow for three dimensional maneuvers. The formation was modeled as a two-aircraft, leader and wingspan, formation. Both airc...

J. K. Hall

2000-01-01

60

Flight Mechanics and Control Requirements for a Modular Solar Electric Tug Operating in Earth-Moon Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular design for a solar-electric tug was analyzed to establish flight control requirements and methods. Thrusters are distributed around the periphery of the solar array. This design enables modules to be berthed together to create a larger system from smaller modules. It requires a different flight mode than traditional design and a different thrust direction scheme, to achieve net thrust in the desired direction, observe thruster pointing constraints that avoid plume impingement on the tug, and balance moments. The array is perpendicular to the Sun vector for maximum electric power. The tug may maintain a constant inertial attitude or rotate around the Sun vector once per orbit. Either non-rotating or constant angular velocity rotation offers advantages over the conventional flight mode, which has highly variable roll rates. The baseline single module has 12 thrusters: two 2-axis gimbaling main thrusters, one at each ``end'', and two back-to-back Z axis thrusters at each corner of the array. Thruster pointing and throttling were optimized to maximize net thrust effectiveness while observing constraints. Control design used a spread sheet with Excel Solver to calculate nominal thruster pointing and throttling. These results are used to create lookup tables. A conventional control system generates a thruster pointing and throttling overlay on the nominals to maintain active attitude control. Gravity gradients can cause major attitude perturbations during occultation periods if thrust is off during these periods. Thrust required to maintain attitude is about 4% of system rated power. This amount of power can be delivered by a battery system, avoiding the performance penalty if chemical propulsion thrusters were used to maintain attitude.

Woodcock, Gordon; Wingo, Dennis

2006-01-01

61

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

62

Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)|

Mohler, Robert R. J.

1997-01-01

63

History of manned space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts

1981-01-01

64

Interplanetary Flight and Communication. Volume 3, No. 8 Theory of Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of classical works on space flight, published prior to 1932, is presented. Rocket motion, interplanetary flight and planetary landings, flights to the moon, astronaut intravehicular and extravehicular activity, and rocket sounding of the uppe...

N. A. Rynin

1971-01-01

65

History of nutrition in space flight: overview.  

PubMed

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

2002-10-01

66

Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight.  

PubMed

We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23420085

Ortega, M Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K

2012-02-27

67

Period Analysis of Space Flight EEG.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reported illustrates how different combinations of three descriptors of the EEG may be used to delineate space flight sleep patterns. The three descriptors examined are the zero crossings, points of zero slope, and points of zero change in sl...

A. J. Welch

1971-01-01

68

Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and ...

B. M. Reed

1997-01-01

69

Technology infusion for space-flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tremendous amount of difficulty is encountered in moving technologies from laboratory demonstration (NASA technology readiness level (TRL) 3) to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (TRL 6). This ability to infuse technologies into NASA space flight programs is limited by a number of factors. Most research funding is for R&D activities that fund tasks from TRL1 to TRL3 (concept

Andrew A. Shapiro

2004-01-01

70

Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among

Melanie N. Ott; William Joe; Robert Switzer; Lance Day

71

14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01...Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls...415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard...

2013-01-01

72

Space flights with electric propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric propulsion systems are not always favoured because of their low-thrust performance. However they can significantly reduce the weight of the propulsion system and improve its effectiveness in comparison with conventional, i.e. chemical, propulsion systems. In the future electric propulsion will be widely used for spacecraft operations, both in near-earth and deep-space missions. The paper describes the global history of

Wim J. F. Simons; Kirill I. Simon

1996-01-01

73

Modeling Calcium Loss from Bones During Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium loss from bones during space flight creates a risk for astronauts who travel into space, and may prohibit space flights to other planets. The problem of calcium loss during space flight has been studied using animal models, bed rest (as a ground-b...

M. E. Wastney B. V. Morukov I. M. Larina S. A. Abrams J. L. Nillen J. E. Davis-Street H. W. Lane S. M. Smith

1999-01-01

74

777 Flight Controls validation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, Boeing launched the twin-engine Model 777 airplane program to satisfy the needs of airlines in terms of payload and range and to fill a market segment between the Model 747 and 767 airplanes. The 777 airplane is the first Boeing commercial transport airplane to use a full fly-by-wire Flight Control System. The Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) provides

H. Buus; R. McLees; M. Orgun; E. Pasztor; L. Schultz

1995-01-01

75

Space flight and the immune system.  

PubMed

Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon. PMID:8488698

Cogoli, A

1993-01-01

76

Production and Quality Assurance Automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviol...

K. B. Chapman C. M. Cox C. W. Thomas O. O. Cuevas R. M. Beckman

1994-01-01

77

Software Metrics Validation: Space Shuttle flight Software Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software quality metrics have potential for helping to ensure the quality of software on large projects such as theSpace Shuttle flight software. It is feasible to validate metrics for the purpose of controlling and predicting software quality during design by validating metrics against a quality factor. Quality factors, like reliability, are of more interest to customers than metrics, like complexity.

Norman F. Schneidewind

1995-01-01

78

Reliability of Optical Fiber Modulators for Space Flight Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical fiber modulators are of great interest to space flight projects for communications and LIDAR applications. Due to the harsh environments and long duration for most missions, space flight applications have a unique set of demands for photonics parts. This study focuses on the reliability of commercially available optical fiber modulators for space flight environments. General failures modes covered by

Melanie Ott; Juan Vela; Carl Magee; Harry Shaw

79

Physiological response of a spinosad-producing strain saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the physiological response of spinosad-producing strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight environment. The production strain was carried into space by a manned spaceship, `Shenzhou VII' (Divine Vessel VII) and compared with identical ground control strains. The results showed that space flight could induce a significant response in the phys-iological characteristics of S. spinosa, including change of productivity

Zhiheng Liu

2010-01-01

80

Flight Control Design of Unmanned Space Vehicle Using Gain-Scheduling (Operating Point Selection Using ?-Gap Metric and Locally Multi-Objective Gain-Scheduling)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents flight control designs of an unmanned space vehicle, HOPE-X vehicle using an interpolation gain scheduling technique. The ?-gap metric is used to evaluate the errors between linear models at operating points. The linear parameter varying models for the HOPE-X vehicle were then constructed by minimizing two types of indices defined with the ?-gap metric. On the other hand, the magnitude of the input is locally constrained to avoid the saturation of the control surfaces. In the numerical simulations of the HOPE-X, the gain scheduling control laws whose number of operating points was greater than two could be applicable to the whole region of the terminal area energy management phase of the HOPE-X. Furthermore, the input constraint was effective to suppress the magnitude of the input and to extend the stability region of the design parameter.

Fujimori, Atsushi; Kajitani, Akimasa; Takido, Katsuyuki; Terui, Fuyuto

81

Optics at marshall space flight center.  

PubMed

The aim and direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) programs of research in optics has been to produce the technology base and to gain the knowledge prerequisite to the support of launch vehicle development. MSFC conducts and sponsors in industry research leading to the development of new orimproved optical system components, including lenses, filters, laser sources, detectors, modulators, imaging devices, and beam scanners. Much of this effort is directed primarily toward assuring that such components will survive and perform adequately in the hostile environment created by a large space booster. This research involves the development techniques for the effective utilization of optical instrumentation in measuring systems, and the extension of fundamental principles and processes developed in the field of optics to other areas of research. The current direction of the MSFC program in optics is toward development of optical systems for use in space and integrating such systems into space vehicles as principal payloads. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) is our major program in this area, but efforts are already under way to establish the base technology to support larger, more versatile, more universal optical facilities for flight-borne space science research. PMID:20076196

Johnson, W G

1970-02-01

82

Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

2013-11-01

83

14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH...applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space flight participant on board the vehicle must demonstrate...

2013-01-01

84

Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights.  

PubMed

Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight. PMID:11541395

Vazquez, M E

1998-01-01

85

Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

Vazquez, M. E.

86

Goddard Space Flight Center: Astrophysics Science Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The home page of the Astrophysics Science Division at Goddard Space Flight Center provides information on the division's research projects, missions, goals, and activities. Topics include the evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets; the diversity of worlds outside our solar system; the possibillity of life on those worlds; and astrophysics questions such as what powered the Big Bang, what is dark energy, and what happens at the edge of a black hole. Links are also provided to mission webpages, news articles and notifications of seminars and meetings.

87

Deep space flight of Hayabusa asteroid explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hayabusa spacecraft rendezvoused with the asteroid Itokawa in 2005 after the powered flight in the deep space by the ?10 cathode-less electron cyclotron resonance ion engines. Though the spacecraft was seriously damaged after the successful soft-landing and lift-off, the xenon cold gas jets from the ion engines rescued it. New attitude stabilization method using a single reaction wheel, the ion beam jets, and the photon pressure was established and enabled the homeward journey from April 2007 aiming the Earth return on 2010. The total accumulated operational time of the ion engines reaches 31,400 hours at the end of 2007. One of four thrusters achieved 13,400-hour space operation.

Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

2008-05-01

88

Assessment of a portable clinical blood analyzer during space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to validate the utility of a commercial portable clinical blood analyzer (PCBA) in ground-based studies and on the space shuttle. Ionized calcium, pH, electrolytes, glucose, and hematocrit were determined. Results agreed well with those from tradi- tional laboratory methods, and the PCBA demonstrated good between-day precision for all analytes. In-flight analysis of control samples revealed differences

Scott M. Smith; Tina B. Fontenot

89

Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the Russian 10th biosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.

Zhizhen, Shi; Dahuan, Zhuang; Ilyin, Eugene A.

90

User and Task Analysis of the Flight Surgeon Console at the Mission Control Center of the NASA Johnson Space Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Astronauts in a space station are to some extent like patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medical support of a mission crew will require acquisition, transmission, distribution, integration, and archiving of significant amounts of data. These data a...

K. A. Johnson M. Shek

2003-01-01

91

Dual control vibration tests of flight hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vibration retest of a spacecraft flight instrument, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC), was conducted using extremal dual control to automatically limit the shaker force and notch the shaker acceleration at resonances. This was the first application of extremal dual control with flight hardware at JPL. The retest was successful in that the environment was representative of flight plus some

Terry D. Scharton

1991-01-01

92

Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight.  

PubMed

Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eight shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal. PMID:4021685

Thornton, W E; Biggers, W P; Thomas, W G; Pool, S L; Thagard, N E

1985-08-01

93

Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

Faruque, Imraan

94

Robust flight control of rotorcraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.

Pechner, Adam Daniel

95

Certain Otorhinolaryngological Problems in Medical Support of Space Flights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems in vestibulology, acoustics, and prophylaxis are discussed in relation to space flight. Studies are being directed to pathophysiological mechanisms of observed disorders among space crews. Modification of diagnostic instruments and methods for ot...

I. I. Bryanov E. I. Matsnev I. Y. Yakovleva

1973-01-01

96

The Goddard Space Flight Center Preferred Parts List, Ppl-16.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A listing is presented of preferred electronic parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center space systems and g...

N. E. Tyson

1982-01-01

97

Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg\\/kg\\/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed

S. K. Chapes; S. J. Simske; A. D. Forsman; T. A. Bateman; R. J. Zimmerman

1999-01-01

98

Space flight demonstration of the sodium-sulfur cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-sulfur battery, which is emerging as a prime high-temperature energy storage technology for space flight applications, provides useable specific energy of two to three that times of Ni-H2 batteries. This paper describes a Na-S cell demonstration planned for a 1995 NASA Space Shuttle flight.

Minck, R. W.; Chang, R. R.; Halbach, C. R.; Divsalar, F.; Kuo, Ying-Yan

99

Technology validation of optical fiber cables for space flight environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodically, commercially available (commercial off the shelf, COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program. The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated

Melanie N. Ott; Patricia R. Friedberg

2001-01-01

100

Technology validation of optical fiber cables for space flight environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodically, commercially available (commercial off the shelf, COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are

Melanie N. Ott; Patricia Friedberg

2001-01-01

101

Space-X Launches Falcon 9 on Demonstration Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft launched from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 10:43 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Dec. 8. This is first demonstration flight for NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program, which will provide cargo flights to the International Space Station.

KSC Web Team

2010-12-08

102

Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor ( g-levels from 0.01- g to 2- g) for direct comparisons between ?g and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glovebox for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation dosimeters, and mass measurement devices are also currently in design stages by NASA and the ISS international partners.

Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

103

Multivariable adaptive algorithms for reconfigurable flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of multivariable adaptive control techniques to flight control reconfiguration is considered. The objective is to redesign automatically flight control laws to compensate for actuator failures or surface damage. Three adaptive algorithms for multivariable model reference control are compared. The availability of state measurements in this application leads to relatively simple algorithms. The respective advantages and disadvantages of the

Marc Bodson; Joseph E. Groszkiewicz

1997-01-01

104

Effects of space flight on surface marker expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space flight has been shown to affect expression of several cell surface markers. These markers play important roles in regulation of immune responses, including CD4 and CD8. The studies have involved flight of experimental animals and humans followed by analysis of tissue samples (blood in humans, rats and monkeys, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and bone marrow in rodents). The degree and direction of the changes induced by space flight have been determined by the conditions of the flight. Also, there may be compartmentalization of the response of surface markers to space flight, with differences in the response of cells isolated from blood and local immune tissue. The same type of compartmentalization was also observed with cell adhesion molecules (integrins). In this case, the expression of integrins from lymph node cells differed from that of splenocytes isolated from rats immediately after space flight. Cell culture studies have indicated that there may be an inhibition in conversion of a precursor cell line to cells exhibiting mature macrophage characteristics after space flight, however, these experiments were limited as a result of technical difficulties. In general, it is clear that space flight results in alterations of cell surface markers. The biological significance of these changes remains to be established.

Sonnenfeld, G.

1999-01-01

105

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Intelligent Flight Control System  

NASA Website

The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) flight research project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was established to exploit a revolutionary technological breakthrough in aircraft flight controls that can effi-ciently optimize aircraft ...

106

The effects of space radiation on flight film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.

Holly, Mark H.

1995-09-01

107

Blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of newts after the space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ribbed newts were used for studying the effect of space flight on board of the biosatellite (Cosmos-2229) on blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells. In blood of newts of the flight group, the relative proportion of neutrophils increased, whereas that of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Space flight did not result in loss of the ability of newt blood cells to incorporate H^3-thymidine. Analysis of clonogenic hemopoietic cells was performed using the method of hemopoietic colony formation on cellulose acetate membranes implanted into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated newts. To analyze reconstitution of hemopoiesis after irradiation donor hemopoietic cells from flight or control newts were transplanted into irradiated newts whose hemopoietic organs were investigated. The newt can be considered an adequate model for studying hemopoiesis under the conditions of the space flight. Previous studies on rats subjected to 5- to 19-day space flights revealed a decrease in the number of clonogenic cells in their hemopoietic organs accompanied by specific changes in the precursor cell compartment and in blood /1,2/. Hence, it was interesting to analyze blood and hemopoietic tissue of lower vertebrates after a space flight and to compare the response to it of animals belonging to different taxonomic groups. We analyzed blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of ribbed newts, Pleurodeles waltl (age one year, weight 20-28 g) subjected to a 12-day space flight on board of a Cosmos-2229 biosatellite. The same animals were used in studies on limb and lens regeneration. The results were compared with those obtained with control groups of newts: (1) basic control, operated newts sacrificed on the day of biosatellite launching (BC); (2) synchronous control, operated newts kept in the laboratory under simulated space flight conditions (SC); and (3) intact newts (IC).

Michurina, T. V.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Nikonova, T. M.; Khrushchov, N. G.

108

Suborbital human space flight in the XP spaceplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The XP spaceplane now being developed by Rocketplane Kistler will begin flight testing in 2009 and enter commercial service in 2010. The vehicle is a horizontal takeoff and landing design which uses jet engines for takeoff and landing and a LOX kerosene rocket engine for the ascent into space. This paper will describe the flight experiences, the training necessary prior

Charles J. Lauer

109

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

110

Hybrid Propulsion Testing at Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hybrid propulsion testing involving eleven and twenty-four inch motors performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from the early 1990's to the present are discussed. Topics covered include: Solid Propulsion Investigation Program, Joint NASA Indu...

A. S. Prince

2002-01-01

111

Effects of space flight on GLUT-4 content in rat plantaris muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of 14 days of space flight on the glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were studied in the plantaris muscle of growing 9-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly separated into five groups: pre-flight vivarium ground controls (PF-VC) sacrificed approximately 2 h after launch; flight groups sacrificed either approximately 5 h (F-R0) or 9 days (F-R9) after the return from space; and synchronous ground controls (SC-R0 and SC-R9) sacrificed at the same time as the respective flight groups. The flight groups F-R0 and F-R9 were exposed to micro-gravity for 14 days in the Spacelab module located in the cargo bay of the shuttle transport system - 58 of the manned Space Shuttle for the NASA mission named ''Spacelab Life Sciences 2''. Body weight and plantaris weight of SC-R0 and F-R0 were significantly higher than those of PF-VC. Neither body weight nor plantaris muscle weight in either group had changed 9 days after the return from space. As a result, body weight and plantaris muscle weight did not differ between the flight and synchronous control groups at any of the time points investigated. The GLUT-4 content (cpm/µg membrane protein) in the plantaris muscle did not show any significant change in response to 14 days of space flight or 9 days after return. Similarly, citrate synthase activity did not change during the course of the space flight or the recovery period. These results suggest that 14 days of space flight does not affect muscle mass or GLUT-4 content of the fast-twitch plantaris muscle in the rat.

Tabata, I.; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Nagaoka, Shunji; Ohira, Yoshinobu

112

Suborbital flights, a starting point for space tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met

William A. Gaubatz

2002-01-01

113

Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight.  

PubMed

Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood. PMID:12361780

Smith, Scott M

2002-10-01

114

Proteomic analysis of rice after different seed space flights by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.

Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

115

Using Flight Simulation Environments with Agent-Controlled UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed countries have made significant ef- forts to integrate UAV operations in controlled aerial space due to a rising interest of using UAVs for civilian and military purposes. This paper focuses on looking for reliable solutions and a way to validate an autonomous multiagent control system using Flight Simulators. This study has two main lines, the first being the use

Ricardo Gimenes; Daniel Castro; Silva Lu

116

A fuzzy logic controller for aircraft flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of an autopilot controller based on fuzzy algorithms. The controller maneuvers an aircraft from level flight into a final-approach flight path and maintains the aircraft along the glide path until just before touchdown. To evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the model, the aircraft response to controller actions is simulated using flight simulation techniques. The

Lawrence I. Larkin

1984-01-01

117

Pegasus air-launched space booster flight test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

1995-03-01

118

Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W.; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E.; Lavella, Gabriel; VandenBrooks, John M.; Harrison, Jon F.; Maharbiz, Michel M.

2009-01-01

119

Remote radio control of insect flight.  

PubMed

We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808

Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

2009-10-05

120

Test and Analysis Capabilities of the Space Environment Effects Team at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world-class space environmental effects testing facilities to simulate the space environment. The combined environmental effects test system exposes temperature-controlled samples to simultaneous protons, high- and low-energy electrons, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and near-ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. Separate chambers for studying the effects of NUV and VUV at elevated temperatures are also available. The Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility exposes samples to atomic oxygen of 5 eV energy to simulate low-Earth orbit (LEO). The LEO space plasma simulators are used to study current collection to biased spacecraft surfaces, arcing from insulators and electrical conductivity of materials. Plasma propulsion techniques are analyzed using the Marshall magnetic mirror system. The micro light gas gun simulates micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Candidate materials and hardware for spacecraft can be evaluated for durability in the space environment with a variety of analytical techniques. Mass, solar absorptance, infrared emittance, transmission, reflectance, bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and surface morphology characterization can be performed. The data from the space environmental effects testing facilities, combined with analytical results from flight experiments, enable the Environmental Effects Group to determine optimum materials for use on spacecraft.

Finckenor, M. M.; Edwards, D. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Schneider, T. A.; Hovater, M. A.; Hoppe, D. T.

2002-11-01

121

German-Russian cooperation in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential areas of fruitful cooperation between the German and Russian space programs are examined. Emphasis is given to possible projects involving the Russian space station Mir. Past cooperative efforts in space-related projects between the two countries are reviewed.

Hauger, Michael K. E.

1992-08-01

122

Bat wing sensors support flight control  

PubMed Central

Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed.

Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

2011-01-01

123

Space Interferometry Mission: flight system and configuration overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, NASA's Origins Program will launch the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), a 10-meter-baseline optical interferometry instrument, into an Earth-trailing solar orbit. This instrument will be comprised of four parallel optical interferometers whose prime mission objective is to perform astrometric measurements at unprecedented accuracy. Launched by the Space Shuttle and boosted into its final trajectory by an integral propulsion system, SIM will collect data for more than five years in the search for extra-solar system planets. NASA has assembled an integrated Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Industry team comprised of TRW, Lockheed Martin, and Caltech to formulate a reference design to meet the SIM science objectives. Addressing unique technical challenges has proven to be a formidable task in numerous aspects of the system definition, from component development to system-level integration and test. Parallel activities to develop and test the necessary enabling technologies for SIM are coupled with the ongoing flight system design. The flight system design poses unique challenges in many areas, including geometric aspects of the layout, stability of the precision structure, thermal control, active vibration suppression, picometer-level laser metrology, etc. System-level trade studies that balance the requirements of the optics and metrology layouts and develop clean interfaces are presented herein. This paper also addresses the issues of the System Engineering processes and validation of performance specifications. Finally, this paper describes the current status of the SIM Reference System design.

Kahn, Peter; Aaron, Kim M.

2003-02-01

124

14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims...Section 460.49 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2013-01-01

125

14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460...Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2010-01-01

126

14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims...Section 460.49 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2010-01-01

127

14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460...Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2009-01-01

128

14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims...Section 460.49 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2009-01-01

129

14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460...Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and...

2013-01-01

130

Robust and reconfigurable flight control system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconfigurable flight control system is a control system which can automatically adapt itself to maintain the performance of a damaged aircraft to be as close as possible to that of the normal or undamaged one. This research focuses mainly on Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) reconfigurable flight control for an aircraft with damaged actuator(s) which may greatly affect the performance and control of the aircraft, and also pose a challenging flight control problem. The foundation of the control system is a baseline controller and an adaptive module which constitutes a reconfigurable part. The baseline controller ensures that the aircraft has acceptable performance and handling qualities throughout the flight envelope. The combination of a Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Pre-Design Technique (PDT) and a Reduced-order, Linear, Dynamic Inversion (RLDI) control strategy yields a flight control system with good tracking performance and handling qualities with no Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) tendencies throughout the designated set of flight conditions. In addition, the system is highly immune to large uncertainties in the aircraft dynamics. The modified filtered-? adaptive algorithm is developed and utilized in the adaptive module of the system. This adaptive algorithm performs well with MIMO system with the added advantage of not having to pre-identify the dynamics of the damaged aircraft, provided that the conditions of reconfigurability are met. An example of the proposed control system with the NASA F-18 HARV vehicle model and a damaged actuator demonstrates the effectiveness of the concept.

Siwakosit, Wichai

2001-07-01

131

Simulated space flight testing of commercial terrestrial silicon cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost silicon solar cells manufactured for the terrestrial market are examined for possible space flight use. The results of preliminary space environmental testing are reported and discussed. In addition, a number of possible obstacles to the use of these cells is examined. It is concluded that the terrestrial industry could provide an extremely low cost and reliable cell for

P. M. Stella; T. F. Miyahira

1982-01-01

132

ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

John Kossum

2012-04-06

133

A review of the psychological aspects of space flight.  

PubMed

Instances of overt, serious functional impairment of space crews caused by adverse psychologic responses have not been scientifically documented. However, transient disorientation, spatial illusions, and visual disturbances as well as anomalous myopias, sleep disturbances, and instances of substandard performance have been described. Moreover, anecdotal information describes significant psychologic aberrations in space flight. Adequate scientific data are lacking for optimal psychological and psychophysiological methods for crew selection, training, and performance evaluation, for identifying key psychosocial factors for crew compatibility, cohesiveness, and productivity, and for determining the effects of space flight on perceptual, intellectual, and motor skills. The ad hoc Working Group, convened to review psychological aspects of space flight, favored establishment of a comprehensive research and development program to address the deficiencies identified in the study. PMID:3516133

Christensen, J M; Talbot, J M

1986-03-01

134

Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

Macho, L.; Kvet?anský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

135

Organisational Robustness for Manned Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In manned space programs the requirements for safety are considerably more stringent than those placed on earlier European space programs. Safety must be taken into account not simply during launch site operations but throughout the entire mission. Additi...

R. Record J. L. Demontlivault

1991-01-01

136

SpaceX Readies Operational Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, just a few miles south of the space shuttle launch pads.

KSC Web Team

2012-10-05

137

Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT...

D. Smitherman G. Spexarth L. Toups M. Simon

2012-01-01

138

Population growth and physiological characteristics of microalgae in a miniaturized bioreactor during space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of microalgae (Anabaena siamensis) had been cultured in a miniaturized bioreactor during a retrievable satellite flight for 15days. By means of remote sensing equipment installed in the satellite, we gained the growth curve of microalgae population in space every day in real time. The curve indicated that the growth of microalgae in space was slower than the control

Gaohong Wang; Haofeng Chen; Genbao Li; Lanzhou Chen; Dunhai Li; Chunxiang Hu; Kun Chen; Yongding Liu

2006-01-01

139

Interactive Flight Control System Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

J. K. Mahesh A. F. Konar M. D. Ward

1984-01-01

140

Quadruplex Digital Flight Control System Assessment. Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and validation of a double fail-operational digital flight control system architecture for critical pitch axis functions. Architectural tradeoffs are assessed, system simulator modifications are described, and demonst...

D. B. Mulcare L. E. Downing M. K. Smith

1988-01-01

141

Quadruplex Digital Flight Control System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described are the development and validation of a double fail-operational digital flight control system architecture for critical pitch axis functions. Architectural tradeoffs are assessed, system simulator modifications are described, and demonstration t...

D. B. Mulcare L. E. Downing M. K. Smith

1988-01-01

142

Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.

Hoffman, David S.

143

[Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Bone metabolism in space flight and long-duration bed rest].  

PubMed

Bone loss and urolithiasis are inevitable outcome in human space flight and long-duration bet rest. The rate of space flight induced bone loss is 10 times faster than in those with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss at weight bearing bones, elevated urinary calcium excretion, and un-coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are observed during the long-term bed rest study. Improvements of resistive exercise device and vitamin-D supplementation for astronauts in International Space Station can partially maintain bone mass, however, they can not fully supress bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during space flight. JAXA and NASA are performing joint study to validate the mitigration effects on bone resorption and urolithiasis of bisphosphonate supplement in conjunction with excercise. PMID:23187072

Ohshima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

2012-12-01

144

Orthostatic heart rate responses after prolonged space flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic tachycardia (POTS) can occur after space flights. We determined orthostatic heart rate responses in 18 cosmonauts\\u000a before and 3–5 days after long-term space missions. Cosmonauts undergoing a cardiovascular training program in space experienced\\u000a only moderate POTS after their return to earth. Cardiovascular countermeasures may have attenuated POTS. Another possible\\u000a interpretation is that cardiovascular deconditioning is not sufficient to elicit full

Jens TankRoman; Roman M. Baevsky; Irina I. Funtova; André Diedrich; Irina N. Slepchenkova; Jens Jordan

2011-01-01

145

Utilizing a Russian Space Nuclear Reactor for a United States Space Mission: Flight Qualification Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) could provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program is the Topaz II reactor. This space nuclear power system was built and flight qualified, though never tested in space, by the former Soviet Union. The NEPSTP is faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system will complicate many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities are further complicated because the reactor power system is a Russian design. Therefore, this program must deal not only with the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is then examined. The inherent difficulties in qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

Polansky, Gary F.; Schmidt, Glen L.; Reynolds, Edward L.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Ogloblin, Boris; Bocharov, Anatoly

1994-07-01

146

Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

Polansky, G.F. [Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmidt, G.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voss, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reynolds, E.L. [Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD (United States)

1994-10-01

147

Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

Polansky, G. F.; Schmidt, G. L.; Voss, S. S.; Reynolds, E. L.

1994-09-01

148

QFT applied to fault tolerant flight control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses flight control system synthesis and the accommodation of controlled plant variation in an aircraft design envelope by using the frequency domain based quantitative feedback theory robust control system design method. The plant variations considered include varying flight conditions in the flight envelope and damage to aerodynamic control surfaces. A digital flight controller for the aircraft's longitudinal channel

M. S. Keating; M. Pachter; C. H. Houpis

1995-01-01

149

Radiation and Long-term Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data on the carcinogenic effects of space radiation on humans are available from the Russian MIR Space Station and the US Space Shuttle missions but are limited to tissue-level studies rather than the organ-level studies which are necessary to accurately determine radiation doses. Now, NASA's National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has instigated an experiment, called the "torso-experiment," that will use a fully instrumented phantom torso (with head) to provide the necessary depth-dose-equivalent measurements on the International Space Station. Depth-dose-equivalent measurements will be taken as a function of spacecraft altitude, attitude, location, and time, and measurements internal to the phantom torso will be supported by other radiation measurements from the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter and the Charged Particle Direction Spectrometer. Read more about this somewhat bizarre-looking experiment at this Webpage from NSBRI.

150

Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the hybrid adaptive flight controller, development of a Newton's method based online parameter update that is modified to include a step size which regulates the rate of change in the parameter estimates, comparison of the modified Newton's method and recursive least squares online parameter update algorithms, modification of the neural network's input structure to accommodate for the nature of the nonlinearities present in a launch vehicle's ascent flight, examination of both tracking error based and modeling error based neural network weight update laws, and integration of feedback filters for the purpose of preventing harmful interaction between the flight control system and flexible structural modes. To validate the hybrid adaptive controller, a high-fidelity Ares I ascent flight simulator and a classical gain-scheduled proportional-integral-derivative (PID) ascent flight controller were obtained from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The classical PID flight controller is used as a benchmark when analyzing the performance of the hybrid adaptive flight controller. Simulations are conducted which model both nominal and off-nominal flight conditions with structural flexibility of the vehicle either enabled or disabled. First, rigid body ascent simulations are performed with the hybrid adaptive controller under nominal flight conditions for the purpose of selecting the update laws which drive the indirect and direct adaptive components. With the neural network disabled, the results revealed that the recursive least squares online parameter update caused high frequency oscillations to appear in the engine gimbal commands. This is highly undesirable for long and slender launch vehicles, such as the Ares I, because such oscillation of the rocket nozzle could excite unstable structural flex modes. In contrast, the modified Newton's method online parameter update produced smooth control signals and was thus selected for use in the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle flight controller. In the simulations where the online parameter identification algorithm was disabled,

Lefevre, Brian D.

151

Flight control computer operational flight program development for the control laws switching mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

All new flight control law and flight control computer developments have historically been an extremely expensive and time-consuming proposition specially in a flight-critical system. To reduce and avoid these kind of problems, the switching mechanism method has been addressed. Here the switching mechanism needs two computers. One is a basic(or primary) computer already customized to the production airframe and the

Sang-Seon Park; In-Je Cho; Seung-Ha Ryu; Sang-Soo Lim

2007-01-01

152

ISS Update: Keeping the Flight Control Rooms Running  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Angela Bauer, Facilities Operations and Maintenance Group lead in the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. They discuss her group's role in taking care of the Mission Control Center, including the four flight control rooms, as well as in the transition and retirement of the space shuttle. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

John Kossum

2012-03-29

153

Effects of space flight on GLUT4 content in rat plantaris muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 14 days of space flight on the glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were studied in the plantaris muscle of\\u000a growing 9-week-old, male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly separated into five groups: pre-flight vivarium ground\\u000a controls (PF-VC) sacrificed approximately 2?h after launch; flight groups sacrificed either approximately 5?h (F-R0) or 9\\u000a days (F-R9) after the return from

I. Tabata; Kentaro Kawanaka; Chiharu Sekiguchi; Shunji Nagaoka; Yoshinobu Ohira

1998-01-01

154

The Flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-119)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, Discovery launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the ``CBS News'' space consultant. The spreadsheet provides detailed and authentic information about the prediction of the ascent of flight STS-119, the 36th flight of Discovery and the 125th shuttle flight to date. We have used the data for our calculations and the production of the graphs. A limited version of the ascent data is available on the ``CBS News'' STS-119 trajectory timeline.1

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-03-01

155

Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77 40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

Johanson, Kelly; L. Allen, Patricia; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

2007-02-01

156

Human Aspirations in the History of Space Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chief concern of this brief article is to remember the pioneers and early advocates of space flight and their aspirations: specifically, I refer to the period prior to the commencement of the `space age' with the launch of Sputnik I in 1957. Since that time unmanned scientific satellites and probes have been especially successful, granting us unparalleled access to other worlds and the deep recesses of the Cosmos. For our pioneers, however, the exploration of space was not of exclusively scientific importance: rather, it also held out the promise of uniting nations and even of serving as a conduit for the improvement of our race. When one considers all the data acquired by scientific probes one may legitimately ask, “for what purpose is this information sought?” The pioneers discussed in this article help to remind us that space flight is a human not only a scientific enterprise: this is why this article has been written.

Favell, I.

157

Precision orbit determination at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GEODYN Computer program has been developed by the Geodynamics Branch at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for accurate satellite orbit and tracking data analysis. The software is currently used for baseline solutions for the Crustal Dynamic Project (Smith et al. \\/1\\/), gravity field determination for the TOPEX\\/POSEIDON mission (Marsh et al. \\/2\\/), SEASAT and LAGEOS data analysis,

B. Putney; R. Kolenkiewicz; D. Smith; P. Dunn; M. H. Torrence

1990-01-01

158

The corrosion and restoration of Space Shuttle Challenger's flight computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the Space Shuttle Challenger incident on January 28, 1986, IBM Federal Systems Division personnel were requested to formulate and be prepared to implement a data recovery program to access the information retained within the Shuttle's flight computers. These efforts began on March 11, 1987, with retrieval of the onboard computers from 90 feet below the surface of the

P. Schuessler

1988-01-01

159

Methods for Microbiological and Immunological Studies of Space Flight Crews.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identif...

G. R. Taylor S. N. Zaloguev

1978-01-01

160

Reliability Assessment for COTS Components in Space Flight Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems built for space flight applications usually demand very high degree of performance and a very high level of accuracy. Hence, the design engineers are often prone to selecting state-of-art technologies for inclusion in their system design. The shri...

G. S. Krishnan T. A. Mazzuchi

2001-01-01

161

Qualification and issues with space flight laser systems and components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant

Melanie N. Ott; D. B. Coyle; John S. Canham; Henning W. Leidecker Jr.

2006-01-01

162

ADS-B feasibility study for commercial space flight operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a concept of integrating commercial space flight operations with conventional aviation operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This paper reviews the current space surveillance systems and conducts a feasibility study on the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) to aid the integration. The scope of this paper is focused on the surveillance services of

Pengfei Duan; James Rankin

2010-01-01

163

Students Speak With ODIN Flight Controller Amy Brezinski  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center ODIN Flight Controller Amy Brezinski participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Coppell Middle School in Coppell, Texas. The DLN connects students and teachers with NASA experts and education specialists using online communication technologies like video/web conferencing and webcasting. Register for free, interactive events listed in the catalog or watch the webcasts. http://dln.nasa.gov

John Kossum

2012-04-26

164

Historical flight qualifications of space nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the qualification programs for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) as developed for the Galileo and Ulysses missions; the SNAP-10A space reactor; the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA); the F-1 chemical rocket engine used on the Saturn-V Apollo lunar missions; and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). Some similarities and contrasts between the qualification testing employed on these five programs will be noted. One common thread was that in each of these successful programs there was an early focus on component and subsystem tests to uncover and correct problems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Bennett, G.L. [Metaspace Enterprises 5000 Butte Road Emmett, Idaho83617-9500 (United States)

1997-01-01

165

Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

166

Vision-only aircraft flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building aircraft with navigation and control systems that can complete flight tasks is complex, and often involves integrating information from multiple sensors to estimate the state of the vehicle. This paper describes a method, in which a glider can fly from a starting point to a predetermined and location (target) precisely using vision only. Using vision to control an aircraft

Christophe De Wagter; A. A. Proctor; E. N. Johnson

2003-01-01

167

Distributed Formation Flight Control Using Constraint Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for formation flight control of multiple aircraft is presented. Constraint forces are used to derive the dynamics of a constrained, multibody system. A stable, distributed control algorithm is designed based on the information flow graph for a group of aircraft. The aircraft will achieve a particular formation while ensuring an arbitrarily small bounded navigation tracking error with

Yunfei Zou; Prabhakar R. Pagilla; Ryan T. Ratliff

2009-01-01

168

Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.  

PubMed

Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

2002-10-01

169

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

170

Weight, muscle and bone loss during space flight: another perspective.  

PubMed

Space flight is a new experience for humans. Humans adapt if not perfectly, rather well to life without gravity. There is a reductive remodeling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles and calcium from bones with anti-gravity functions. The observed biochemical and physiological changes reflect this accommodative process. The two major direct effects of the muscle loss are weakness post-flight and the increased incidence of low back ache pre- and post-flight. The muscle protein losses are compromised by the inability to maintain energy balance inflight. Voluntary dietary intake is reduced during space flight by ~20 %. These adaptations to weightlessness leave astronauts ill-equipped for life with gravity. Exercise, the obvious counter-measure has been repeatedly tried and since the muscle and bone losses persist it is not unreasonable to assume that success has been limited at best. Nevertheless, more than 500 people have now flown in space for up to 1 year and have done remarkably well. This review addresses the question of whether enough is now known about these three problems (negative energy balance, muscle loss and bone loss) for to the risks to be considered either acceptable or correctible enough to meet the requirements for a Mars mission. PMID:23192310

Stein, T P

2012-11-29

171

Radiation exposures during space flight and their measurement.  

PubMed

The paper reviews radiation exposures recorded during space flights of the US and USSR. Most of the data are from manned missions and include discussion of absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as altitude, inclination, spacecraft type and shielding. Preliminary data exist on the neutron and HZE-particle component, as well as the LET spectra. For low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence upon inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. Complete shielding from the galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. PMID:11542745

Benton, E V; Henke, R P

1983-01-01

172

Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A? flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

Gersh, Mark

1990-11-01

173

Advanced Flight Control System for Nap-of-the-Earth Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A digital/optical flight control system was implemented on a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter to determine flight control system requirements for Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight. Small-displacement side stick controllers with unique force trim positions were an ...

S. I. Glusman C. Dabundo K. H. Landis

1988-01-01

174

Sliding mode control for a near space autonomous airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near space autonomous airship represents a unique and promising solution for many applications ranging from surveillance, communication utilities and scientific exploration. In attempt to complete the various missions, the near space airship first requires an accurate control system for autonomous flight. This paper presents an improved sliding mode control method for autonomous flight, considering the characteristics of nonlinearity, strong

Yueneng Yang; Wei Zheng; Jie Wu

2011-01-01

175

Communications and manned space flight - The vital link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development history and interdependence evaluation is presented for the NASA Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), over the period from the beginning of NASA space activities to the 1969 lunar landing. This period witnessed the expansion of tracking and communications network ground stations through the Mercury and Gemini programs until NASCOM was instituted, followed by the Deep Space Network and the NASA Unified S-band system for the Apollo program. Attention is given to MSFN network data-flow and NASCOM network architecture.

Wilkins, D. E. B.

1987-11-01

176

Electrical endogenous heating of insect muscles for flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our ongoing effort to reliably control insect flight with pupae-inserted electronics, we demonstrate using heat to control insect flight initiation or take-off from standing position. We have previously developed reliable surgical methods to implant neuromuscular prosthetic devices in insect flight muscle for directing flight electrically. Here, we present, for the first time, a tissue embedded micro heater to decrease

Alper Bozkurt; Amit Lal; Robert Gilmour

2008-01-01

177

[Doctor, may I travel in space? Aeromedical considerations regarding commercial suborbital space flights].  

PubMed

Within a few years, the first commercial operators will start flying passengers on suborbital flights to the verge of space. Medical data on the effects of space journeys on humans have mainly been provided by professional astronauts. There is very little research into the aeromedical consequences of suborbital flights for the health of untrained passengers. Low air pressure and oxygen tension can be compensated for by pressurising the spacecraft or pressure suit. Rapid changes in gravitational (G-)force pose ultimate challenges to cardiovascular adaptation mechanisms. Zero-gravity and G-force may cause motion sickness. Vibrations and noise during the flight may disturb communication between passengers and crew. In addition, the psychological impact of a suborbital flight should not be underestimated. There are currently no legal requirements available for medical examinations for commercial suborbital flights, but it seems justifiable to establish conditions for potential passengers' states of health. PMID:22152416

Haerkens, Marck H T M; Simons, Ries; Kuipers, André

2011-01-01

178

Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of community-developed space science models on space weather problems. Data from primarily from NASA missions but also from NOAA and other partner agencies are combined with model results into a fully configurable space weather information display by means of the iSWA system. This information and iSWA form the basis for and SWL-provided service to NASA’s robotic mission fleet, which includes forecasts, regular updates, and warnings. This service benefits from a strong partnership with NASA’s Space Radiation Analysis Group, and with the US Air Force Weather Agency. In this presentation, we provide a summary of space weather capabilities and services and we present an outlook into the future.

Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Maddox, M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Rastaetter, L.

2010-12-01

179

Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

180

Morpheus - Hypometabolic Stasis in Humans for Long term Space Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the application of hypometabolic stasis (HS) to humans for long-term space flight is presented. In the first section, the paper begins with a discussion of why HS in humans would be, from a resource-driven perspective, desirable during long-term space flight. The second section then reviews mammalian hibernation, covering behavioural, physiological and genetic strategies. The third part presents a general review of the effects on human physiology of the space environment, and the overlapping areas between the likely physiological effects of human-hibernation and the space environment are briefly discussed. In the fourth section, possible hibernation strategies for humans are considered, including pharmacological, genetic and environ- mental tactics. The fifth section briefly discusses the impact of human hibernation at a system level, particularly with regards to life support. The report finishes by concluding that the achievement of the goal of human hibernation on the Earth will probably take decades of research. Hibernation in space, with the concomitant increases in the complexity of the problem caused by the space environment, will be substantially more difficult to achieve. But, if realised, it will be of significant benefit to the extension of human presence in space.

Ayre, M.; Zancanaro, C.; Malatesta, M.

181

New architectures for UAV flight control avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and military aircraft utilize proven data bus standards such as MIL-STD-1553B and ARINC 429. However, future avionics systems may take greater advantage of commercial hardware and networking technology. With the increased processors and speeds, it is possible to begin challenge the fundamental avionics architectures used for navigation and flight control. This is particularly true for UAVs, where there is

Gidado-Yisa Immanuel; E. N. Johnson

2002-01-01

182

Fly-by-Wire Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to fly-by-wire and an outline of state-of-the-art fly-by-wire techniques. An outline of the philosophy of fly-by-wire flight control systems is given, the evolution of fly-by-wire is ...

J. P. Sutherland

1967-01-01

183

Motion Primitives for Robotic Flight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a simple framework for learning aggressive maneuvers in flight control of UAVs. Having in- spired from biological environment, dynamic movement prim- itives are analyzed and extended using nonlinear contraction theory. Accordingly, primitives of an observed movement are stably combined and concatenated. We demonstrate our results experimentally on the Quanser Helicopter, in which we first imitate aggressive maneuvers and

Baris E. Perk; Jean-jacques E. Slotine

2006-01-01

184

Flight and fire control knowledge representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a conceptual framework for an operational, onboard, real-time multiprocessing computer system, capable of assisting the pilot in flight and fire control decisions, i.e. a tactical decision aiding expert system, is discussed. Air combat is considered as a game problem in which two opponent teams mutually endeavor to maximize their opportunities to destroy each other, while minimizing their

Ervin Y. Rodin; Daniel Geist; Yuval Lirov

1989-01-01

185

Modular flight control reconfiguration design and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a reconfiguring flight control algorithm for damaged aircraft based upon a modular approach. This approach combines real time physical model identification with adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). The sensitivity of NDI to modeling errors is eliminated here by making use of a real time identified model of the aircraft. In failure situations, the damaged aircraft model is

T. J. J. Lombaerts; Q. P. Chu; J. A. Mulder; D. A. Joosten

2011-01-01

186

Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification,

Victor A Convertino

2002-01-01

187

Photonic Component Qualification and Implementation Activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier (ELC), and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support

Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Frank V. LaRocca; Shawn L. Macmurphyc; Adam J. Matuszeski; Ronald S. Zellar; Patricia R. Friedberg; Mary C. Malenab

188

Informed consent v. ITAR: Regulatory conflicts that could constrain commercial human space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Space Flight Requirements (promulgated by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) seek to protect the fledgling commercial space flight industry by shifting risk from the operator to the space flight participants. However, in order to do this effectively the regulations require a great deal of information to be given to the participants. The information required might be extensive enough

P. J. Blount

2010-01-01

189

Photonic component qualification and implementation activities at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photonics group in Code 562 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center supports a variety of space flight programs at NASA including the: International Space Station (ISS), Shuttle Return to Flight Mission, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Express Logistics Carrier (ELC), and the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). Through research, development, and testing of the photonic systems to support

Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Frank V. LaRocca; Shawn L. Macmurphy; Adam J. Matuszeski; Ronald S. Zellar; Patricia R. Friedberg; Mary C. Malenab

2006-01-01

190

Aerodynamic map for soft and hard hypersonic level flight in near space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, we design a velocity-altitude map for hypersonic level flight in near space of altitude 20-100 km. This map displays aerodynamic-related parameters associated with near space level flight, schematically or quantitatively. Various physical conditions for the near-space level flight are then characterized, including laminar or turbulent flow, rarefaction or continuous flow, aerodynamic heating, as well as conditions for sustaining level flight with and without orbital effect. This map allows one to identify conditions to have soft flight or hard flight, and this identification would be helpful for making correct planning on detailed studies of aerodynamics or making initial design of near space vehicles.

Hu, Ruifeng; Wu, Ziniu; Wu, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoxin; Tian, Zhongwei

2009-08-01

191

Models of CNS radiation damage during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary structural and functional arrangement of the different cell types within the CNS are reviewed. This was undertaken with a view to providing a better understanding of the complex interrelationships that may contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions in this tissue after exposure to ionizing radiation. The spectrum of possible CNS radiation-induced syndromes are discussed although not all have an immediate relevance to exposure during space flight. The specific characteristics of the lesions observed would appear to be dose related. Very high doses may produce an acute CNS syndrome that can cause death. Of the delayed lesions, selective coagulation necrosis of white matter and a later appearing vascular microangiopathy, have been reported in patients after cancer therapy doses. Lower doses, perhaps very low doses, may produce a delayed generalised CNS atrophy; this effect and the probability of the induction of CNS tumors could potentially have the greatest significance for space flight.

Hopewell, J. W.

1994-10-01

192

The effects of space radiation on flight film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television\\/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which

Mark H. Holly

1995-01-01

193

Thermal stability considerations for space flight optical benches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Composite Optics Incorporated's experience in design, analysis, and fabrication of thermally stable optical benches utilizing high-modulus or ultra-high modulus (UHM) graphite\\/epoxy. The performance of critical instruments such as telescopes, interferometric optics, and fold mirrors is dependent upon moisture and temperature (hygrothermal) stability of their optical bench substrates. Design approaches and problem solutions from several space flight optical

Kelly J. Dodson; John E. Rule

1989-01-01

194

S\\/360 programmer development at Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1966, the first IBM 360\\/ computer came to the Goddard Space Flight Center, and our experience with large-scale programmer development began. Considerable attention has been given to the training problem at GSFC. Our arsenal of programmer training tools and techniques now ranges from relatively informal on-the-job experience through in-house formal courses to university and commercial highly specialized courses. GSFC

C. H. Looney Jr.; E. P. Damon

1972-01-01

195

EURECA thermal control flight performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Retrievablle Carrier (EURCA) at the time of writing is completeing its mission in low Earth orbit, waiting for the retrieval launch of the Shuttle STS-57. EURCA has completed already to a large extent its scientific operations and has undergone to a series of various orbital phases. The thermal control performances are addressed in this paper on the basis of the presently flown mission. The thermal control achievements are evaluated by comparing them with the analytical predictions performed. Temperature characteristics are analyzed, as well as operational aspects of the thermal design. Particular aspects are addressed in more detail, especially in those areas where the EURECA thermal control is peculiar, like the active cooling loop. Preliminary results of the impact of the cooling loop on the microgravity environment are also presented.

Hahn, Wolfgang; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Blackwood, Angus

196

Activity of the sympathoadrenal system in cosmonauts during 25-day space flight on station Mir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of the sympathoadrenal system in cosmonauts was studied by measuring plasma and urinary catecholamines and their metabolites and conjugates. The appliance Plasma 02 was used for collecting, processing, and storing blood and urine samples from the cosmonauts during the course of a 25-day flight on board the station Mir. Plasma and urine concentrations of adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) as well as urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and plasma levels of catecholamine sulphates were determined before, during and after the space flight. Plasma NA levels were slightly elevated on day 9 and plasma A on day 20, whereas plasma DA levels were unchanged. However, most of the changes were within the normal range of control values. Sulphates of plasma catecholamines did not change during flight but they were significantly elevated after landing. Urinary levels of A, NA, DA, VMA, and HVA were comparable with preflight values but were elevated at the different intervals studied after landing. The results obtained suggest that in the short period of about 9 days of the cosmonaut's stay in space the sympathoadrenal system was slightly activated indicating a mild stressful influence of the initial period of flight. This short-term space flight compared to long-term flight did not as markedly activate the sympathoadrenal system during the process of re-adaptation to Earth's gravity after landing. Our data suggest that weightlessness is not a stressful factor activating the sympathoadrenal system but it sensitizes the responsiveness of this system during the re-adaptation period after space flight.

Kvet?anský, R.; Noskov, V. B.; Blazicek, P.; Gharib, C.; Popova, I. A.; Gauquelin, G.; Macho, L.; Guell, A.; Grigoriev, A. I.

197

Some results of the effect of space flight factors on Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Chromosomal effects of space flight factors were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster flown aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. Drosophila males heterozygous for four linked traits were exposed to space flight conditions for periods of eight days, and the progeny when the males were mated with homozygous recessive females were compared with those from control flies exposed to the same vibration and acceleration environment, and the progeny of laboratory controls. Increases in recombination and nondisjunction frequencies were observed in the flies exposed to the space environment, with recombinant flies also found in the F1 generation of the vibration and acceleration controls. Results suggest that it is the action of heavy particles that accounts for the major portion of the genetic effects observed. 17 references.

Filatova, L.P.; Vaulina, E.N.

1983-01-01

198

Nonlinear adaptive flight control using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a controller architecture, which combines adaptive feedforward neural networks with feedback linearization, has been demonstrated on a variety of flight vehicles. The boundedness of tracking error and control signals is guaranteed. The architecture can accommodate both linear-in-the-parameters networks, as well as single-hidden-layer perceptron neural networks. Both theoretical and experimental research is planned to expand and improve the

Anthony J. Calise; Rolf T. Rysdyk

1998-01-01

199

Conceptual designing — Unmanned aerial vehicle flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design procedure of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control system is discussed in this paper. Detailed discussion of important aspects of UAV relating to its role, mission, capabilities and their implications on the flight control system are discussed. This leads to the basic requirements for the flight control and then translates to the type of controller to be used

Tahir Hameed; Wang Wei; Ren Zhang

2009-01-01

200

[A methodological study in a space flight simulation context].  

PubMed

To study the effects of isolation and confinement on small groups during long space flights, it is habitual to use closed hyperbaric ground chambers. For the first time, the European Space Agency made use of a nautral environment taking advantage of an Antarctic winter-over at the French Dumont d'Urville Station. The main objective of that study ("International Antarctic Psychological Programme"), was to compare different Russian tests used for training cosmonauts to a W. European approach validated during previous winter studies and European ground chamber simulations. Russian techniques appeared to be oriented to a narrow range of phenomena and unsuited to discern the adjustment to stress conditions. PMID:11542388

Rivolier, J; Bachelard, C; Cazes, G; Gaud, R; Le Scanff, C; Rosnet, E; Novikov, M; Gushin, V; Efimov, V; Eskov, K; Vinokhodova, A; Hockey, R; Sauer, J

1998-01-01

201

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2001-09-06

202

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-12-01

203

Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-06-15

204

Adaptation of neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after long-duration space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise neuromuscular control needed for optimal locomotion, particularly around heel strike and toe off, is known to be compromised after short duration (8- to 15-day) space flight. We hypothesized here that longer exposure to weightlessness would result in maladaptive neuromuscular activation during postflight treadmill walking. We also hypothesized that space flight would affect the ability of the sensory-motor control system to generate adaptive neuromuscular activation patterns in response to changes in visual target distance during postflight treadmill walking. Seven crewmembers, who completed 3- to 6-month missions, walked on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a target placed 30 cm (NEAR) or 2 m (FAR) from the subject's eyes. Electronic foot switch data and surface electromyography were collected from selected muscles of the right lower limb. Results indicate that the phasic features of neuromuscular activation were moderately affected and the relative amplitude of activity in the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris around toe off changed after space flight. Changes also were evident after space flight in how these muscles adapted to the shift in visual target distance.

Layne, C. S.; Lange, G. W.; Pruett, C. J.; McDonald, P. V.; Merkle, L. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Smith, S. L.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.

205

What happens to the human heart in space? - Parabolic flights provide some answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft parabolic flights provide up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity repeatedly during ballistic flight manoeuvres. They are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in the physical- and life-sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts for forthcoming space flights. The real value of parabolic flights lies, however, in the verification tests that can be conducted prior to taking experiments

André E. Aubert; Frank Beckers; Bart Verheyden; Vladimir Plester

2004-01-01

206

In-flight cabin smoke control.  

PubMed

Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and flight test methodologies. Augmenting available ventilation for smoke control remains a design and safety challenge. PMID:9016748

Eklund, T I

1996-12-31

207

Fly-by-light flight control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fly-By-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program is developing Fly-By-Light (FBL) and Power-By-Wire (PBW) technologies for military and commercial aircraft. FLASH consists of three tasks. Task 1 is developing the fiber optic cable, connectors, testers and installation and maintenance procedures. Task 3 is developing advanced actuators. Task 2, which is the subject of this paper, focuses on integration of fiber optic sensors and data buses with cable plant components from Task 1 and PBW, smart and thin wing actuators from Task 3 into complete centralized and distributed flight control systems. Laboratory demonstrations will show applicability to widebody transport and tactical aircraft. Products include high throughput processors, neutral network applications to maintenance diagnostics and reconfiguration, hardware upset recovery, active sidestick controllers and application of the SAE AS-1773A protocol to the flight control system bus. This paper overviews the requirements, objectives, key technologies and demonstrations for each of the FLASH flight control system developments. Companion papers provide additional description of the Tasks 1 and 3 as well as further details on the individual developments within Task 2.

Halski, Don J.

1995-05-01

208

Circadian rhythms in a long-term duration space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to maintain cosmonaut health and performance, it is important for the work-rest schedule to follow human circadian rhythms (CR). What happens with CR in space flight? Investigations of CR in mammals revealed, that the circadian phase in flight is less stable, probably due to a displacement of the range of entrainment, resulting from internal period change (the latter was confirmed on insects). The circadian period may be a gravity-dependent parameter. If so, the basic biological requirement for the day length might be different in weightlessness. On this basis, a higher risk of desynchronosis is expected in a long-duration space flight. As a countermeasure, a non-24-hr day length could be suggested, being close to the internal circadian period (in humans about 25 hr). Taking into account a possible displacement of period in weightlessness, it seems reasonable to establish a flexible work-rest schedule, capable to follow the body temperature CR by means of biofeedback.

Alpatov, Alexey M.

209

Microwave induced upset of digital flight control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent tests of flight control system components show that digital flight control systems are vulnerable to microwave signals, but only at very high power levels, well above that produced by commercial radar installations. Test results of sensors, computers, data busses, and actuators reveal that long standing fears of inherent fly-by-wire flight control system vulnerability to microwave radiation are unfounded. Some

B. T. Clough; B. Cope; S. Donley

1993-01-01

210

A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH TO ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVED FLIGHT SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following failures of primary aerodynamic actuators, safe flight can be maintained by introducing alternative actuation systems, such as secondary aerodynamic surfaces and propulsion, for critical stability and control augmentation tasks. This paper presents an intelligent hierarchical flight control system architecture that is designed using nonlinear adaptive synthesis techniques and on-line learning neural networks to enhance flight safety. Pseudo-control hedging is

Moshe Idan; Matthew Johnson; Anthony J. Calise

2001-01-01

211

Adaptive flight control surfaces, wings, rotors, and active aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study outlines active flight control materials, structural arrangements, and several new active flight control methods for rotorcraft, airplanes and missiles. A system-level comparison shows that flight control actuator systems using materials like piezoceramics have approximately double the mass-specific energy and 4 to 6 times the volume specific energy of conventional actuators. New fabrication techniques centered on the principal of

Ronald M. Barrett; Fred Brozoski

1996-01-01

212

Toolkit for tuning flight motion simulator controllers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flight motion simulator (FMS) controllers must be tuned to compensate for nonlinear hydraulic plant characteristics and optimize dynamic response within the specified operating bandwidth of each axis. Carco has developed the Matlab-based Carco Tool Kit that adapts the SigLab data acquisition system to perform the specific stimulus and measurement routines required for efficient FMS tuning. Each controller filter is first simulated in Matlab, added to acquired uncompensated-loop data, and optimized using interactive Bode and Nichols charts. The analog filter tuning component values are then extracted from equivalent PSPICE simulations, while the digital filter coefficients are copied directly into the digital controller programming script.

Avory, Mark L.

2002-07-01

213

FAST20XX: Achievements on European Suborbital Space Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, the EC co-funded project FAST20XX aims at exploring the borderline between aviation and space by investigating suborbital vehicles. The main focus is the identification and mastering of critical technologies for such vehicles rather than the vehicle development itself. Besides the objectives and overall layout of the project, the paper addresses also the progress made during the first period of the project. Two vehicle concepts are considered. A first one is a space vehicle launched from an airplane providing a low-energy ballistic flight experience using hybrid propulsion. The second is a vertically starting two-stage rocket space vehicle system concept taken as a basis to identify the conditions and constraints experienced during high- energy suborbital ultra-fast transport. The paper mainly discusses the two actual reference vehicles and the technical aspects of prerequisites for commercial operation including safety, human spaceflight, business cases, environmental and legal issues.

Mack, A.; Steelant, J.; Adirim, H.; Lentsch, A.; Marini, M.; Pilz, N.

2011-08-01

214

General discussion on assessment of radiation risks for space flight  

SciTech Connect

This discussion focuses on several problem areas in relation to the radiation hazards of space flight. A number of biological effects were cited, such as lethality, cell transformation, tumor induction, small colony formation, modification of cell growth rate, etc., in which HZE particles seem to behave in the same way qualitatively as other radiations and in some cases quantitatively. Limitations in the physical description of the radiations in space were discussed with respect to radiation at different locations, with and without shielding, for the purposes of tissue dosimetry, exposure per mission, etc. It was concluded that some dosimetry situations are fairly well documented, including various Apollo and shuttle missions. Approaches to space guidelines involving dose limitations are presented.

Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

1984-01-01

215

Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

1994-11-01

216

Endocrine responses in long-duration manned space flight.  

PubMed

The bioassay of body fluids experiment is designed to evaluate the biochemical adaptation resulting from extended exposure to space flight environment by identifying changes in hormonal and associated fluid and electrolyte parameters reflected in the blood and urine of the participating crewmen. The combined stresses of space flight include weightlessness, acceleration, confinement, restraint, long-term maintenance of high levels of performance, and possible desynchronosis. Endocrine measurements to assess the physiological cost of these stresses have been considered from two aspects. Fluid and electrolyte balance have been correlated with weight loss, changes in the excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin and fluid compartments. The second area involves the estimation of the physiological cost of maintaining a given level of performance during space flight by analysis of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. Inter-individual variability was demonstrated in most experimental indices measured; however, constant patterns have emerged which include: body weight change; increases in plasma renin activity; elevations in urinary catecholamines, ADH, aldosterone and cortisol concentrations. Plasma cortisol decreases in immediate postflight samples with subsequent increase in 24-hour urines. The measured changes are consistent with the prediction that a relative increase in thoracic blood volume upon transition to the zero-gravity environment is interpreted as a true volume expansion resulting in an osmotic diuresis. This diuresis in association with other factors ultimately results in a reduction in intravascular volume, leading to an increase in renin and a secondary aldosteronism. Once these compensatory mechanisms are effective in reestablishing positive water balance, the crewmen are considered to be essentially adapted to the null-gravity environment. Although the physiological cost of this adaptation must reflect the electrolyte deficit and perhaps other factors, it is assumed that the compensated state is adequate for the demands of the environment; however, this new homeostatic set is not believed to be without physiological cost and could, except with proper precautions, reduce the functional reserve of exposed individuals. PMID:11841088

Leach, C S; Rambaut, P C

217

Suboptimal adaptive control system for flight quality improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the suboptimal algorithm of adaptive control system is presented, which is specially adjusted for automatic flight control systems of general aviation and commuter aircraft, and unmanned aircraft (UMA) that conduct flights in atmospheric turbulence. At first, the method could be applied for correcting these changes in flight dynamics parameters, which cannot be compensated with the aid of

Andrzej Tomczyk

2004-01-01

218

Compensation for Display Enlargement in Flight Control and Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to assess the impact of display size on flight control, airspace surveillance,and goal-directed target search. In Experiment 1, 16 pilotscom pleted abasic flight

Emily K. Muthard; Christopher D. Wickens

219

Projected flight path displays and controlled flight into terrain accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980's aircraft were introduced with automated “glass cockpit” displays that present computer processed airplane systems and navigation information. Today such displays have become standard equipment on nearly all recently manufactured air transport turbojets, irrespective of the airframe manufacturer or flight management computer designer. Among their numerous capabilities, these displays can portray navigation information in a readily interpretable

Barry Strauch

1998-01-01

220

Intelligent aerodynamic\\/propulsion flight control for flight safety: a nonlinear adaptive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent fault tolerant flight control system that blends aerodynamic and propulsion actuation for safe flight operation in the presence of actuator failures. Fault tolerance is obtained by a nonlinear adaptive control strategy based on on-line learning neural networks and actuator reallocation scheme. The adaptive control block incorporates a recently developed technique for adaptation in the presence

Moshe Idan; Matthew Johnson; Anthony J. Calise; John Kaneshige

2001-01-01

221

Serotonin in individual hypothalamic nuclei of rats after space flight on biosatellite cosmos 1129  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment on Cosmos 1129 was based on our results obtained in rats exposed to single or repeated restrain stress in the laboratory. These results have convincingly demonstrated a significant increase of serotonin concentration (5-HT) in the hypothalamus in acutely stressed rats. This response, which was found also in the isolated hypothalamic nuclei, was diminished in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. While the concentration of 5-HT was unchanged in the majority of the hypothalamic nuclei of animals subjected to cosmic flight, an increase was recorded only in the supraoptic nucleus (NSO) and a decrease in the periventricular nucleus. These findings demonstrate that only few areas of the hypothalamus respond to cosmic flight with changes of 5-HT concentration and suggest either that long-term cosmic flight cannot be an intensive stressor or that during the flight the rats became already adapted to its long-term effect. However, the exposure of flight rats to repeated immobilization stress resulted in a significant increase of 5-HT in the NSO, paraventricular and dorsomedial (NDM) nuclei. It should be noted that we have never seen any changes of 5-HT concentration, tryptophan hydroxylase and monoamineoxidase activities in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. On the other hand, the increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM is a typical finding after seven exposures of rats to immobilization on Earth, daily for 150 min. In the experiment COSMOS 1129 such an increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM was found not only in the flight group but also in the control group of rats subjected to five daily exposures of immobilization stress. With respect to these findings, the increased 5-HT concentrations observed in some isolated hypothalamic nuclei in the flight group of rats exposed after landing to repeated immobilization stress suggest that long-term space flight and the state of weightlessness do not represent a stressogenic factor with respect to the serotoninergic system in the hypothalamus.

?ulman, J.; Kvet?ansky, T.; Serova, L. V.; Tigranjan, R. A.; Macho, L.

222

Changes in the vestibular function during space flight.  

PubMed

An analysis of observations and investigations carried out in space flight has shown that some cosmonauts and astronauts have experienced vestibular disorders during the transition to weightlessness. Vestibular-sensory disorders include: Spatial illusions (the feelings of falling down, being in an upside-down position, the sensations of rotation of the craft or the body) and vertigo occurring during the onset of the orbital flight and head movements; Feelings, similar to those experienced in response to Coriolis accelerations on the Earth, which occasionally develop in weightlessness during the spacecraft rotation upon abrupt head and body movements and restrained feet; Feelings "of the load on the vestibular analyser which is unlike any Earth-bound effects" upon abrupt head movements during the first hours of an orbital flight and "a prolonged movement" during the switch-off of thrusters in weightlessness. Vestibular-vegetative disorders comprise a complex of symptoms similar to those of motion sickness: loss of appetite, stomach awareness (12%), hypersalination, nausea (9.6%) and vomiting (4.8%). Soviet studies suggest that the vestibular tolerance to the flight effects depends on the natural stability and training to the cumulative effect of adequate vestibular stimuli. This has been used in the development of the system of vestibular selection. Changes in the vestibular function seem to play the major role in the development of motion sickness in weightlessness, extra-labyrinthine factors being contributory. The current hypotheses have not yet been adequately confirmed in experiments. A detailed physiological analysis allows the conclusion that the decisive factor in the development of motion sickness may be the disturbance of the function of analysers responsible for spatial orientation which take the form of sensory conflicts as well as an altered reactivity of the organism due to the hemodynamic rearrangement. PMID:11887913

Gurovskiy, N N; Bryanov, I I; Yegorov, A D

223

Radiation-Hardened Software for Space Flight Science Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware faults caused by radiation-induced Single Event Effects (SEEs) are a serious issue in space flight, especially affecting scientific missions in earth orbits crossing the poles or the South Atlantic Anomaly. Traditionally, SEEs are treated as a hardware problem, for example mitigated by radiation-hardened processors and shielding. Rad-hardened processors are expensive, exhibit a decade performance gap compared to COTS technology, have a larger form factor and require more power. Shielding is ineffective for high energy particles and increases launch weight. Hardware approaches cannot dynamically adapt protection levels for different radiation scenarios depending on solar activity and flight phase. Future hardware will exacerbate the problem due to higher chip densities and lower power levels. An alternative approach is to use software to mitigate SEEs. This "Radiation Hardened Software" (RHS) approach has two components: (1) RHS library and application design guidelines To increase robustness, we combine SEE countermeasures in three areas: prevention and detection; recovery; and reconfiguration. Prevention and detection includes an application- and heap-aware memory scanner, and dynamically adapted software Error Correction Codes to handle cache and multi-bit errors. Recovery mechanisms include exception firewalls and transaction-based software design patterns, to minimize data loss. Reconfiguration includes a heap manager to avoid damaged memory areas. (2) Software-based SEE Simulation Probabilistic effects require extensive simulation, with test environments that do not require original flight hardware and can simulate various SEE profiles. We use processor emulation software, interfaced to a debugger, to analyze SEE propagation and optimize RHS mechanisms. The simulator runs unmodified binary flight code, enables injecting randomized transient and permanent memory errors, providing execution traces and precise failure reproduction. The goal of RHS is to verify that effective SEE software countermeasures are implementable at reasonable runtime costs, enabling use of more COTS hardware with significant performance gains for science applications.

Mehlitz, P. C.; Penix, J. J.; Markosian, L. Z.

2005-12-01

224

Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

Shi, Jinming

225

Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control: Digital Flight Control, Aircraft Model Identification, and Adaptive Engine Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Com...

J. L. Baer-riedhart R. J. Landy

1987-01-01

226

The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

2013-06-01

227

Enzyme activities and membrane lipids in artemia cysts after a long duration space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Free Flyer Biostack Experiment (L.D.E.F. mission) investigations have shown that biological objects in a resting state can survive more than 5.5 years of exposure to the space factors in particular microgravity and cosmic rays. We have measured enzyme activities involved in metabolic pathways of sugar and lipid degradation and determined phospholipid composition. Pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in space-exposed cysts were higher than in earth controls after 1 hour incubation. In controls, total phospholipids remained unchanged, on the contrary they increased significantly in space-exposed cysts. The rate of metabolism of various phospholipid components was unchanged in controls allowing the development while the level of most of them decreased in space-exposed cysts except for phosphatidylcholine. Enzyme activities (acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A_2 and lyso phospholipase) involved in phospholipid degradation increased ; however, activities were much higher in space-exposed cysts. In conclusion, the long duration space flight resulted in an increase of the metabolic activity correlated with a faster development within the first 20 hours of post flight incubation.

Gaubin, Y.; Prévost, M. C.; Cariven, C.; Pianezzi, B.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.

1996-01-01

228

Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head movement control and a functional mobility test to investigate overall functional locomotor ability. Postflight sessions were given on days 1, 2, 4, 7 after their return. Subjects walked on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual task. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Astronauts showed a heterogeneous response pattern of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of this heterogeneity in postflight responses in head movement control by examining data obtained using the same experimental test paradigm on a vestibular clinical population (VC) and in normal subjects undergoing adaptation to acute body load support unloading. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the VC patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation of the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems. To investigate changes in functional mobility astronaut subjects walked at their preferred pace around an obstacle course consisting of several pylons and obstacles set up on a foam floor, which provided an unstable walking surface. Subjects were instructed to walk around the course as fast as possible without touching any of the objects on the course for a total of six individual trials per test session. One of the dependent measures was time to complete the course (TCC, sec). The learning rate over the six trials performed on preflight and the first day after landing (micro curve) was used to characterize the immediate compensatory strategic response. The learning rate over the six trials of the post

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

2012-07-01

229

Simulation and Flight Test Assessment of Safety Benefits and Certification Aspects of Advanced Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adaptive inverse controller for customized fight control systems for general aviation aircraft is presented. The purpose of the system is to render a general aviation aircraft easier to fly via decoupling its flight control system. Artificial neural ne...

J. E. Steck K. Rokhsaz U. J. Pesonen S. Bruner N. Duerksen

2003-01-01

230

Flight control of tethered honeybees using neural electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an insect-machine interface for controlling the flight behavior of tethered honeybees. Flight initiation and cessation can be reproducibly generated using electrical pulses between two wire electrodes implanted into the honeybee's brain. Experiments are conducted to compare the effect of different stimulus patterns on the honeybee's behavior by parameters including success rate, response time and flight duration. The

Li Bao; Nenggan Zheng; Huixia Zhao; Yaoyao Hao; Huoqing Zheng; Fuliang Hu; Xiaoxiang Zheng

2011-01-01

231

How Controllers Compensate for the Lack of Flight Progress Strips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the Flight Progress Strip, currently used to display important flight data, has been debated because of long range plans to automate the air traffic control (ATC) human-computer interface. Currently, the Flight Progress Strip is viewed by many...

C. A. Albright T. R. Truitt A. B. Barile O. U. Vortac C. A. Manning

1996-01-01

232

Integrated Manual and Atuomatic Control of Complex Flight Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flight test results obtained recently (1984) by CALSPAN on pitch-rate flight control systems in the flared landing task, obtained with the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIPS), were analyzed. The analysis approach considered is based on the Optimal Contro...

D. K. Schmidt

1985-01-01

233

Fiber optic cable assemblies for space flight II: thermal and radiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goddard Space Flight Center is conducting a search for space flight worthy fiber optic cable assemblies that will benefit all projects at all of the NASA centers. This paper is number two in a series of papers being issued as a result of this task to define and qualify space grade fiber optic cable assemblies. Though to qualify and use

Melanie N. Ott

2001-01-01

234

Real space flight travel is associated with ultrastructural changes, cytoskeletal disruption and premature senescence of HUVEC.  

PubMed

Microgravity, hypergravity, vibration, ionizing radiation and temperature fluctuations are major factors of outer space flight affecting human organs and tissues. There are several reports on the effect of space flight on different human cell types of mesenchymal origin while information regarding changes to vascular endothelial cells is scarce. Ultrastructural and cytophysiological features of macrovascular endothelial cells in outer space flight and their persistence during subsequent culturing were demonstrated in the present investigation. At the end of the space flight, endothelial cells displayed profound changes indicating cytoskeletal lesions and increased cell membrane permeability. Readapted cells of subsequent passages exhibited persisting cytoskeletal changes, decreased metabolism and cell growth indicating cellular senescence. PMID:23424772

Kapitonova, M Y; Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Yusoff, W N W; Othman, S; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H M

2012-12-01

235

Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.  

PubMed

Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight. PMID:12361773

Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

2002-10-01

236

Flight control and handling research with the VAAC Harrier aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) concepts present unique design challenges. The flight control system designer must consider several issues including the control response type, the appropriate cockpit displays, and the control strategy for the flight and propulsion controls. Advanced STOVL concepts will have many force and moment generators. To be operationally effective such configurations need to have precise

G. T. SHANKS; C. FIELDING; S. J. ANDREWS; R. A. HYDE

1994-01-01

237

Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow

Subhabrata Ganguli

2004-01-01

238

The effects of proton radiation on UHMWPE material properties for space flight and medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer widely used as a radiation shielding material in space flight applications and as a bearing material in total joint replacements. As a long chain hydrocarbon based polymer, UHMWPE's material properties are influenced by radiation exposure, and prior studies show that gamma irradiation is effective for both medical sterilization and increased wear resistance in total joint replacement applications. However, the effects of space flight radiation types and doses on UHMWPE material properties are poorly understood. In this study, three clinically relevant grades of UHMWPE (GUR 1020, GUR 1050, and GUR 1020 blended with Vitamin E) were proton irradiated and tested for differences in material properties. Each of the three types of UHMWPE was irradiated at nominal doses of 0 Gy (control), 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 35 Gy. Following irradiation, uniaxial tensile testing and thermal testing using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were performed. Results show small but significant changes in several material properties between the control (0 Gy) and 35 Gy samples, indicating that proton irradiation could have a effect on the long term performance of UHMWPE in both medical and space flight applications.

Cummings, Chad S.; Lucas, Eric M.; Marro, Justin A.; Kieu, Tri M.; DesJardins, John D.

2011-11-01

239

Stability of vitamin B complex in multivitamin and multimineral supplement tablets after space flight.  

PubMed

The effect of storage in space on the stability of vitamin B complex in two commercial vitamin tablets was examined. Multiple vitamin samples returned after storage on the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) along with two ground control and three positive control groups were included in the study. Content of vitamin B(3) in the tablets and in vitro dissolution rate were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatographic assay from USP/NF 2010. Results indicate that vitamin B(3) in one of the brands tested (#2) may be subject to marginal degradation after storage on ISS for 4 months as indicated by the chromatograms for all six tablets showing a split peak appearing as a notch at the peak tip. Chromatograms were not different for ground and flight samples for Brand #1 suggesting that this may be more suitable for use in space. PMID:21515013

Chuong, Monica C; Prasad, Dev; Leduc, Barbara; Du, Brian; Putcha, Lakshmi

2011-03-29

240

Dependent modal space control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new control technique for reducing vibration in flexible structures. It is based on the modal approach and is called dependent modal space control (DMSC). The well-known independent modal space control (IMSC) method, devised in the 1980s, allows the frequency and damping of the controlled modes to be changed using diagonal control gain matrices, leaving the mode shapes unaltered. DMSC, on the other hand, can impose not only frequency and damping but also the controlled mode shapes by using full control gain matrices. In many applications, owing to the limited number of sensors-actuators available for control and the increasing spillover effects, generic assignment of eigenvectors is not possible. However, an optimal eigenstructure assignment can be computed to reduce structure vibration by minimizing an input-output performance index. To demonstrate the advantages of this new method, we compare IMSC and DMSC using numerical simulation on a finite element method model of a cantilevered beam.

Serra, M.; Resta, F.; Ripamonti, F.

2013-10-01

241

Avoiding oscillations by using an alternative flight controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an alternative flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flight control system, during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity, fails in a moment when the value of the angle of attack is high. The new controller is conceived using the non simplified system of differential equations, which governs the movement of the aircraft around its center of mass. Numerical simulation is given.

Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan

2012-11-01

242

Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

1992-04-01

243

Population growth and physiological characteristics of microalgae in a miniaturized bioreactor during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strain of microalgae ( Anabaena siamensis) had been cultured in a miniaturized bioreactor during a retrievable satellite flight for 15 days. By means of remote sensing equipment installed in the satellite, we gained the growth curve of microalgae population in space every day in real time. The curve indicated that the growth of microalgae in space was slower than the control on ground. Inoculation of the retrieved microalgae culture showed that the growth rate was distinctively higher than ground control. But after several generations, both cultures indicated similar growth rates. Those data showed that algae can adapt to space environment easily which may be valuable for designing more complex bioreactor and controlled ecological life support system in future experiment.

Wang, Gaohong; Chen, Haofeng; Li, Genbao; Chen, Lanzhou; Li, Dunhai; Hu, Chunxiang; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

2006-03-01

244

A new ball launching system with controlled flight parameters for catching experiments.  

PubMed

Systematic investigations of sensorimotor control of interceptive actions in naturalistic conditions, such as catching or hitting a ball moving in three-dimensional space, requires precise control of the projectile flight parameters and of the associated visual stimuli. Such control is challenging when air drag cannot be neglected because the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters cannot be computed analytically. We designed, calibrated, and experimentally validated an actuated launching apparatus that can control the average spatial position and flight duration of a ball at a given distance from a fixed launch location. The apparatus was constructed by mounting a ball launching machine with adjustable delivery speed on an actuated structure capable of changing the spatial orientation of the launch axis while projecting balls through a hole in a screen hiding the apparatus. The calibration procedure relied on tracking the balls with a motion capture system and on approximating the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters by means of polynomials functions. Polynomials were also used to estimate the variability of the flight parameters. The coefficients of these polynomials were obtained using the launch and flight parameters of 660 launches with 65 different initial conditions. The relative accuracy and precision of the apparatus were larger than 98% for flight times and larger than 96% for ball heights at a distance of 6m from the screen. Such novel apparatus, by reliably and automatically controlling desired ball flight characteristics without neglecting air drag, allows for a systematic investigation of naturalistic interceptive tasks. PMID:21256864

d'Avella, A; Cesqui, B; Portone, A; Lacquaniti, F

2011-01-21

245

Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen

Brian D. Lefevre

2010-01-01

246

Adaptive control laws for F-8 flight test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design and performance details for a set of adaptive flight control laws to be flight-tested in NASA's F-8 digital fly-by-wire research aircraft. These control laws implement an explicit maximum likelihood identification algorithm to estimate key aircraft parameters. The parameter estimates are then used to compute gains in a quadraticoptimal command augmentation control law.

G. Stein; G. L. Hartmann; R. C. Hendrick

1975-01-01

247

Design and Flight Testing Evaluation of Formation Control Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief presents the results relative to the design and flight testing of formation control laws using a set of YF-22 research unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) designed, built, and instrumented at West Virginia University, Morgantown. In the formation flight configuration, a radio control pilot maintains ground control of the \\

Yu Gu; Brad Seanor; Giampiero Campa; Marcello R. Napolitano; Larry Rowe; Srikanth Gururajan; Sheng Wan

2006-01-01

248

Changes of hormones regulating electrolyte metabolism after space flight and hypokinesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of hormones in plasma involved in the body fluid regulation were studied in human subjects during and after space flights in relation to redistribution of body fluids in the state of weightlessness. Since hypokinesia was used as a model for simulation of some effects of the stay in microgravity the plasma hormone levels in rats exposed to hypokinesia were also investigated. Plasma aldosterone values showed great individual variations during the first inflight days, the increased levels were observed with prolongation of space flights. The important elevation was found in the recovery period, however it was interesting to note, that in some cosmonauts with repeated exposure to space flight, the postflight plasma aldosterone levels were not elevated. The urine excretion of aldosterone was increased inflight, however in postflight period the decrease or increase were found in the first 1-5 days. The increase of plasma renin activity was observed in flight and postflight period. The rats were exposed to hypokinesia (forced restriction of motor activity) for 1, 7 and 60 days and urine was collected during last 24 hours. The animals were sacrificed and the concentration of electrolytes and of levels of corticosterone aldosteron (A), ANF and plasma-renin activity (PRA) were determined in plasma. In urine excretion of sodium and potassium were estimated. An important increase of plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration was found after short-term hypokinesia (1 day). These hormonal values appear to decrease with time (7 days) and are not significantly different from controls after long-term hypokinesia (60 days). A decrease of values ANF in plasma was observed after 1 and 7 days hypokinesia. After prolonged hypokinesia a decrease of sodium plasma concentration was observed. The excretion of sodium in urine was higher in long-term hypokinetic animals. There were no significant changes of plasma potassium levels in rats exposed to hypokinesia, however the urinary excretion of potassium was elevated. In rats exposed to hypokinesia for 7 and 60 days an increase of urine osmolality was observed. The results of hormone and electrolyte determination in plasma of cosmonauts after space flight and in experimental animals after hypokinesia suggested that in evaluation of relations between the changes of hormone levels and electrolyte in plasma and urine other factors like emotional stress working load; altered diurnal cycles should be considered in interpretation of homeostatic response of fluid and electrolyte metabolism to space flight conditions.

Macho, L.; Fickova, M.; Lichardus, B.; Kvetnansky, R.; Carrey, R. M.; Grigoriev, A.; Popova, I. A.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.

249

Variations in digestive physiology of rats after short duration flights aboard the US space shuttle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of microgravity on several endogenous and microbial parameters of digestive physiology. On the occasion of two Spacelab Life Sciences missions, SLS-1 (a 9-day space flight) and SLS-2 (a 14-day space flight), Sprague-Dawley rats flown aboard the US space shuttle were compared to age-matched ground-based controls. In both flights, exposure to microgravity modified cecal fermentation: concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids were altered, whereas urea and ammonia remained unchanged. Only in SLS-1 was there an induction of intestinal glutathione-S-transferase. Additional analyses in SLS-2 showed a decrease of hepatic CYP450 and of colonic goblet cells containing neutral mucin. After a postflight recovery period equal to the mission length, only modifications of the hepatic and intestinal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes still persisted. These findings should help to predict the alterations of digestive physiology and detoxification potential likely to occur in astronauts. Their possible influence on health is discussed. PMID:11052306

Rabot, S; Szylit, O; Nugon-Baudon, L; Meslin, J C; Vaissade, P; Popot, F; Viso, M

2000-09-01

250

Orientierungsrahmen. Hochtechnologie Raumfart. Gesamtueberblick und Empfehlungen (High Technology Space Flight Orientation Program: Overview and Recommendations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High technological considerations on space transport and associated techniques are given for decision makers involved in West German research program evaluation. Goals, strategic concepts, prospects for space flight in European and international programs,...

1987-01-01

251

High End Computer Network Testbedding at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth & Space Data Computing (ESDC) Division, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is involved in development and demonstrating various high end computer networking capabilities. The ESDC has several high end super computers. These are used to run: (1)...

J. P. Gary

1998-01-01

252

The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer: the design and evolution of a dexterous space robot.  

PubMed

The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an advanced telerobotic system to assist in and reduce crew extravehicular activity (EVA) for Space Station) Freedom (SSF). The FTS will provide a telerobotic capability to the Freedom Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be employed for assembly, maintenance, and inspection applications throughout the lifetime of the space station. Appropriately configured elements of the FTS will also be employed for robotic manipulation in remote satellite servicing applications and possibly the Lunar/Mars Program. In mid-1989, the FTS entered the flight system design and implementation phase (Phase C/D) of development with the signing of the FTS prime contract with Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado. The basic FTS design is now established and can be reported on in some detail. This paper will describe the FTS flight system design and the rationale for the specific design approaches and component selections. The current state of space technology and the nature of the FTS task dictate that the FTS be designed with sophisticated teleoperation capabilities for its initial primary operating mode. However, there are technologies, such as advanced computer vision and autonomous planning techniques currently in research and advanced development phases which would greatly enhance the FTS capabilities to perform autonomously in less structured work environments. Therefore, a specific requirement on the initial FTS design is that it has the capability to evolve as new technology becomes available. This paper will describe the FTS design approach for evolution to more autonomous capabilities. Some specific task applications of the FTS and partial automation approaches of these tasks will also be discussed in this paper. PMID:11540062

McCain, H G; Andary, J F; Hewitt, D R; Haley, D C

1991-01-01

253

Prophylactic surgery prior to extended-duration space flight: Is the benefit worth the risk?  

PubMed Central

This article explores the potential benefits and defined risks associated with prophylactic surgical procedures for astronauts before extended-duration space flight. This includes, but is not limited to, appendectomy and cholecystesctomy. Furthermore, discussion of treatment during space flight, potential impact of an acute illness on a defined mission and the ethical issues surrounding this concept are debated in detail.

Ball, Chad G.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Williams, David R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, J.D.; Vanderploeg, James M.; Talamini, Mark A.; Campbell, Mark R.; Broderick, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

254

Inheritance of induction radiation sensitivity of space flight environments and gamma-radiation on rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many factors affecting living things during space flight, such as microgravity, cosmic radiation, etc. A large number of plant mutants have been obtained after space flight on satellite in China in the last decade and some commercial crop varieties were released. However, little consideration has so far been given to the genetic mechanisms underlying sensitivity of plant seeds

J. Xu; J. Wang; L. Wei; Z. Li; Y. Sun

2004-01-01

255

Robots and humans in space flight: Technology, evolution, and interplanetary travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the history and possible future for human\\/robotic space flight. One area where all space flight visionaries failed to make meaningful predictions was in the rapidly advancing capabilities of robotics and electronics. For example, when Arthur C. Clarke envisioned geosynchronous telecommunications satellites in 1945 he believed that they would require humans working onboard. It is, therefore, easy to

Roger D. Launius; Howard E. McCurdy

2007-01-01

256

A Stewart Platform as a FBW Flight Control Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of flight control units have been put into realization for navigational purposes of spatially moving vehicles (SMV), which is mostly manipulated by 2 or 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) joysticks. Since motion in space consists of three translational motions in forward, side and vertical directions and three rotational motions about these axis; with present joystick interfaces, spatial vehicles has to employ more than one navigational control unit to be able to navigate on all required directions. In this study, a 3 × 3 Stewart-Platform-based FBW (Fly-By-Wire) flight control unit with force feedback is presented which will provide single point manipulation of any SMVs along three translational and about three rotational axis. Within the frame of this paper, design, capability and the advantages of the novel system is mentioned. Kinematics of a Stewart Platform (SP) mechanism employed and its motion potentials is presented by simulations and workspace of the system is evaluated. Dynamic analysis by Bond-Graph approach will be mentioned. Mechatronic design of the complete structure is discussed and force reflection capability of the system with simulations is pointed out using stiffness control. Finally, the possible future work of the subject is discussed which may include the feasible solutions of the SP in terms of size and safety when implementing inside a cockpit.

Ömürlü, Vasfi; Yildiz, ?brahim

2011-07-01

257

Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

Rodionova, Natalia

258

A study of nonlinear flight control system designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses both normal aircraft flight control where the control surfaces are the primary effectors, and unconventional emergency flight control by engines only. It has long been realized that nonlinearity in aircraft dynamics is a prominent consideration in design of high-performance conventional flight control systems. The engine-only flight control problem also faces strong nonlinearity, although due to different reasons. A nonlinear predictive control method and an approximate receding-horizon control method are used for normal and engine-only flight control system designs for an F-18 aircraft. The comparison of the performance with that of linear flight controllers provides some insight into when nonlinear controllers may render a much improved performance. The concept of nonlinear flight control system design is extended to output tracking control problem. The capability of the nonlinear controller to stabilize the aircraft and accomplish output tracking control for non-minimum phase system is successfully demonstrated. Numerical simulation results of longitudinal motion based on two typical flight conditions for an F-18 aircraft is presented to illustrate some of these aspects. It is suggested in this thesis that nonlinear flight control system design, particularly the engine-only controller design and output tracking control design for non-minimum phase system by using a nonlinear method is more effective for the highly nonlinear environment. The recently developed continuous-time predictive control approach and an approximate receding-horizon control method are shown to be effective methods in the situation while the conventional linear or popular nonlinear control designs are either ineffective or inapplicable.

Tian, Lijun

259

Effects of long-term space flight on erythrocytes and oxidative stress of rodents.  

PubMed

Erythrocyte and hemoglobin losses have been frequently observed in humans during space missions; these observations have been designated as "space anemia". Erythrocytes exposed to microgravity have a modified rheology and undergo hemolysis to a greater extent. Cell membrane composition plays an important role in determining erythrocyte resistance to mechanical stress and it is well known that membrane composition might be influenced by external events, such as hypothermia, hypoxia or gravitational strength variations. Moreover, an altered cell membrane composition, in particular in fatty acids, can cause a greater sensitivity to peroxidative stress, with increase in membrane fragility. Solar radiation or low wavelength electromagnetic radiations (such as gamma rays) from the Earth or the space environment can split water to generate the hydroxyl radical, very reactive at the site of its formation, which can initiate chain reactions leading to lipid peroxidation. These reactive free radicals can react with the non-radical molecules, leading to oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and DNA, etiologically associated with various diseases and morbidities such as cancer, cell degeneration, and inflammation. Indeed, radiation constitutes on of the most important hazard for humans during long-term space flights. With this background, we participated to the MDS tissue-sharing program performing analyses on mice erythrocytes flown on the ISS from August to November 2009. Our results indicate that space flight induced modifications in cell membrane composition and increase of lipid peroxidation products, in mouse erythrocytes. Moreover, antioxidant defenses in the flight erythrocytes were induced, with a significant increase of glutathione content as compared to both vivarium and ground control erythrocytes. Nonetheless, this induction was not sufficient to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Future experiments should provide information helpful to reduce the effects of oxidative stress exposure and space anemia, possibly by integrating appropriate dietary elements and natural compounds that could act as antioxidants. PMID:22412864

Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola; Milani, Simona; Zava, Stefania; Tavella, Sara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Berra, Bruno

2012-03-07

260

Atomic energy: The rosetta stone of space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1955 to 1973, the United States had a nuclear rocket development program that had many potential missions, although never an assigned one, and an unparalleled record of technical achievement. Project Rover/NERVA, as it was called, never fully cleared the hurdles of the US political process and its future was considered annually by US Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. The program began at the two nuclear weapons laboratories, Los Alamos and Livermore, in 1955 with potential intercontinental ballistic missile missions in mind; but, as weapons designers were able to make weapons smaller and lighter, the need for a heavy lifting nuclear rocket disappeared. Sputnik increased interest in 1957, but President Kennedy accelerated the program in his lunar landing speech of 1961, giving it focus, direction and, most important, funding. Private industrial contractors were brought in to engineer the pioneering work done by Los Alamos on the Kiwi series of reactors. Aerojet General and Westinghouse developed a number of reactors in 1964-69 - NRX-A2, NRX-A3, NRX-EST, NRX-A5, NRX-A6, and XE - each of which was more successful than its predecessor. A decision now was needed on a flight engine program. Influenced by his close friend and political ally Senator Clinton P. Anderson, President Johnson approved the development of NERVA II in February 1967, a 200 - 250,000 -pound-thrust engine capable of a wide variety of space missions: lunar resupply, deep space, and manned planetary. The Saturn rocket was to carry the NERVA II to Earth orbit. Despite strong support from a pocket of influential Senators led by Anderson, Congress rebelled, arguing that this was the camel's nose in the tent for a manned Mars mission. That would cost $200 billion. NERVA II was killed. NERVA I, a 75,000 -pound-thrust engine, was the compromise. President Nixon was no friend of the space program, at least expensive manned space efforts. The big Saturn rocket programme was terminated, NASA was restricted to a starvation budget, and all hopes were placed on development of the space shuttle. In 1971, NASA pronounced the nuclear rocket's epitaph: NERVA needs the space shuttle, the shuttle doesn't need NERVA. Despite strong Congressional backing, NERVA was cancelled in 1972. A year later, all development work on nuclear rockets ceased.

Dewar, James A.

1994-05-01

261

Towards an advanced nonlinear rotorcraft flight control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional rotorcraft flight control designs rely heavily on plant models which have been linearized about various operating set points. These designs are only valid for operating conditions close to the original trim points and suffer performance degradations for significant deviations. Consequently, several linear controllers are designed and scheduled to cover the operational flight envelope. An alternate approach that uses the

Chima E. Njaka; P. K. Menon; V. H. L. Cheng

1994-01-01

262

Flight Path Control Equipment for Producing Curved Flight Path Profiles with Microwave Landing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of a flight path control instrument for producing curved approach profiles and guidance along these profiles are presented. For safety reasons, steep noise abatement approaches must be flown along curved profiles. The problems of flyab...

G. Schaenzer

1974-01-01

263

Symposium Conclusion: Women's cardiovascular health after bed rest or space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian Space Agency has recently funded research on two long-duration missions to study cardiovascular deconditioning associated with bed rest or space flight. The first, Women's International Space simulation for Exploration (WISE-2005) examined the responses during a 60-day head down bed rest (HDBR) of 24 women with or without a countermeasure that consisted of supine treadmill running within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device followed by 10-minutes resting LBNP and on different days high intensity resistance exercise on a flywheel device. The second study, Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular Control on return from the International Space Station (CCISS) is currently underway with two male astronauts tested and the first woman anticipated later this year. Women have been previously identified as being more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance than men after both bed rest and space flight studies. Thus, in the WISE-2005 study we examined responses of the cardiovascular system after HDBR in women and compared these to previously published data from men. We found that after HDBR women have a greater increase in heart rate with infusion of the drug isoproterenol and this was consistent with observations in men. However, during drug infusion the women had a reduction in leg vascular resistance while men had an increase. The exercise countermeasure group had preserved heart rate and leg vascular resistance responses to drug infusion. The ability to vasoconstrict the legs and splanchnic region is critical to maintenance of upright posture after HDBR and space flight. In the WISE-2005 study, subjects who were able to constrict the legs and/or splanchnic region after HDBR were much less likely to have a marked drop in blood pressure before the end of 10-minutes upright tilt, and subjects who performed the countermeasure were more likely to be in this group of tilt test finishers. These data provide new insight into mechanisms that might be responsible for fainting after bed rest or space flight, and they can be used to understand why specific populations such as the elderly might be more likely to faint during life on Earth. Supported by Canadian Space Agency.

Hughson, Richard L.; Arbeille, Phillipe; Shoemaker, Kevin; Edgell, Heather

264

Some results of the effect of space flight factors on Drosophila melanogaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two experiments with Drosophila melanogaster males were performed aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. Mutagenic effects of a 8 day space flight on sex chromosome nondisjunction and intergene recombination in chromosome II were studied. The space flight factors (SFF) increased the frequency of chromosome nondisjunction and recombination. The model experiments showed that the combined effects of vibration and acceleration do not cover the whole spectrum of space flight mutagenic factors. These data suggest that heavy space ions are mainly responsible for the observed effect.

Filatova, L. P.; Vaulina, E. N.; Grozdova, T. Ya.; Prudhommeau, C.; Proust, J.

265

Oculomotor function during space flight and susceptibility to space motion sickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and saccadic eye movements (SEM) were studied in 18 subjects before and during five Space Shuttle missions to evaluate the effects of weightlessness and correlations between results and susceptibility to and actual presence of space motion sickness (SMS). Active sinusoidal head oscillation was the stimulus for VOR tests with vision (VVOR), with eyes shaded (VOR-ES), and VOR suppression (VOR-S). Eye movements were recorded by electrooculography and head position by a potentiometer. No pathological nystagmus or other abnormal eye movements were seen. No significant in-flight changes were seen in the gain, phase shift or waveform of VVOR, VOR-ES or VOR-S. Statistically significant increases in saccadic latency and decreases in saccadic velocity were seen, with no change in saccadic accuracy. Preflight differences between SMS susceptible and non-susceptible subjects were noted only in VOR-S, with less complete suppression in susceptible subjects, a finding also seen in flight. During flight, VVOR gain was significantly increased in three non-affected subjects. Saccades of SMS-affected subjects showed increased latency and velocity and decreased accuracy compared to saccades of unaffected subjects.

Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.

266

Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to\\/from the ISS, as well

Jeff Hagopian

2002-01-01

267

A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications.An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human

P. Hager; M. Czupalla; U. Walter

2010-01-01

268

Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has

C. F. Johnson; T. W. Dreschel; C. S. Brown; R. M. Wheeler

1996-01-01

269

[Hematological investigations in conditions of long-term space flights].  

PubMed

In the nearly 15-month mission aboard MIR the cosmonaut-physician and members of three crews (MIR-15, -16, and -17) carried out a program of hematological investigations. Most of the changes related to the red blood system and included reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Erythrocytes had decreased concentration and took on abnormal forms. There were also signs of altered metabolism of erythrocytes. Of interest are phase-by-phase variations in the levels of erythrocytes in the course of long-term stay in microgravity, and absence of a convincing correlation between hemoglobin, erythrocyte and hematocrit levels. But for lymphocytosis that returned to the norm already on the first day of recovery, no material changes occurred to the leukocyte profile. Investigations at the landing site displayed erythropenia, decreased reticulocytes and ensuing reticulocyte reaction, and gradual regain of the erythrocyte number that can be viewed as a normal physiological reaction of the blood system to the set of factors of spaceflight and early readaptation. Besides, the investigations showed a large individually of blood reactions to prolonged stay in space flight. PMID:9661769

Poliakov, V V; Ivanova, S M; Noskov, V B; Labetskaia, O I; Iarlykova, Iu V; Karashtin, V V; Legen'kov, V I; Sarycheva, T G; Shishkanova, Z G; Kozinets, G I

1998-01-01

270

Characterization of a twelve channel optical fiber, ribbon cable and MTP array connector assembly for space flight environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented here is the second set of testing conducted by the Technology Validation Laboratory for Photonics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the twelve optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector for space flight environments. In the first set of testing the commercial 62.5\\/125 cable assembly was characterized using space flight parameters (published in SPIE Vol. 3440 ).(1)

Melanie Ott

271

Characterization of a 12-channel optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector assembly for space flight environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented here is the second set of testing conducted by the Technology Validation Laboratory for Photonics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the twelve optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector for space flight environments. In the first set of testing the commercial 62.5\\/125 cable assembly was characterized using space flight parameters (published in SPIE Vol. 3440). The

Melanie N. Ott; Shawn L. Macmurphy; Patricia R. Friedberg

2002-01-01

272

76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal...features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness...fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This system provides an...

2011-03-18

273

75 FR 59326 - Eighth Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control meeting...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control. DATES: The...

2010-09-27

274

75 FR 36471 - Seventh Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control meeting...RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control. DATES: The...

2010-06-25

275

Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

2011-01-01

276

Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

2011-07-28

277

Influence of space flight conditions on phenotypes and function of nephritic immune cells of swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During space fights, animals and astronauts have to live and act under unusual environmental conditions characterised by reduced gravity. Due to interactions with several physiological systems, the immune system is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous influences. The present study provides the first data of parameters of the defence system, namely differential haemogram and spontaneous cell proliferation activity of nephritic tissue as well as phagocytosis activity of isolated nephritic phagocytes, in teleost fish after 9 days (STS-89) and 16 days (STS-90) of space flight. The artificial aquatic ecosystem C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) was the habitat of swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) during space flights and for ground controls. No statistically significant differences were observed between fish after space flights and ground controls either after 9 or 16 days. Additionally, all values of the space flight experiments remained within the physiological normal area. However, in comparison to the values of fish that were kept in aquaria as ground controls, the environmental conditions of some C.E.B.A.S. ground experiments showed a decrease of monocytes and lymphocytes as well as inhibition of the activity of phagocytosis and spontaneous cell proliferation. Swordtails from C.E.B.A.S. ground experiments showed typical symptoms of a stress reaction, namely a decrease of monocytes and lymphocytes and an inhibition of phagocytosis activity. These results indicate that short-term space flights of 9 and 16 days have no effects on the immune system of the swordtails, whereas specific environmental conditions such as those found in the C.E.B.A.S. module during the experiments have the potential to influence defence parameters.

Piepenbreier, K.; Renn, J.; Fischer, R.; Goerlich, R.

2006-01-01

278

Neural Network Analysis of Pilot Landing Control in Real Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for analysis of a pilots' landing control at the visual approach has been developed using a neural network modeling. While our previous study analyzed flight simulator operations, this paper describes the analysis of a real flight landing case. An experimental method which utilizes image processing of recorded video data is developed to obtain necessary data such as time histories of visual cues and control inputs. The effectiveness of this proposed method is confirmed by comparing values and analysis results from the video data with results obtained using GPS/INS data. It is expected that these methods can be used to reveal the characteristic of pilot control in real flight operation.

Mori, Ryota; Suzuki, Shinji; Masui, Kazuya; Tomita, Hiroshi

279

[Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3)].  

PubMed

The purpose was to study characteristic features of growth and development of several plant generations in space flight in experiment GREENHOUSE-3 as a part of the Russian-US space research program MIR/NASA in 1997. The experiment consisted of cultivation of Brassica rapa L. in board greenhouse Svet. Two vegetative cycles were fully completed and the third vegetation was terminated on day 13 on the phase of budding. The total duration of the space experiment was 122 days, i.e. same as in the ground controls. In the experiment with Brassica rapa L. viable seeds produced by the first crop were planted in space flight and yielded next crop. Crops raised from the ground and space seeds were found to differ in height and number of buds. Both parameters were lowered in the plants grown from the space seeds. The prime course for smaller size and reduced organogenic potential of plantTs reproductive system seems to be a less content of nutrients in seeds that had matured in the space flight. Experiment GREENHOUSE-3 demonstrated principle feasibility of plant reproduction in space greenhouse from seeds developed in microgravity. PMID:11589157

Levinskikh, M A; Sychev, V N; Signalova, O B; Derendiaeva, T A; Podol'ski?, I G; Masgre?v, M E; Bingheim, G E

2001-01-01

280

Robust force control in a hydraulic workbench for flight actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work deals with the design of the force control in a hydraulic workbench for primary flight actuators, to be used for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a modern Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System. For this application, a high-bandwidth force response is needed in order to simulate aerodynamic loads on the control surfaces, but plant uncertainties can imply significant limitations. The variation of

Gianpietro Di Rito; Eugenio Denti; Roberto Galatolo

2006-01-01

281

The Timing in the Control of Insect Flight Instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flapping flight of insects is intrinsically unstable. Using 3D dynamic simulation of flapping flight, we analyze the stability of periodic states associated with the limit cycles of the dynamical system. We construct a discrete time-delayed linear controller and examine the controllability condition. The controller's effectiveness depends in a subtle manner on the timing of the sensory measurement combined with the delay time in actuation.

Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane

2011-11-01

282

Lower limb kinematics during treadmill walking after space flight: implications for gaze stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the lower limb joint kinematics observed during pre- and postflight treadmill walking performed by seven subjects from three Space Shuttle flights flown between March 1992 and February 1994. Basic temporal characteristics of the gait patterns, such as stride time and duty cycle, showed no significant changes after flight. Evaluation of phaseplane variability across the gait cycle suggests that

P. Vernon McDonald; Cagatay Basdogan; Jacob J. Bloomberg; Charles S. Layne

1996-01-01

283

Second-order space focusing in two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design equations are given for second-order space focusing in two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Simulations and experimental tests confirm that, for diffuse sources and high-energy fragments, second-order designs give superior resolution and linearity of flight time deviations to initial ion velocities.

J. H. D. Eland

1993-01-01

284

14 CFR Appendix E to Part 440 - Agreement for Waiver of Claims and Assumption of Responsibility for a Space Flight Participant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Responsibility for a Space Flight Participant E Appendix...440 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION...440.17(e) of the Commercial Space Transportation Licensing...agreement applies to Space Flight...

2013-01-01

285

Stabilization control of a bumblebee in hovering and forward flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous study shows that the hovering and forward flight of a bumblebee do not have inherent stability (passive stability). But the bumblebees are observed to fly stably. Stabilization control must have been applied. In this study, we investigate the longitudinal stabilization control of the bumblebee. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that at all flight speeds considered, although inherently unstable, the flight is controllable. By feedbacking the state variables, i.e. vertical and horizontal velocities, pitching rate and pitch angle (which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect), to produce changes in stroke angle and angle of attack of the wings, the flight can be stabilized, explaining why the bumblebees can fly stably even if they are passively unstable.

Xiong, Yan; Sun, Mao

2009-02-01

286

Proteomic analyses of high yield rice strain mutated by space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeds of pure rice strains were carried by recoverable satellite JB-1 for a 15-day-flight in 1996 After continual selection and breeding some mutant rice strains with various phenotypes have been generated Among them mutant strain 971-5 shows significantly increased grain yield compared to its control 971ck In this experiment we chose these two strains for proteomic analyses Rice leaves were scissored at early and middle stage of tillering and booting stage respectively followed by Two-dimensional PAGE technique 2-DG Images from 2-D gels were analyzed by using PDQuest software Results showed that 1 all proteins of changed expression level are down-regulated in space mutated strain 971-5 with only one exception 2 proteomic mutation rates of 3 stages are 3 1 2 1 and 3 1 respectively 3 one protein showed altered pI and molecular weight Taken together our data indicate that space environment influences rice proteins quantitatively and qualitatively Key words space flight proteomics high yield rice

Ma, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Sun, Y.

287

Current characteristics and trends of the tracked satellite population in the human space flight regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, human space flight has been restricted to altitudes below 620 km above the Earth's surface with most missions restricted to a ceiling below 400 km. An investigation of the tracked satellite population transiting and influencing the human space flight regime during the past 11 years (equivalent to a full solar cycle) has recently been completed. The overall effects of satellite breakups and solar activity are typically less pronounced in the human space flight regime than other regions of low Earth orbit. As of January 2006 nearly 1500 tracked objects resided in or traversed the human space flight regime, although two-thirds of these objects were in orbits of moderate to high eccentricity. Since the beginning of the International Space Station era, the spatial density of tracked objects in the 350 400 km altitude regime has demonstrated a general decline, decreasing by 40% by the beginning of 2006. On the other hand, the region immediately above 600km experienced a significant increase in its population density. This regime is important for future risk assessments, since this region represents the reservoir of debris which will influence human space flight safety in the future. The paper seeks to put into sharper perspective the risks posed to human space flight by the tracked satellite population, as well as the influences of solar activity and the effects of compliance with orbital debris mitigation guidelines on human space flight missions. Finally, the methods and successes of characterizing the population of smaller debris in human space flight regimes are addressed.

Johnson, Nicholas L.

2007-06-01

288

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

2007-01-01

289

Control of flexible space station remote manipulator training system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modelling, design, and analysis of the joint control system for the Space Station remote manipulator ground training system. The purpose of this robotic system is to emulate the Space Station Remote Manipulator System in form, function, and performance, so that astronauts can receive flight-like training in one-g environment. The main focus of the paper is joint

S. Ananthakrishnan; N. M. Wahbah

1993-01-01

290

FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. ...

N. M. Lowrey

2011-01-01

291

Return and profitability of space programs. Information - the main product of flights in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic branch providing global information, as a product on the market, is astronautics and in particular aero and space flights. Nowadays economic categories like profitability, return, and self-financing are added to space information. The activity in the space information service market niche is an opportunity for realization of high economic efficiency and profitability. The present report aims at examining the possibilities for return and profitability of space programs. Specialists in economics from different countries strive for defining the economic effect of implementing space technologies in the technical branches on earth. Still the priorities here belong to government and insufficient market organization and orientation is apparent. Attracting private investors and searching for new mechanisms of financing are the factors for increasing economic efficiency and return of capital invested in the mentioned sphere. Return of utilized means is an economically justified goal, a motive for a bigger enlargement of efforts and directions for implementing the achievements of astronautics in the branches of economy on earth.

Nikolova, Irena

292

Effects of Factors of Prolonged Space Flight on Conditions of Tortoise Skeleton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a 60-90 day space flight mild osteoporosis developed in the epiphyses and metaphyses of long tubular bones of tortoises, which was not attributed to reduced mineral saturation of the preserved bone tissue microstructures. The diminished strength of ...

G. P. Stupakon A. I. Volozhin V. A. Korzhenyants V. S. Yagodovskiy A. N. Polyakov

1980-01-01

293

Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tes...

D. L. Pierson J. A. Skweres J. H. Jorgensen L. A. Maher M. L. McElmeel M. V. Lancaster R. Mulder

1997-01-01

294

Capabilities of the Impact Testing Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test and analysis capabilities of the Impact Testing Facility at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Nine different gun systems accommodate a wide range of projectile and target sizes and shapes at velocities from subsonic through hyper...

A. Finchum B. Suggs M. Nehls N. M. Lowrey P. Gray W. Young

2011-01-01

295

Vestibular Tests on UK Astronaut Candidates for an Anglo/Russian Space Flight (Juno Mission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of vestibular function and motion sickness susceptibility were carried out on 16 candidates from whom the one to fly on a Russian space flight would be chosen. Oculomotor responses to angular oscillation, stopping stimuli and caloric stimulation rev...

J. R. R. Stott A. J. Benson

1990-01-01

296

STS-5 Fifth Space Shuttle Mission, First Operational Flight: Press Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Schedules for the fifth Space Shuttle flight are provided. Launching procedure, extravehicular activity, contingency plans, satellite deployment, and onboard experiments are discussed. Landing procedures, tracking facilities, and crew data are provided.

1982-01-01

297

MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and

A. Maillet; A. Pavy-Le Traon

1998-01-01

298

Flight Control Synthesis for Flexible Aircraft Using Eigenspace Assignment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magni...

J. B. Davidson D. K. Schmidt

1986-01-01

299

Trends in Software Reliability for Digital Flight Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Software error data of major recent Digital Flight Control Systems Development Programs. The report summarizes the data, compare these data with similar data from previous surveys and identifies trends and disciplines to improve software reliability.

H. Hecht M. Hecht

1983-01-01

300

Access to Space: Hands on flight instrument experience for sophomores at UW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students at the college sophomore level, with no science or technical prerequisites, form teams to design and fabricate sounding balloon payloads. This 200 level class promotes interest in research and involves a mixture of lectures about the upper atmosphere and space environment coupled with an intense laboratory experience. Students are taught rudimentary electronics and fabrication techniques, culminating after just 4 weeks of the flight of a CricketSat instrument (single, thermistor-controlled tone telemetry modulation; kit by Bob Twiggs at Stanford) on a sounding balloon. Following this appetite whetting, student teams design, test, calibrate and interface an instrument of their own choosing to a telemetry system for sounding balloon flight. During Spring 2003 student built payloads included devices to measure direct and reflected solar radiation, magnetic field variations, temperature and pressure, and even a small 'biosphere' with crickets which actually survived flight to near 30km altitude! Students go on a one day field trip to launch the sounding balloons and attempt recovery. This is followed by the last two weeks of data analysis and final report writing.

Holzworth, R. H.; Harnett, E. M.; Winglee, R. M.; Chinowsky, T. M.; McCarthy, M. P.

2003-12-01

301

X-29 Flight Control System: Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two X-29A aircraft were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center over a period of eight years. The airplanes' unique features are the forward-swept wing, variable incidence close-coupled canard and highly relaxed longitudinal static stability (up t...

R. Clarke J. J. Burken J. T. Bosworth J. E. Bauer

1994-01-01

302

Aeronautical and space vehicle control in dynamic sliding manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple loop multiple time scale sliding mode control technique based on dynamic sliding manifold is developed and applied to aeronautical and space vehicle control. Minimum and non-minimum phase output tracking problems for aeronautical and space vehicles are addressed in dynamic sliding manifold. Numerical examples of the flight controller design for controlling minimum and non-minimum phase manoeuvres of an F-16 jet

Yuri B. Shtessel; Ilia A. Shkolnikov

2003-01-01

303

[Frequency of chromosome recombination, nondisjunction and breaks in Drosophila melanogaster males exposed during space flight].  

PubMed

Effects of space flight factors on chromosomal nondisjunctions, breaks and mitotic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster males were studied. It was shown that space flight conditions increased the frequencies of nondisjunctions, breaks and mitotic recombination in chromosomes. It was established that the vibration and acceleration effects could not serve to explain the data obtained. On the basis of these data, it may be suggested that weightlessness and cosmic radiation are the main factors which are responsible for the effects observed. PMID:6420233

Filatova, L P; Vaulina, E N; Grozdova, T Ia

1983-12-01

304

[Enzyme activity of carbohydrate metabolism in rat skeletal muscle after space flight].  

PubMed

Space flight factors did not influence activity of glycogen phosphorylase and adenylate cyclase in skeletal muscles of rats. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases increased noticeably in the most active muscles (gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles). Activation of enzymes involved in the pentosephosphate pathway of glucose conversion may be associated with compensatory processes induced by muscle changes due to diminished motor activity of animals in space flight. PMID:7289570

Nesterov, V P; Veresotskaia, N A; Tigranian, R A

305

Optoelectronics research for communication programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current optoelectronics research and development of high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters, high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers, pointing, acquisition and tracking components, and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is reviewed. Program hardware and space flight milestones are presented. It is believed that these experiments will pave the way for intersatellite optical communications links for both the

Michael A. Krainak

1991-01-01

306

Regeneration of organs and tissues in lower vertebrates during and after space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper most important data obtained in studies on the effect of space flight conditions on regeneration in the adult newt are summarized. We demonstrate a phenomenon of synchronization of limb and lens regeneration and increase in its rate during and after space flight. We also describe a peculiarities of cell proliferation in lens, limb and tail regenerates and of the process of minced muscle regeneration.

Mitashov, V. I.; Brushlinskaya, N. V.; Grigoryan, E. N.; Tuchkova, S. Ya.; Anton, H. J.

307

Who Has Control: The Battle Between NASA and Congress Over the Space Shuttle to Vision for Space Exploration Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA rests under the Executive Branch as 2005 NASA Authorization Act and Aeronautics and Space act of 1958 fund NASA. NASA Authorization Acts and The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) signed by President Bush in 2004 signaled the end of space explorations. Both Congress and the President are trying to assert control over future human space flight programs as Congress

Ashley Walker

2008-01-01

308

Comparison of cardiovascular function during the early hours of bed rest and space flight.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the cardiovascular responses of six healthy male subjects to 6 hours in a 5 degrees head-down bed rest model of weightlessness, and compares these responses to those obtained when subjects were positioned in head-up tilts of 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 42 degrees, simulating 1/6, 1/3, and 2/3 G, respectively. Thoracic fluid index, cardiac output, stroke volume, and peak flow were measured using impedance cardiography. Cardiac dimensions and volumes were determined from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiograms in the left lateral decubitus position at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Cardiovascular response to a stand test were compared before and after bed rest. The impedance values were related to tilt angle for the first 2 hours of tilt; however, after 3 hours, at all four angles, values began to converge, indicating that cardiovascular homeostatic mechanisms seek a common adapted state, regardless of effective gravity level (tilt angle) up to 2/3 G. Echocardiography revealed that left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, heart rate, and cardiac output had returned to control values by hour 6 for all tilt angles. The lack of a significant immediate change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, despite decrements in stroke volume (P < .05) and heart rate (not significant), indicates that multiple factors may play a role in the adaptation to simulated hypogravity. The echocardiography data indicated that no angle of tilt, whether head-down or head-up for 4 to 6 hours, mimicked exactly the changes in cardiovascular function recorded after 4 to 6 hours of space flight. Changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume during space flight and tilt may be similar, but follow a different time course. Nevertheless, head-down tilt at 5 degrees for 6 hours mimics some (stroke volume, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and total resistance), but not all, of the changes occurring in an equivalent time of space flight. The magnitude of the change in the mean heart rate response to standing was greater after six hours of tilt at -5 degrees or 10 degrees. Thus, results from the stand test after 6 hours of bed rest at -5 degrees and 10 degrees, but not at 20 degrees or 42 degrees, are similar to those obtained after space flight. PMID:8089261

Lathers, C M; Charles, J B

1994-05-01

309

Effects of space radiations on "Xenopus laevis" embryos during stratospheric balloon flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the effects of space radiation on living organisms we participated (23 June 2002) to the "BI.R.BA." mission (organised and granted by the Italian Space Agency, A.S.I.), a flight with a stratospheric balloon, from Trapani-MILO (ASI Launch site) to Seville in Spain. Xenopus laevis emryos at different stages of development were exposed during flight. Results on mortality show that younger embryos (16 hr) flown on the balloon (B) are more sensitive to radiation exposure compared with older ones (40 hr and 6 days). The exposure during flight lowers the antioxidant potential in all the embryos, particularly in older ones.

Rizzo, A. M.; Rossi, F.; Zava, S.; Montorfano, G.; Adorni, L.; Cotronei, V.; Berra, B.

2003-08-01

310

Age and Expertise Effects in Aviation Decision Making and Flight Control in a Flight Simulator  

PubMed Central

Introduction Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Methods Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19–79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects’ flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Results Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots’ mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Conclusions Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults’ real world decision making and performance.

Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L.; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A.

2010-01-01

311

Influence of a long duration exposure, 69 months, to the space flight factors in Artemia cysts, tobacco and rice seeds.  

PubMed

Three french laboratories have participated in the Free Flyer Biostack experiment. Artemia cysts, tobacco seeds and rice caryopsis and embryos were used. Biological objects in monolayers were dead. In opposite, a large fraction of samples used in bulk survived. A stimulatory effect occurred in the first steps of development in Artemia cysts. In fact, the larval survival was unchanged or slightly reduced. In tobacco a drastic decrease in germination and survival rate was observed. Space flight did not induce genetic changes. In rice, results depend on the variety which was investigated; the growth rate stimulation in flight samples is discussed with respect to controls. PMID:11539953

Planel, H; Gaubin, Y; Pianezzi, B; Delpoux, M; Bayonove, J; Bes, J C; Heilmann, C; Gasset, G

1994-10-01

312

Influence of a long duration exposure, 69 months, to the space flight factors in Artemia cysts, tobacco and rice seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three french laboratories have participated in the Free Flyer Biostack experiment. Artemia cysts, tobacco seeds and rice caryopsis and embryos were used. Biological objects in monolayers were dead. In opposite, a large fraction of samples used in bulk survived. A stimulatory effect occurred in the first steps of development in Artemia cysts. In fact, the larval survival was unchanged or slightly reduced. In tobacco a drastic decrease in germination and survival rate was observed. Space flight did not induce genetic changes. In rice, results depend on the variety which was investigated; the growth rate stimulation in flight samples is discussed with respect to controls.

Planel, H.; Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Bayonove, J.; Bès, J. C.; Heilmann, C.; Gasset, G.

1994-10-01

313

Robust and Reconfigurable Flight Control by Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) framework for developing robust, adaptive nonlinear flight control systems is presented. The controller structure is that of a feedfor- ward sigmoidal neural network that is both adaptive and reconfigurable, since the control law it approximates can be modified by updating its parameters during operation. The neural network controller is designed via LMIs to meet multiple

Silvia Ferrari; Mark Jensenius

2005-01-01

314

Combined adaptive autopilot for an UAV flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined adaptive control (CAC) law for an autopilot of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) attitude control is considered. The adaptive algorithm includes the variable-structure controller with forced sliding motion, parametric identification algorithm and the parallel feedforward compensator. The adaptation algorithm provides the prescribed dynamic properties of the attitude control system for various flight conditions of the UAV. The simulation

Boris Andrievsky; Alexander Fradkov

2002-01-01

315

Synthesis and validation of flight control for UAV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used worldwide for a board range of civil and military applications. There continues to be a growing demand for reliable and low cost UAV systems. This is especially true for small-size mini UAV systems where majority of systems are still deployed as prototypes due to their lack of reliability. Improvement in the modeling, testing and flight control for the small UAVs would increase their reliability during autonomous flight. The traditional approach used in manned aircraft and large UAV system synthesizing, implementing and validating the flight control system to achieve desired objectives is time consuming and resource intensive. This thesis aims to provide an integrated framework with systematic procedures to synthesize and validate flight controllers. This will help in the certification of UAV system and provide rapid development cycle from simulation to real system flight testing. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by applying the developed framework on a small UAV system that was developed at the University of Minnesota. The thesis is divided into four main parts. The first part is mathematical modeling of the UAV nonlinear simulation model using first principle theory. Flight test system identification technique is used to extract model and model uncertainty parameters to update the nonlinear simulation model. The nonlinear simulation model developed must be able to simulate the actual UAV flight dynamics accurately for real-time simulation and robust control design purposes. Therefore it is important to include model uncertainties into the nonlinear simulation model developed, especially in small UAV system where its dynamics is less well understood than the full-size aircraft. The second part of the work provides the approach and procedures for uncertainty modeling into the nonlinear simulation model such that realization of linear uncertain model is possible. The third part of work describes the flight control design and architecture used in the UAV autopilot system. Classical and model-based control synthesis approaches are presented for roll angle tracking controller to demonstrate the controller synthesis approaches and practical controller implementation issues on the embedded flight computer system. The last part of work blends in all the previous works into the integrated framework for testing and validation of the synthesized controllers. This involves software-in-the-loop, processor-in-the-loop and flight testing of the synthesized controllers using the integrated framework developed.

Paw, Yew Chai

316

Anesthesia and critical-care delivery in weightlessness: A challenge for research in parabolic flight analogue space surgery studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundMultiple nations are actively pursuing manned exploration of space beyond low-earth orbit. The responsibility to improve surgical care for spaceflight is substantial. Although the use of parabolic flight as a terrestrial analogue to study surgery in weightlessness (0 g) is well described, minimal data is available to guide the appropriate delivery of anesthesia. After studying anesthetized pigs in a 0 g parabolic flight environment, our group developed a comprehensive protocol describing prolonged anesthesia in a parabolic flight analogue space surgery study (PFASSS). Novel challenges included a physically remote vivarium, prolonged (>10 h) anesthetic requirements, and the provision of veterinary operating room/intensive care unit (ICU) equivalency on-board an aircraft with physical dimensions of <1.5 m 2 (Falcon 20). Identification of an effective anesthetic regime is particularly important because inhalant anesthesia cannot be used in-flight. MethodsAfter ethical approval, multiple ground laboratory sessions were conducted with combinations of anesthetic, pre-medication, and induction protocols on Yorkshire-cross specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Several constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous anesthetic combinations were tested. In each regimen, opioids were administered to ensure analgesia. Ventilation was supported mechanically with blended gradients of oxygen. The best performing terrestrial 1 g regime was flight tested in parabolic flight for its effectiveness in sustaining optimal and prolonged anesthesia, analgesia, and maintaining hemodynamic stability. Each flight day, a fully anesthetized, ventilated, and surgically instrumented pig was transported to the Flight Research Laboratory (FRL) in a temperature-controlled animal ambulance. A modular on-board surgical/ICU suite with appropriate anesthesia/ICU and surgical support capabilities was employed. ResultsThe mean duration of anesthesia (per flight day) was 10.28 h over four consecutive days. A barbiturate and ketamine-based CRI anesthetic regimen supplemented with narcotic analgesia by bolus administration offered the greatest prolonged hemodynamic stability through an IV route (within multiple transport vehicles and differing gravitational environments). Standardization and pre-packaging of anesthesia, emergency pharmaceuticals, and consumables were found to facilitate the interchange of the veterinary anesthesia team members between flights. This operational process was extremely challenging. ConclusionsWith careful organization of caregivers, equipment and protocols, providing anesthesia and life support in weightlessness is theoretically possible. Unfortunately, human resource costs are extensive and likely overwhelming. Comprehensive algorithms for extended spaceflight must recognize these costs prior to making assumptions or attempting to provide critical care in space.

Ball, Chad G.; Keaney, Marilyn A.; Chun, Rosaleen; Groleau, Michelle; Tyssen, Michelle; Keyte, Jennifer; Broderick, Timothy J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.

2010-03-01

317

Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to be seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

Johnson, C. F.; Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

1996-01-01

318

CSLAA and FAA'S Rules: Incorporating a 'Risk Management Framework' to Minimise Human Space Flight Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

th This year marks the 50 anniversary of a landmark victory for humankind in its endeavour of entering and exploring the final frontier. During these years of space activity, we have witnessed a number of cumulative successes. One of which is the emergence of the commercial human space flight, or "space tourism", market. Commercial companies have the aim of travelling people into space safely and affordably. This paper shall consider the U.S. regulatory framework governing the space tourism market. It scrutinises the adequacy of the Commercial Space Launch and Amendment Act of 2004 (CSLAA), as bolstered by the FAA's requirements, to protect launching passengers to an acceptable standard of safety from the inherent risks associated with human space flights. It is argued that the legislative regime embeds a three-limb "risk management framework" as an appropriate response to address the concern over the safety of public space travel.

Chaddha, S.

2012-01-01

319

Countermeasure of the negative effects of weightlessness on physical systems in long-term space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system of countermcasure of microgravity effects has been developed in Russia that allowed to perform safely long-term space flights. This system that includes different means and methods such as special regimens of physical exercises, axial loading ("Pingiun") and antigravity suits, low body negative pressure device (LBNP, "Chibis") and "cuffs" and others has been used with certain variations at certain stages of flight in 27 successfully accomplished space flights that lasted from 60 to 439 days. The pre-, in- and postflight studies performed in 57 crew members of these flights have shown that the system of countermeasure is effective in preventing or diminishing to a great extent almost all the negative effects of weightlessness in flights of a year and more duration and that the intensity and duration of changes recorded in different body systems after flights do not correlate significantly to flight durations, correlating strongly to the volume and intensity of physical exercises used during flight and especially during concluding stage of it.

Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Stepantzov, V. I.

320

Neurovestibular considerations for sub-orbital space flight: A framework for future investigation.  

PubMed

Commercial sub-orbital operators will soon offer the excitement of traveling to space to thousands of people. Based on previous experience in space flight and parabolic flight, sensorimotor disruptions in eye movements, postural stability, and motor coordination are likely in these travelers. Here we propose a framework for developing strategies to overcome these sensorimotor disruptions. We delineate how approaches should differ from those applied to orbital flight and between sub-orbital passengers and pilots based on differing frequency of flights and mission objectives. Sensorimotor adaptation is one strategy for overcoming disruptions; an important question is whether it occurs quickly enough to be of use during periods of reduced and enhanced gravity lasting less than five minutes. Data are presented showing that sensorimotor adaptation of the pitch vestibulo-ocular reflex during parabolic flight takes a few consecutive days of flying to overcome an initial disruption. We conclude with recommendations for operators and researchers to improve safety and comfort during sub-orbital operations. We recommend using parabolic flight as a tool for pre-adapting sub-orbital passengers, along with further research into the required quantity and timing of these pre-adaptation flights and the tasks conducted during these flights. Likewise, for sub-orbital pilots, we recommend emphasizing recency of experience. PMID:20555165

Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

2010-01-01

321

Neurovestibular Considerations for Sub-Orbital Space Flight: A Framework for Future Investigation  

PubMed Central

Commercial sub-orbital operators will soon offer the excitement of traveling to space to thousands of people. Based on previous experience in space flight and parabolic flight, sensorimotor disruptions in eye movements, postural stability, and motor coordination are likely in these travelers. Here we propose a framework for developing strategies to overcome these sensorimotor disruptions. We delineate how approaches should differ from those applied to orbital flight and between sub-orbital passengers and pilots based on differing frequency of flights and mission objectives. Sensorimotor adaptation is one strategy for overcoming disruptions; an important question is whether it occurs quickly enough to be of use during periods of reduced and enhanced gravity lasting less than five minutes. Data are presented showing that sensorimotor adaptation of the pitch vestibulo-ocular reflex during parabolic flight takes a few consecutive days of flying to overcome an initial disruption. We conclude with recommendations for operators and researchers to improve safety and comfort during sub-orbital operations. We recommend using parabolic flight as a tool for pre-adapting sub-orbital passengers, along with further research into the required quantity and timing of these pre-adaptation flights and the tasks conducted during these flights. Likewise, for sub-orbital pilots, we recommend emphasizing recency of experience.

Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

2013-01-01

322

Application of orthogonal eigenstructure control to flight control design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthogonal eigenstructure control is used for designing a control law that decouples the dynamic modes of a flying vehicle. Orthogonal eigenstructure control is a feedback control method for linear time invariant multi-input multi-output systems. This method has been recently developed by authors. The advantage of this control method over eigenstructure assignment methods is that there is no need for defining the closed-loop poles or shaping the closed-loop eigenvectors. This method eliminates the error due to the difference between achievable and desirable eigenvectors, by finding vectors orthogonal to the open-loop eigenvectors within the achievable eigenvectors set and replacing the open-loop eigenvectors with them. This method is also applicable to the systems with non-collocated actuators and sensors. Application of this method for designing a flight control law for the lateral directional dynamics of an F-18 HARV is presented, and compared to the results of an eigenstructure assignment method. In this case study, the actuators and sensors are not collocated. It is shown that the application of the orthogonal eigenstructure control results in a more significant dynamic modes decoupling in comparison to the application of the eigenstructure assignment technique.

Rastgaar Aagaah, M. A.; Ahmadian, M.; Southward, S. C.

2008-05-01

323

Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.  

PubMed

The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field. PMID:21629761

Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

2010-12-08

324

Changes in symbiotic and associative interrelations in a higher plant-bacterial system during space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The miniature cenosis consisting of the water fern Azolla with its associated symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena and the concomitant bacteria was investigated. Ecological closure was shown to produce sharp quantitative and qualitative changes in the number and type of concomitant bacteria. Changes in the distribution of bacterial types grown on beef-extract broth after space flight were recorded. Anabaena azollae underwent the most significant changes under spaceflight conditions. Its cell number per Azolla biomass unit increased substantially. Thus closure of cenosis resulted in a weakening of control over microbial development by Azolla. This tendency was augmented by spaceflight factors. Reduction in control exerted by macro-organisms over development of associated micro-organisms must be taken into account in constructing closed ecological systems in the state of weightlessness.

Kordyum, V. A.; Man'ko, V. G.; Popova, A. F.; Shcherbak, O. H.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Nguen-Hgue-Thyok

325

Digital communication technology development for space applications at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), space qualified integrated circuits for several key elements in space communication systems have been in development to increase data return in bandwidth constrained channels for future missions. Particularly in the area of digital communication, the development includes data compression, channel coding and modulation. In on-board data compression area, development focuses on a high-speed compression scheme that serves both push-broom and frame sensors. The compression ratio can be easily adjusted for different applications from lossless to visually lossless. The algorithm conforms to the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS) new compression recommendation to be released 2005. The radiation-tolerant (RT) hardware will afford 20 Msamples/sec processing on sensor data. For bandwidth efficient channel coding, newly developed low density paritycheck codes (LDPCC) will double channel utilization as compared to previously used concatenated convolutional/Reed- Solomon (CC/RS) coding scheme. An RT implementation of the encoder is expected to work up to 1 Gbps serving both low-rate and high-rate missions. In modulation, a versatile multi-function base-band modulator allows missions the flexibility to choose from 2 bits/symbol/Hertz quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)-type schemes, to 2.0, 2.25, 2.5, and 2.75 bits/symbol/Hertz 8 phase shift keying trellis-coded modulation (8-PSK TCM) schemes--all CCSDS recommendations. Along with 8PSK, 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), 16-ampliture phase shift keying (16-APSK), all modulations are implemented in a single RT chip with expected throughput of over 300 Mbps. This paper describes the development of these three technology areas and gives an update on their availability for space missions.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Fisher, David; Hoy, Scott; Ekelman, Ernie

2005-08-01

326

Robust nonlinear adaptive flight control for consistent handling qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flight control design is presented that combines model inversion control with an online adaptive neural network (NN). The NN cancels the error due to approximate inversion. Both linear and nonlinear NNs are described. Lyapunov stability analysis leads to the online NN update laws that guarantee boundedness. The controller takes advantage of any available knowledge for system inversion, and compensates

Rolf Rysdyk; Anthony J. Calise

2005-01-01

327

Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews...

2008-01-01

328

Gain scheduled model following control of flight control system based on neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain scheduling control method is widely used in flight control system, but the designing process is time-consuming. This paper introduces a kind of gain scheduled model following control method based on neural network. Using this method, all the parameters in flight controller can be computed automatically. The structure of controller and the principles of selecting referenced model are presented. At

Dong xinmin; Xiong zhiguo; Liu qin

2003-01-01

329

On A Representative Solar Sail Deep Space Flight Based at the Quay around L2 Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

extensively used for the routine passengers and cargo transportation. In those flights, the space ship size will be several hundreds meters long or longer and the ships weigh heavy very much. The launch from the ground will never be feasible and the ships need to be constructed on orbit somewhere near the Earth. Just having the shipyard in space is

Jun'ichiro Kawaguchi; Megumi Yoshimura

2002-01-01

330

USRA's NCSEFSE: a new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education (NCSEFSE) has been created in the Washington, DC metropolitan area under the auspices of the Universities Space Research Association. The NCSEFSE provides education and public outreach services in the areas of NASA's research foci in programs of both national and local scope. Present NCSEFSE programs include: Journey through the

T. A. Livengood; J. Goldstein; H. Vanhala; J. Hamel; E. A. Miller; K. Pulkkinen; S. Richards

2005-01-01

331

Flight Simulator: Use of SpaceGraph Display in an Instructor/Operator Station. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes SpaceGraph, a new computer-driven display technology capable of showing space-filling images, i.e., true three dimensional displays, and discusses the advantages of this technology over flat displays for use with the instructor/operator station (IOS) of a flight simulator. Ideas resulting from 17 brainstorming sessions with…

Sher, Lawrence D.

332

Using graphics and expert system technologies to support satellite monitoring at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analysts Assistant (GenSAA), was developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of

Peter M. Hughes; Gregory W. Shirah; Edward C. Luczak

1994-01-01

333

A SubOrbital Platform for Flight Tests of Small Space Capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of a small recoverable space capsule, flight tests using sub-orbital rockets are considered. For this test series, a platform for aerodynamic and thermal measurements as also for qualification tests of onboard sub-systems and equipment was specified and is actually under development. This platform, known as SARA Suborbital, is specified to withstand a sub-orbital flight with the high

P. Moraes A. L. Pereira Jr.; C. R. Silva; D. J. Villas Bôas; F. Corrêa Jr.; J. H. Miyoshi; L. E. Loures da Costa

2002-01-01

334

Crickets in space: morphological, physiological and behavioral alterations induced by space flight and hypergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Crickets in Space" was a Neurolab experiment by which the balance between genetic programs and the gravitational environment for the development of a gravity sensitive neuronal system was studied. The model character of crickets was justified by their external gravity receptors, identified position-sensitive interneurons (PSI) and gravity-related compensatory head response, and by the specific relation of this behavior to neuronal arousal systems activated by locomotion. These advantages allowed to study the impact of modified gravity on cellular processes in a complex organism. Eggs, 1st, 4th and 6th stage larvae of Acheta domesticus were used. Post-flight experiments revealed a low susceptibility of the behavior to micro- and hypergravity while the physiology of the PSI was significantly affected. Immunocytological investigations revealed a stage-dependent sensitivity of thoracic GABAergic motoneurons to 3g-conditions concerning their soma sizes but not their topographical arrangement. The morphology of neuromuscular junctions was not affected by 3g-hypergravity. Peptidergic neurons from cerebral sensorimotor centers revealed no significant modifications by microgravity (?g). The contrary physiological and behavioral results indicate a facilitation of 1g-readaptation originating from accessory gravity, proprioceptive and visual sense organs. Absence of anatomical modifications point to an effective time window of ?g- or 3g-expo-sure related to the period of neuronal proliferation. The analysis of basic mechanisms of how animals and man adapt to altered gravitational conditions will profit from a continuation of the project "Crickets in Space".

Horn, E.; Agricola, H.; Böser, S.; Förster, S.; Kämper, G.; Riewe, P.; Sebastian, C.

335

A multiple model-based reconfigurable flight control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a problem of designing a reconfigurable control strategy that achieves acceptable flight performance in the presence of wing battle damage for a tailless advanced fighter aircraft (TAFA). This is a complex practical problem since wing damage results in abrupt variation in the aircraft dynamics. Hence fast and accurate control reconfiguration is vital for assuring aircraft survivability. Our suggested

Jovan D. BoSkoviC; Raman K. Mehra

1998-01-01

336

Neuro-variable structure flight control of reusable launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of robust nonlinear control algorithms for reusable launch vehicle (RLV), a highly nonlinear system with external disturbances and dynamic uncertainties due to varying flight conditions. A new robust control scheme for autopilot of RL V in both ascent and decent modes is derived. This scheme employs a rather simple algorithm and demands no

D. H. Xu; X. H. Liao; Y. D. Song

2005-01-01

337

The flight control design of Mini Unmanned Helicopter on sliding mode control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control system of Mini Unmanned Helicopter is a MIMO system, which is serious nonlinear and uncertain. The flight control design of Mini Unmanned Helicopter has always been a difficult problem. This paper introduces sliding mode control on reaching law to the flight control design of Mini Unmanned Helicopter, and it is the better method to solve this kind of problems.

Xijin Guo; Wei Sun; Zhenfeng Li; Liangcai Ren

2010-01-01

338

Design, development, and assembly of sub-orbital space flight structural health monitoring experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a discussion of the design, development, and assembly of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) experiments launched in space on a sub-orbital flight. Onboard experiments were focused on investigating the utility of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) as active elements of spacecraft SHM systems and the electro-mechanical impedance method as a promising SHM methodology for space systems. A Magneto-elastic active sensor (MEAS) was used to record in-flight dynamics of the payload. The list of PWAS experiments included a bolted-joint experiment, an adhesive endurance experiment, and an experiment to monitor PWAS condition during spaceflight. Electromechanical impedances of piezoelectric sensors were recorded in-flight at varying input frequencies using onboard microcontroller units. PWAS and MEAS data were recovered from the payload after landing. Details of the sub-orbital flight experiments are considered and conclusions pertaining to flight results are presented. The paper discusses issues encountered during design, development, and assembly of the payload and aspects central to successful demonstration of the SHM during sub-orbital space flight.

Reiser, William; Runnels, Brandon; White, Chris; Light-Marquez, Abraham; Zagrai, Andrei; Siler, David; Marinsek, Stephen; Murray, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles; Sansom, Richard

2012-03-01

339

Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is stability under mal-function of the roll control system. The roll motion of the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle under nominal flight conditions is actively stabilized by its roll control system employing thrusters. This dissertation describes the ascent flight control design problem of Ares-I in the event of disabled or failed roll control. A simple pitch/yaw control logic is developed for such a technically challenging problem by exploiting the inherent versatility of a quaternion-based attitude control system. The proposed scheme requires only the desired inertial attitude quaternion to be re-computed using the actual uncontrolled roll angle information to achieve an ascent flight trajectory identical to the nominal flight case with active roll control. Another approach that utilizes a simple adjustment of the proportional-derivative gains of the quaternion-based flight control system without active roll control is also presented. This approach doesn't require the re-computation of desired inertial attitude quaternion. A linear stability criterion is developed for proper adjustments of attitude and rate gains. The linear stability analysis results are validated by nonlinear simulations of the ascent flight phase. However, the first approach, requiring a simple modification of the desired attitude quaternion, is recommended for the Ares-I as well as other launch vehicles in the event of no active roll control. Finally, the method derived to stabilize a large flexible launch vehicle in the event of uncontrolled roll drift is generalized as a modified attitude quaternion feedback law. It is used to stabilize an axisymmetric rigid body by two independent control torques.

Du, Wei

340

Protein Changing of Rice Mutants after Space Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Environment Biological Effect Research is a joint project of the Lab of Space Biological Effect in Harbin Institute of Technology(HIT)and the Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense. Plant seeds were first flown on JB-1 recoverable satellites, and then on ShenZhou 3, ShenZhou 4 and ShenZhou 6 dirigible balloon successively, bred in the Space Environment Biological Effect

Weihong Lu; Ge Wang; Xinzhu Wang; Yeqing Sun

2011-01-01

341

Visual control of prey-capture flight in dragonflies.  

PubMed

Interacting with a moving object poses a computational problem for an animal's nervous system. This problem has been elegantly solved by the dragonfly, a formidable visual predator on flying insects. The dragonfly computes an interception flight trajectory and steers to maintain it during its prey-pursuit flight. This review summarizes current knowledge about pursuit behavior and neurons thought to control interception in the dragonfly. When understood, this system has the potential for explaining how a small group of neurons can control complex interactions with moving objects. PMID:22195994

Olberg, Robert M

2011-12-21

342

The rhesus monkey as a model for testing the immunological effects of space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rhesus monkey has been proposed as a model for the effects of space flight on immunity. In order to determine the feasibility of the use of the Rhesus monkey as a model, we studied the use of Rhesus monkey cells for immunological procedures that have been shown to be affected by space flight in both rodents and humans. We have shown that both lymph node cells and peripheral blood leukocytes can be stained with monoclonal antibodies to detect the following surface markers: CD4, CD-8, Ia and surface immunoglobulin. Also, the level of Ia antigen expression was increased by treatment of the cells with human interferon-gamma. In addition, cells were induced to produce interferons and interleukins. Isolated neutrophils also demonstrated increased oxidative burst. These data indicate that the Rhesus monkey will be a useful model for space flight studies of immunity.

Sonnenfeld, G.; Schaffar, L.; Schmitt, D. A.; Peres, C.; Miller, E. S.

1994-08-01

343

Changes in isoform composition, structure, and functional properties of titin from Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cardiac muscle after space flight.  

PubMed

Changes in isoform composition, secondary structure, and titin phosphorylation in Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cardiac muscle were studied after 12-day-long space flight onboard the Russian spacecraft Foton-M3. The effect of titin on the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity at pCa 7.5 and 4.6 was also studied. Almost twofold increase in titin long N2BA isoform content relative to that of short N2B isoform was found on electrophoregrams of cardiac muscle left ventricle of the flight group gerbils. Differences in secondary structure of titin isolated from cardiac muscle of control and flight groups of gerbils were found. An increase in phosphorylation (1.30-1.35-fold) of titin of cardiac muscle of the flight group gerbils was found. A decrease in activating effect of titin of cardiac muscle of the flight group gerbils on actomyosin ATPase activity in vitro was also found. The observed changes are discussed in the context of M. unguiculatus cardiac muscle adaptation to conditions of weightlessness. PMID:22150276

Vikhlyantsev, I M; Okuneva, A D; Shpagina, M D; Shumilina, Yu V; Molochkov, N V; Salmov, N N; Podlubnaya, Z A

2011-12-01

344

Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg)

Dietrich E. Koelle

1988-01-01

345

Infection Control Challenges in Space Travel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions of space travel create a unique challenge to infection prevention. Ground-based and in-flight research has demonstrated multiple alterations in the immune system that likely increase the risk of infection caused by intracellular and extrace...

L. Mermel

2012-01-01

346

A full-flight-envelope high-bandwidth rotorcraft flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a Lynx-like helicopter vary considerably over the operational flight envelope, and, to meet proposed handling quality requirements, it seems probable that a single linear time-invariant controller will not be able to provide adequate performance far from the design operating point. The authors outline two possible schemes, based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) structure, currently being considered as

D. Walker; I. Postlthewaite

1991-01-01

347

Improved embedded flight control system design process using integrated system design\\/code generation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing sophistication and criticality of embedded flight control systems is increasing the need for correct system implementation\\/error removal before flight control systems are fielded for flight. Competing with this need are pressures to make corrections and design changes quickly to minimize the cost and schedule impacts during development, especially ground and flight test activities. In this paper we present

R. Banning; M. Roesch; A. Morgan

1994-01-01

348

Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique 'Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive...

I. M. Gregory N. T. Nguyen S. M. Joshi

2008-01-01

349

The NASA light-emitting diode medical program-progress in space flight and terrestrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is supported and managed through the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-SBIR Program. Studies on cells exposed to microgravity and hypergravity indicate that human cells need gravity to stimulate cell growth. As the gravitational force increases or decreases, the cell function responds in a linear fashion. This poses significant health risks for astronauts in long termspace flight. LED-technology developed for NASA plant growth experiments in space shows promise for delivering light deep into tissues of the body to promote wound healing and human tissue growth. This LED-technology is also biologically optimal for photodynamic therapy of cancer. .

Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Whelan, Noel T.; Donohoe, Deborah L.; Cwiklinski, Joan; Schmidt, Meic H.; Gould, Lisa; Larson, David L.; Meyer, Glenn A.; Cevenini, Vita; Stinson, Helen

2000-01-01

350

Optoelectronics research for communication programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current optoelectronics research and development of high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters, high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers, pointing, acquisition and tracking components, and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is reviewed. Program hardware and space flight milestones are presented. It is believed that these experiments will pave the way for intersatellite optical communications links for both the NASA Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and commercial users in the 21st century.

Krainak, Michael A.

351

Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a flight with a young student and a pilot as you learn about the 4 aerodynamic forces which are present when air is moving past an object such as an airplane.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-22

352

Autonomous flight control for an RC helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an autopilot system for a Radio Controlled (RC) helicopter, in a simulation environment. The controller is designed using Fuzzy Logic in order to achieve simplicity and cost effectiveness. The system controls the helicopter from takeoff to landing, allowing the craft to reach any position and hover stably with a defined yaw attitude at the request of the

Michael Camilleri; Kenneth Scerri; Saviour Zammit

2012-01-01

353

Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two year...

B. Mayeaux C. Soares D. Edwards E. Christiansen H. Barsamian J. Alred J. Golden J. Kern M. Peldey P. Boeder R. R. Milkatarian S. L. Koontz T. Schneider

2003-01-01

354

FLASH fly-by-light flight control demonstration results overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fly-By-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program developed Fly-By-Light (FBL) and Power-By-Wire (PBW) technologies for military and commercial aircraft. FLASH consists of three tasks. Task 1 developed the fiber optic cable, connectors, testers and installation and maintenance procedures. Task 3 developed advanced smart, rotary thin wing and electro-hydrostatic (EHA) actuators. Task 2, which is the subject of this paper,l focused on integration of fiber optic sensors and data buses with cable plant components from Task 1 and actuators from Task 3 into centralized and distributed flight control systems. Both open loop and piloted hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations were conducted with centralized and distributed flight control architectures incorporating the AS-1773A optical bus, active hand controllers, optical sensors, optimal flight control laws in high speed 32-bit processors, and neural networks for EHA monitoring and fault diagnosis. This paper overviews the systems level testing conducted under the FLASH Flight Control task. Preliminary results are summarized. Companion papers provide additional information.

Halski, Don J.

1996-10-01

355

Effect of 90-day space flight (MDS-ISS) on immunological parameters in mice: lymphocyte distribution and function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidation of the effects of space flight on the immune system of astronauts and other animal species is important for the survival and success of manned space flight, especially long-term missions. Space flight exposes astronauts to microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and various psycho-social stressors. Blood samples from astronauts returning from space flight have shown changes in the numbers and types of circulating leukocytes. Similarly, normal lym-phocyte homeostasis has been shown to be severely affected in mice using ground-based models of microgravity and GCR exposure, as demonstrated by profound effects on several immuno-logical parameters examined by other investigators and ourselves. In particular, lymphocyte numbers are significantly reduced and subpopulation distribution is altered in the spleen, thy-mus, and peripheral blood following hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice. Lymphocyte depletion was found to be mediated through corticosteroid-induced apoptosis, although the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction is still under investigation. The proliferative capacity of TCR-stimulated lymphocytes was also inhibited after HU. We have similarly shown that mice exposed to high-energy 56Fe ion radiation have decreased lymphocyte numbers and perturba-tions in proportions of various subpopulations, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells in the spleen, and maturation stages of immature T cells in the thymus. To compare these ground-based results to the effects of actual space-flight, fresh spleen and thymus samples were recently obtained from normal and transgenic mice immediately after 90 d. space-flight in the MDS, and identically-housed ground control mice. Total leukocyte numbers in each organ were enumerated, and subpopulation distribution was examined by flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25, DX-5, and CD11b. Splenic T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 and assessed for proliferation after 2-4 d., and production of several cytokines was examined using Luminex technology and quantitative PCR. These data are currently being collected and analyzed.

Roberts, Arthur; Lhuillier, Andrew; Liu, Yi; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Shi, Yufang

356

Development of grazing incidence devices for space-borne time of flight mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time of flight mass spectrometer is widely used to study space plasmas in planetary and solar missions. This space-borne instrument selects ions in function of their energy through an electrostatic analyzer. Particles are then post-accelerated to energies in the range of 20 keV to cross a carbon foil. At the foil exit, electrons are emitted and separated from ion beam in the time of flight section. A first detector (a Micro-Channel Plate or MCP) emits a start signal at electron arrival and a second one emits a stop signal at incident ion end of path. The time difference gives the speed of the particle and its mass can be calculated, knowing its initial energy. However, current instruments suffer from strong limitations. The post acceleration needs very high voltage power supplies which are heavy, have a high power consumption and imply technical constraints for the development. A typical instrument weighs from 5 to 6 kg, includes a 20 kV power supply, consumes a least 5 W and encounters corona effect and electrical breakdown problems. Moreover, despite the particle high energy range, scattering and straggling phenomena in the carbon foil significantly reduce the instrument overall resolution. Some methods, such as electrostatic focus lenses or reflectrons, really improve mass separation but global system efficiency remains very low because of the charge state dependence of such devices. The main purpose of our work is to replace carbon foil by grazing incidence MCP's - also known as MPO's, for Micro Pore Optics - for electron emission. Thus, incident particles would back-scatter onto the channel inner surface with an angle of a few degrees. With this solution, we can decrease dispersion sources and lower the power supplies to post accelerate ions. The result would be a lighter and simpler instrument with a substantial resolution improvement. We have first simulated MPO's behavior with TRIM and MARLOWE Monte-Carlo codes. Energy scattering and output angle computed are promising, but imply some limitations in terms of input ion beam control. An experimental device has been designed and built to confirm these theoretical results from samples supplied by PHOTONIS. We will also be able to test other parameters concerning MPO's and their coating. Finally, we have developed an optimization software, which manages simulation programs, to find the best way to implement MPO's in a direct time of flight mass spectrometer. For the instrument definition, we have been led to deal with critical points, such as MPO - electrostatic analyzer coupling, electron beam control, or attainable mass resolution. We are now starting the prototype electronic and mechanical development. This work is made in collaboration with the PHOTONIS Company and it is supported by the CNES.

Cadu, A.; Devoto, P.; Louarn, P.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

2012-04-01

357

Design and simulation of advanced fault tolerant flight control schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research effort describes the design and simulation of a distributed Neural Network (NN) based fault tolerant flight control scheme and the interface of the scheme within a simulation/visualization environment. The goal of the fault tolerant flight control scheme is to recover an aircraft from failures to its sensors or actuators. A commercially available simulation package, Aviator Visual Design Simulator (AVDS), was used for the purpose of simulation and visualization of the aircraft dynamics and the performance of the control schemes. For the purpose of the sensor failure detection, identification and accommodation (SFDIA) task, it is assumed that the pitch, roll and yaw rate gyros onboard are without physical redundancy. The task is accomplished through the use of a Main Neural Network (MNN) and a set of three De-Centralized Neural Networks (DNNs), providing analytical redundancy for the pitch, roll and yaw gyros. The purpose of the MNN is to detect a sensor failure while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the failed sensor and then to provide failure accommodation. The actuator failure detection, identification and accommodation (AFDIA) scheme also features the MNN, for detection of actuator failures, along with three Neural Network Controllers (NNCs) for providing the compensating control surface deflections to neutralize the failure induced pitching, rolling and yawing moments. All NNs continue to train on-line, in addition to an offline trained baseline network structure, using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA), with the flight data provided by the AVDS simulation package. The above mentioned adaptive flight control schemes have been traditionally implemented sequentially on a single computer. This research addresses the implementation of these fault tolerant flight control schemes on parallel and distributed computer architectures, using Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) sockets and Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter-process communication.

Gururajan, Srikanth

358

Quantitation of Tissue Loss During Prolonged Space Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from Skylab missions related to tissue loss in space were analyzed. Significant changes in gross body composition occur during spaceflight, these include: alterations in water balance resulting from headward shifts of fluid, loss of musculoskeletal t...

J. I. Leonard

1979-01-01

359

Sol Invictus - Heliophilic Elements in Early Russian Space Flight Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common historiographic theory refers to the space age as an extrapolation of the Age of the Enlightenment. According to this thesis, the Copernican transformation of man's place in the universe, and the gradual divergence of science away from Judeo-Christian theology, paved the road to the application of scientific and technological methodologies to the age-old notion of space travel. As an anti-thesis to this historiographic tradition, and in particular reference to the Russian case, one can point at the influence of certain metaphysical elements alien to the Enlightenment, some of which were pagan, on the birth of the space age. At the centre of this metaphysical foundation of astronautics stands the heliophilic motif, namely - the attribution of monistic potency to the sun, and the pursuit of an anthropo-solar affinity by way of space travel.

Tolkowsky, G.

360

Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on LDEF were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chroloplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

1994-10-01

361

Instrumented personal exercise during long-duration space flights.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of instrumented personal exercise performed in flight by the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 crewmen. These data include physiological responses to maximum aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at the conclusion of an 84-d exposure to zero-G (Sklyab 4). The bioinstrumentation provided continuous vectorcardiograph heart rate and cycle ergometer work level; minute updates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, VO-2, V-CO-2, and VE. All Skylab 4 crewmen had higher V-O-2-max (cc/kg/min) at completion of the 84-d earth orbital mission than they had 4 d before launch. Two of these Skylab 4 crewmen, the scientist pilot and pilot, showed high levels of aerobic fitness with V-O-2-max of 54 and 51 cc/kg/min respectively at a heart rate of 185 beats/min and a workload of 286 w. PMID:1147874

Sawin, C F; Rummel, J A; Michel, E L

1975-04-01

362

PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES IN LONG-TERM SPACE FLIGHT: OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal evidence of the individual and interpersonal problems that occurred during the Shuttle-Mir Space Program (SMSP) and other long-duration Russian\\/Soviet missions, and studies of personnel in other isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments suggest that psychosocial elements of behavior and performance are likely to have a significant impact on the outcome of long-duration missions in space. This impact may range

Lawrence A. Palinkas

2001-01-01

363

Space Interferometry Mission: flight system and configuration overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, NASA's Origins Program will launch the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), a 10-meter-baseline optical interferometry instrument, into an Earth-trailing solar orbit. This instrument will be comprised of four parallel optical interferometers whose prime mission objective is to perform astrometric measurements at unprecedented accuracy. Launched by the Space Shuttle and boosted into its final trajectory by an integral propulsion system,

Peter Kahn; Kim M. Aaron

2003-01-01

364

Adaptive control laws for F-8 flight test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an adaptive flight control system design for NASA's F-8 digital fly-by-wire research aircraft. This design implements an explicit parallel maximum likelihood identification algorithm to estimate key aircraft parameters. The estimates are used to compute gains in simplified quadratic-optimal command augmentation control laws. Design details for the control laws and identifier are presented, and performance evaluation results from

GUNTER STEIN; GARY L. HARTMANN; RUSS C. HENDRICK

1977-01-01

365

[Investigations of human body liquids in long-duration space flight].  

PubMed

The hydration status of a Russian member on a six-month ISS mission was evaluated by bio-impedancemetry during monthly sessions of experiment Sprut (Octopus). Body liquids tended to diminish gradually and measured minimum values on the landing day. By the end of mission the total volume of liquids reduced by 18.9 %; the intracellular and extracellular portions lost 19.0 and 20.4 %, respectively. Time history of specific body liquids was identical in flight. Reductions in the body mass and lean mass (according to impedancemetry) reached 6.9 % and 8.0 %, respectively. These results point to a decrease in the human body hydration status during long-duration space flight concurrent to losses in the muscle mass. In two weeks after landing there was an implicit trend toward regaining the pre-flight hydration status and body mass; yet, both parameters were still below pre-flight values. PMID:15909843

Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Morukov, B V; Malenchenko, Iu I

366

Fault Tolerant Flight Control - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nowadays, control systems are involved in nearly all aspects of our lives. They are all around us, but their presence is not\\u000a always really apparent. They are in our kitchens, in our DVD-players, computers and our cars. They are found in elevators,\\u000a ships, aircraft and spacecraft. Control systems are present in every industry, they are used to control chemical reactors,

Michel Verhaegen; Stoyan Kanev; Redouane Hallouzi; Colin Jones; Jan Maciejowski; Hafid Smail

367

Fiber optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FOPMN is a fiber-optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications. An avionics bay protected electro-optic interface unit transmits light down fiber optic cable to an optical sensor housed in the harsh environment of a hydraulic actuator. The interface unit also receives the sensor's reflected pattern and calculates independent positions from the multiplexed signals. This paper discusses the

Sandy L. Harper

1994-01-01

368

High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Flight Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Program, managed and funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center, is a cooperative effort between NASA and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). The program objective is to develop and flight demonstrate an advanced high stability...

G. W. Gallops J. C. DeLaat J. S. Orme L. J. Kerr M. G. Welsh R. D. Southwick R. P. Kielb

1998-01-01

369

Ideal free flight through multiple aircraft neighboring optimal control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general term for any air traffic management concept that minimizes restrictions on aircraft operations while maintaining or improving upon the current level of safety is free flight. This paper proposes an ideal free night concept and develops a practical algorithm based on neighboring optimal control. The mathematical development is carried out for a two-aircraft conflict resolution scenario, followed by

M. R. Jardin

2000-01-01

370

THE DESIGN OF FLY-BY-WIRE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an advanced Flight Control System (FCS) is a technically challenging task for which a range of engineering disciplines have to align their skills and efforts in order to achieve a successful system design. This paper presents an overview of some of the factors, which need to be considered, and is intended to serve as an introduction to

Chris Fielding

371

Safety critical avionics for the 777 primary flight controls system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new technologies in flight control avionics systems selected for the Boeing 777 airplane program consists of the following: Fly-By-Wire (FBW), ARINC 629 Bus, Deferred Maintenance. The FBW must meet extremely high levels of functional integrity and availability. The heart of the FBW concept is the use of triple redundancy for all hardware resources: computing system, airplane electrical power, hydraulic

Y. C. Yeh

2001-01-01

372

Clearance of Nonlinear Flight Control Laws Using Hybrid Evolutionary Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of two evolutionary optimisation methods, namely differential evolution and genetic algorithms, to t he clearance of nonlinear flight control laws for highly augmen ted aircraft is described. The algorithms are applied to the problem of evaluating a nonlinear handling qualities clearance cri terion for a simulation model of a high performance aircraft with a delta canard configuration and

Prathyush P. Menon; Jongrae Kim; Declan G. Bates; Ian Postlethwaite

2006-01-01

373

MEMS based bioelectronic neuromuscular interfaces for insect cyborg flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first direct control of insect flight by manipulating the wing motion via microprobes and electronics introduced through the Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT). EMIT is a novel hybrid biology pathway for autonomous centimeter-scale robots that forms intimate electronic-tissue interfaces by placing electronics in the pupal stage of insect metamorphosis. Our new technology may enable insect cyborgs

A. Bozkurt; R. Gilmour; D. Stern; A. Lal

2008-01-01

374

Steerable Adaptive Bullet (StAB) piezoelectric flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines a new class of piezoelectric flight control actuators which are specifically intended for use in guided hard-launched munitions from under 5.56mm to 40mm in caliber. In March of 2011, US Pat. 7,898,153 was issued, describing this new class of actuators, how they are mounted, laminated, energized and used to control the flight of a wide variety of munitions. This paper is the technical conference paper companion to the Patent. A Low Net Passive Stiffness (LNPS) Post Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric actuator element for a 0.40 caliber body, 0.50 caliber round was built and tested. Aerodynamic modeling of the flight control actuator showed that canard deflections of just +/-1° are more than sufficient to provide full flight control against 99% atmospherics to 2km of range while maintaining just 10cm of dispersion with lethal energy pressure levels upon terminal contact. Supersonic wind tunnel testing was conducted as well as a sweep of axial compression. The LNPS/PBP configuration exhibited an amplification factor of 3.8 while maintaining equivalent corner frequencies in excess of 100 Hz and deflection levels of +/-1°. The paper concludes with a fabrication and assembly cost analysis on a mass production scale.

Barrett, Ron; Barnhart, Ryan; Bramlette, Richard

2012-03-01

375

[Analysis of Belamcanda chinensis with space flight mutagenesis by FTIR].  

PubMed

The amorphous active components of the space mutagenesis Belamcanda chinensis and the ground group were measured, compared and analyzed. The purpose was to get a comprehensive understanding of the changes in quality of the 4th generation space mutagenesis Belamcanda chinensis, accumulate data for further studies, and try to establish the quality criterions of space mutagenesis Belamcanda chinensis. The result shows that the FTIR spectra of the space sample are almost the same as that of the ground one in terms of the main absorption peaks positions and shapes, but there are obvious differences in intensities. The intensity of the absorption peak at 1 642 and 1 318 cm(-1) of the space group was remarkably enhanced than the ground group, but at 1 541, 1 456, 1 417 and 1 051 cm(-1) it was decreased compared to the ground group. At the same time, the peak at 1 642 cm(-1) of the stretching vibration of C=O, the characteristic absorption of the keto, was remarkably enhanced. The peaks at 1 541 and 1 456 cm(-1) were assigned to C-C groups, the peak at 1 417 cm(-1) was due to the -CH2- groups, the peak at 1 318 cm(-1) was the characteristic absorption of calcium oxalate monohydrate, and the peak at 1 051 cm(-1) was assigned to C-O groups. It was shown that the relative content of flavone was increased distinctly. Space mutation breeding is conducive to breeding new varieties of highly active ingredients, it is also one of the ways to innovate germplasm resources of Chinese medicines efficiently. The effect of the space group is expected to be enhanced than the ground group, but it needs to be proved through further research. PMID:19798954

Zhang, Hong-Mei; Guan, Ying; Shi, Jin-Shan

2009-07-01

376

The rocket as spacecraft - Spent stages in manned space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical review of design concepts for a spent-stage living compartment in space is presented. Consideration is given to concepts developed in conjunction with the S-IV and S-V rockets of the Apollo program, including the airlock and multiple docking adapter concept (1965); an orbital docking cluster concept (1966); and an S-IVB spent propulsive stage docked to the airlock of the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM). The applications of a spent stage in future Space Station designs is also discussed. It is pointed out that the current high funding levels for NASA Space Station development activities may eliminate the need for the cost savings inherent in the spent-stage design.

Compton, W. D.

1985-04-01

377

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's testbed for CCSDS compatible systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A testbed for flight and ground systems compatible with the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Recommendations has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The subsystems of an end-to-end CCSDS based data system are being developed. All return link CCSDS telemetry services (except Internet) and both versions of the CCSDS frame formats are being implemented. In key areas of uncertainty, multiple design approaches are being performed. In addition, key flight-qualifiable hardware components, such as Reed-Solomon encoders, are being developed to complement the testbed element development. The testbed and its capabilities are described. The method of dissemination of the testbed results are given, as are plans to make the testbed capabilities available to outside users. Plans for the development of standardized conformance and compatibility tests are provided.

Carper, Richard D.

1993-03-01

378

[The influence of space flight factors on the growth and development of super dwarf wheat cultivated in greenhouse Svet].  

PubMed

In 1996-1997 an experiment with super dwarf wheat (Greenhouse-2) was made aboard the orbital complex MIR as a part of the MIR-NASA space science program. The article deals with the main production and morphometric characteristics of plants that completed their vegetation cycle in the space flight. Lengths of the whole cycle of vegetation and its individual stages were essentially same as in ground control experiments. Dry mass of one plants equal, the number of headed shoots was in 2.7 times less in the flight harvest as compared with the control. The height of shoots was reduced by one half. No seeds were found in the heads formed in space. The architecture of heads was substantially different from what had been observed in the preceeding ground control experiments: mass of the heads was halved and lengths of inflorescence and palea awn shortened. The number of spikelets in a head reduced up to 8-10 vs. 13-14 in the controls, whereas the number of florets per a spikelet averaged 5 vs. 3 in the controls. The experiments showed that mainly the most profound changes in the productive and morphometric parameters of the super dwarf wheat plants were largely caused by the phytotoxic effects of ethylene rather than spaceflight specific factors as its concentrations in the MIR air amount to 0.3-1.8 mg/m3. PMID:10399554

Levinskikh, M A; Sychev, V N; Derendiaeva, T A; Signalova, O B; Salisbury, F B; Campbell, W F; Babenheim, D

1999-01-01

379

Work, Exercise, and Space Flight. 3: Exercise Devices and Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a pro...

W. Thornton

1989-01-01

380

Space Interferometry Mission flight software management challenges and lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space interferometry mission (SIM) under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been an ambitious project which when completed will determine the positions and distances of stars several hundred times more accurately than any previous program. This accuracy will allow SIM to determine the distances to stars throughout the galaxy and to probe nearby stars for Earth-sized planets. [1

Marek W. Tuszynski

2009-01-01

381

Molecular analysis of rice plant mutated after space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained several rice mutants planted from seeds flown on recoverable satellites. Some new traits, such as good yields, diseases resistances and higher nutrient values, have been identified, putatively as consequences of the space environment. Radiation inside the Chinese recoverable satellite was composed of low flux of high energy particles (>40 Mev\\/u). To study the mechanisms of plant mutations

Z. Cheng; C. Li; L. Wei; D. Xu; D. Gu; S. Guan; H. Zhao; P. Xin; Y. Sun

2004-01-01

382

The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the…

Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

2010-01-01

383

The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty

384

A new control method with perfect tracking control for flight simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

For enhancing the performance of flight simulator, perfect tracking control (PTC) was introduced. Moreover, for dealing with the parameters uncertainty of the plant, system identification based on neural network (NN) was added. Also, PID controller and disturbance observer (DOB) was introduced. In addition, the priority and rationality were proved by simulation and experiment. HE flight simulator is a typical servo

Wu Yunjie; Wang Junfeng; Liu Xiaodong; Tian Dapeng

2011-01-01

385

Robust Longitudinal Flight Controller Design for the Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a robust longitudinal flight controller for the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is presented in this paper. The non-standard dynamic characteristics of air-breathing hypesonic flight vehicles together with the aerodynamic effects of hypersonic flight make the flight control of such systems highly challenging. Moreover the wide range of speed during operation and the lack of a broad flight dynamics

Wei Jian-li; Yu Yun-feng

2008-01-01

386

Research and Technology, 1993: Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and Technology 1993: Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center features articles by some of the scientists and engineers who help make programs such as Skylab and Spacelab come alive. Contents include: Salute to Skylab and Spacelab Two De...

H. C. Stinson G. F. McDonough C. R. Chappell S. H. Morgan W. C. Snoddy G. R. Wallace

1993-01-01

387

Study of the Radiation Environment on Board the Space Shuttle Flight STS-57.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on space shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle...

G. D. Badhwar W. Atwell E. V. Benton A. L. Frank R. P. Keegan

1995-01-01

388

Graviperception in the flagellate Euglena gracilis during a shuttle space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a recent space flight, gravitaxis of the unicellular photosynthetic flagellate, Euglena gracilis, was studied on board of the American shuttle Columbia. Accelerations were varied between 0 and 1.5 × g using a slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The cells showed a sigmoidal response curve for the dependence of the precision of gravitaxis on acceleration which is indicative of the

Donat-P. Häder; Andreas Rosum; Jochen Schäfer; Ruth Hemmersbach

1996-01-01

389

Development of an isochronous time-of-flight mass spectrometer for determination of space plasma parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

For plasma composition measurements in space, the usual magnet spectrometers are increasingly replaced by time-of-flight (TOF) instruments. The authors have developed a prototype for a cylindrical, high-resolution (M\\/DeltaM > 50) isochronous TOF-mass spectrometer, to be used in combination with an electrostatic energy-analyzer. They present numerical simulations and first experimental results.

L. Gubler; E. Moebius; P. Bochsler

1993-01-01

390

An Improvement on Space Focusing Resolution in Two-Field Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS) is a sophisticated device for the mass selective analysis of a variety of samples. The main limitation on TOFMS technique is the obtainable resolution where the two main limiting factors are the initial space and energy spread of particles created in ionization region. Similar charged particles starting at different points will reach the detector at different

M. Yildirim; O. Sise; R. Aydin; U. Akin; M. Ulu; M. Dogan; H. S. Kilic

2007-01-01

391

Twelve channel optical fiber connector assembly: from commercial off the shelf to space flight use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The commercial,off the shelf (COTS) twelve channel optical fiber MTP array connector and ribbon cable assembly is being validated for space flight use and the results of this ,study to date ,are presented here. The ,interconnection system implemented,for the Parallel Fiber Optic Data Bus (PFODB) physical layer will include a 100 \\/140 micron diameter optical fiber in the cable

Joy Bretthauer

392

Twelve channel optical fiber connector assembly: from commercial off the shelf to space flight use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial off the shelf (COTS) twelve channel optical fiber MTP array connector and ribbon cable assembly is being validated for space flight use and the results of this study to date are presented here. The interconnection system implemented for the Parallel Fiber Optic Data Bus (PFODB) physical layer will include a 100 \\/140 micron diameter optical fiber in the

Melanie N. Ott

393

Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean

Y. Gaubin; B. Pianezzi; G. Gasset; H. Plannel; E. E. Kovalev

1986-01-01

394

Space flight qualification on a multifiber ribbon cable and array connector assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) cooperatively with Sandia National Laboratories completed a series of tests on three separate configurations of multi-fiber ribbon cable and MTP connector assemblies. These tests simulate the aging process of components during launch and long-term space environmental exposure. The multi-fiber ribbon cable assembly was constructed of non-outgassing materials, with radiation-hardened, graded index 100\\/140-micron optical fiber.

Xiaodan Jin; Melanie N. Ott; Frank V. LaRocca; Ronald M. Baker; Bianca E. N. Keeler; Patricia R. Friedberg; Richard F. Chuska; Mary C. Malenab; Shawn L. Macmurphy

2006-01-01

395

Space Flight Qualification on a Multi-Fiber Ribbon Cable and Array Connector Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) cooperatively with Sandia National Laboratories completed,a series of tests on three separate configurations of multi-fiber ribbon cable and MTP connector assemblies. These tests simulate the aging process of components,during launch,and long-term space environmental exposure. The multi-fiber ribbon cable assembly was constructed of non-outgassing materials, with radiation-hardened, graded index 100\\/140-micron optical fiber. The results

Xiaodan Jin; Melanie N. Ott; Frank V. Larocca; Ronald M. Baker; Bianca E. N. Keeler; Patricia R. Friedberg; Richard F. Chuska; Mary C. Malenab; L Shawn

396

Distributed optimization and flight control using collectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of aerospace systems demands new approaches for their design and control. Approaches are required to address the trend towards aerospace systems comprised of a large number of inherently distributed and highly nonlinear components with complex and sometimes competing interactions. This work introduces collectives to address these challenges. Although collectives have been used for distributed optimization problems in

Stefan Richard Bieniawski

2006-01-01

397

Microprocessor Control of Low Speed VSTOL Flight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project has been to design an improved three-axis stability augmentation system (SAS) for the AV-8B Advanced Harrier VSTOL aircraft using microprocessor-based digital control. The research focuses on improving the handling qualities ...

R. V. Walters

1979-01-01

398

Failure Detection, Identification and Reconfiguration in Flight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we describe issues arising in Failure Detection, Identification and Reconfiguration (FDIR) in flight control.\\u000a The fault accommodation problem is stated and discussed, followed by the derivation of models of sensor and control effector\\u000a failures and structural damage. Corresponding FDIR schemes that minimize the effect of different failures and structural damage\\u000a are presented next, and their properties are

Jovan Boškovi?; Raman Mehra

399

Space flight requirements for fiber optic components: qualification testing and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Qualification" of fiber optic components holds a very different meaning than it did ten years ago. In the past, qualification meant extensive prolonged testing and screening that led to a programmatic method of reliability assurance. For space flight programs today, the combination of using higher performance commercial technology, with shorter development schedules and tighter mission budgets makes long term testing and reliability characterization unfeasible. In many cases space flight missions will be using technology within years of its development and an example of this is fiber laser technology. Although the technology itself is not a new product the components that comprise a fiber laser system change frequently as processes and packaging changes occur. Once a process or the materials for manufacturing a component change, even the data that existed on its predecessor can no longer provide assurance on the newer version. In order to assure reliability during a space flight mission, the component engineer must understand the requirements of the space flight environment as well as the physics of failure of the components themselves. This can be incorporated into an efficient and effective testing plan that "qualifies" a component to specific criteria defined by the program given the mission requirements and the component limitations. This requires interaction at the very initial stages of design between the system design engineer, mechanical engineer, subsystem engineer and the component hardware engineer. Although this is the desired interaction what typically occurs is that the subsystem engineer asks the components or development engineers to meet difficult requirements without knowledge of the current industry situation or the lack of qualification data. This is then passed on to the vendor who can provide little help with such a harsh set of requirements due to high cost of testing for space flight environments. This presentation is designed to guide the engineers of design, development and components, and vendors of commercial components with how to make an efficient and effective qualification test plan with some basic generic information about many space flight requirements. Issues related to the physics of failure, acceptance criteria and lessons learned will also be discussed to assist with understanding how to approach a space flight mission in an ever changing commercial photonics industry.`

Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; Chuska, Richard; Friedberg, Patricia; Malenab, Mary; Matuszeski, Adam

2006-05-01

400

Human Hibernation for Space Flight - Utopistic Vision or Realistic Possibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slowing-down the ageing process and prolongation of our life-times have been dreams of mankind for a very long time. Nowadays, in the age of expeditions to space, reduction of energetic needs has become a more practical goal, as it could help in the exploration of extraterrestrial destinations which otherwise, due to their huge distance away from earth and to the insufficient velocity of space vehicles, would be out of human reach [1]. Even though this might seem somewhat utopistic, the new goal gives reason to reconsider the current knowledge on metabolic reduction in nature and to adopt a realistic view of the degree of hypometabolism which might be achievable in humans. In the following, two aspects of this problem will be reviewed: first, the theoretical (biological) position of human adults among hibernating and non- hibernating mammals, and second, the practical (clinical) attempts to make humans hypometabolic.

Singer, D.

401

Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle Main Engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloy-Z, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using

David S. Hoffman

1993-01-01

402

Review of Photonic Component Readiness for Space Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at known gaps between the existing performance, design and reliability of active photonics devices for space applications. Specifically it examines these performance, design and reliability gaps for high power multimode fiber-coupled pump lasers and single mode fiber-coupled pump lasers. Some mention will also be made regarding DFB lasers and high frequency fiber-coupled photodetectors. Existing commercial devices are

A. Rosiewicz

2007-01-01

403

Analysis of genetic variation in Ganoderma Lucidum after space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified CTAB method was used in the extraction of total cellular DNA of Ganoderma lucidum. Four strains Cx, Ch, C3 and C4, and their counterparts, four space flown strains Sx, Xh, S3 and S4, were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with several primer combinations. Polymorphic bands were detected between Sx and Cx, S3 and C3, respectively. Somatic

Jian-Jun Qi; Rong-Cai Ma; Xiang-Dong Chen; Jin Lan

2003-01-01

404

Ground and flight testing for aircraft guidance and control  

SciTech Connect

A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

Onken, R.; Rediess, H.A.

1984-12-01

405

Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights  

SciTech Connect

This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration.

N.N. Gorelenkov; L.E. Zakharov; and M.V. Gorelenkova

2001-07-11

406

Molecular analysis of rice plant mutated after space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained several rice mutants planted from seeds flown on recoverable satellites. Some new traits, such as good yields, diseases resistances and higher nutrient values, have been identified, putatively as consequences of the space environment. Radiation inside the Chinese recoverable satellite was composed of low flux of high energy particles (>40 Mev/u). To study the mechanisms of plant mutations induced by the space environment, we used dry rice seeds as a model to identify the phenotype of mutations, and used the wealth of the rice genome to identify the mutated genes in the mutants. The research included collecting rice plant mutants in the seeds flown on the satellites, identifying the nature of genomic and proteomic alterations, modifications and identifying the functional changes of the specific genes. The study showed that the rice seeds are a good model for exploring biological effect of space environment since 1) it is easy fly the seeds without specific hardware and crew work, 2) it is easy to obtain pure mutant breed lines for cloning DNA sequence in order to compare with the sequence in the wild type, and 3) it is easy to quantitatively analyze genetics using advanced molecular techniques.

Cheng, Z.; Li, C.; Wei, L.; Xu, D.; Gu, D.; Guan, S.; Zhao, H.; Xin, P.; Sun, Y.

407

Status and efficacy of countermeasures to physiological deconditioning from space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent biomedical investigations conducted on the Space Shuttle and Spacelab have provided a wealth of biomedical information, including the ability to test the efficacy of proposed countermeasures. This achievement was made possible by the ability to conduct mechanistic and control-interventive studies simultaneously with a large number of individuals over a relatively brief period, and to compare these data with results obtained from the Skylab missions. Comparisons between short- and long-duration results were limited to establishing trends or extrapolating from short-duration missions. To date, we have evaluated several protocols involving the lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) device, the bicycle-ergometer, the treadmill and preparations for body-fluid replenishment. In many instances, the traditional means of applying these protocols were not sufficient to protect against space-related deconditioning. This paper will review current countermeasures and compare their efficacy to that of existing protocols. Results from in-flight and ground-based experiments will be presented to illuminate the recommended protocols and procedures.

Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S.; Sawin, C.

408

Control of Large Space Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control of large space structures was studied to determine what, if any, limitations are imposed on the size of spacecraft which may be controlled using current control system design technology. Using a typical structure in the 35 to 70 meter size cat...

R. Gran M. Rossi H. G. Moyer F. Austin

1979-01-01

409

Retrofit reconfigurable flight control in the presence of control effector damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the development and implementation of an integrated retrofit reconfigurable flight control design for control effector damage compensation is presented. The proposed damage-adaptive control system has the capability of detecting and identifying flight-critical actuator failures and control effector damage, and rejecting the state-dependent disturbances arising due to the asymmetry of the damaged vehicle. The proposed damage-adaptive control system

J. D. Boskovic; Sarah E. Bergstrom; Raman K. Mehra

2005-01-01

410

Optimization and Simulation of Flight Control Laws under Parameter Uncertainty and External Disturbances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several tasks pertinent to flight control in parameter uncertainty and wind-gust loading were successfully completed. Identification algorithms for extracting stability and control derivatives from flight data taking gust loading into account were develop...

1979-01-01

411

Analysis of genetic variation in Ganoderma Lucidum after space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified CTAB method was used in the extraction of total cellular DNA of Ganoderma lucidum. Four strains Cx, Ch, C3 and C4, and their counterparts, four space flown strains Sx, Xh, S3 and S4, were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with several primer combinations. Polymorphic bands were detected between Sx and Cx, S3 and C3, respectively. Somatic incompatibility tests further confirmed their heterogeneity. However, no disparity between Sh and Ch, S4 and C4 was detectable. The results suggest that spaceflight may be used to accelerate breeding of Ganoderma lucidum strains for commercial cultivation.

Qi, Jian-Jun; Ma, Rong-Cai; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Lan, Jin

412

Plant growth chamber based on space proven controlled environment technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Devices, Inc., in conjunction with Percival Scientific, Inc., and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) have developed a controlled environment plant growth chamber for terrestrial agricultural and scientific applications. This chamber incorporates controlled environment technology used in the WCSAR ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit for conducting plant research on the Space Shuttle. The new chamber, termed CERES 2010, features air humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide control, an atmospheric contaminant removal unit, an LED lighting system, and a water and nutrient delivery system. The advanced environment control technology used in this chamber will increase the reliability and repeatability of environmental physiology data derived from plant experiments conducted in this chamber.

Ignatius, Ronald W.; Ignatius, Matt H.; Imberti, Henry J.

1997-01-01

413

Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight.  

PubMed

By the turn of this century, long-duration space missions, either in low Earth orbit or for got early planetary missions, will become commonplace. From the physiological standpoint, exposure to the weightless environment results in changes in body function, some of which are adaptive in nature and some of which can be life threatening. Important issues such as environmental health, radiation protection, physical deconditioning, and bone and muscle loss are of concern to life scientists and mission designers. Physical conditioning techniques such as exercise are not sufficient to protect future space travellers. A review of past experience with piloted missions has shown that gradual breakdown in bone and muscle tissue, together with fluid losses, despite a vigorous exercise regimen can ultimately lead to increased evidence of renal stones, musculoskeletal injuries, and bone fractures. Biological effects of radiation can, over long periods of time increase the risk of cancer development. Today, a vigorous program of study on the means to provide a complex exercise regimen to the antigravity muscles and skeleton is under study. Additional evaluation of artificial gravity as a mechanism to counteract bone and muscle deconditioning and cardiovascular asthenia is under study. New radiation methods are being developed. This paper will deal with the results of these studies. PMID:11536975

Nicogossian, A E; Rummel, J D; Leveton, L; Teeter, R

1992-01-01

414

NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the tragic accident involving the space shuttle Columbia, the remainder of NASA's space shuttle fleet has been grounded indefinitely. This paper is "a periodically updated document demonstrating our progress toward safe return to flight and implementation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations." Nearly 250 pages in length, the paper looks at specific systems of the space shuttle and identifies those that need to be upgraded, replaced, or redesigned to ensure a greater level of safety for future missions. It also addresses scenarios for dealing with shuttle damage during a mission and repairing it. This document is Revision 1.1 of Volume 1, and many more revisions can be expected over the long process of returning to flight.

415

Accumulation of Tumor Suppressor P53 in Rat Muscle After a Space Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor suppressor p53 functions as a cell cycle checkpoint under stressful conditions. Early studies have shown that genotoxic stress activates p53 pathway. Recently, many kinds of non-genotoxic stress such as heat shock, cold shock, and low pH also have been found to activate p53 pathway. The effects on living organism remains to be explored. Here, we show that an 18-day space flight induced a 3.6 fold accumulation of p53 in rat skeletal muscle. This results suggests that the p53 pathway plays a role in safeguarding genomic stability against the stressful space environments and supports our previous observation of p53 accumulation in rat skin after a space flight

Ohnishi, T.; Wang, X.; Fukuda, S.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Nagaoka, S.

416

Comparison of laboratory and in-flight performance of infared array camera (IRAC) detector arrays on Spitzer Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer Space Telescope includes four Raytheon Vision Systems focal plane arrays, two with InSb detectors, and two with Si:As detectors. A brief comparison of pre- flight laboratory results vs. in-flight performance is given, including quantum efficiency and noise, as well as a discussion of irregular effects, such as residual image performance, "first frame effect", "banding", "column pull-down" and multiplexer bleed. Anomalies not encountered in pre-flight testing, as well as post-flight laboratory tests on these anomalies at the University of Rochester and at NASA Ames using sister parts to the flight arrays, are emphasized.

Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Forrest, William J.; McCreight, Craig R.; McKelvey, Mark E.; McMurray, Robert E., Jr.; Johnson, Roy R.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Allen, Lori E.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barmby, Pauline; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Huang, Jiasheng; Marengo, Massimo; Megeath, S. Thomas; Pahre, Michael A.; Patten, Brian M.; Wang, Zhong; Willner, Steven P.; Hoffmann, William F.; Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Arendt, Richard G.; Krebs, Danny J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Gorjian, Varoujan; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Glaccum, William J.; Lacy, Mark D.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Carey, Sean J.; Laine, Seppo J.; Stauffer, John R.; Surace, Jason A.; Reach, William T.; Wilson, Gillian

2004-10-01

417

A potential role for bat tail membranes in flight control.  

PubMed

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

Gardiner, James D; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L

2011-03-30

418

A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control  

PubMed Central

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control.

Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

2011-01-01

419

Effects of an eight-day space flight on microvibration and physiological tremor.  

PubMed

Microgravity was used to study accelerometrically recorded microvibration (MV) and postural tremor (PT) at reduced muscle tone on one cosmonaut before, during, and after an 8-day space flight on the Russian Mir station. MV of the relaxed forearm in the 1 g environment showed the typical 7- to 13-Hz resonance oscillations triggered by the heart beat. In 0 g, these pulsations shifted to below 5 Hz and the waveform became similar to an ultralow frequency acceleration ballistocardiogram. PT of the arm stretched forward showed an irregular waveform in 1 g. In 0 g, the higher-frequency components were reduced and again an ultralow frequency ballistocardiogram emerged. As a control, hand force tremor was recorded as well; it was not affected by the gravity condition. A second-order analog with muscle stiffness (C) as parameter was used to evaluate the measurements. For MV it could be shown that cardiac impacts produce damped resonance oscillations when C is high enough (1 g). At low C (0 g), this resonance phenomenon is essentially filtered out. For PT both neuromuscular and cardiovascular forces produce an irregular output; when C is lowered (0 g) the higher-frequency content is strongly reduced. It is concluded that both MV and PT waveforms are sensitive to musculoskeletal stiffness, such that at the lowest stiffness achieved the cardiac impact dominates. In 1 g, the cosmonaut's data were not significantly different from the results in a control group (n = 6). PMID:9249536

Gallasch, E; Moser, M; Kozlovskaya, I B; Kenner, T; Noordergraaf, A

1997-07-01

420

Control of Flexible Structures-2 (COFS-2) Flight Control, Structure and Gimbal System Interaction Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second Control Of Flexible Structures Flight Experiment (COFS-2) includes a long mast as in the first flight experiment, but with the Langley 15-m hoop column antenna attached via a gimbal system to the top of the mast. The mast is to be mounted in th...

S. Fay S. Gates T. Henderson L. Sackett K. Kirchwey

1988-01-01

421

Vision-based control of near-obstacle flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel control strategy, which we call optiPilot, for autonomous flight in the vicinity of obstacles. Most existing autopilots rely on a complete 6-degree-of-freedom state\\u000a estimation using a GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and are unable to detect and avoid obstacles. This is a limitation\\u000a for missions such as surveillance and environment monitoring that may

Antoine Beyeler; Jean-christophe Zufferey; Dario Floreano

2009-01-01

422

UHB demonstrator interior noise control flight tests and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement and analysis of MD-UHB (McDonnell Douglas Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator noise and vibration flight test data are described as they relate to passenger cabin noise. The analyses were done to investigate the interior noise characteristics of advanced turboprop aircraft with aft-mounted engines, and to study the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise. The

M. A. Simpson; P. M. Druez; A. J. Kimbrough; M. P. Brock; P. L. Burge; G. P. Mathur; M. R. Cannon; B. N. Tran

1989-01-01

423

[An algorithm to compute the radiation risk during interplanetary space flights].  

PubMed

The algorithm of estimation of the radiation risk to cosmonauts on long-term interplanetary missions stems from new approaches to the estimation of radiation hazard, calculation of generalized dose inputs from various space radiations, hypothesized probability of human death due to exposure to varying doses of standard radiation. These data allow calculation of radiation risk from deterministic sources along the flight trajectory and stochastically distributed in time solar flares. Results of this calculation can be further used to correlate the in-flight radiation risk with mission length, shield thickness, solar cycle, and age of cosmonauts. They may be additionally used to compare the in-flight radiation risk with the national demographic risk of male lethality over a similar period. PMID:10485036

Shafirkin, A V; Venediktova, V P; Kolomenski?, A V; Petrov, V M; Shurmakov, V A

1999-01-01

424

[Growth and development of plants in a row of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-5)].  

PubMed

Results of the experiment aimed at harvesting a second space generation of wheat var. Apogee in Mir greenhouse Svet (experiment GREENHOUSE-5) are presented. In space flight, germination rate of space seeds from the first crop made up 89% against 100% of the ground seeds. The full biological ripeness was observed in 20 plants grown from the ground seeds and one plant grown from the space seeds following 80- to 90-d vegetation. The plant of the second space generation was morphologically different neither from the species in the first space crop nor from the ground controls. To study the biological characteristics of Apogee seeds gathered in the first and second crops in spaceflight experiment GREENHOUSE-5, the seeds were planted on their return to the laboratory. Morphometric analysis showed that they were essentially similar to the controls. Hence, the space experiments in Mir greenhouse Svet performed during 1998-1999 gave proof that plants cultivated in microgravity can pass the ontogenetic cycle more than once. However, initial results of the investigations into growth and development of plants through several generations are still in-sufficient to speak of possible delayed effects of the spaceflight factors (microgravity, multicomponent radiation, harmful trace contaminants etc.). PMID:11668959

Levinskikh, M A; Sychev, V N; Derendiaeva, T A; Signalova, O B; Podol'ski?, I G; Avdeev, S V; Bingheim, G E

2001-01-01

425

Space Stable Thermal Control Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important aspect of satellite operation in a space environment is thermal control design. Various coatings having desired optical properties have been used to achieve passive thermal control of different spacecraft. IITRI's S13G/LO coating has found wi...

R. J. Mell Y. Harada

1987-01-01

426

First controlled vertical flight of a biologically inspired microrobot.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present experimental results on altitude control of a flying microrobot. The problem is approached in two stages. In the first stage, system identification of two relevant subsystems composing the microrobot is performed, using a static flapping experimental setup. In the second stage, the information gathered through the static flapping experiments is employed to design the controller used in vertical flight. The design of the proposed controller relies on the idea of treating an exciting signal as a subsystem of the microrobot. The methods and results presented here are a key step toward achieving total autonomy of bio-inspired flying microrobots. PMID:21878707

Pérez-Arancibia, Néstor O; Ma, Kevin Y; Galloway, Kevin C; Greenberg, Jack D; Wood, Robert J

2011-08-30

427

Effects of Space Flight Conditions on the Function of the Immune System and Catecholamine Production Simulated in a Rodent Model of Hindlimb Unloading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rodent model of hindlimb unloading has been successfully used to simulate some of the effects of space flight conditions. Previous studies have indicated that mice exposed to hindlimb-unloading conditions have decreased resistance to infections compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in resistance to infection in

Hernan Aviles; Tesfaye Belay; Monique Vance; Gerald Sonnenfeld

2005-01-01

428

Development of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the determination of stable isotope ratios: Application to a space-flight opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the application of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer to the measurement of stable isotope ratios within the Rosetta space-flight mission has been undertaken. The ion trap is an attractive choice due to its mechanical simplicity and compact nature, and potentially offers versatile performance through its facile control via software. A standard, commercially available instrument formed the

Simeon James Barber

1999-01-01

429

Integrated Flight\\/Propulsion Control Design for a STOVL Aircraft using H-Infinity Control Design Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from an application of H¿ control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight\\/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic Short Take¿Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The emphasis is on formulating the H¿ control design problem such that the resulting controller provides robustness to modelling uncertainties and model parameter variations with flight

Sanjay Garg; Peter J. Ouzts

1991-01-01

430

Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control studies.

Olcer, Fahri Ersel

431

Tolerance of yeast to ethanol decreased after space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industry microorganism and the tolerance to ethanol is one of the main characteristics to decide its yield potential USA researchers reported that E coli cells growing in simulated microgravity environment were much more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and production-inhibitory effects of ethanol than cells growing in shaken flasks In this research we will investigate the tolerance of yeast to ethanol in real microgravity environment Method S cerevisiae cells were cultured for 18 d in YPD medium containing various concentrations of ethanol 0 6 8 and 10 V V during the China s 22 th recoverable satellite mission Optical density living cells counts metabolism and morphology in each culture were measured S cerevisiae cells were exposed to 20 V V ethanol to investigate the tolerance to ethanol Result The biomass of cells culture at 0 times g is 40 lower than that of the ground control in medium of YPD With the increase of concentration of ethanol in medium the rate of living cells decreased steeply especially in 0 times g culture The living cell of 0 times g is 65 5 lower than the control cells The viability of 0 times g cells and ground control cells exposed to 20 ethanol for 6h is 1 7 and 10 5 respectively No remarkable differences were found in the cell morphology and glucose consumption Conclusion These results suggest that under

Xia, B.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z.; He, J.; Jiang, X.; Fan, Y.; Zhuang, F.

432

Activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats after space flight on the COSMOS biosatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indicators of adrenomedullary activity (catecholamine content (CA) and the activity of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH)) were measured in the adrenal glands of rats living in a state of weightlessness for 18.5-19.5 days on board the biosatellites COSMOS 936 and COSMOS 1129. None of these indicators was significantly changed by space flight, neither in the group living in a state of weightlessness nor in the group living in a centrifuge on board the spacecraft and exposed to artificial gravity of 1 g (COSMOS 936). Animals exposed after space flight to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal adrenaline and an appreciable increase in adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. These results suggest that a prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight does not by itself represent an intensive stressful stimulus for the adrenomedullary system but potentiates the response of cosmonauts to stress after return to Earth.

Kvet?anský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, Š.; Macho, L.; Tigranyan, R. A.

433

Providing controlled environments for plant growth in space.  

PubMed

Providing a controlled environment for growth of plants in a space environment involves development of unique technologies for the various subsystems of the plant growing facility. These subsystems must be capable of providing the desired environmental control within the operational constraints of currently available space vehicles, primarily the US Space Shuttle or the Russian Space Station, MIR. These constraints include available electrical power, limited total payload mass, and limited volume of the payload. In addition, the space hardware must meet safety requirements for a man-rated space vehicle. The ASTROCULTURE (TM) space-based plant growth unit provides control of temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration of the plant chamber air. A light emitting diode (LED) unit provides red and blue photons with a total intensity adjustable from 0 to 500 micromoles m-2 s-1. Ethylene released by the plant material is removed with a non-consumable ethylene removable unit. A porous tube and rooting matrix subsystem is used to supply water and nutrients to the plants. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight unit is sized to be accommodated in a single middeck locker of the US Space Shuttle, the SPACEHAB module, and with slight modification in the SPACELAB module. The environmental control capabilities of the subsystems used in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight unit have been validated in a microgravity environment during five US Space Shuttle missions, including two with plants. The unique environmental control technologies developed for the space-based plant growth facility can be used to enhance the environmental control capabilities of terrestrial controlled environment plant chambers. PMID:11541567

Bula, R J; Ignatius, R W

1996-12-01

434

Aircraft parameter identification for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parameter identification study was conducted to identify a detailed aircraft mathematical model for application within a fault-tolerant flight control system that aims to detect, identify, and accommodate for sensor and actuator failures. Specifically, a mathematical model was identified under nominal conditions for two aircraft platforms, and a model was developed for one platform under actuator failure conditions. These models are to be used in flight control law design and to account for actuator failures on the primary control surfaces for one of the research platforms. In order to accurately model the aircraft behavior following a control surface failure, the effects of an individual surface on the aircraft dynamics was estimated. Since an individual control surface deflection---for example in the event of a locked actuator---causes a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics, additional terms were identified in the state space and stability and control derivative mathematical models. These models were derived from measured flight data acquired from pilot and automated computer-injected maneuvers under both nominal and failure conditions. From this analysis, the stability and control derivatives were extracted to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments on each aircraft. These aerodynamics were next introduced into a simulation environment to validate the accuracy of the identified mathematical models. A Data Compendium (DATCOM) -- based analysis was conducted in order to provide a means of comparison of the models obtained through the parameter identification study and to provide constraints on parameter optimization. Finally, a confidence interval analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the estimated values. Several simulation studies were conducted to validate the accuracy of the models for each research platform, focusing on both nominal and primary control surface failure conditions where applicable. The model outputs were compared to the measured flight data from the two respective research platforms to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters.

Phillips, Kerri B.

435

Effect of space flight factors on osteogenetic processes in the bone skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space flight factors (space radiation, magnetic fields etc.) affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia in the bone skeleton. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bone epiphyses and metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks. It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and osteoclasts. Among them are typical osteoclasts with 3 to 4 nuclei on a section, as well as the "giant" cells with 5 to 6 nuclei and a highly developed zone 2, in which organelles and structures are concentrated, providing for specific functions (primary and secondary lysosomes, heterophagous vacuoles, fibrous layer and "brush border"). The availability of these functionally active osteoclasts testify to the intensification of resorptive processes in remodelling zones. To confirm the obtained electronmicroscopic findings, the experiments were conducted on albino rats under model microgravity conditions ("tail suspension" method) with the use of radionuclides. The experiments with 3H-glycine demonstrated a lower isotope uptake in the osteogenetic cells compared with the control. The autoradiographic studies employing 3H-thymidine, showed that hind limbs unloading leads to a significant acceleration of osteoclast formation in zones of spongy bone reconstruction. To conclude, the cell mechanisms of osteoclast - osteoblast remodelling and bone tissue loss under the action of space flight factors are discussed.

Rodionova, Natalia Vasilievna; Oganov, Victor Sumbatovich

436

Characterization of the Twelve Channel 100\\/140 Micron Optical Fiber, Ribbon Cable and MTP Array Connector Assembly for Space Flight Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented here is the second set of testing conducted by the Technology Validation Laboratory for Photonics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the 12 optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector for space flight environments. In the first set of testing the commercial 62.5\\/125 cable assembly was characterized using space flight parameters (published in SPIE Vol. 3440 ).(1)

Patricia Friedberg

437

Human water, sodium, and calcium regulation during space flight and exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the urinary output of water, sodium, and calcium. This research involves developing a mathematical description of how water and electrolytes are internally redistributed and exchanged with the environment during space flight. This model consequently involves kidney function and the associated endocrine system. The model agrees well with actual data, including that a low sodium diet can prevent bone demineralization. Therefore, assumptions made to develop the model are most likely valid. Additionally, various levels of activity are also considered in the model since exercise may help to eliminate some of the undesired effects of space flight such as muscle atrophy and bone demineralization.

Doty, S. E.; Seagrave, R. C.

438

Human water, sodium, and calcium regulation during space flight and exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the urinary output of water, sodium, and calcium. This research involves developing a mathematical description of how water and electrolytes are internally redistributed and exchanged with the environment during space flight. This model consequently involves kidney function and the associated endocrine system. The model agrees well with actual data, including that a low sodium diet can prevent bone demineralization. Therefore, assumptions made to develop the model are most likely valid. Additionally, various levels of activity are also considered in the model since exercise may help to eliminate some of the undesired effects of space flight such as muscle atrophy and bone demineralization.

Doty, S. E.; Seagrave, R. C.

2000-05-01

439

Post-flight test results of seed laser module subjected to space exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

Prasad, Narasimha S.

2013-09-01

440

Flight Characteristics of a Manned, Low-Speed, Controlled Deep Stall Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful manned, low speed, controlled deep stall flight research program was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Piloting techniques were established that enabled the pilot to attain and stabilize on an angle of ...

A. G. Sim

1984-01-01

441

Model Following Control System Design: Preliminary ATTAS in-Flight Simulation Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary Advanced Technologies Testing Aircraft System (ATTAS) inflight simulation flight test results of the model following flight control system are described. A major portion of the current effort was directed towards estimating the time delays...

S. Chetty F. Henschel

1990-01-01

442

A study of the radiation environment on board the Space Shuttle flight STS57  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on Space Shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The Shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5° inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle spectrometer, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and two area passive detectors consisting of combined NASA plastic nuclear track

G. D. Badhwar; W. Atwell; E. V. Benton; A. L. Frank; R. P. Keegan; V. E. Dudkin; O. N. Karpov; Yu. V. Potapov; A. B. Akopova; N. V. Magradze; L. V. Melkumyan; Sh. B. Rshtuni

1995-01-01

443

Pseudo control compensation based neural network dynamic inversion super maneuverable flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudo control compensation based neural network dynamic inversion control is applied in super-maneuverable flight control. The base control law is designed in nonlinear dynamic inversion; neural networks are used to adaptively cancel inversion error. Pseudo control compensator is designed to cancel the interaction between actuator and adaptive neural networks. Simulations show that limitation that needs accurate mathematical model in dynamic

Jiaqiang Zhul; Suofeng Guo; Jihong Zhu

2004-01-01

444

Mast Flight System Dynamic Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MAST Flight System as a test bed for large space structure control algorithms is discussed. An overview is given of the control system architecture. The actuators, the sensors, the control computer, and the baseline damping algorithm are discussed.

L. Davis D. Hyland T. Otten F. Ham

1986-01-01

445

Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Augmentors and Resulting Flight Stability and Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund Project 93-05, Part III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents the control requirements, the details of the designed Flight Control Augmentor's (FCA's), the static stability and dynamic stability wind tunnel test programs, the static stability and control analyses, the dynamic stability char...

C. Barret

1997-01-01

446

The Virginia Space Flight Center model for an integrated federal/commercial launch range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until 1998, the federal government has been the predominant purchaser of space launches in the U.S. through the purchase of hardware and services. Historically, the government provided the necessary infrastructure for launches from the federal DoD and NASA launch ranges. In this historical model, the federal government had complete ownership, responsibility, liability, and expense for launch activities. In 1998, commercial space launches accounted for 60% of U.S. launches. This growth in commercial launches has increased the demand for launch range services. However, the expense, complexity of activities, and issues over certification of flight safety have deterred the establishment of purely commercial launch sites, with purely commercial being defined as without benefit of capabilities provided by the federal government. Provisions of the Commercial Space Launch Act have enabled DoD and NASA to support commercial launches from government launch ranges on a cost-reimbursable, non-interference basis. The government provides services including use of facilities, tracking and data services, and range and flight safety. In the 1990's, commercial space market projections indicated strong potential for large numbers of commercial satellites to be launched well into the first decade of the 21st century. In response to this significant opportunity for economic growth, several states established spaceports to provide the services necessary to meet these forecast commercial needs. In 1997, NASA agreed to the establishment of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC), a commercial spaceport, at its Wallops Flight Facility. Under this arrangement, NASA agreed to allow the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) to construct facilities on NASA property and agreed to provide launch range and other services in accordance with the Space Act and Commercial Space Launch Act in support of VSFC launch customers. A partnership relationship between NASA and VCSFA has emerged which pairs the strengths of the established NASA Test Range and the state-sponsored, commercial launch facility provider in an attempt to satisfy the needs for flexible, low-cost access to space. The continued viability of the VSFC and other commercial spaceports depend upon access to a space launch and re-entry range safety system that assures the public safety and is accepted by the public and government as authoritative and reliable. DoD and NASA budget problems have resulted in deteriorating services and reliability at federal ranges and has caused fear with respect to their ability to service the growing commercial market. Numerous high level studies have been conducted or are in progress that illuminate the deficiencies. No federal agency has been provided the necessary funding or authority to address the nations diminishing space launch capability. It is questionable as to whether the U.S. can continue to compete in the global space launch market unless these domestic space access problems are rapidly corrected. This paper discusses a potential solution to the lack of a coordinated response in the U.S. to the challenge presented by the global market for space launch facilities and services. .

Reed, Billie M.

2000-01-01

447

Off-state conductance measurements of the NIST\\/Lockheed Martin miniature pulse tube flight cryocooler: Laboratory vs. Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage miniature pulse tube (PT) cryocooler, designed for a Space Shuttle flight demonstration, was built and tested at Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and at the NIST Boulder Lab. The Miniature PT Flight Cryocooler (MPTFC) was designed to provide 0.15 W of cooling at 80 K with heat rejection at 275 K. It was developed as the smallest cryocooler of

D. R. Ladner; R. Radebaugh; P. Bradley

2002-01-01

448

Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the comparison of carbon monoxide ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements with data obtained during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space (MAPS) flights are presented. Spectroscopic measurements were performed correlatively with April and October MAPS flights by nine research groups from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, and the United States. Characterization of the techniques and error

N. S. Pougatchev; B. Sen; L. P. Steele; G. C. Toon; L. N. Yurganov; R. Zander; Y. Zhao; P. Demoulin; A. V. Dzhola; H. Fast; E. I. Grechko; J. W. Hannigan; M. Koike; Y. Kondo; E. Mahieu; W. G. Mankin; R. L. Mittermeier; J. Notholt; H. G. Reichle

1998-01-01

449

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel

2001-09-06

450

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-06-15

451

Great Zoom out of Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Mangos, Michael; Mcginnis, John; Williams, Darrel

2001-12-01

452

Perspective on the consequences of short- and long-duration space flight on human physiology.  

PubMed

During the past three decades, humans have made significant progress in accomplishing their aspirations for exploring the Moon and the planets. It is now appreciated that humans undergo a remarkable number of physiologic adaptations in microgravity that affect most physiologic systems. Space motion sickness was one of the first adaptations that humans experienced in microgravity. However, it is self-limiting and, most of the time, is effectively treated pharmacologically. Of particular concern is that, in microgravity, there is marked wasting of the skeletal musculature and skeleton that appears to be unrelenting and could impact on the health and welfare of space travelers during prolonged space flights and on return to earth. Microgravity also has a significant impact on the cardiovascular system that could have potentially serious consequences in terms of cardiovascular health during long-duration space flights. Other adaptations such as decreased T-cell responsiveness and changes in circadian rhythms is only now being explored. We need to understand the role that microgravity has on human physiologic systems in order to develop strategies for permitting humans to experience prolonged microgravity without having significant impact on their health and welfare. Engineering some gravitational force as a component of long-duration space vehicles should be given a high priority. PMID:11541539

Holick, M F

1999-01-01

453

U.S. manned space flight: The first twenty years. A biomedical status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years, the biomedical problems facing man in space have been brought into sharper focus. Space motion sickness is presently our most serious problem. Its etiology remains obscure, but the "sensory conflict" theory appears most plausible. No valid predictive tests of susceptibility exist and presently we must rely on medication for prevention or mitigation of symptoms. Adaptation/biofeedback techniques may prove useful. Cardiovascular "deconditioning" may be effectively attenuated by use of anti-g suits or plasma expanding techniques. Recent bedrest simulation studies would seem to indicate that concerns about chronically elevated central venous pressure during space flight are unfounded. The loss of red cell mass in space flight appears to be self-limited, independent of mission duration, and not of clinical concern, based on recent Soviet experiences. And finally, clodronate, a new diphosphonate effective in preventing hypercalciuria and negative calcium balance in normal human bedrested subjects, may prove effective in preventing or lessening skeletal mineral loss in space.

Dietlein, Lawrence F.; Johnston, Richard S.

454

The Scientific Visualization Studio at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientific Visualization Studio is a part of the Scientific Applications and Visualization Branch of the Space Data and Computing Division at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It is tasked to provide advanced data visualization support to users of the NASA Center for the Computational Sciences and other NASA funded scientific researchers in both the space and Earth Sciences. Such support includes providing both software and expertise in visualizing large, complex, multidimensional data sets, and in creating videos, films, and other forms of hardcopy of the results. Hardware and software tools include a Cray Y/MP, a Convex C3240, a MasPar MP-1, a family of SGI workstations, video disks and recorders in all the international standards, color printers, photographic and movie transfer tools, and IDL, AVS, and FAST. We demonstrate these capabilities, as applied to various Earth and space science data sets, through a variety of annotated images and a video.

White, R. A.; Strong, J. E.; Pape, D. E.; Mitchell, H. G.; McConnell, A.; Cavallo, J. M.; Twiddy, R. L.; Rais, H.

1993-05-01

455

Flight performance of bumble bee as a possible pollinator in space agriculture under partial gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space agriculture is an advanced life support concept for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies based on biological and ecological function. Flowering plant species are core member of space agriculture to produce food and revitalize air and water. Selection of crop plant species is made on the basis of nutritional requirements to maintain healthy life of space crew. Species selected for space agriculture have several mode of reproduction. For some of plant species, insect pollination is effective to increase yield and quality of food. In terrestrial agriculture, bee is widely introduced to pollinate flower. For pollinator insect on Mars, working environment is different from Earth. Magnitude of gravity is 0.38G on Mars surface. In order to confirm feasibility of insect pollination for space agriculture, capability of flying pollinator insect under such exotic condition should be examined. Even bee does not possess evident gravity sensory system, gravity dominates flying performance and behavior. During flight or hovering, lifting force produced by wing beat sustains body weight, which is the product of body mass and gravitational acceleration. Flying behavior of bumble bee, Bombus ignitus, was documented under partial or micro-gravity produced by parabolic flight of jet plane. Flying behavior at absence of gravity differed from that under normal gravity. Ability of bee to fly under partial gravity was examined at the level of Mars, Moon and the less, to determine the threshold level of gravity for bee flying maneuver. Adaptation process of bee flying under different gravity level was evaluated as well by successive documentation of parabolic flight experiment.

Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mitsuhata, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masami; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.