Sample records for space flight control

  1. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  2. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  3. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  4. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  5. Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

  6. Electromechanical flight control actuator. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator that will follow a proportional control command with minimum wasted energy is developed. The feasibility of meeting space vehicle actuator requirements using advanced electromechanical concepts is demonstrated. Recommendations for further development are given.

  7. Control center operations at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerton, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on control center operations at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Information is given on multi-mission, dedicated and attached payload support; the mission operations environment; technical challenges; Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science planning interface; operations engineering life cycle; Special Analysis of Maneuverable Satellites (SAMS) operations; and user interface applications.

  8. Space shuttle orbiter reaction control subsystem flight data anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. S.; Baumbach, J. J.; Roberts, B. B.

    1983-01-01

    Shuttle orbiter vehicle flight data obtained during operation of the reaction control subsystem (RCS) were compared with predictions derived from RCS wind tunnel test data. This paper reviews the derivation of the wind tunnel data base and discusses how it was used to predict the full-scale RCS effects. Flight and predicted data comparisons include the lateral and directional aerodynamic effects of firing the side jets, longitudinal aerodynamics for pitch jets, and lateral aerodynamics for roll jets. Flight data anomalies resulting from wind tunnel limitations in representing portions of the entry flight trajectory are presented. The cause of each data anomaly is described, as well as a requirement for additional technical analysis to establish RCS effect simulation parameters that can be used to update jet effect technology.

  9. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  10. Lateral stability and control derivatives extracted from space shuttle Challenger flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Flight data taken from six flights of the Space Transportation System shuttle Challenger (STS-6, 7, 8, 11, 13 and 17) during atmospheric entry are analyzed to determine the shuttle lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to data derived from accelerometer and rate gyro measurements and trajectory, meteorological and control surface data to estimate lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. The vehicle stability and control surface effectiveness are compared across the flights and to preflight predicted values.

  11. An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffles, Paul; Hua, Grace

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (Dep1Ex for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The Dep1Ex also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of Dep1Ex in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

  12. An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Hua, Grace

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (DeplEx for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The DeplEx also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of DeplEx in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

  13. Space shuttle on-orbit flight control software requirements, preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Software modules associated with various flight control functions for the space shuttle orbiter are described. Data flow, interface requirements, initialization requirements and module sequencing requirements are considered. Block diagrams and tables are included.

  14. A representational basis for the development of a distributed expert system for Space Shuttle flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helly, J. J., Jr.; Bates, W. V.; Cutler, M.; Kelem, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new representation of malfunction procedure logic which permits the automation of these procedures using Boolean normal forms is presented. This representation is discussed in the context of the development of an expert system for space shuttle flight control including software and hardware implementation modes, and a distributed architecture. The roles and responsibility of the flight control team as well as previous work toward the development of expert systems for flight control support at Johnson Space Center are discussed. The notion of malfunction procedures as graphs is introduced as well as the concept of hardware-equivalence.

  15. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  16. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  17. Fluid volume control during short-term space flight and implications for human performance.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, D E

    2001-09-01

    Space flight exerts substantial effects on fluid volume control in humans. Cardiac distension occurs during the first 1-2 days of space flight relative to supine and especially upright 1g conditions. Plasma volume contraction occurs quickly in microgravity, probably as a result of transcapillary fluid filtration into upper-body interstitial spaces. No natriuresis or diuresis has been observed in microgravity, such that diuresis cannot explain microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Reduction of fluid intake occurs irrespective of space motion sickness and leads to hypovolemia. The fourfold elevation of urinary antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels on flight day 1 probably results from acceleration exposures and other stresses of launch. Nevertheless, it is fascinating that elevated ADH levels and reduced fluid intake occur simultaneously early in flight. Extracellular fluid volume decreases by 10-15% in microgravity, and intracellular fluid volume appears to increase. Total red blood cell mass decreases by approximately 10% within 1 week in space. Inflight Na(+) and volume excretory responses to saline infusion are approximately half those seen in pre-flight supine conditions. Fluid volume acclimation to microgravity sets the central circulation to homeostatic conditions similar to those found in an upright sitting posture on Earth. Fluid loss in space contributes to reduced exercise performance upon return to 1g, although not necessarily in flight. In-flight exercise training may help prevent microgravity-induced losses of fluid and, therefore, preserve the capacity for upright exercise post-flight. Protection of orthostatic tolerance during space flight probably requires stimulation of orthostatic blood pressure control systems in addition to fluid maintenance or replacement. PMID:11581336

  18. Adjustable Control Autonomy for Manned Space Flight David Kortenkamp, Debra KeirnSchreckenghost, and R. Peter Bonasso

    E-print Network

    Kortenkamp, David

    Adjustable Control Autonomy for Manned Space Flight David Kortenkamp, Debra Keirn--- Autonomous control systems will play a larger and larger role in manned space flight. These autonomous these projects. 1 INTRODUCTION Autonomous control systems are needed to reduce operations costs for manned space

  19. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  20. Inflatable Boom Controlled Deployment Mechanism for the Inflatable Sunshield In Space (ISIS) Flight Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George H. Sapna III; John Folke; Charles R. Sandy; David P. Cadogan

    ILC Dover, Inc. has developed the wire brake Controlled Deployment Mechanism (CDM) for use in the Inflatable Sunshield In Space (ISIS) Shuttle flight experiment. The ISIS experiment is a 1\\/3 scale sunshield demonstration unit precursor to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The NGST sunshield is a 35 x 15 meter diamond shaped multi-membrane sunshield that will be used to

  1. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy

    2002-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on guidance navigation and control innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. The topics include: 1) NASA's vision; 2) NASA's Mission; 3) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE); 4) Guidance, Navigation and Control Division (GN&C); 5) Landsat-7 Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program; and 6) NASA ESE Vision.

  2. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  3. Space Shuttle third flight /STS-3/ entry RCS analysis. [Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, W. I.; Compton, H. R.; Suit, W. T.; Powell, R. W.; Blackstock, T. A.; Bates, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Flight data obtained from three Space Transportation System orbiter entries (STS-1, 2, and 3) are processed and analyzed to determine the roll interactions caused by the firing of the entry reaction control system (RCS). Comparisons between the flight-derived parameters and the predicted derivatives without interaction effects are made. The flight-derived RCS Plume flow-field interaction effects are independently deduced by direct integration of the incremental changes in the wing upper surface pressures induced by RCS side thruster firings. The separately obtained interaction effects are compared to the predicted values and the differences are discussed.

  4. Guidance, Navigation and Control Innovations at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, Aprille Joy; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses NASA's role in sponsoring on-going research projects involving innovations in spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems. Topics covered include: partnerships, ESE Spaceborne Missions, spacecraft systems supported and designed by NASA Goddard Flight Center, NASA's changing mission, Large Aperture Sensing Spectrum, Distributed Spacecraft Systems, Landsat-7/ Earth Observer-1 Co-observing Program, and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna program.

  5. Simulation of the coupled multi-spacecraft control testbed at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Dave; Montgomery, Raymond C.

    1994-01-01

    The capture and berthing of a controlled spacecraft using a robotic manipulator is an important technology for future space missions and is presently being considered as a backup option for direct docking of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station during assembly missions. The dynamics and control of spacecraft configurations that are manipulator-coupled with each spacecraft having independent attitude control systems is not well understood and NASA is actively involved in both analytic research on this three dimensional control problem for manipulator coupled active spacecraft and experimental research using a two dimensional ground based facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper first describes the MSFC testbed and then describes a two link arm simulator that has been developed to facilitate control theory development and test planning. The motion of the arms and the payload is controlled by motors located at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

  6. Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This training module was designed to help the user identify and grasp basic concepts associated with space travel and deep space missions. Separate sections deal with topics such as the physical environment of space (solar system, gravity, orbital mechanics), flight projects (mission concepts, system requirements, design, onboard systems and instruments), and flight operations (launch, cruise, encounter). Links to related topics are embedded in the text.

  7. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  8. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    NASA's George C Marshall Space Flight Center is located in Huntsville, Alabama. It is the agency's leading center for space transportation and propulsion development. The Saturn launch vehicles used in the Apollo Moon program were designed and developed here. Today, it provides the solid rocket boosters, main engines and external tank for the Space Shuttle. Apart from upgrades to these systems, M...

  10. Introduction to Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erickson, Lance

    These online lecture notes introduce students to the basics of space flight. Topics covered include: rocket motors, history of rockets, the scientific method, astronomy basics, the solar system, the universe, space flight missions, spacecraft, remote sensing, astronauts, and future spaceflight missions. This website also provides useful links and exercises intended for students taking this course. These exercises can provide teachers with ideas for their own classes.

  11. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  12. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications, 'Reliability Program Requirements for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1A-l); 'Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems,' NHB 5300.4(1E); and 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors,' NHB 5300.4(1B).

  13. Using Web 2.0 (and Beyond?) in Space Flight Operations Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Word processing was one of the earliest uses for small workstations, but we quickly learned that desktop computers were far more than e-typewriters. Similarly, "Web 2.0" capabilities, particularly advanced search engines, chats, wikis, blogs, social networking, and the like, offer tools that could significantly improve our efficiency at managing the avalanche of information and decisions needed to operate space vehicles in realtime. However, could does not necessarily equal should. We must wield two-edged swords carefully to avoid stabbing ourselves. This paper examines some Web 2.0 tools, with an emphasis on social media, and suggests which ones might be useful or harmful in real-time space operations co rnotl environments, based on the author s experience as a Payload Crew Communicator (PAYCOM) at Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) and on discussions with other space flight operations control organizations and centers. There is also some discussion of an offering or two that may come from beyond the current cyber-horizon.

  14. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Flights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic Controllers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible interactive space to support air traffic control of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment, an operational, complex system already based on basic mixedFlights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip'TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic

  16. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  17. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  18. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  19. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  20. Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial is designed to help identify the range of concepts associated with deep space missions and illustrate the relationships among them. The three sections deal with the environment of space (e.g., the solar system, spatial coordinates and timing conventions, interplanetary trajectories); flight projects (how missions are concieved and designed, experimentation, spacecraft subsystems, etc.); and operations (launch phase, cruise phase, data-gathering, and similar subjects). Each chapter concludes with a quiz that lets users test their knowledge. There is also a user's guide, glossary, guide to units of measure, and links to additional information. A downloadable, printable version is provided.

  1. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  2. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

  3. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from space shuttle Columbia flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish the preflight aerodynamics of the Shuttle vehicle. This paper presents the longitudinal, short-period aerodynamics of the space shuttle Columbia as determined from flight test data. These flight-determined results are compared with the preflight predictions, and areas of agreement or disagreement are noted. In addition to the short-period aerodynamics, the pitch RCS effectiveness was determined.

  4. Current concepts of space flight induced changes in hormonal control of fluid and electrolyte metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Suki, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic analysis of body fluid and renal dynamics during simulated space flight (head-down bedrest) was undertaken to increase understanding of the physiologic effects of acute cephalad fluid shifts. The earliest effects were increases in central venous pressure and decreases in plasma aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine and glomerular filtration rate, 2 h after the beginning of bedrest. Decreases in plasma angiotensin I at 6 h may have resulted from the increased effective pressure and decreased sympathetic activity seen earlier in bedrest. The early decrease in aldosterone and ADH is thought to contribute to an increase, by 6 h, in urinary excretion of salt and water. Fluid and electrolyte losses occur during space flight, and analysis of body fluids from Space Shuttle crewmembers has indicated that conservation of these substances is begun almost immediately upon cessation of weightlessness. Operational medicine measures to counteract dehydration and electrolyte loss resulted in a less extreme physiologic response to the flight.

  5. Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

  6. Flight control experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.

  7. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  8. A review of adaptive change in musculoskeletal impedance during space flight and associated implications for postflight head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Layne, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a review of converging sources of evidence which suggest that the differences between loading histories experienced in 1-g and weightlessness are sufficient to stimulate adaptation in mechanical impedance of the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this adaptive change we argue that we should observe changes in the ability to attenuate force transmission through the musculoskeletal system both during and after space flight. By focusing attention on the relation between human sensorimotor activity and support surfaces, the importance of controlling mechanical energy flow through the musculoskeletal system is demonstrated. The implications of such control are discussed in light of visual-vestibular function in the specific context of head and gaze control during postflight locomotion. Evidence from locomotory biomechanics, visual-vestibular function, ergonomic evaluations of human vibration, and specific investigations of locomotion and head and gaze control after space flight, is considered.

  9. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  10. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  11. NASA: Basics of Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online training module created by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) discusses the concepts related to deep space missions. Through a series of animations and quizzes within the eighteen chapters, visitors can learn about the solar system's environment, flight project details, and flight operations. The website is equipped with an astronomical glossary and a Units of Measure page. Although originally developed for JPL operations people, students and educators interested in interplanetary space flight will find this website very informative.

  12. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  13. Heat pipe tests on Space Shuttle flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Supper; M. Groll

    1985-01-01

    Heap pipes represent light-weight, highly efficient devices for thermal control. For this reason, their utilization is considered in the context of manned space flight missions and future space stations. Extensive ground tests have been conducted in connection with the development of heat pipe designs for space applications. However, the absence of gravity can affect the processes of heat pipe operation,

  14. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  15. Functional testing of space flight induced changes in tonic motor control by using limb-attached excitation and load devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2007-02-01

    Long term space flights induce atrophy and contractile changes on postural muscles such effecting tonic motor control. Functional testing of tonic motor control structures is a challenge because of the difficulties to deliver appropriate test forces on crew members. In this paper we propose two approaches for functional testing by using limb attached loading devices. The first approach is based on a frequency and amplitude controllable moving magnet exciter to deliver sinusoidal test forces during limb postures. The responding limb deflection is recorded by an embedded accelerometer to obtain limb impedance. The second approach is based on elastic limb loading to evoke self-excited oscillations during arm extensions. Here the contraction force at the oscillation onset provides information about limb stiffness. The rationale for both testing approaches is based on Feldman's ?-model. An arm expander based on the second approach was probed in a 6-month MIR space flight. The results obtained from the load oscillations, confirmed that this device is well suited to capture space flight induced neuromuscular changes.

  16. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  17. Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

  18. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration missions dominated these discussions and were driven by the paucity of data available. These issues along with more specific recommendations arising from the above discussions will be addressed an upcoming issue of the Journal of Vestibular Research.

  19. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological significance of space flight-induced changes in immune parameters remains to be established; however, as duration of flights increases, the potential for difficulties due to impaired immune responses also increases.

  20. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  1. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning of February 1, 2003, in a much smaller matter, the scientific products of this experiment, successfully obtained on orbit, were lost as well. As we begin to plan for missions back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions remain to be answered. Counteracting bone loss is one of the greatest challenges. Calcium kinetics studies provide a valuable tool for assessing this loss, and evaluating countermeasures.

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter http Space Flight Center's IPP Office #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpace SUA=Software Usage Agreement #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAGoddardSpace

  3. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  4. SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

  5. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  6. Space flight effects on bacterial physiology.

    PubMed

    Leys, N M E J; Hendrickx, L; De Boever, P; Baatout, S; Mergeay, M

    2004-01-01

    The study of bacterial behavior under space flight conditions is highly important for the early detection of changes in bacterial communities and bacteria with medical, environmental, or life support consequences for survival of the crew in closed space environments. Although many species of prokaryotes have been studied in ground simulation facilities or have been flown in space flights, at present only few hard research data are available to predict the effects of cosmic radiation, microgravity, vibration and hypervelocity on microbial behavior in space flight. The results that are available tend to be fragmentary and often lack a classical, controlled experimental context to interpret them. Thus, many basic questions concerning the effects of space on microbial behavior have yet to be resolved. PMID:15471227

  7. Staffing the ISS Control Centers: Lessons Learned from Long-Duration Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Carrie D.; Horvath, Timothy J.; Davis, Sally P.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been in operation with a permanent human presence in space for over five years, and plans for continued operations stretch ten years into the future. Ground control and support operations are, likewise, a 15-year enterprise. This long-term, 24-hour per day, 7 day per week support has presented numerous challenges in the areas of ground crew training, initial and continued certification, and console staffing. The Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas and the Payload Operations Center in Huntsville, Alabama have both tackled these challenges, with similar, yet distinct, approaches. This paper describes the evolution of the staffing and training policies of both control centers in a chronological progression. The relative merits and shortcomings of the various policies employed are discussed and a summary of "lessons learned" is presented. Finally, recommendations are made as best practices for future long-term space missions.

  8. Nutritional biochemistry of space flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Lane, H W

    1999-01-01

    Humans have flown in space for more than 35 years. Since that time, Americans have walked on the moon, launched two space stations (Skylab and the International Space Station), docked during orbit with a Soviet Soyuz space capsule and the Russian Mir space station, flown the only reusable space vehicle, and visited a Russian space station for more then 6 months at a time. Nutritional intake has not been considered a high priority during relatively brief flights of the Space Shuttle and other programs (i.e., less than 21 days). However, as we embark on extended-duration (i.e., > 30 days up to several years) missions, nutrition becomes a critical issue. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound. We are in the very early stages of understanding how space flight affects nutrient requirements and related issues such as absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Apart from the obvious role of providing energy and required nutrients, nutrition is also important in terms of enhancing psychosocial interactions among crews, and ameliorating some of the effects of microgravity on the body (i.e., acting as a "countermeasure"). The interrelationships among space flight, nutrition, and physiology suggest that a program of specified nutritional intake may be required to enhance mission safety and crew productivity. Defining which nutrients are essential for the space flight environment depends on a more complete understanding of how weightlessness affects physiology. Providing the required nutrients is also limited by the types of foods that can be provided by the food system on board the space craft, and the dietary habits of space crews. PMID:11541543

  9. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  10. Challenges of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

  11. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved with vibrotactile feedback of orientation.

  12. Proposal for a new radiation dose control system for future manned space flights.

    PubMed

    Semkova, J V; Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Baynov, P T; Tomov, B T; Botolier-Depois, J F; Nguen, V D; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Siegrist, M; Duvivier, E; Almarcha, B; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Makhmutov, V S

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system RADIUS-MD have been developed for the future MARS-96 mission. On the base of the results and experience of these investigations a conception for a new radiation dose control system for the future orbital stations, lunar bases and interplanetary space ships is proposed. The proposed system which consists of different instruments will allow personal radiation control for crew members, radiation monitoring inside and outside each habitat, analysis and forecasting of the situation and will suggest procedures to minimize the radiation risk. PMID:11540998

  13. Soviet deep-space flight tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, L. I.; Grishmanovskii, V. A.; Molotov, E. P.

    The structure of the Soviet Ground Automatic Control Complex for deep-space flight tracking is described. Attention is given to the tracking network stations, the operational control group at the mission control center, the ballistic center, the communication facilities, and the spacecraft tracking stations. Also described are the basic performance characteristics of the spacecraft tracking station, the trajectory measurement system, and the programmed-command information system of the Soviet spaceflight tracking network.

  14. Velocity control propulsion subsystem of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite for Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braught, W.; Moore, E. K.; Steinberg, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Velocity Control Propulsion Subsystem (VCPS) was designed the propulsion required for trajectory and lunar orbit corrections of the spacecraft. A GFE clamp assembly physically attaches the VCPS to the spacecraft and the unit is ejected after completing the required corrections. The VCPS is physically and functionally separated from the spacecraft except for the electrical and telemetry interfaces. A GFE transtage provides the superstructure on which the VCPS is assembled. The subsystem consists of two 5 foot pound rocket engine assemblies, 4 propellant tanks, 2 latching valves, 2 fill and drain valves, a system filter, pressure transducer, gas and propellant manifolds and electrical heaters and thermostats. The RAE-B VCPS program covered the design, manufacture and qualification of one subsystem. This subsystem was to be manufactured, subjected to qualification tests; and refurbished, if necessary, prior to flight. The VCPS design and test program precluded the need for refurbishing the subsystem and the unit was delivered to GSFC at the conclusion of the program.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center CFD overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutzenhofer, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been focused on hardware specific and research applications with strong emphasis upon benchmark validation. The purpose here is to provide insight into the MSFC CFD related goals, objectives, current hardware related CFD activities, propulsion CFD research efforts and validation program, future near-term CFD hardware related programs, and CFD expectations. The current hardware programs where CFD has been successfully applied are the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD), and Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). For the future near-term CFD hardware related activities, plans are being developed that address the implementation of CFD into the early design stages of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE), and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Finally, CFD expectations in the design environment will be delineated.

  16. Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.

  17. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  18. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  19. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight.

    PubMed

    Slenzka, K

    2003-01-01

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data. PMID:12971415

  20. 3-D Reconstruction of Macular Type II Cell Innervation Patterns in Space-Flight and Control Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to seek out shared organizational properties or neuronal networks and to understand better localization of synaptic changes in altered environments.

  1. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students - Duration: 10 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  2. ACES: Space shuttle flight software analysis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The Analysis Criteria Evaluation System (ACES) is a knowledge based expert system that automates the final certification of the Space Shuttle onboard flight software. Guidance, navigation and control of the Space Shuttle through all its flight phases are accomplished by a complex onboard flight software system. This software is reconfigured for each flight to allow thousands of mission-specific parameters to be introduced and must therefore be thoroughly certified prior to each flight. This certification is performed in ground simulations by executing the software in the flight computers. Flight trajectories from liftoff to landing, including abort scenarios, are simulated and the results are stored for analysis. The current methodology of performing this analysis is repetitive and requires many man-hours. The ultimate goals of ACES are to capture the knowledge of the current experts and improve the quality and reduce the manpower required to certify the Space Shuttle onboard flight software.

  3. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    A program of flying qualities experiments as part of the Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is defined. Phase 1, published as CR-170391, reviewed flying qualities criteria and shuttle data. The review of applicable experimental and shuttle data to further define the OEX plan is continued. An unconventional feature of this approach is the use of pilot strategy model identification to relate flight and simulator results. Instrumentation, software, and data analysis techniques for pilot model measurements are examined. The relationship between shuttle characteristics and superaugmented aircraft is established. STS flights 1 through 4 are reviewed from the point of view of flying qualities. A preliminary plan for a coordinated program of inflight and simulator research is presented.

  4. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  5. Ultrashort pulse lasers applied to propulsion/control in space- and atmospheric-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremeyer, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    An impulse measurement device and analysis package was conceived, designed, constructed, tested, and demonstrated to be capable of: measuring nanoNewton-seconds to milliNewton-seconds of impulse due to laser-ablation; being transported as carry-on baggage; set-up and tear-down times of less than an hour; target exchange times of less than two minutes (targets can be ablated at multiple positions for thousands of shots); measurements in air and in vacuum; error of just a few percent; repeatability over a wide range of potential systematic error sources; and time between measurements, including ring-down and analysis, of less than 30 seconds. The instrument consists of a cantilever (i.e. leaf spring), whose time-dependent displacement/oscillation is measured and analyzed to determine the impulse imparted by a laser pulse to a target. These shapes are readily/commercially available, and any target material can be used, provided it can be fashioned in the form of a cantilever, or as a coating/film/tape, suitable for mounting on a cantilever of known geometry. The instrument was calibrated both statically and dynamically, and measurements were performed on brass, steel, and Aluminum, using laser pulses of ~7ns, ~500ps, and ~500fs. The results agree well with those published in the literature, with surface effects, atmosphere, and pre-/post-pulses demonstrating interesting effects and indicating areas for further study. In addition to exploring space-propulsion applications, measurements were performed to explore the strong beneficial effects of depositing lines of energy ahead of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. This deposition creates a low-density channel, through which a vehicle can travel with dramatically reduced drag. Temperature and pressure are both also reduced on the front surfaces of the vehicle, while density and pressure are increased at the vehicle base. When applied off-center, this technique can be used to control the vehicle, employing the entire body as the control surface and eliminating the need for actuators. Numerical results for drag-reduction, temperature-reduction, and control forces are indicated here.

  6. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... true Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space...

  11. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  12. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator dynamics. The architecture is demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor.

  13. Vestibular suppression during space flight.

    PubMed

    Watt, Douglas; Lefebvre, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Normal movements performed while voluntarily fixing the head to the torso can lead to motion sickness in susceptible individuals. The underlying mechanism may involve excessive suppression of vestibular responses. A similar motor strategy is often adopted in the early days of a space flight and might contribute to the development of space motion sickness. In a recent experiment, we monitored the eye, head and upper torso rotations of four Life and Microgravity Spacelab crew members. For the purposes of this study, all data were excluded except for periods during which the subject was performing pure yaw-axis head movements. All subjects showed a significant increase in gaze slip on the first day of their mission, suggesting that increased vestibular suppression was occurring. Furthermore, this amount of increased suppression would have been more than adequate to produce motion sickness in susceptible individuals on the ground. The results support the theory of two, independent mechanisms for space motion sickness. PMID:15096678

  14. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  15. Metabolic and Regulatory Systems in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.

  16. Proposal for a new radiation dose control system for future manned space flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Semkova; Ts. P. Dachev; Yu. N. Matviichuk; R. T. Koleva; P. T. Baynov; B. T. Tomov; J. F. Botolier-Depois; V. D. Nguen; L. Lebaron-Jacobs; M. Siegrist; E. Duvivier; B. Almarcha; V. M. Petrov; V. A. Shurshakov; V. S. Makhmutov

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system

  17. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  18. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  19. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

  20. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  1. Space Shuttle technology flight instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dunstan

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the Shuttle technology flight instrumentation (TFI) system recording flight data during the operational phase of the Shuttle. Consideration is given to pertinent background information, such as Shuttle operation, flight verification, and instrumentation provided for the development and operational phase.

  2. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flown. The objective of the TCSE on the LDEF was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post-flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low Earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in the lab. The performance of the TCSE flight system on the LDEF was excellent.

  3. Air data sensors for atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Inatani; Koichi Yonemoto

    1992-01-01

    The first atmospheric reentry flight of a winged space vehicle in Japan was conducted and an Air Data Sensor (ADS) System was developed for the flight test. ADS was designed to measure flight angle-of-attack and sideslip associated with the flight Mach number. These outputs from ADS were used for the flight control loop in real time, where the Mach number

  4. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  5. Physiological adaptation to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Gaiser, Karen K.; Teeter, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    In space, adaptive physiological changes have been observed in virtually all body systems, but how far these changes progress with time is not known. Their time course demonstrates variable patterns; some systems show evidence of gradual and progressive change. Biomedical postflight data have shown that a compensatory period of readaptation to one gravity is required after space flight, with longer intervals required for longer missions. Consistent readaptation trends include orthostatic intolerance and neurovestibular difficulties. For the long-duration missions of the exploration era, it is critical to determine the extent to which deleterious changes (e.g., bone loss and possible immunological changes) can be reversed upon return to earth. Radiation protection is another critical enabling element for missions beyond low earth orbit. Radiation exposure guidelines have not been established for exploration missions. Currently our experience is insufficient to prescribe countermeasures for the stay times associated with a lunar base or a mission to Mars. Artificial gravity may provide a solution, but the level and duration of exposure necessary to prevent deconditioning must be determined. Central issues for medical care in remote settings are preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic care and the minimization of risk.

  6. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  7. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  8. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in 2004 of evaluating the tolerance limits and safe operating bands called for in the Bioastronautics Strategy. Over the next several years, the concept of the "operating bands" were turned into Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS), developed by the technical resources of the SLSD at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These standards were developed and reviewed at the SLSD and then presented to the OCHMO for acceptance. The first set of standards was published in 2007 as the NASA-STD-3001, Volume 1, Crew Health that elaborated standards for several physiological areas such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, radiation exposure and nutrition. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Human Health was published in 2011, along with development guidance in the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Taken together, the SFHSS Volumes 1 and 2, and the HIDH replaced the NASA-STD-3000 with new standards and revisions of the older document. Three other changes were also taking place that facilitated the development of the human system risk management approach. In 2005, the life sciences research and development portfolio underwent a comprehensive review through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) that resulted in the reformulation of the Bioastronautics Program into Human Research Program (HRP) that was focused on appropriate mitigation results for high priority human health risks. The baseline HRP budget was established in August 2005. In addition, the OCHMO formulated the Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) in 2006 that established the position of the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the NASA JSC along with other key technical disciplines, and the OCHMO became the responsible office for the SFHSS as noted above. The final change was the establishment in 2008 of the Human System Risk Board (HSRB), chaired by the CMO with representation from the HRP, SLSD management and technical experts. The HSRB then began to review all human system risks, established a comprehensive risk managemen

  9. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  10. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Table of Contents HETE-2 Achieves Operational Status GSFC In the Safety Corner Balloon Program Sets New Endurance Record A NASA scientific balloon has broken the previous

  12. Smokey Visits Station Flight Control Room - Duration: 14 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Smokey Bear celebrated his 68th birthday with a special visit to the International Space Station Flight Control Room at Johnson Space Center in Houston. On May 14, Smokey went where no bear had gon...

  13. Trusted Autonomy for Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Bonasso, Pete; Ingham, Mitch; Kortenkamp, David; Perix, John

    2005-01-01

    NASA has long supported research on intelligent control technologies that could allow space systems to operate autonomously or with reduced human supervision. Proposed uses range from automated control of entire space vehicles to mobile robots that assist or substitute for astronauts to vehicle systems such as life support that interact with other systems in complex ways and require constant vigilance. The potential for pervasive use of such technology to extend the kinds of missions that are possible in practice is well understood, as is its potential to radically improve the robustness, safety and productivity of diverse mission systems. Despite its acknowledged potential, intelligent control capabilities are rarely used in space flight systems. Perhaps the most famous example of intelligent control on a spacecraft is the Remote Agent system flown on the Deep Space One mission (1998 - 2001). However, even in this case, the role of the intelligent control element, originally intended to have full control of the spacecraft for the duration of the mission, was reduced to having partial control for a two-week non-critical period. Even this level of mission acceptance was exceptional. In most cases, mission managers consider intelligent control systems an unacceptable source of risk and elect not to fly them. Overall, the technology is not trusted. From the standpoint of those who need to decide whether to incorporate this technology, lack of trust is easy to understand. Intelligent high-level control means allowing software io make decisions that are too complex for conventional software. The decision-making behavior of these systems is often hard to understand and inspect, and thus hard to evaluate. Moreover, such software is typically designed and implemented either as a research product or custom-built for a particular mission. In the former case, software quality is unlikely to be adequate for flight qualification and the functionality provided by the system is likely driven largely by the need to publish innovative work. In the latter case, the mission represents the first use of the system, a risky proposition even for relatively simple software.

  14. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  15. Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocharnuk, John B.; Guy, B. C.; Webster, Edward A.; Glim, Carl J.

    1993-02-01

    The paper describes the Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC) for DC-X, which is a transportable facility consisting of ground-based telemetry, computer equipment, control logic, communications, video monitoring, and other elements necessary to control and monitor all aspects of the preflight ground checkout, take-off, and flight operations of the DC-X vehicle. Particular attention is given to the FOCC van equipment layout, the use of FOCC on DC-X, and the extension of DC-X concepts to the operational Delta Clipper fleet. Schemes are presented of some of the screens used as control centers for the subsystem checkout and monitoring the DC-X vehicle during test flights.

  16. Space shuttle horizontal flight test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosley, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A horizontal takeoff flight test concept for testing space shuttle vehicles is presented. The guidelines used in planning and support requirements for the flight tests are developed. Details of the test program are provided. The instrumentation requirements are defined. The limitations imposed by the short flight endurance and restricted maneuvering capability of the shuttle booster/orbiter in the horizontal mode are described. The test program covers the following investigations. (1) stall and lift boundary tests, (2)takeoff and landing tests, (3) level flight speed power tests, (4) longitudinal and laterial directional dynamic stability, and (5) static directional stability.

  17. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  18. More Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert R. J. Mohler

    2000-10-01

    In the November/December 1997 issue of Science and Children , the article "Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight" described a unique industry mentorship program that enabled elementary students and their teachers to contribute to research involvin

  19. Effect of aerodynamic and angle-of-attack uncertainties on the blended entry flight control system of the Space Shuttle from Mach 10 to 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis has been performed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry from Mach 10 to 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the entry flight control system specified in May 1978. The off-nominal conditions included the following: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties, (2) an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) the failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side, and (4) a lateral center-of-gravity offset. With combinations of the above off-nominal conditions, the control system performed satisfactorily with a few exceptions. The cases that did not exhibit satisfactory performance displayed the following main weaknesses. Marginal performance was exhibited at hypersonic speeds with a sensed angle-of-attack error of 4 deg. At supersonic speeds the system tended to be oscillatory, and the system diverged for several cases because of the inability to hold lateral trim. Several system modifications were suggested to help solve these problems and to maximize safety on the first flight: alter the elevon-trim and speed-brake schedules, delay switching to rudder trim until the rudder effectiveness is adequate, and reduce the overall rudder loop gain. These and other modifications were incorporated in a flight-control-system redesign in May 1979.

  20. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  1. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational training at the same time. Such efforts could support both improved health and performance on orbit and improved operational training in the most efficient manner.

  2. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  3. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight participant before flight on how to respond to emergency situations, including smoke, fire, loss of cabin pressure, and emergency...

  4. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight participant before flight on how to respond to emergency situations, including smoke, fire, loss of cabin pressure, and emergency...

  5. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight participant before flight on how to respond to emergency situations, including smoke, fire, loss of cabin pressure, and emergency...

  6. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight participant before flight on how to respond to emergency situations, including smoke, fire, loss of cabin pressure, and emergency...

  7. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight participant before flight on how to respond to emergency situations, including smoke, fire, loss of cabin pressure, and emergency...

  8. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  9. Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

    This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

  10. Effects of Space Flight on Rodent Tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.

    1997-01-01

    As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.

  11. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data inputs with the outputs provided to instrumentation only. The IFCS was not used to control the airplane. In another stage of the flight test, the Phase I pre-trained neural network was integrated into a Phase III version of the flight control system. The Phase I pretrained neural network provided realtime stability and control derivatives to a Phase III controller that was based on a stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique (SOFFT). This combined Phase I/III system was operated together with the research flight-control system (RFCS) of the F-15 ACTIVE during the flight test. The RFCS enables the pilot to switch quickly from the experimental- research flight mode back to the safe conventional mode. These initial IFCS ACP flight tests were completed in April 1999. The Phase I/III flight test milestone was to demonstrate, across a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions, that the pre-trained neural network could be used to supply real-time aerodynamic stability and control derivatives to the closed-loop optimal SOFFT flight controller. Additional objectives attained in the flight test included (1) flight qualification of a neural-network-based control system; (2) the use of a combined neural-network/closed-loop optimal flight-control system to obtain level-one handling qualities; and (3) demonstration, through variation of control gains, that different handling qualities can be achieved by setting new target parameters. In addition, data for the Phase-II (on-line-learning) neural network were collected, during the use of stacked-frequency- sweep excitation, for post-flight analysis. Initial analysis of these data showed the potential for future flight tests that will incorporate the real-time identification and on-line learning aspects of the IFCS.

  12. Autorotation flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  13. Extraction of stability and control derivatives from orbiter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter has provided unique and important information on aircraft flight dynamics. This information has provided the opportunity to assess the flight-derived stability and control derivatives for maneuvering flight in the hypersonic regime. In the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, these derivatives are required to determine if certain configuration placards (limitations on the flight envelope) can be modified. These placards were determined on the basis of preflight predictions and the associated uncertainties. As flight-determined derivatives are obtained, the placards are reassessed, and some of them are removed or modified. Extraction of the stability and control derivatives was justified by operational considerations and not by research considerations. Using flight results to update the predicted database of the orbiter is one of the most completely documented processes for a flight vehicle. This process followed from the requirement for analysis of flight data for control system updates and for expansion of the operational flight envelope. These results show significant changes in many important stability and control derivatives from the preflight database. This paper presents some of the stability and control derivative results obtained from Space Shuttle flights. Some of the limitations of this information are also examined.

  14. Metabolic changes in the animals subjected to space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Németh, Štefan; Kvet?anský, Richard; Ficková, Maria; Tigranian, Ruben A.; Serova, Ljubov

    1982-07-01

    The activity of the enzymes involved in aminoacid metabolism (tyrosine aminotransferase, TAT, tryptophan pyrrolase TP, serine dehydratase, SD) with rapid response to glucocorticoids and enzymes requiring for activity increase repeated administration of corticosterone (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, AST) in liver, the changes of lipolysis in adipose tissue and the plasma corticosterone levels were studied in rats subjected to space flight (F), in animals from synchron model experiments (SM, simulated conditions of space flight in laboratory) and in intact controls (C). The increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and of the activity of rapidly (TAT, TP, SD) and slowly activating enzymes (ALT, AST) was found in F group 6-10 hr after space flight (18.5 days on biosatellite COSMOS 1129). This suggested the presence of acute-stress (associated primarily with the landing) and chronic stress induced hypercorticosteronemia during the flight. After the short 6-day period of recovery the plasma corticosterone concentrations and the activities of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to repeated immobilization stress showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. No changes in basal lipolysis were observed in flight rats in comparison to intact controls, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lover in animals from F and SM groups. This lower response of lipolytic processes to norepinephrine was found in flight animals also after six days period of recovery. These results showed that there are important changes in the regulation of lipolytic processes in adipose tissue of rats after space flight and in the conditions of model experiments.

  15. Space station configuration and flight dynamics identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metter, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will be assembled in low earth orbit by a combination of deployable and space erectable modules that are progressively integrated during successive flights of the Shuttle. The crew assisted space construction will result in a configuration which is a large scale composite of structural elements having connectivity with a wide range of possible end conditions and imprecisely known dynamic characteristics. The generic applications of Flight Dynamics Identification to the candidate Space Station configurations currently under consideration are described. Identification functions are categorized, and the various methods for extracting parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of specific characteristics of interest to both engineering subsystems and users of the Station's commercial and scientific facilities. Onboard implementation architecture and constraints are discussed from the viewpoint of maximizing integration of the Identification process with the flight subsystem's data and signal flow.

  16. Computational Physics for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on computational physics for space flight applications. The topics include: 1) Introduction to space radiation effects in microelectronics; 2) Using applied physics to help NASA meet mission objectives; 3) Example of applied computational physics; and 4) Future directions in applied computational physics.

  17. Goddard Space Flight Center- Visitor Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The homepage of the Visitor Center at Goddard Space Flight Center provides access to a variety of information about the history, missions, and upcoming events at the center. Users can find information on public exhibits, educational resources, and programs on space and Earth science and technology.

  18. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.

  19. Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, T. D.; Brower, M. E.; Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Streptomyces levoris provides a suitable biological test system to investigate the effects of space flight on the rhythms of vegetative and spore phase characteristics of both growth-rate periodicity and culture morphology during the pre-, in-, and post-flight periods of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The objectives of the American participation were to study the effects of space flight on the biorhythms of Streptomyces levoris based on a comparison of the growth-rate periodicity of the vegetative and spore phase within each culture, to examine the possible alteration of spore morphology and development by SEM, and to compare the effects of a 12-hr phase shift on the periodic growth characteristics of this microorganism in cultures which were exchanged during the joint activities of the space flight. No uniform differences in the biorhythm of Streptomyces levoris during space flight were observed. It appears that the single most variable factor related to the experiment was the lack of temperature control for the space-flight specimens.

  20. Proposed Space Flight Experiment Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The primary thrust for this plan is to develop design tools and fundamental understanding that are timely and consistent with the goal of the various exploration initiatives. The plan will utilize ISS facilities, such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). A preliminary flow schematic of Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(phi)FFy) which would utilize FIR is shown in Figure 3. MSG can be utilized to use the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and Contact Line Dynamics Experiment (CLiDE) Facility. The T(phi)FFy system would have multiple test sections whereby different configurations of heat exchangers could be used to study boiling and condensation phenomena. The test sections would be instrumented for pressure drop, void fraction, heat fluxes, temperatures, high-speed imaging and other diagnostics. Besides a high-speed data acquisition system with a large data storage capability, telemetry could be used to update control and test parameters and download limited amounts of data. In addition, there would be multiple accumulators that could be used to investigate system stability and fluid management issues. The system could accommodate adiabatic tests through either the space station nitrogen supply or have an experiment-specific compressor to pressurize a sufficient amount of air or other non-condensable gas for reuse as the supply bottle is depleted.

  1. Introduction Digital Flight Control

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    was supported by the Office of Naval Researchl uinder Contract N00014-78-C-0257. This paper was presented at the Fliglht Control Systems Criteria Symposium, Naval Postgraduate School, Moniterey, Calif., July 1978 microprocessors are beginning to appear in navi- gation systems for general aviation, there have been no published

  2. Robotic welding at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Clyde S.

    1992-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is developing welding and robotics technologies to improve manufacturing of space hardware. Commercial robots are used for these development programs, but they are teamed with advanced sensors, process controls, and computer simulation to form highly productive manufacturing systems. Application of welding robotics and controls to structural welding for the space shuttle and space station Freedom programs is addressed. Several advanced welding process sensors under development for application to space hardware are discussed, as well as the application of commercial robotic simulation software to provide offline programming.

  3. NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wondering when that spacecraft will be cruising over your city during the next ten days? Visit the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page to find out. Satellite sighting information by city is provided by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Visitors to the site can choose a city from the list provided or enter their location using the nifty NASA Skywatch Java applet. Other highlights of the NASA Human Space Flight Realtime Data page include maps of Space Shuttle landing tracks (.gif) and deorbit parameters, and Space Shuttle and Space Station orbital tracking information that includes altitude, location coordinates, speed, and more. Definitions and illustrations of orbital tracking elements and coordinate system terminology make the site accessible to general audiences.

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    enable the exploration and development of space while dramatically increasing program and mission safety: ­ Apollo Program: F-1 engines from testing to flight and J-2 engines from concept development to flight advances in propulsion technologies that increased performance, safety, and reliability while decreasing

  5. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  6. Space-DRUMS™ experimental development using parabolic reduced gravity flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigné, J. Y.; Davidson, R.; Millan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Space-DRUMS™ is a microgravity containerless-processing facility that uses acoustic beams to position large diameter liquid or solid samples within a gas-filled chamber. Its capacity to control the position of large diameter (6 cm) low density solid materials was successfully demonstrated on NASA's DC-9 parabolic aircraft in July 1996; two subsequent flights occurred in 1998 using the KC-135 and A-300 aircraft to further refine the technology used in the system. The working environment for the Space-DRUMS™ facility is the Space Shuttle/Space Station where long duration microgravity experimentation can take place. Since the reduced gravity environment of an A-300 or a KC-135 parabolic flight is much harsher than that of the Space Shuttle in terms of residual acceleration magnitudes experienced by the samples to be held in position; this more extreme environment allows for most Space-DRUMS™ technical payload functionality tests to be conducted. In addition to flight hardware shakedowns, parabolic flights continue to be extensively used to study and evaluate the behavior of candidate-advanced materials proposed for ISS Space-DRUMS™ campaigns. The first samples to be processed in 2001 involve combustion synthesis (also known as SHS-Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of large glass-ceramic and of porous ceramic spheres. Upmassing Space-DRUMS™ for the International Space Station is scheduled for early 2001. .

  7. Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Robert R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

  8. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Human space flight item. 1852.246-73...Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Clauses 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As...

  13. Space flight operations for world development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    Mission objectives, hardware development efforts, and aspects of international cooperation are covered in an outline of space flight programs planned by the United States for the forthcoming decade. Scientific experiments envisioned for the Apollo 17 mission and for the Skylab program are discussed along with the current status of the joint Apollo/Soyuz test project specified by the U.S.-USSR space agreement of May 1972. The Space Shuttle, Space Tug, and Sortie Laboratory projects are outlined with emphasis on the use of experience and hardware gained in earlier phases of this space program.

  14. Transition Flight Control Room Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.

  15. Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, M. Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23420085

  16. Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K

    2012-05-15

    We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23420085

  17. Immune resistance of man in space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.

    The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of ?-interferon remained unchanged while that of ?-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.

  18. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other factors of space flight change direction of biological processes, and show a possibility to get special kinds of bioproducts with new properties.

  19. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  20. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  1. ZAG-Otolith: Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control during Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, <20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolithocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of postflight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved with vibrotactile feedback of orientation.

  2. Radiation Shielding for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2003-01-01

    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

  3. Technology infusion for space-flight programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Shapiro

    2004-01-01

    A tremendous amount of difficulty is encountered in moving technologies from laboratory demonstration (NASA technology readiness level (TRL) 3) to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (TRL 6). This ability to infuse technologies into NASA space flight programs is limited by a number of factors. Most research funding is for R&D activities that fund tasks from TRL1 to TRL3 (concept

  4. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  5. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

  6. Implementation and testing of International Space Station flight software for the pointing and support portion of guidance, navigation and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Yazell

    1998-01-01

    Boeing engineers designed and implemented these algorithms using MOODS (Multibody On-Orbit Dynamics Simulation), a Boeing\\/NASA Ada non-realtime simulation running on a DEC Alpha platform in Boeing Tower 2 in Houston, Texas. The Ada flight software was then written in MatrixX superblocks on Hewlett Packard computers, using the MatrixX autocode capability to generate the Ada code. After Flight Stage 5A of

  7. Digital adaptive flight controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.; Alag, G.; Berry, P.; Kotob, S.

    1974-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Two designs are described for an example aircraft. Each of these designs uses a weighted least squares procedure to identify parameters defining the dynamics of the aircraft. The two designs differ in the way in which control law parameters are determined. One uses the solution of an optimal linear regulator problem to determine these parameters while the other uses a procedure called single stage optimization. Extensive simulation results and analysis leading to the designs are presented.

  8. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  9. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.

  10. The effects of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.

  11. Space flight and the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.

  12. Space Flight Plasma Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.

  13. T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

  14. Digital flight control actuation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.

    1974-01-01

    Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.

  15. Microgravity Science in Space Flight Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles; Bennett, Nancy; Cockrell, David; Jex, David; Musick, Barry; Poe, James; Roark, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity science studies the influences of gravity on phenomena in fluids, materials processes, combustion, and human cell growth in the low acceleration environment of space flight. During the last decade, the accomplishment of the flight research in the field has evolved into an effective cooperation between the flight crew in the Shuttle and the ground-based investigator using real-time communication via voice and video links. This team structure has led to interactive operations in which the crew performs the experimentation while guided, as necessary, by the science investigator who formulated the investigation and who will subsequently interpret and analyze the data. One of the primary challenges to implementing this interactive research has been the necessity of structuring a means of handling fluids, gases, and hazardous materials in a manned laboratory that exhibits the novelty of weightlessness. Developing clever means of designing experiments in closed vessels is part of the solution- but the space flight requirement for one and two failure-tolerant containment systems leads to serious complications in the physical handling of sample materials. In response to the conflict between the clear advantage of human operation and judgment, versus the necessity to isolate the experiment from the crewmember and the spacecraft environment, the Microgravity Research Program has initiated a series of Gloveboxes in the various manned experiment carriers. These units provide a sealed containment vessel whose interior is under a negative pressure with respect to the ambient environment but is accessible to a crewmember through the glove ports.

  16. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

  17. Multivariable adaptive algorithms for reconfigurable flight control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bodson; Joseph E. Groszkiewicz

    1997-01-01

    The application of multivariable adaptive control techniques to flight control reconfiguration is considered. The objective is to redesign automatically flight control laws to compensate for actuator failures or surface damage. Three adaptive algorithms for multivariable model reference control are compared. The availability of state measurements in this application leads to relatively simple algorithms. The respective advantages and disadvantages of the

  18. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  19. Sustaining Human Space Flight: From the Present to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the efforts to ensure that human space flight continues in NASA. With the aging shuttle orbiter fleet, some actions have been taken to assure safe operations. Some of these are: (1) the formation of a Corrosion Control Review Board (CCRB) that will assess the extent and cause of corrosion to the shuttle, and provide short term and long term corrective actions, among other objectives, (2) a formalization of an aging vehicle assessment (AVA) as part of a certification for the Return-to-Flight, (3) an assessment of the age life of the materials in the space shuttle, and (4) the formation of the Aging Orbiter Working Group (AOWG). There are also slides with information about the International Space Station. There is also information about the need to update the Kennedy Space Center, to sustain a 21st century launch complex and the requirement to further the aim of commercial launch capability.

  20. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  1. Reactivity of organism in prolonged space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, P. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.

  2. Lateral and longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle discovery as determined from flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.; Schiess, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The Discovery vehicle was found to have longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics similar to those of the Columbia and Challenger vehicles. The values of the lateral and longitudinal parameters are compared with the preflight data book. The lateral parameters showed the same trends as the data book. With the exception of C sub l sub Beta for Mach numbers greater than 15, C sub n sub delta r for Mach numbers greater than 2 and for Mach numbers less than 1.5, where the variation boundaries were not well defined, ninety percent of the extracted values of the lateral parameters fell within the predicted variations. The longitudinal parameters showed more scatter, but scattered about the preflight predictions. With the exception of the Mach 1.5 to .5 region of the flight envelope, the preflight predictions seem a reasonable representation of the Shuttle aerodynamics. The models determined accounted for ninety percent of the actual flight time histories.

  3. Atmosphere control for plant growth flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sudar, Martin; Timm, Marc; Yost, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    An atmosphere exchange system (AES) has been designed to provide a conditioned atmosphere supply to plant specimens in flight without incurring the large weight and volume associated with bottled gases. The paper examines the atmosphere filter cartridge (AFC) designed to remove trace organic atmosphere contaminants from the Space Shuttle cabin and to condition the cabin atmosphere prior to exposure to plant specimens. The AES and AFC are described and illustrated. The AFC design requirements are discussed and results are presented from tests on the performance of the AFC. Also, consideration is given to the potential applications of the AFC and future design concepts for atmosphere control.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department is a resource for Educator, Students and Lifelong Learners. This paper will highlight the Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department with references to other NASA Education Departments nationwide. The principal focus will be on the responsibilities of the Pre-college Education Team which is responsible for supporting K- 12 teachers highlighting how many of the NASA Pre-college Offices engage teachers and their students in better understanding NASA's inspiring missions, unique facilities, and specialized workforce to carryout these many agency-wide tasks, goals and objectives. Attendee's will learn about the Marshall Educational Alliance Teams, as well, which is responsible for using NASA's unique assets to support all types of learning. All experience and knowledge levels, all grades K-12, and teachers in these specified groupings will gain a true appreciation of what is available for them, through Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department. An agency-wide blue directory booklet will be distributed to all attendees, for future references and related points of contact.

  5. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

  6. Quadrocopter Control Design and Flight Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karwoski, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.

  7. Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  8. Survey of space flight safety systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisig, R.; Bolger, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Preventive and remedial conceptual approaches may be employed to enhance the safety of space flight operations. The preventive approach makes use of components of high reliability and the incorporation of redundancy in crew safety-related functions. According to the second conceptual approach the means are to be provided to cope with accidents when they arise. The remedial means include onboard systems, pre-positioned aids, and earth-launched systems. Reports or papers dealing with rescue and survival systems of various types are considered, and a summary of the results of space escape, rescue, and survivability investigations is presented.

  9. Research and technology, 1984: Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorehead, T. W. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts research programs in space sciences, materials processing in space, and atmospheric sciences, as well as technology programs in such areas as propulsion, materials, processes, and space power. This Marshall Space Flight Center 1984 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains summaries of the more significant scientific and technical results obtained during FY-84.

  10. Results of the First US Manned Orbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The results of the first United States manned orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962 are presented. The prelaunch activities, spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and postflight analyses presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  7. Thermal control surfaces experiment: Initial flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of materials in the space environment continues to be a limiting technology for spacecraft and experiments. The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is the most comprehensive experiment flown to study the effects of the space environment on thermal control surfaces. Selected thermal control surfaces were exposed to the LDEF orbital environment and the effects of this exposure were measured. The TCSE combined in-space orbital measurements with pre and post-flight analyses of flight materials to determine the effects of long term space exposure. The TCSE experiment objective, method, and measurements are described along with the results of the initial materials analysis. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission is described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed.

  8. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  9. Time and space partitioning security components for spacecraft flight software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Windsor

    2011-01-01

    Future work and conclusion 1. ESA is following a joint roadmap to develop an Integrated Modular Avionics for Space (IMA-SP) and Security Components for flight software based on time and space partitioning (TSP) principles a. The TSP software technologies have been prototyped and ported to flight computers b. Preliminary verification performed against the security requirements c. Existing flight software is

  10. A fuzzy logic controller for aircraft flight control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence I. Larkin

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a model of an autopilot controller based on fuzzy algorithms. The controller maneuvers an aircraft from level flight into a final-approach flight path and maintains the aircraft along the glide path until just before touchdown. To evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the model, the aircraft response to controller actions is simulated using flight simulation techniques. The

  11. Environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces: Tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 1: Specimens 1 to 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Stevens; V. W. Klinect; F. D. Berkopec

    1976-01-01

    The NASA\\/USAF program on Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets and second surface mirrors of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicle were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result

  12. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  13. Formally Analyzing Adaptive Flight Control Ashish Tiwari

    E-print Network

    Tiwari, Ashish

    Formally Analyzing Adaptive Flight Control Ashish Tiwari SRI International Menlo Park, CA 94025 that is used to enable flight control in adverse condi- tions. We use the bounded verification approach project, which is part of the Aviation Safety Program under the NASA Aeronau- tics Research Mission

  14. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.

  15. Architecting Systems for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wocken, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Human-system interactions have been largely overlooked in the traditional systems engineering process. Awareness of human factors (HF) has increased in the past few years, but the involvement of HF specialists is still often too little and too late. In systems involving long-duration human space flight, it is essential that the human component be properly considered in the initial architectural definition phase, as well as throughout the system design process. HF analysis must include not only the strengths and limitations of humans in general, but the variability between individuals and within an individual over time, and the dynamics of group interactions.

  16. Human cellular immune responsiveness following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Dardano, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral circulating lymphocytes were separated from astronaut blood samples three times before and two times after the first four US Space Shuttle flights. The ability of the in vitro T lymphocytes to respond to Phytohemagglutinin by blastogenesis was found to be reduced for each crewmember following spaceflight. In addition, the astronauts experienced a postflight increase in neutrophils and a decrease in eosinophils. These postflight changes in leukocytes are shown to increase with subjectively-evaluated increases in the incidence of inflight stress, indicating that stress, and not hypogravity, is likely to be the major effector of these changes.

  17. DRSS communication considerations for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltzer, K. E.; Schwartz, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    A lower and an upper bound or manned space flight requirements for a data relay satellite system (DRSS) in the 1975-1980 time period are described. In all cases, the most stringent requirement is an intersatellite link to provide wideband information transfer from an overseas DRS to the Continental United States. A parametric communication analysis is made as a function of varying frequency and antenna aperture. The desirability of using a VHF frequency band for low data rates and voice relay and the requirement for frequencies of 8 and 16 GHz for video and wideband digital data relay are shown.

  18. The manned maneuvering unit flight controller arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkner, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and its support equipment provide an extravehicular astronaut mobility, and the ability to work outside the confines of the Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. The MMU design requirements are based on the highly successful Skylab M-509 maneuvering unit. Design of the MMU was started as an R&D effort in April 1975 and Flight Hardware design was started in August 1979 to support a possible requirement for in-space inspection and repair of Orbiter thermal protection tiles. Subsequently, the qualification test and production activities were slowed, and the current projected earliest first flight is now STS-11 in January, 1984. The MMU propulsion subsystem provides complete redundancy with two identical "system". Each system contains a high pressure gaseous nitrogen tank, an isolation valve, a regulator, and twelve 1.7 lbf (7.5 N) thrusters. The thrusters are packaged to provide the crew member six-degree-of-freedom control in response to commands from translational and rotational hand controllers. This paper discusses the MMU control arm requirements, design, and developmental history.

  19. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  20. Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the Russian 10th biosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhen, Shi; Dahuan, Zhuang; Ilyin, Eugene A.

    Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.

  1. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses. PMID:20161808

  2. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  3. Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Trela

    2006-01-01

    Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)

  4. Utilizing HDTV as Data for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Lindblom, Walt

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident February 1, 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recognized the need for better video data from launch, on-orbit, and landing to assess the status and safety of the shuttle orbiter fleet. The board called on NASA to improve its imagery assets and update the Agency s methods for analyzing video. This paper will feature details of several projects implemented prior to the return to flight of the Space Shuttle, including an airborne HDTV imaging system called the WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment, use of true 60 Hz progressive scan HDTV for ground and airborne HDTV camera systems, and the decision to utilize a wavelet compression system for recording. This paper will include results of compression testing, imagery from the launch of STS-114, and details of how commercial components were utilized to image the shuttle launch from an aircraft flying at 400 knots at 60,000 feet altitude. The paper will conclude with a review of future plans to expand on the upgrades made prior to return to flight.

  5. Pathophysiology of motor functions in prolonged manned space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kreidich, Yu. V.; Oganov, V. S.; Koserenko, O. P.

    The influence of weightlessness on different parts of the motor system have been studied in crew members of 140 and 175 days space flights. It has been shown that weightlessness affects all parts of the motor system including (i) the leg and trunk muscles, in which severe atonia, a decrease of strength and an increase of electromyographic cost of contraction have been observed, (ii) the proprioceptive elements and the spinal reflex mechanisms in which decreased thresholds accompanied by decreases of maximal amplitude of reflexes and disturbances in cross reflex mechanisms have been found, and (iii) the central mechanisms that control characteristics of postural and locomotor activities. The intensities and durations of disturbances of different parts of the motor system did not correlate to each other, but did correlate with prophylactic activity during space flight. The data suggest a different nature of disturbances caused by weightlessness in different parts of the motor system.

  6. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  7. Human operator performance of remotely controlled tasks: Teleoperator research conducted at NASA's George C. Marshal Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N., Jr.; Piccione, F.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    The capabilities within the teleoperator laboratories to perform remote and teleoperated investigations for a wide variety of applications are described. Three major teleoperator issues are addressed: the human operator, the remote control and effecting subsystems, and the human/machine system performance results for specific teleoperated tasks.

  8. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  9. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge. Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  10. In-flight cabin smoke control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thor I. Eklund

    1996-01-01

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft

  11. Life-sciences research opportunities in commercial suborbital space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Commercial suborbital space flights will reach altitudes above 100 km, with 3-5 min of weightlessness bracketed by high-g launch and landing phases. The proposed frequency of these flights, and the large passenger population, present interesting opportunities for researchers in the life sciences. The characteristics of suborbital flight are between those of parabolic and orbital flights, opening up new scientific possibilities and easing the burden for obtaining access to 0g. There are several areas where these flights might be used for research in the life sciences: (1) operational research: preparation for “real” space flight, such as rehearsal of medical procedures, (2) applied research-to answer questions relevant to long-term space flight; (3) passenger health and safety-effects on passengers, relevant to screening and training; (4) basic research in physiological mechanisms-to address issues of fundamental science. We describe possible projects in each of these categories. One in particular spans several areas. Based on the anticipated suborbital flight profiles, observations from parabolic flight, and the wide range of fitness and experience levels of suborbital passengers, sensorimotor disturbances such as motion sickness and disorientation are major concerns. Protocols for pre-flight adaptation of sensorimotor responses might help to alleviate some of these problems, based on results from research in the initial flights. This would improve the passenger experience and add to the knowledge base relevant to space flight more generally.

  12. Low Bandwidth Robust Controllers for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan

    1993-01-01

    Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.

  13. Apollo experience report: Flight planning for manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, J. W.; Cotter, J. B.; Holloway, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    The history of flight planning for manned space missions is outlined, and descriptions and examples of the various evolutionary phases of flight data documents from Project Mercury to the Apollo Program are included. Emphasis is given to the Apollo flight plan. Time line format and content are discussed in relationship to the manner in which they are affected by the types of flight plans and various constraints.

  14. Optimizing Medical Kits for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minard, Charles G.; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Iyengar, M. Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) uses Monte Carlo methodologies to predict the occurrence of medical events, their mitigation, and the resources required during space flight. The model includes two modules that utilize output from a single model simulation to identify an optimized medical kit for a specified mission scenario. This poster describes two flexible optimization routines built into SAS 9.1. The first routine utilizes a systematic process of elimination to maximize (or minimize) outcomes subject to attribute constraints. The second routine uses a search and mutate approach to minimize medical kit attributes given a set of outcome constraints. There are currently 273 unique resources identified that are used to treat at least one of 83 medical conditions currently in the model.

  15. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  16. Engines-only flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W. (inventor); Gilyard, Glenn B (inventor); Conley, Joseph L. (inventor); Stewart, James F. (inventor); Fullerton, Charles G. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A backup flight control system for controlling the flightpath of a multi-engine airplane using the main drive engines is introduced. The backup flight control system comprises an input device for generating a control command indicative of a desired flightpath, a feedback sensor for generating a feedback signal indicative of at least one of pitch rate, pitch attitude, roll rate and roll attitude, and a control device for changing the output power of at least one of the main drive engines on each side of the airplane in response to the control command and the feedback signal.

  17. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  18. Biodosimetry results from space flight Mir-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Durante, M.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.

  19. Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Biggers, W. P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thomas, W. G.; Thagard, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eighth shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal.

  20. Interactive flight control system analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

  1. Ground Support for the Space-Based Range Flight Demonstration 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkes, Darryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

  2. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  3. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  4. Phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in Bacillus cereus after a short-term space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Longxiang; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Jinwen; Cen, Zhong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Tao; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Yin, Sanjun; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Yuping; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    The environment in space could affect microorganisms by changing a variety of features, including proliferation rate, cell physiology, cell metabolism, biofilm production, virulence, and drug resistance. However, the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the effect of a space environment on Bacillus cereus, a strain of B. cereus was sent to space for 398 h by ShenZhou VIII from November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011. A ground simulation with similar temperature conditions was simultaneously performed as a control. After the flight, the flight and control strains were further analyzed using phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to explore the divergence of B. cereus in a space environment. The flight strains exhibited a significantly slower growth rate, a significantly higher amikacin resistance level, and changes in metabolism relative to the ground control strain. After the space flight, three polymorphic loci were found in the flight strains LCT-BC25 and LCT-BC235. A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis was performed, and this analysis revealed that the flight strains had changes in genes/proteins relevant to metabolism. In addition, certain genes/proteins that are relevant to structural function, gene expression modification and translation, and virulence were also altered. Our study represents the first documented analysis of the phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes that occur in B. cereus during space flight, and our results could be beneficial to the field of space microbiology.

  5. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  6. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  7. Infectivity and egg production of Nematospiroides dubius as affected by space flight and ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, R. A.; Ellis, W. L.; Taylor, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Nematospiroides dubius was tested to determine the infective potential of the third stage larvae and the egg-production and egg-viability rates of the resulting adults after they are exposed to space flight and solar ultraviolet irradiation. The results are indicative that space-flown larvae exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation were rendered noninfective in C57 mice, whereas flight control larvae that received no solar ultraviolet irradiation matured at the same rate as the ground control larvae. However, depressed egg viability was evident in the flight control larvae.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  9. Human-Rated Space Vehicle Backup Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey A.; Busa, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    Human rated space vehicles have historically employed a Backup Flight System (BFS) for the main purpose of mitigating the loss of the primary avionics control system. Throughout these projects, however, the underlying philosophy and technical implementation vary greatly. This paper attempts to coalesce each of the past space vehicle program's BFS design and implementation methodologies with the accompanying underlining philosophical arguments that drove each program to such decisions. The focus will be aimed at Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle However, the ideologies and implementation of several commercial and military aircraft are incorporated as well to complete the full breadth view of BFS development across the varying industries. In particular to the non-space based vehicles is the notion of deciding not to utilize a BFS. A diverse analysis of BFS to primary system benefits in terms of reliability against all aspects of project development are reviewed and traded. The risk of engaging the BFS during critical stages of flight (e.g. ascent and entry), the level of capability of the BFS (subset capability of main system vs. equivalent system), and the notion of dissimilar hardware and software design are all discussed. Finally, considerations for employing a BFS on future human-rated space missions are reviewed in light of modern avionics architectures and mission scenarios implicit in exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

  10. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between aircraft and flight control system design parameters.

  11. Space Station/Orbiter berthing dynamics during an assembly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Wu, Shih-Chin

    1993-12-01

    A large-angle, multi-body, dynamic modeling capability was developed to help validate numerical simulations of the dynamic motion and control forces which occur while berthing Space Station Freedom to the Shuttle Orbiter during early assembly flights. The paper describes the dynamics and control of the station, the attached Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, and the Orbiter during a maneuver from a gravity-gradient attitude to a torque equilibrium attitude using the station reaction control jets. The influence of the elastic behavior of the station and of the remote manipulator system on the attitude control of the station/Orbiter system during the maneuver is investigated. The flexibility of the station and the arm had only a minor influence on the attitude control of the system during the maneuver.

  12. Technology validation of optical fiber cables for space flight environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie N. Ott; Patricia Friedberg

    2001-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (commercial off the shelf, COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are

  13. Technology validation of optical fiber cables for space flight environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie N. Ott; Patricia R. Friedberg

    2001-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (commercial off the shelf, COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program. The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated

  14. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  15. Using Fuzzy Clustering for Real-time Space Flight Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Lee; Darrin M. Hanna; Richard E. Haskell; Richard L. Alena

    2004-01-01

    To ensure space flight safety, it is necessary to monitor myriad sensor readings on the ground and in flight. Since a space shuttle has many sensors, monitoring data and drawing conclusions from information contained within the data in real time is challenging. The nature of the information can be critical to the success of the mission and safety of the

  16. Addressing Variability in a Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software Product Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David McComas; Stephen Leake; Michael Stark; Maurizio Morisio; Guilherme Travassos; Michael White

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a guid- ance, navigation, and control flight software product line that includes both processes and their accompanying products. The processes in- clude a domain and application engineering process that have been in- fluenced by Synthesis(1) and FAST(2). The products include graphical and textual analysis\\/design documents and the flight software reposi- tory. We

  17. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  18. Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight

    E-print Network

    Chung, Soon-Jo

    Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight Soon-Jo Chung , Jeremiah R. Stoner of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to generate wing of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach. Nomenclature w, w, w Flapping, lead-lag, and pitch

  19. UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO Rogelio LOZANO Version 0.5, hal-00923127,version. Modeling and Control of Mini UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G. Flores , J.A. Guerrero , J2014 #12;x hal-00923127,version1-2Jan2014 #12;Chapter 1 Modeling and Control of Mini UAV This Chapter

  20. Towards Formally Verified Optimizing Compilation in Flight Control Software

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    simplifying pilots' tasks. Since these controls play a crucial role in flight safety, flight control softwareTowards Formally Verified Optimizing Compilation in Flight Control Software Ricardo Bedin França1 and verified optimizing compiler for the development of level A critical flight control software. First

  1. Reconfigurable redundancy management for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosch, J. A.; Kuehl, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    A highly fault tolerant digital computer system has been configured based on extensive experience with flight proven, redundant digital flight control systems. The feasibility of minimizing hardware complexity is shown while maintaining high levels of fault tolerance. The emerging hardware design combines reconfiguration concepts with conventional hardware redundancy techniques and special operational software to provide dual fail operate performance with a basic triplex system. The design provides high reliability and flight safety, enhances maintainability, and reduces life cycle cost while offering improved performance for future aircraft.

  2. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  3. Distributed optimization and flight control using collectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniawski, Stefan Richard

    The increasing complexity of aerospace systems demands new approaches for their design and control. Approaches are required to address the trend towards aerospace systems comprised of a large number of inherently distributed and highly nonlinear components with complex and sometimes competing interactions. This work introduces collectives to address these challenges. Although collectives have been used for distributed optimization problems in computer science, recent developments based upon Probability Collectives (PC) theory enhance their applicability to discrete, continuous, mixed, and constrained optimization problems. Further, they are naturally applied to distributed systems and those involving uncertainty, such as control in the presence of noise and disturbances. This work describes collectives theory and its implementation, including its connections to multi-agent systems, machine learning, statistics, and gradient-based optimization. To demonstrate the approach, two experiments were developed. These experiments built upon recent advances in actuator technology that resulted in small, simple flow control devices. Miniature-Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTE), consisting of a small, 1-5% chord, moveable surface mounted at the wing trailing edge, are used for the experiments. The high bandwidth, distributed placement, and good control authority make these ideal candidates for rigid and flexible mode control of flight vehicles. This is demonstrated in two experiments: flutter suppression of a flexible wing, and flight control of a remotely piloted aircraft. The first experiment successfully increased the flutter speed by over 25%. The second experiment included a novel distributed flight control system based upon the MiTEs that includes distributed sensing, logic, and actuation. Flight tests validated the control capability of the MiTEs and the associated flight control architecture. The collectives approach was used to design controllers for the distributed flight control system. These controllers increased the flight vehicle stability by 85% and alleviated gust loads by 78%, when compared with open loop. This work demonstrates the use of collectives for the range of optimization problems of interest in aerospace systems, provides the mathematical foundations and implementation details, and focuses on applications to nonlinear, robust, distributed control. The two successful experiments validate both the collectives approach and the use of MiTEs for the control of flight vehicles.

  4. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  5. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  6. Blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of newts after the space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michurina, T. V.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Nikonova, T. M.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    Ribbed newts were used for studying the effect of space flight on board of the biosatellite (Cosmos-2229) on blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells. In blood of newts of the flight group, the relative proportion of neutrophils increased, whereas that of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Space flight did not result in loss of the ability of newt blood cells to incorporate H^3-thymidine. Analysis of clonogenic hemopoietic cells was performed using the method of hemopoietic colony formation on cellulose acetate membranes implanted into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated newts. To analyze reconstitution of hemopoiesis after irradiation donor hemopoietic cells from flight or control newts were transplanted into irradiated newts whose hemopoietic organs were investigated. The newt can be considered an adequate model for studying hemopoiesis under the conditions of the space flight. Previous studies on rats subjected to 5- to 19-day space flights revealed a decrease in the number of clonogenic cells in their hemopoietic organs accompanied by specific changes in the precursor cell compartment and in blood /1,2/. Hence, it was interesting to analyze blood and hemopoietic tissue of lower vertebrates after a space flight and to compare the response to it of animals belonging to different taxonomic groups. We analyzed blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of ribbed newts, Pleurodeles waltl (age one year, weight 20-28 g) subjected to a 12-day space flight on board of a Cosmos-2229 biosatellite. The same animals were used in studies on limb and lens regeneration. The results were compared with those obtained with control groups of newts: (1) basic control, operated newts sacrificed on the day of biosatellite launching (BC); (2) synchronous control, operated newts kept in the laboratory under simulated space flight conditions (SC); and (3) intact newts (IC).

  7. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  8. Satellite Formation Flight and Realignment Maneuver Demonstration aboard the International Space Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe P. Mandy; Alvar Saenz-Otero; David W. Miller

    The Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES), developed by the MIT Space Systems Laboratory, enable the maturation of control, estimation, and autonomy algorithms for distributed satellite systems, including the relative control of spacecraft required for satellite formation flight. Three free-flyer microsatellites are currently on board the International Space Station (ISS). By operating under crew supervision and by

  9. An optimal Space Shuttle ascent trajectory for the first orbital flight test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Johnson Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal solution of the ascent trajectory of the Space Shuttle for the first orbital flight test is presented; the optimization is a minimum propellant, four-control problem in yaw angle, roll angle, pitch angle and vacuum thrust of each Space Shuttle main engine. Piecewise linear segments with juncture points treated as parameters are employed to model the controls. Equations of

  10. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. G. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories have initiated and completed, in part, a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the T700 and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  11. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  12. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term exposure to microgravity and modelled weightlessness, may affect cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contribute to Ca(2+) and bone metabolism disorders induced by space flight.

  13. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  14. Students Speak With Todd Quasny, ODIN Flight Controller - Duration: 23 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASAâ??s International Space Station Mission Control Center Todd Quasny, ODIN Flight Controller, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Northeast Nodaway Eleme...

  15. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  16. Calcium Kinetics During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S. A.; Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Oganov, V.; Shackelford, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss represents one of the most significant effects of space flight on the human body. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this loss is critical for maintaining crew health and safety during and after flight. This investigation documents the changes in bone metabolism and calcium kinetics during and after space flight. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects during and after a 115-d stay on the Russian space station Mir. We report here data on an additional three subjects, whose stays on Mir were approximately 4 (n=l) and 6 (n=2) mos. Previously published data are included for comparison.

  17. Bone and body mass changes during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Oganov, V.; LeBlanc, A.; Rakmonov, A.; Taggart, L.; Bakulin, A.; Huntoon, C.; Grigoriev, A.; Varonin, L.

    Long duration space flight has shown us that humans have significant bone loss and mineral changes because they are living in microgravity. Skylab and the longer Salyut and Mir missions, are providing us useful data and allowing us to explore the mechanism involved in skeletal turnover. Bone redistribution occurs throughout space flight with bone loss predominately in the weight bearing bones of posture and locomotion. The primary health hazards which may occur during space flight induced by skeletal changes include signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, and the risk of kidney stones and metastatic calcification. After flight lengthy recovery of bone mass and the possible increase in the risk of bone fracture should be considered. Continued research studies are being directed toward determining the mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures by both the US (Schneider and McDonald, 1984 and Schneider, LeBlanc & Huntoon, 1993) and Russian (Grigoriev et. al., 1989) space programs.

  18. Simulation, modeling and analysis of Space Shuttle flight hardware processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant Cates; Martin Steele; M. Mollaghasemi

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes key aspects of the history of the space shuttle's flight rate and the uses of simulation for estimating and assessing flight rate. When initially proposed, the shuttle was to fly 50 to 150 times per year. The earliest simulation models supported these projects but were based upon faulty assumptions. As the shuttle has evolved so have simulation

  19. Human factors in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study, covering the behavioral, psychological, physiological, and medical factors of long duration manned space flight, is presented. An attempt was made to identify and resolve major obstacles and unknowns associated with such a flight. The costs and maintenance of the spacecraft system are also explored.

  20. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) dock on the Ternessee River unload S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage, from the NASA barge Palaemon. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings in MSFC's S-IB static test stand.

  1. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) dock on the Ternessee River unload S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage, from the NASA barge Palaemon. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings in Marshall's S-IB static test stand.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  3. Thermal control surfaces experiment (SOO69) flight systems performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) was the most complex hardware system aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The TCSE system consists of a scanning spectroreflectometer that measured test samples mounted on a rotatable carousel assembly. A microprocessor based data system controlled all aspects of TCSE system operation. Power was provided by four primary batteries. Flight measurement and housekeeping data were stored on a tape recorder for postflight analysis. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed by NASA, DoD, and the aerospace community. The TCSE provides valuable data on the performance of these systems in space. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission are described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed. Initial post-flight tests show that the TCSE system remains functional although some degradation in the optical measurements were observed. The results of these tests are also presented.

  4. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-01-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different when measured by DTA, but not by SDT. Laminate thermal expansion differences were significant for the 35 degrees C evaluations, but not for any higher temperatures.

  5. Closing the Certification Gaps in Adaptive Flight Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last five decades, extensive research has been performed to design and develop adaptive control systems for aerospace systems and other applications where the capability to change controller behavior at different operating conditions is highly desirable. Although adaptive flight control has been partially implemented through the use of gain-scheduled control, truly adaptive control systems using learning algorithms and on-line system identification methods have not seen commercial deployment. The reason is that the certification process for adaptive flight control software for use in national air space has not yet been decided. The purpose of this paper is to examine the gaps between the state-of-the-art methodologies used to certify conventional (i.e., non-adaptive) flight control system software and what will likely to be needed to satisfy FAA airworthiness requirements. These gaps include the lack of a certification plan or process guide, the need to develop verification and validation tools and methodologies to analyze adaptive controller stability and convergence, as well as the development of metrics to evaluate adaptive controller performance at off-nominal flight conditions. This paper presents the major certification gap areas, a description of the current state of the verification methodologies, and what further research efforts will likely be needed to close the gaps remaining in current certification practices. It is envisioned that closing the gap will require certain advances in simulation methods, comprehensive methods to determine learning algorithm stability and convergence rates, the development of performance metrics for adaptive controllers, the application of formal software assurance methods, the application of on-line software monitoring tools for adaptive controller health assessment, and the development of a certification case for adaptive system safety of flight.

  6. Orion Entry Flight Control Stability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, Alan L.; Loe, Greg R.; Seiler, Pete

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Spacecraft will be required to perform entry and landing functions for both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Lunar return missions, utilizing only the Command Module (CM) with its unique systems and GN&C design. This paper presents the current CM Flight Control System (FCS) design to support entry and landing, with a focus on analyses that have supported its development to date. The CM FCS will have to provide for spacecraft stability and control while following guidance or manual commands during exo-atmospheric flight, after Service Module separation, translational powered flight required of the CM, atmospheric flight supporting both direct entry and skip trajectories down to drogue chute deploy, and during roll attitude reorientation just prior to touchdown. Various studies and analyses have been performed or are on-going supporting an overall FCS design with reasonably sized Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, that minimizes fuel usage, that provides appropriate command following but with reasonable stability and control margin. Results from these efforts to date are included, with particular attention on design issues that have emerged, such as the struggle to accommodate sub-sonic pitch and yaw control without using excessively large jets that could have a detrimental impact on vehicle weight. Apollo, with a similar shape, struggled with this issue as well. Outstanding CM FCS related design and analysis issues, planned for future effort, are also briefly be discussed.

  7. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  8. Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Penrod

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

  9. Space Station Freedom Attitude Determination and Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrod, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom attitude determination and control system overview are presented. Topics covered include: highly dynamic plant; SSF flight attitudes; effectors; inertial attitude sensors; control system performance requirements; control system functional requirements; and controller architecture.

  10. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  11. Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    Goddard Space Flight Center Office of Human Capital Management Integrated Human Capital Plan Center Office of Human Capital Management · Repository to document current and upcoming human capital ini4a4ves by directorate. Enables partnership between Directorates

  12. Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

  13. Environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces: Tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 1: Specimens 1 to 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets and second surface mirrors of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicle were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that the ground connection of the metal layers of the blanket, as made by the baseline grounding technique using serrated washers and grommets, deteriorated with time at test. The discharges observed on the blankets were the glow type, not the 'lightning' strike observed on past specimens. Testing was performed at ambient laboratory temperatures.

  14. Nutrient Considerations for Plants Grown Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    2006-01-01

    We present here results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of both dicotyledonous (Haplopappus gracilis, n=75) and monocotyledonous (Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze, n=25) aseptic plants in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during the 5-day CHROMEX-01 Space Shuttle flight (March 1989, STS-29). At recovery, the medium remaining within each of the five floral foam blocks (for both the space flight and ground control experiments) was extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptic tissue culture generated plantlets or sterile seedling clones, and the design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by postflight microbial sampling). This permitted the elimination of microbial considerations in the interpretation of the data. The significance of these findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  15. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  16. Flight and fire control knowledge representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ervin Y. Rodin; Daniel Geist; Yuval Lirov

    1989-01-01

    The development of a conceptual framework for an operational, onboard, real-time multiprocessing computer system, capable of assisting the pilot in flight and fire control decisions, i.e. a tactical decision aiding expert system, is discussed. Air combat is considered as a game problem in which two opponent teams mutually endeavor to maximize their opportunities to destroy each other, while minimizing their

  17. Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (editor); Stewart, Donald F. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.

  18. Metabolic Cage for a Space Flight Model in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1994-01-01

    The new cage facilitates the collection of 24-h specimens of separated urine and feces apparently uncontaminated by food, as required for precise nutritional and metabolic studies, while maintaining the large floor area and suspension method of Holton's design (3). Although the cage was evaluated, using 6-month-old rats weighing 408 to 488 g, it can be easily adjusted for smaller rats. It also was successfully used to collect post-flight urine after the recent Spacelab Life Sciences-2 space shuttle flight. With its flexibility and ease of use, this new cage design adds a new tool to study the physiologic effects of simulated space flight and other disuse conditions.

  19. [Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program].

    PubMed

    Pool, S L; Nicogossian, A

    1984-01-01

    On July 4, 1982 the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operation support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, the crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment. PMID:6142142

  20. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  1. Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Colletti, Laura M.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Tam, Patricia Y.; Dinges, David F.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. No system currently exists to assist in managing alertness, and countermeasure options are limited. Surveys reveal many pilots use breaks as an in-flight countermeasure, but there have been no controlled studies of their effectiveness. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that brief, regular breaks could improve alertness and performance during an overnight flight. METHOD: A 6-h, uneventful, nighttime flight in a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator was flown by fourteen two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received 5 short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received 1 break in the middle of cruise. Continuous EEG/EOG, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance performance data were collected. RESULTS: During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15 min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity, and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25 min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. There was no evidence of objective vigilance performance improvement at 15-25 min post-break, with expected performance deterioration occurring due to elevated sleep drive and circadian time. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological and subjective data indicate the breaks reduced nighttime sleepiness for at least 15 min post-break and may have masked sleepiness for up to 25 min, suggesting the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure.

  2. The Space Station Freedom Flight Telerobotic Servicer - The design and evolution of a dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Harry G.; Andary, James F.; Hewitt, Dennis R.; Haley, Dennis C.

    1990-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) will provide a telerobotic capability to the Space Station in the early assembly phases of the program and will be used for assembly, maintenance, and inspection throughout the lifetime of the Station. Here, the FTS design approach to the development of autonomous capabilities is discussed. The FTS telerobotic workstations for the Shuttle and Space Station, and facility for on-orbit storage are examined. The rationale of the FTS with regard to ease of operation, operational versatility, maintainability, safety, and control is discussed.

  3. Entry flight control system downmoding evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method to desensitize the entry flight control system to structural vibration feedback which might induce an oscillatory instability is described. Trends in vehicle response and handling characteristics as a function of gain combinations in the FCS forward and rate feedback loops were described as observed in a man-in-the-loop simulation. Among the flight conditions considered are the effects of downmoding with APU failures, off-nominal trajectory conditions, sensed angle of attack errors, the impact on RCS fuel consumption, performance in the presence of aero variations, recovery from large FCS upsets, and default gains.

  4. Flight-control/navigation inertial reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design of a redundant strapdown navigation system for integrated flight-control/navigation use has been completed. Based on application of tuned-gimbal gyros, a compact configuration (13 in x 13 in x 14 in) has been achieved for fail-operational/fail-operational redundancy. Test data are presented for strapdown system test programs including flight testing of the LN-50 tuned-gimbal gyro system. Testing of a redundant sensor configuration is currently in process. Strapdown gyro development also includes ring laser and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  5. Test and Analysis Capabilities of the Space Environment Effects Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Edwards, D. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Schneider, T. A.; Hovater, M. A.; Hoppe, D. T.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed world-class space environmental effects testing facilities to simulate the space environment. The combined environmental effects test system exposes temperature-controlled samples to simultaneous protons, high- and low-energy electrons, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and near-ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. Separate chambers for studying the effects of NUV and VUV at elevated temperatures are also available. The Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility exposes samples to atomic oxygen of 5 eV energy to simulate low-Earth orbit (LEO). The LEO space plasma simulators are used to study current collection to biased spacecraft surfaces, arcing from insulators and electrical conductivity of materials. Plasma propulsion techniques are analyzed using the Marshall magnetic mirror system. The micro light gas gun simulates micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Candidate materials and hardware for spacecraft can be evaluated for durability in the space environment with a variety of analytical techniques. Mass, solar absorptance, infrared emittance, transmission, reflectance, bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and surface morphology characterization can be performed. The data from the space environmental effects testing facilities, combined with analytical results from flight experiments, enable the Environmental Effects Group to determine optimum materials for use on spacecraft.

  6. Aquarius Radiometer Delivered to JPL (January 2008) After a four-year development effort, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    thermal control. The design adopted for the Aquarius radiometers is based on research conducted under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has delivered the Aquarius Radiometer to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Aquarius Radiometer in a Goddard Space Flight Center "clean room" The Aquarius Radiometer is comprised

  7. Regulation of erythropoiesis in rats during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Astronauts who have flown in microgravity have experienced a loss in red cell mass. The pathogenesis of the anemia of space flight has not been ascertained, but it is probably multifactorial. In 1978, the laboratory was selected to participate in life sciences studies to be carried out in the space shuttle in an attempt to study the pathogenesis of space anemia. In particular, the original studies were to be made in mice. This was later changed to study erythropoiesis in rats during space flight.

  8. Scientific involvement in Skylab by the Space Sciences Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The involvement of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Laboratory in the Skylab program from the early feasibility studies through the analysis and publication of flight scientific and technical results is described. This includes mission operations support, the Apollo telescope mount, materials science/manufacturing in space, optical contamination, environmental and thermal criteria, and several corollary measurements and experiments.

  9. Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric N.

    Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude

  10. Adaptive Flight Control for an Autonomous Unmanned Helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

    For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an innerloop that controls attitude and an outerloop that controls the trajectory of the helicopter. The outerloop generates attitude commands that orient the main ro- tor forces appropriately to generate required translational accelerations. Recent work in Neural Network based adaptive flight control may be applied to

  11. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  12. EURECA thermal control flight performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Hahn; Giuseppe D. Racca; Angus Blackwood

    1993-01-01

    The European Retrievablle Carrier (EURCA) at the time of writing is completeing its mission in low Earth orbit, waiting for the retrieval launch of the Shuttle STS-57. EURCA has completed already to a large extent its scientific operations and has undergone to a series of various orbital phases. The thermal control performances are addressed in this paper on the basis

  13. Control system testing. [for space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittler, W. H.; Collart, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A three stage process of ground testing of the Space Telescope Pointing Control System is used for verification prior to on-orbit operation. First, development tests are conducted in a laboratory environment using flight/engineering model control sensor and actuators configured with an engineering model of the flight computer and data management system breadboards. These development tests validate the results of computer simulations predicting control system performance. Integration tests bring together flight system elements and software interfaced to a software simulation of vehicle dynamics to confirm closed loop performance. The final ground test phase, flight systems testing, is conducted on the fully assembled Space Telescope, verifies interfaces with the Fine Guidance Sensors and includes a thermal vacuum testing period. During the final test phase, the Point Control System is exercised with the dynamics simulator running in real time.

  14. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  15. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvet?anský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  16. Control information in visual flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the inquiry is to determine how precisely a pilot can estimate the movements of his vehicle, and thus exercise control, during an unaided visual approach. The method is to relate changes in the forward view, due to movements along and across the approach path, to human visual thresholds and errors. The scope is restricted to effects of inclination, expansion, size, and rotation in runway features during approaches at small angles of elevation. Quantitative relations are given which provide a basis for ranking the several information mechanisms. Alignment by inclination of a ground line is found to be an accurate lateral mechanism, probably superior to the expansion mechanism. Vertical control mechanisms are complex, of questionable accuracy, and difficult to rank. The results throw some doubt on the usefulness of a runway symbol as a source of displayed information.

  17. Program to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a thermal control-mixing control device for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Thurston; R. H. Larson

    1976-01-01

    The development and testing of a temperature sensor and pulse duration modulation (PDM) diverter valve for a thermal control-mixing control device are described. The temperature sensor selected for use uses a fluidic pin amplifier in conjunction with an expansion device. This device can sense changes of less than 0.25 F with greater than 15:1 signal to noise ratio when operating

  18. Training the Hubble space telescope flight team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Loftin; P. Kenney

    1995-01-01

    As the results demonstrate, members of the flight team judged, on average, that the use of a virtual environment for training had a positive effect on their job performance during the HST repair and maintenance mission. Moreover, audio and visual cues provided a positive aid in using the virtual environment. The discomfort experienced by some of the participants did not

  19. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  20. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure...61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] Electrical Bonding and Lightning...

  1. Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.

  2. The 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of 194 articles addressing research and technology activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is given. Activities are divided into three major areas: advanced studies addressing transportation systems, space systems, and space science activities conducted primarily in the Program Development Directorate; research tasks carried out in the Space Science Laboratory; and technology programs hosted by a wide array of organizations at the Center. The theme for this year's report is 'Building for the Future'.

  3. The Payload Operations Center (POC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Data Management Coordinators (DMC's) at a work station. The DMC configures on-board data systems to ensure payloads receive their downlinked science results and experiment telemetry in a timely manner.

  4. Technology Validation of Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.

  5. Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.

  6. Smooth pursuit deficits in space flights of variable length.

    PubMed

    Reschke, Millard F; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Somers, Jeffrey T; Kornilova, Lyudmila N; Paloski, W H; Berthoz, Alain

    2002-07-01

    The maintenance of stable vision is a primary function of the neurovestibular and sensory-motor systems. There is, however, strong evidence suggesting that space flight results in a modification of the central nervous system and subsequent control of ocular-motor responses. These changes effect those neural mechanisms which are responsible for holding images steady on the retina during brief, self-initiated, head rotations or during the voluntary pursuit of moving targets. Recent studies have shown significant saccadic intrusions in both of these experimental paradigms, including an inability to null the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during the head/eye pursuit task. The maintenance of vision, while not entirely stable, both inflight and immediately postflight is now believed to be due to neural strategies that evolve for the purpose of assisting in directing the moving target onto the retina. PMID:15002517

  7. Space flight affects magnocellular supraoptic neurons of young prepuberal rats: transient and permanent effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Ovejero, D.; Trejo, J. L.; Ciriza, I.; Walton, K. D.; Garcia-Segura, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on postural control and volume of extracellular fluids as well as stress associated with space flight may affect the function of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. Since environmental modifications in young animals may result in permanent alterations in neuroendocrine function, the present study was designed to determine the effect of a space flight on oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic magnocellular hypothalamic neurons of prepuberal rats. Fifteen-day-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-90, Neurolab mission, experiment 150) for 16 days. Age-matched litters remained on the ground in cages similar to those of the flight animals. Six animals from each group were killed on the day of landing and eight animals from each group were maintained under standard vivarium conditions and killed 18 weeks after landing. Several signs of enhanced transcriptional and biosynthetic activity were observed in magnocellular supraoptic neurons of flight animals on the day of landing compared to control animals. These include increased c-Fos expression, larger nucleoli and cytoplasm, and higher volume occupied in the neuronal perikaryon by mitochondriae, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and cytoplasmic inclusions known as nematosomes. In contrast, the volume occupied by neurosecretory vesicles in the supraoptic neuronal perikarya was significantly decreased in flight rats. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in oxytocin and vasopressin immunoreactive levels, suggestive of an increased hormonal release. Vasopressin levels, cytoplasmic volume and c-Fos expression returned to control levels by 18 weeks after landing. These reversible effects were probably associated to osmotic stimuli resulting from modifications in the volume and distribution of extracellular fluids and plasma during flight and landing. However, oxytocin levels were still reduced at 18 weeks after landing in flight animals compared to controls. This indicates that space flight during prepuberal age may induce irreversible modifications in the regulation of oxytocinergic neurons, which in turn may result in permanent endocrine and behavioral impairments.

  8. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  9. Body Fluid Regulation and Hemopoiesis in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Bodymass and Fluid Distribution During Longterm Spaceflight with and without Countermeasures; Plasma Volume, Extracellular Fluid Volume, and Regulatory Hormones During Long-Term Space Flight; Effect of Microgravity and its Ground-Based Models on Fluid Volumes and Hemocirculatory Volumes; Seventeen Weeks of Horizontal Bed Rest, Lower Body Negative Pressure Testing, and the Associated Plasma Volume Response; Evaporative Waterloss in Space Theoretical and Experimental Studies; Erythropoietin Under Real and Simulated Micro-G Conditions in Humans; and Vertebral Bone Marrow Changes Following Space Flight.

  10. A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH TO ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVED FLIGHT SAFETY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Idan; Matthew Johnson; Anthony J. Calise

    2001-01-01

    Following failures of primary aerodynamic actuators, safe flight can be maintained by introducing alternative actuation systems, such as secondary aerodynamic surfaces and propulsion, for critical stability and control augmentation tasks. This paper presents an intelligent hierarchical flight control system architecture that is designed using nonlinear adaptive synthesis techniques and on-line learning neural networks to enhance flight safety. Pseudo-control hedging is

  11. [Space flight and the development of aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Rudny?, N M; Giurdzhan, A A

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses certain aspects of interaction between aviation and space medicine, contribution of aviation medicine into the development of space biology and medicine, and the role of cosmonautics in current achievements of aviation medicine. The paper describes advances in studies of space flight effects, development of life support and flight safety systems, medical and psychological support of the flight personnel, implementation of new methods and techniques, electronics, computers and automatics. Particular importance is attached to the rapid development of ergonomic approaches to the design and application of new technology, study of psychophysiology and psychology of human efficient activity in the system "man--flying vehicle--environment", i. e. psychophysiological ergonomics. Certain methodological and organizational aspects of the development of aviation and space medicine are briefly described. PMID:7022014

  12. TALKING POINTS FOR DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR GARVER SPACE FLIGHT AWARENESS EVENT

    E-print Network

    are counting on the excellence you have always displayed as America one's again reaches for a new horizon's first journey into space. On Exploration Flight Test 1, this spacecraft will travel farther into space than any spacecraft designed for humans has flown in the 40 years since our astronauts returned from

  13. Technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presented to Civil Space Technology Development workshop on technology transfer and effectiveness are provided. Topics covered include: obstacles to technology transfer; technology transfer improvement program at GSFC: communication between technology developers and users; and user feedback to technologists.

  14. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  15. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  16. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) during first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    After completing its first flight with the Digital Flight Control System on December 16, 1997, the F-16XL #1 aircraft began a series of envelope expansion flights. On January 27 and 29, 1998, it successfully completed structural clearance tests, as well as most of the load testing Only flights at Mach 1.05 at 10,000 feet, Mach 1.1 at 15,000 feet, and Mach 1.2 at 20,000 feet remained. During the next flight, on February 4, an instrumentation problem cut short the planned envelope expansion tests. After the problem was corrected, the F-16XL returned to flight status, and on February 18 and 20, flight control and evaluation flights were made. Two more research flights were planned for the following week, but another problem appeared. During the ground start up, project personnel noticed that the leading edge flap moved without being commanded. The Digital Flight Control Computer was sent to the Lockheed-Martin facility at Fort Worth, where the problem was traced to a defective chip in the computer. After it was replaced, the F-16XL #1 flew a highly successful flight controls and handling qualities evaluation flight on March 26, clearing the way for the final tests. The final limited loads expansion flight occurred on March 31, and was fully successful. As a result, the on-site Lockheed-Martin loads engineer cleared the aircraft to Mach 1.8. The remaining two handling qualities and flight control evaluation flights were both made on April 3, 1998. These three flights concluded the flight test portion of the DFCS upgrade.

  17. Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Gregory, Irene M.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2008-01-01

    This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique "Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive Control" has been developed at NASA ARC to address the needs for stability margin metrics for adaptive control that potentially enables future V&V of adaptive systems. The technique "Direct Adaptive Control With Unknown Actuator Failures" is developed at NASA LaRC to deal with unknown actuator failures. The technique "Adaptive Control with Adaptive Pilot Element" is being researched at NASA LaRC to investigate the effects of pilot interactions with adaptive flight control that can have implications of stability and performance.

  18. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  19. An overview of United States manned space flight from Mercury to the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Technical considerations in the design, development and operation of United States manned spacecraft from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle are reviewed. The design and mission philosophies, launch vehicle and spacecraft characteristics, mode of operation, flight results and influence on later programs are discussed for Project Mercury, and Gemini Apollo and Skylab programs, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the Space Shuttle program. The Space Shuttle is shown to represent a major departure from the trend established in previous programs, requiring major advancements in the fields of flight control, thermal protection, and liquid-propellant rocket technology.

  20. The Space Flight Participant Program - Taking the teacher and classroom into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.

    1985-01-01

    NASA established the Space Flight Participant Program as a means to offer periodic opportunities for private citizens to fly on Space Shuttle missions. With the purpose of communicating the mission experience with the general public, it is expected that Space Flight Participants will be included on the crews of two to three Shuttle missions per year. This paper discusses the first flight opportunity - the NASA Teacher in Space Project - provided under this new initiative. Included in the discussion is a review of the events that led to the establishment of the Space Flight Participant Program, a review of the process that led to the selection of Christa McAuliffe as the first Space Flight Participant, a summary of the training activities to prepare a participant for a mission, and an outline of educational activities that will be offered by NASA in conjunction with Shuttle mission 51-L in January 1986 on which Ms. McAuliffe will fly.

  1. Space Shuttle propulsion performance reconstruction from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The aplication of extended Kalman filtering to estimating Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) performance, specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program. The flight data used includes inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRBs, which represents a reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are included.

  2. Space Shuttle commit-to-flight thermal assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dah N. Yin; Patrick M. Swift

    1989-01-01

    Commit-to-flight activity for the Space Shuttle orbiter requires that temperature distribution predictions be used to predict thermal stresses in the orbiter shell and frame structure. A new method of analysis, based on finite sum modeling and a three-dimensional temperature distribution, is used to take into account all available temperature data on a cross section. This method, developed specifically for commit-to-flight

  3. Simulation of flight control laws design using model predictive controllers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-jun Yang; Xiao-hui Qi; Gan-lin Shan

    2009-01-01

    A Model Predictive Control strategy is proposed for the flight control laws design. The modified MPC controller block is applied to the autopilot. The simulation framework uses MATLAB's basic configuration and Aerosim Aeronautical Simulation Blockset which provides a complete set of tools for rapid development of 6 DoF nonlinear aircraft models. The Aerosonde UAV model is utilized in the simulations

  4. Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

  5. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  6. Implications of Responsive Space on the Flight Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmot, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Responsive Space initiative has several implications for flight software that need to be addressed not only within the run-time element, but the development infrastructure and software life-cycle process elements as well. The runtime element must at a minimum support Plug & Play, while the development and process elements need to incorporate methods to quickly generate the needed documentation, code, tests, and all of the artifacts required of flight quality software. Very rapid response times go even further, and imply little or no new software development, requiring instead, using only predeveloped and certified software modules that can be integrated and tested through automated methods. These elements have typically been addressed individually with significant benefits, but it is when they are combined that they can have the greatest impact to Responsive Space. The Flight Software Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing the runtime, infrastructure and process elements needed for rapid integration with the Core Flight software System (CFS) architecture. The CFS architecture consists of three main components; the core Flight Executive (cFE), the component catalog, and the Integrated Development Environment (DE). This paper will discuss the design of the components, how they facilitate rapid integration, and lessons learned as the architecture is utilized for an upcoming spacecraft.

  7. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and Their Implications for Bone Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The human zero-gravity locomotion simulator and the cadaver simulator offer a powerful combination for the study of the implications of exercise for maintaining bone quality during space flight. Such studies, when compared with controlled in-flight exercise programs, could help in the identification of a strain threshold for the prevention of bone loss during space flight.

  8. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  9. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  10. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Bone metabolism in space flight and long-duration bed rest].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-12-01

    Bone loss and urolithiasis are inevitable outcome in human space flight and long-duration bet rest. The rate of space flight induced bone loss is 10 times faster than in those with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss at weight bearing bones, elevated urinary calcium excretion, and un-coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are observed during the long-term bed rest study. Improvements of resistive exercise device and vitamin-D supplementation for astronauts in International Space Station can partially maintain bone mass, however, they can not fully supress bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during space flight. JAXA and NASA are performing joint study to validate the mitigration effects on bone resorption and urolithiasis of bisphosphonate supplement in conjunction with excercise. PMID:23187072

  11. Thermal comfort and thermoregulation in manned space flight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Fei, Jin-Xue; Yu, Xue-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out. PMID:24654534

  12. Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J H

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations. PMID:12056423

  13. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  14. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  15. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  16. Redundant actuator development program. [for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenoweth, C. C.; Fain, D. M.; Svensson, C. I.

    1975-01-01

    Two concepts of redundant secondary actuator mechanization, applicable to future advanced flight control systems, were studied to quantitatively assess their design applicability to an AST. The two actuator concepts, a four-channel, force summed system and a three-channel, active/standby system have been developed and evaluated through analysis, analog computer simulation, and piloted motion simulation. The quantitative comparison of the two concepts indicates that the force summed concept better meet performance requirements, although the active/standby is superior in other respects. Both concepts are viable candidates for advanced control application dependent on the specific performance requirements.

  17. Users manual for flight control design programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, J. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

  18. [Organ and tissue regeneration in lower vertebrate animals during space flight and after its completion].

    PubMed

    Brushilinskaia, N V; Grigorian, E N; Tuchkova, S Ia; Anton, H J; Mitashov, V I

    1997-01-01

    The most important data obtained in studies of the influence of space flight factors on the limb and lens regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltlii have been summarized. Regeneration of these organs under the conditions of space flight and after its termination proceeded just as on the ground. However after the 7th, 13th and 16th days of space flight, a trend was shown toward acceleration of the limb and lens regenerates development according to the regeneration stages and synchronization of the achieved stages, which was accompanied in some cases by an increased proliferative activity of the regenerate cells. It was shown that in two groups of animals operated before the 16-day space flight (I) and just after its termination (II) accelerated development of the limb and lens regenerates was observed. In group II, at the large bud stage, the index of 3H-thymidine labeled blastema cells was more than twice that in the control. The size of regenerates in groups I and II exceeded reliably those in the control. These results suggest a prolonged effect of space flight factors on the limb and lens regeneration. It was also shown that the capacity of the muscle minced 14 days before the flight for regeneration was not suppressed, although somewhat decreased. An electron microscopic study showed degenerative-atrophic changes in the intact hind limb muscle after the 16-day space flight. We believe that the phenomenon of synchronization and accelerated regeneration of the limb and lens observed in the most experiments are due to the effect of microgravity on the animals. PMID:9289675

  19. The biomedical challenges of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

  20. The biomedical challenges of space flight.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2003-01-01

    Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit. PMID:12471177

  1. Interface control document between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Department of Interior EROS Data Center (EDC) for LANDSAT-D. Thematic mapper high resolution 241 mm film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The 241 mm photographic product produced by the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Management System for LANDSAT-D is described. Film type and format, image dimensions, frame ID, gray scale, resolution patterns, registration marks, etc. are addressed.

  2. Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

  3. R and T report: Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) flight projects; (2) space sciences including cosmology, high energy, stars and galaxies, and the solar system; (3) earth sciences including process modeling, hydrology/cryology, atmospheres, biosphere, and solid earth; (4) networks, planning, and information systems including support for mission operations, data distribution, advanced software and systems engineering, and planning/scheduling; and (5) engineering and materials including spacecraft systems, material and testing, optics and photonics and robotics.

  4. The 1991 research and technology report, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (editor); Ottenstein, Howard (editor); Montgomery, Harry (editor); Truszkowski, Walter (editor); Frost, Kenneth (editor); Sullivan, Walter (editor); Boyle, Charles (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) earth sciences including upper atmosphere, lower atmosphere, oceans, hydrology, and global studies; (2) space sciences including solar studies, planetary studies, Astro-1, gamma ray investigations, and astrophysics; (3) flight projects; (4) engineering including robotics, mechanical engineering, electronics, imaging and optics, thermal and cryogenic studies, and balloons; and (5) ground systems, networks, and communications including data and networks, TDRSS, mission planning and scheduling, and software development and test.

  5. Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2007-02-01

    This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

  6. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI.

    PubMed

    McPhee, J C; White, R J

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. PMID:14649253

  7. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-08-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

  8. Physiology, Medicine, Long-Duration Space Flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. J.; Sutton, J. P.; McPhee, J. C.

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  10. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to establish a schedule. The method has been expanded to search a two-dimensional control space. Simulation results demonstrate the ability to maximize range by optimizing stabilator deflection and an airspeed set point. Another set of results minimize power required in high speed flight by optimizing collective pitch and stabilator deflection. Results show that the control laws effectively hold the flight condition while the FTO method is effective at improving performance. Optimizations show there can be issues when the control laws regulating altitude push the collective control towards it limits. So a modification was made to the control law to regulate airspeed and altitude using propeller pitch and angle of attack while the collective is held fixed or used as an optimization variable. A dynamic trim limit avoidance algorithm is applied to avoid control saturation in other axes during optimization maneuvers. Range and power optimization FTO simulations are compared with comprehensive sweeps of trim solutions and FTO optimization shown to be effective and reliable in reaching an optimal when optimizing up to two redundant controls. Use of redundant controls is shown to be beneficial for improving performance. The search method takes almost 25 minutes of simulated flight for optimization to be complete. The optimization maneuver itself can sometimes drive the power required to high values, so a power limit is imposed to restrict the search to avoid conditions where power is more than5% higher than that of the initial trim state. With this modification, the time the optimization maneuver takes to complete is reduced down to 21 minutes without any significant change in the optimal power value.

  11. Intelligent aerodynamic\\/propulsion flight control for flight safety: a nonlinear adaptive approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Idan; Matthew Johnson; Anthony J. Calise; John Kaneshige

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent fault tolerant flight control system that blends aerodynamic and propulsion actuation for safe flight operation in the presence of actuator failures. Fault tolerance is obtained by a nonlinear adaptive control strategy based on on-line learning neural networks and actuator reallocation scheme. The adaptive control block incorporates a recently developed technique for adaptation in the presence

  12. Space physiology II: adaptation of the central nervous system to space flight--past, current, and future studies.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Ngo-Anh, Jennifer Thu

    2013-07-01

    Experiments performed in orbit on the central nervous system have focused on the control of posture, eye movements, spatial orientation, as well as cognitive processes, such as three-dimensional visual perception and mental representation of space. Brain activity has also been recorded during and immediately after space flight for evaluating the changes in brain structure activation during tasks involving perception, attention, memory, decision, and action. Recent ground-based studies brought evidence that the inputs from the neurovestibular system also participate in orthostatic intolerance. It is, therefore, important to revisit the flight data of neuroscience studies in the light of new models of integrative physiology. The outcomes of this exercise will increase our knowledge on the adaptation of body functions to changing gravitational environment, vestibular disorders, aging, and our approach towards more effective countermeasures during human space flight and planetary exploration. PMID:23053128

  13. Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews of STI were not fully qualified to conduct those reviews and that the reviews often did not occur until after the STI had been publicly released. NASA guidance requires that STI, defined as the results of basic and applied scientific, technical, and related engineering research and development, undergo certain reviews prior to being released outside of NASA or to audiences that include foreign nationals. The process includes technical, national security, export control, copyright, and trade secret (e.g., proprietary data) reviews. The review process was designed to preclude the inappropriate dissemination of sensitive information while ensuring that NASA complies with a requirement of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (the Space Act)1 to provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information resulting from NASA research activities. We focused our audit on evaluating the STI review process: specifically, determining whether the roles and responsibilities for the review, approval, and release of STI were adequately defined and documented in NASA and Center-level guidance and whether that guidance was effectively implemented at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Johnson was included in the review because it was the source of the initial complaint, and Goddard, Langley, and Marshall were included because those Centers consistently produce significant amounts of STI.

  14. Temperature prediction of space flight experiments by computer thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birdsong, M. B.; Luttges, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences experiments are especially sensitive to temperature. A small temperature difference between otherwise identical samples can cause various differences in biological reaction rates. Knowledge of experimental temperatures and temperature histories help to distinguish the effects of microgravity and temperature on spaceflight experiments compared to ground based studies, and allow appropriate controls and sensitivity tests. Up to the present time, the Orbiter (Space Shuttle) has not generally provided temperature measurement instrumentation inside ambient lockers located in the Mid-deck of the Orbiter, or inside similar facilities such as Spacehab and Spacelab, but many pieces of hardware do have temperature recording capability. Most of these temperatures, however, have only been roughly measured or estimated. Such reported experimental temperatures, while accurate within a range of several degrees Celsius, are of limited utility to biological researchers. The temperature controlled lockers used in spaceflight, such as Commerical-Refrigeration Incubation Modules (C-R/IMs), severely reduce the mass and volume available for test samples and do not necessarily provide uniform thermal environments. While these test carriers avoid some of the experimental temperature variations of the ambient lockers, the number of samples which can be accommodated in these temperature controlled units is limited. In the present work, improved models of thermal prediction and control were sought. Temperatures are predicted by thermal analysis software using empirical temperatures recorded during STS-57. These temperatures are compared to data recorded throughout the mission using Ambient Temperature Recorders (ATRs) located within several payload lockers. Additional test cases are undertaken using controlled ground experiments to more precisely determine the reliability of the thermal model. The approach presented should increase the utility of various spaceflight carriers in the support of biological and material science research and ground control studies done in preparation for flight.

  15. Temperature prediction of space flight experiments by computer thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    Birdsong, M B; Luttges, M W

    1995-02-01

    Life sciences experiments are especially sensitive to temperature. A small temperature difference between otherwise identical samples can cause various differences in biological reaction rates. Knowledge of experimental temperatures and temperature histories help to distinguish the effects of microgravity and temperature on spaceflight experiments compared to ground based studies, and allow appropriate controls and sensitivity tests. Up to the present time, the Orbiter (Space Shuttle) has not generally provided temperature measurement instrumentation inside ambient lockers located in the Mid-deck of the Orbiter, or inside similar facilities such as Spacehab and Spacelab, but many pieces of hardware do have temperature recording capability. Most of these temperatures, however, have only been roughly measured or estimated. Such reported experimental temperatures, while accurate within a range of several degrees Celsius, are of limited utility to biological researchers. The temperature controlled lockers used in spaceflight, such as Commercial-Refrigeration Incubation Modules (C-R/IMs), severely reduce the mass and volume available for test samples and do not necessarily provide uniform thermal environments. While these test carriers avoid some of the experimental temperature variations of the ambient lockers, the number of samples which can be accommodated in these temperature controlled units is limited. In the present work, improved models of thermal prediction and control were sought. Temperatures are predicted by thermal analysis software using empirical temperatures recorded during STS-57. These temperatures are compared to data recorded throughout the mission using Ambient Temperature Recorders (ATRs) located within several payload lockers. Additional test cases are undertaken using controlled ground experiments to more precisely determine the reliability of the thermal model. The approach presented should increase the utility of various spaceflight carriers in the support of biological and material science research and ground control studies done in preparation for flight. PMID:11538783

  16. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  17. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight 

    E-print Network

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15

    landing accuracy requirements for a manned space vehicle make it necessary to ?y a controlled entry trajectory rather than a more robust ballistic entry trajectory used for some robotic missions. The large variations in Mars atmospheric properties make a...

  18. The Flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-119)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

    2010-03-01

    This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, Discovery launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the "CBS News" space consultant. The spreadsheet provides detailed and authentic information about the prediction of the ascent of flight STS-119, the 36th flight of Discovery and the 125th shuttle flight to date. We have used the data for our calculations and the production of the graphs. A limited version of the ascent data is available on the "CBS News" STS-119 trajectory timeline.

  19. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  20. Historical flight qualifications of space nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the qualification programs for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) as developed for the Galileo and Ulysses missions; the SNAP-10A space reactor; the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA); the F-1 chemical rocket engine used on the Saturn-V Apollo lunar missions; and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). Some similarities and contrasts between the qualification testing employed on these five programs will be noted. One common thread was that in each of these successful programs there was an early focus on component and subsystem tests to uncover and correct problems.

  1. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  2. Quadruplex digital flight control system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulcare, D. B.; Downing, L. E.; Smith, M. K.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the development and validation of a double fail-operational digital flight control system architecture for critical pitch axis functions. Architectural tradeoffs are assessed, system simulator modifications are described, and demonstration testing results are critiqued. Assessment tools and their application are also illustrated. Ultimately, the vital role of system simulation, tailored to digital mechanization attributes, is shown to be essential to validating the airworthiness of full-time critical functions such as augmented fly-by-wire systems for relaxed static stability airplanes.

  3. The Intelligent Flight Control Program (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the closeout report for the Research Cooperative Agreement NCC4-00130 of accomplishments for the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project. It has been a pleasure working with NASA and NASA partners as we strive to meet the goals of this research initiative. ISR was engaged in this Research Cooperative Agreement beginning 01 January 2003 and ending 31 January 2004. During this time ISR conducted efforts towards development of the ARTS II Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) version 4.0 by performing or developing the following: 1) Requirements Definition; 2) Software Design and Development; 3) Hardware In the Loop Simulation; 4) Unit Level testing; 5) Documentation.

  4. Reliability Assessment for COTS Components in Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, G. S.; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Systems built for space flight applications usually demand very high degree of performance and a very high level of accuracy. Hence, the design engineers are often prone to selecting state-of-art technologies for inclusion in their system design. The shrinking budgets also necessitate use of COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components, which are construed as being less expensive. The performance and accuracy requirements for space flight applications are much more stringent than those for the commercial applications. The quantity of systems designed and developed for space applications are much lower in number than those produced for the commercial applications. With a given set of requirements, are these COTS components reliable? This paper presents a model for assessing the reliability of COTS components in space applications and the associated affect on the system reliability. We illustrate the method with a real application.

  5. Inheritance of induction radiation sensitivity of space flight environments and ?-radiation on rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Wang, J.; Wei, L.; Li, Z.; Sun, Y.

    There are many factors affecting living things during space flight, such as microgravity, cosmic radiation, etc. A large number of plant mutants have been obtained after space flight on satellite in China in the last decade and some commercial crop varieties were released. However, little consideration has so far been given to the genetic mechanisms underlying sensitivity of plant seeds to space flight environments. To reveal the genetic mechanisms associated with induction radiation sensitivity (IRS), a set of 226 recombination inbred lines (RILs) derived from Lemont (japonica)/ Teqing (indica) F13, were analyzed using 164 well-distributed DNA markers and assayed for the traits related to IRS including rate of survival seedling (RSS), seedling height (SH), seed setting rate (SSR) and total physiological damage (TPD) in replicated trials after space flight on Chinese Shenzhou IV Spacecraft and? -radiation treatment (35000 rad) on the ground in 2002. Seedling growth of Lemont was accelerated after space flight with the SH of 116.2% of ground control while growth suppression was happened for Teqing with the SH of 85.7% of ground control. ? -radiation treatment resulted in significant decrease in all tested traits for the two parents, indicating space flight and ? -radiation treatment had different biological effects on the two parents. Significant differences were detected among the RILs for their responses to space flight environments and ? -radiation, reflected as the difference in the four tested traits. Space flight resulted in stimulation on growth for 57.1% lines while? -radiation had suppression on growth for most lines. Seventeen putative main-effect QTLs was identified for the four traits related to IRS under space flight and ? -radiation, which totally explained significant portions of the total trait variation (4.4% for RSS, 27.2% for SH, 4% for SSR and 15.8% for TPD for space flight; 10.4% for RSS, 15.1% for SH, 8.2% for SSR and 6.1% for TPD for? -radiation). Same QTLs affecting some of the four tested traits after space flight and? -radiation treatment were identified, suggesting that space flight environments and? -radiation partially shared the same genetic mechanisms for mutation. Forty-nine epistatic pairs affecting the four traits was detected and totally explained significant portions of the phenotypic variation (49.7% for RSS, 49.8% for SH, 14.3% for SSR and 40.2% for TPD for space flight; 30.5% for RSS, 18.1% for SH, 34.3% for SSR, 31.9% for TPD for? -radiation). It indicated that IRS is a very complicated trait and epistasis may play an important role in underlying its genetic mechanism. Based on these results, the genetic basis of IRS and its application in plant mutation breeding was discussed.

  6. The Goddard Space Flight Center ergonomics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Eileen; Unite, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    Since the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Screening Program started in 1984, we have made many changes to accommodate the growing number of participants. As a result of these changes, screening of KSC employees has become more efficient and productive. Various aspects of the program are covered.

  7. Remote assistance experiment during the manned space flight altair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pasdeloup; M. Mas; H. Stevenin

    1995-01-01

    This remote assistance trial, performed within the framework of the manned space flight Altaïr, was carried out by CADMOS (CNES), with the cooperation of the Sub-directorate of CNES Operational Systems, Medes, LBM of Tours and Christol Consultants. It consisted of supplying the cosmonaut performing the Orthostatism experiment (echograph acquisition) on board the Mir station with realtime assistance by an expert

  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  9. The corrosion and restoration of Space Shuttle Challenger's flight computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schuessler

    1988-01-01

    Shortly after the Space Shuttle Challenger incident on January 28, 1986, IBM Federal Systems Division personnel were requested to formulate and be prepared to implement a data recovery program to access the information retained within the Shuttle's flight computers. These efforts began on March 11, 1987, with retrieval of the onboard computers from 90 feet below the surface of the

  10. Mechanisms for vestibular disorders in space flight. Facts and hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsnev, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the vestibular disorders associated with space flight. It is found there is still no complete understanding of the changes occurring in the sensory systems of the body during weightlessness. Results of studies are presented, including results of a ground model.

  11. Marshall Space Flight Center 1989 annual chronology of events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A chronological listing of the major events for the Marshall Space Flight Center for the calendar year 1989 is provided. The MSFC Historian, Management Operations Office, compiled the chronology from various sources and from supplemental information provided by the major MSFC organizations.

  12. A Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor for Space Flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly F. Nastoyashchiy; Anatoly F

    2006-01-01

    A small-scale nuclear fusion reactor is suggested based on the concepts of plasma confinement (with a high pressure gas) which have been patented by the author. The reactor considered can be used as a power setup in space flights. Among the advantages of this reactor is the use of a D3He fuel mixture which at burning gives main reactor products

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Safety, Health, & Environmental (SHE) Program

    E-print Network

    Marshall Space Flight Center Safety, Health, & Environmental (SHE) Program Safety, Health, & Environmental (SHE) Program Visitor Awareness Training (SHE 101V) SHE 101V Presented By: MSFC Industrial Safety or damage to MSFC property, material, or equipment, the following shall be notified: Safety Hotline, 544

  14. Summary of lower body negative pressure experiments during space flight.

    PubMed

    Charles, J B; Lathers, C M

    1994-06-01

    This paper summarizes the lower body negative pressure experiments performed in space, beginning with the experiments conducted on Skylab, because this program provided the most cardiovascular physiology data for United States space flight. Data obtained during studies of lower body negative pressure for use as a countermeasure after months of Russian space flight are also presented. Lower body negative pressure experiments conducted aboard Space Shuttle flights provide data about the deadaptation response of the cardiovascular system to orthostatic stress occurring during periods of zero gravity, and about protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Data obtained using Russian and American lower body negative pressure devices indicate that, when a crew member stands, as opposed to being supported by a seat or saddle as in the American device, there may be a slight detrimental effect in terms of the cardiovascular response to this orthostatic stress. Comparison of heart rate and blood pressure response to entry and landing of the Shuttle indicate that, although lower body negative pressure is a different stress and is applied in a different manner, the maximum heart rates during lower body negative pressure are reached at approximately the same point that the maximum heart rates are reached during entry and landing. Thus, the use of a lower body negative pressure stress in flight is a fairly good predictor of the cardiovascular response to the actual entry and landing of the Shuttle. PMID:8083388

  15. Integrated Crew Health Care System for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Davis' presentation includes a brief overview of space flight and the lessons learned for health care in microgravity. He will describe the development of policy for health care for international crews. He will conclude his remarks with a discussion of an integrated health care system.

  16. Goddard Space Flight Center's Partnership with Florida International University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. Rishe; S. C. Graham; M. E. Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been collaborating with Florida International University's High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) for nearly ten years. Much of this collaboration was funded through a NASA Institutional Research Award (IRA). That award involved research in the Internet dissemination of geospatial data, and in recruiting and training student researchers. FIU's TerraFly web service presently

  17. Geographic information systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic functions of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the different ways that a GIS may be implemented are described. It surveys that GIS software packages that are currently in operation at the Goddard Space Flight Center and discusses the types of applications for which they are best suited. Future plans for in-house GIS research and development are outlined.

  18. Flight control for target seeking by 13 gram ornithopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley S. Baek; Fernando L. Garcia Bermudez; Ronald S. Fearing

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in small-scale flapping-wing mi- cro aerial vehicles have extended the capabilities of flight control for a number of applications, such as intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance activities. In this work, we demonstrate autonomous flight control of a 13 gram ornithopter capable of flying toward a target without remote assistance. For autonomous flight control, we developed 1.0 gram control electronics

  19. ADS-B feasibility study for commercial space flight operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pengfei Duan; James Rankin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of integrating commercial space flight operations with conventional aviation operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This paper reviews the current space surveillance systems and conducts a feasibility study on the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) to aid the integration. The scope of this paper is focused on the surveillance services of

  20. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

  1. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous changes between HDBR and space flight. Primary differences across short duration, long duration space flight and HDBR are related to the length of exposure associated with both space flight and HDBR.

  2. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote earth field sensing magnetometer and servo control building; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils are 42-foot in diameter and a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils accommodates spacecraft access to the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  3. The Role of Nutritional Research in the Success of Human Space Flight12

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Helen W.; Bourland, Charles; Barrett, Ann; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has had human space flight programs for >50 y and has had a continued presence in space since 2000. Providing nutritious and safe food is imperative for astronauts because space travelers are totally dependent on launched food. Space flight research topics have included energy, protein, nutritional aspects of bone and muscle health, and vision issues related to 1-carbon metabolism. Research has shown that energy needs during flight are similar to energy needs on Earth. Low energy intakes affect protein turnover. The type of dietary protein is also important for bone health, plant-based protein being more efficacious than animal protein. Bone loss is greatly ameliorated with adequate intakes of energy and vitamin D, along with routine resistive exercise. Astronauts with lower plasma folate concentrations may be more susceptible to vision changes. Foods for space flight were developed initially by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine in conjunction with the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and NASA. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point safety standards were specifically developed for space feeding. Prepackaged foods for the International Space Station were originally high in sodium (5300 mg/d), but NASA has recently reformulated >90 foods to reduce sodium intake to 3000 mg/d. Food development has improved nutritional quality as well as safety and acceptability. PMID:24038244

  4. The role of nutritional research in the success of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Bourland, Charles; Barrett, Ann; Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The United States has had human space flight programs for >50 y and has had a continued presence in space since 2000. Providing nutritious and safe food is imperative for astronauts because space travelers are totally dependent on launched food. Space flight research topics have included energy, protein, nutritional aspects of bone and muscle health, and vision issues related to 1-carbon metabolism. Research has shown that energy needs during flight are similar to energy needs on Earth. Low energy intakes affect protein turnover. The type of dietary protein is also important for bone health, plant-based protein being more efficacious than animal protein. Bone loss is greatly ameliorated with adequate intakes of energy and vitamin D, along with routine resistive exercise. Astronauts with lower plasma folate concentrations may be more susceptible to vision changes. Foods for space flight were developed initially by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine in conjunction with the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and NASA. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point safety standards were specifically developed for space feeding. Prepackaged foods for the International Space Station were originally high in sodium (5300 mg/d), but NASA has recently reformulated >90 foods to reduce sodium intake to 3000 mg/d. Food development has improved nutritional quality as well as safety and acceptability. PMID:24038244

  5. Multiagent Flight Control in Dynamic Environments with Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudson, Matthew D.; Colby, Mitchell; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic flight environments in which objectives and environmental features change with respect to time pose a difficult problem with regards to planning optimal flight paths. Path planning methods are typically computationally expensive, and are often difficult to implement in real time if system objectives are changed. This computational problem is compounded when multiple agents are present in the system, as the state and action space grows exponentially. In this work, we use cooperative coevolutionary algorithms in order to develop policies which control agent motion in a dynamic multiagent unmanned aerial system environment such that goals and perceptions change, while ensuring safety constraints are not violated. Rather than replanning new paths when the environment changes, we develop a policy which can map the new environmental features to a trajectory for the agent while ensuring safe and reliable operation, while providing 92% of the theoretically optimal performance

  6. Flight Plan Management in a Distributed Air Traffic Control System

    E-print Network

    Grigoras, .Romulus

    Flight Plan Management in a Distributed Air Traffic Control System Philippe Qu'einnec G control system to replace the existing one. Air traffic control systems are sys­ tems with very high requirement of availability [3]. An important part of an air traffic control system is the flight plan service

  7. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhabrata Ganguli

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow

  8. Manual Manipulation of Engine Throttles for Emergency Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Maine, Trindel A.

    2004-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only engines thrust. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. Flight test and simulation results on many airplanes have shown that pilot manipulation of throttles is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but is most often not capable of providing safe landings. There are techniques that will improve control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only control (TOC), a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, manual TOC results for a wide range of airplanes from simulation and flight, and suggested techniques for flying with throttles only and making a survivable landing.

  9. Thruster Limitation Consideration for Formation Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yunjun; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Mason, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Physical constraints of any real system can have a drastic effect on its performance. Some of the more recognized constraints are actuator and sensor saturation and bandwidth, power consumption, sampling rate (sensor and control-loop) and computation limits. These constraints can degrade system s performance, such as settling time, overshoot, rising time, and stability margins. In order to address these issues, researchers have investigated the use of robust and nonlinear controllers that can incorporate uncertainty and constraints into a controller design. For instance, uncertainties can be addressed in the synthesis model used in such algorithms as H(sub infinity), or mu. There is a significant amount of literature addressing this type of problem. However, there is one constraint that has not often been considered; that is, actuator authority resolution. In this work, thruster resolution and controller schemes to compensate for this effect are investigated for position and attitude control of a Low Earth Orbit formation flight system In many academic problems, actuators are assumed to have infinite resolution. In real system applications, such as formation flight systems, the system actuators will not have infinite resolution. High-precision formation flying requires the relative position and the relative attitude to be controlled on the order of millimeters and arc-seconds, respectively. Therefore, the minimum force resolution is a significant concern in this application. Without the sufficient actuator resolution, the system may be unable to attain the required pointing and position precision control. Furthermore, fuel may be wasted due to high-frequency chattering phenomena when attempting to provide a fine control with inadequate actuators. To address this issue, a Sliding Mode Controller is developed along with the boundary Layer Control to provide the best control resolution constraints. A Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the controller parameters according to the states error and fuel consumption criterion. The tradeoffs and effects of the minimum force limitation on performance are studied and compared to the case without the limitation. Furthermore, two methods are proposed to reduce chattering and improve precision.

  10. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Wilkes; Leigh L. Hummer; James M. Zwiener

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flown. The objective of the TCSE on the LDEF was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE

  11. Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics Research at NASA Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson A.

    2009-01-01

    This video presentation reviews the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and contains clips of flight tests and aircraft performance in the areas of target tracking, takeoff and differential stabilators. Video of the APG milestone flight 1g formation is included.

  12. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy

    1995-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  13. Spur Gear Wear Investigated in Support of Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA s Return-To-Flight efforts, the Space Operations Program investigated the condition of actuators for the orbiter s rudder speed brake. The actuators control the position of the rudder panels located in the tail of the orbiter, providing both steering control and braking during reentry, approach, and landing. Inspections of flight hardware revealed fretting and wear damage to the critical working surfaces of the actuator gears. To best understand the root cause of the observed damage and to help establish an appropriate reuse and maintenance plan for these safety critical parts, researchers completed a set of gear wear experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  14. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  15. The 1987 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George (editor); Yi, Thomas Y. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20th annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 4-5, 1987. The workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included lithium cell technology and safety improvements, nickel-cadmium electrode technology along with associated modifications, flight experience and life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, and nickel-hydrogen applications and technology.

  16. Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage, augmented by nonlinear cross-coupling terms and a structural dynamics model. The proposed approach achieved excellent performance under severe damage effects.

  18. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  19. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  20. An ultrasonic plethysmograph for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Lafferty, J. F.; Bowman, D.; Kadaba, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic plethysmograph based on the transit time measurement principle is reported, which meets the space-imposed requirements for evaluating cardiovascular deconditioning. It consists of a pulse generator, pulse receiver amplifier, voltage comparator, synchronous pulse generator, elapsed time counter, and transmit and receive piezoelectric crystals resonant at 2 MHz and of 3 mm diameter. The transit time for an ultrasonic pulse to propagate across a limb cross section is computed in a digital fashion using a 32 MHz clock, and resolution is 0.049 mm with the range being approximately 200 mm. Experimental results regarding dynamic system response were found comparable in both accuracy and sensitivity to those of a Whitney strain gage using a 50 torr venous occlusion.

  1. Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hesse; A. Pulkkinen; Y. Zheng; M. Maddox; D. Berrios; M. M. Kuznetsova; A. Taktakishvili; L. Rastaetter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center ED Mall Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NASA ED Mall Collection, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office, provides teachers and students with a wide variety of curriculum enhancement materials geared for Earth science classroom use.

  3. The NASA Lewis integrated propulsion and flight control simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    A new flight simulation facility was developed at NASA-Lewis. The purpose of this flight simulator is to allow integrated propulsion control and flight control algorithm development and evaluation in real time. As a preliminary check of the simulator facility capabilities and correct integration of its components, the control design and physics models for a short take-off and vertical landing fighter aircraft model were shown, with their associated system integration and architecture, pilot vehicle interfaces, and display symbology. The initial testing and evaluation results show that this fixed based flight simulator can provide real time feedback and display of both airframe and propulsion variables for validation of integrated flight and propulsion control systems. Additionally, through the use of this flight simulator, various control design methodologies and cockpit mechanizations can be tested and evaluated in a real time environment.

  4. Flight controllers at payloads consoles during OAST-1 operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight controllers at the payloads consoles monitor early stages of operations with the OAST-1 solar array experiment (SAE) panel. The long panel can be seen extending from the Discovery's cargo bay on the TV scence in the front of the flight control room (FCR-1) of JSC's mission control center.

  5. Digital communication technology development for space applications at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Fong; Pen-Shu Yeh; Victor Sank; David Fisher; Scott Hoy; Ernie Ekelman

    2005-01-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), space qualified integrated circuits for several key elements in space communication systems have been in development to increase data return in bandwidth constrained channels for future missions. Particularly in the area of digital communication, the development includes data compression, channel coding and modulation. In on-board data compression area, development focuses on a high-speed

  6. Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

  7. Detection of renal tissue and urinary tract proteins in the human urine after space flight.

    PubMed

    Pastushkova, Lyudmila Kh; Kireev, Kirill S; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Tiys, Evgeny S; Popov, Igor A; Starodubtseva, Natalia L; Dobrokhotov, Igor V; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A; Larina, Irina M; Kolchanov, Nicolay A; Nikolaev, Evgeny N

    2013-01-01

    The urine protein composition samples of ten Russian cosmonauts (male, aged of 35 up to 51) performed long flight missions and varied from 169 up to 199 days on the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed. As a control group, urine samples of six back-up cosmonauts were analyzed. We used proteomic techniques to obtain data and contemporary bioinformatics approaches to perform the analysis. From the total number of identified proteins (238) in our data set, 129 were associated with a known tissue origin. Preflight samples contained 92 tissue-specific proteins, samples obtained on Day 1 after landing had 90 such proteins, while Day 7 samples offered 95 tissue-specific proteins. Analysis showed that consistently present proteins in urine (under physiological conditions and after space flight) are cubilin, epidermal growth factor, kallikrein-1, kininogen-1, megalin, osteopontin, vitamin K-dependent protein Z, uromodulin. Variably present proteins consists of: Na(+)/K(+) ATPase subunit gamma, ?-defensin-1, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, maltasa-glucoamilasa, cadherin-like protein, neutral endopeptidase and vascular cell adhesion protein 1. And only three renal proteins were related to the space flight factors. They were not found in the pre-flight samples and in the back-up cosmonaut urine, but were found in the urine samples after space flight: AFAM (afamin), AMPE (aminopeptidase A) and AQP2 (aquaporin-2). This data related with physiological readaptation of water-salt balance. The proteomic analysis of urine samples in different phases of space missions with bioinformation approach to protein identification provides new data relative to biomechemical mechanism of kidney functioning after space flight. PMID:23967230

  8. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  9. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  10. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) robotics technology testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnurr, Rick; Obrien, Maureen; Cofer, Sue

    1989-01-01

    Much of the technology planned for use in NASA's Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and the Demonstration Test Flight (DTF) is relatively new and untested. To provide the answers needed to design safe, reliable, and fully functional robotics for flight, NASA/GSFC is developing a robotics technology testbed for research of issues such as zero-g robot control, dual arm teleoperation, simulations, and hierarchical control using a high level programming language. The testbed will be used to investigate these high risk technologies required for the FTS and DTF projects. The robotics technology testbed is centered around the dual arm teleoperation of a pair of 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulators, each with their own 6-DOF mini-master hand controllers. Several levels of safety are implemented using the control processor, a separate watchdog computer, and other low level features. High speed input/output ports allow the control processor to interface to a simulation workstation: all or part of the testbed hardware can be used in real time dynamic simulation of the testbed operations, allowing a quick and safe means for testing new control strategies. The NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) hierarchical control scheme, is being used as the reference standard for system design. All software developed for the testbed, excluding some of simulation workstation software, is being developed in Ada. The testbed is being developed in phases. The first phase, which is nearing completion, and highlights future developments is described.

  11. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  12. [The effect of space flight factors on the intact and regenerating skeletal muscles of the extremities in newts].

    PubMed

    Tuchkova, S Ia

    1997-01-01

    The influence of space flight factors on the structure of two skeletal muscles of the hindlimbs was studied in newts. Degenerative-atrophic changes took place in the both muscles of the flight group animals. Comparative-quantitative analysis of ultrastructural changes of the muscle tissue has shown that after space flight, the rate of structural defects of the muscle was twice that in animals of the synchronous and laboratory control groups. But these changes were reversible: within 10 days, the structure of the muscle fibers was practically normalized. The influence of space flight on repair regeneration of the hindlimb skeletal muscle was also studied: the muscle was minced and placed back in its bed 14 days before the flight. Under these conditions, the repair regeneration of the muscle was not suppressed, but a trend towards its delay was found. PMID:9410264

  13. Significance of biorhythms in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the most important factor in the maintenance of optimal health and performance is the stability of the relationship of one body rhythm to another. The effect of social interaction on performance, well-being, and physiological rhythm synchrony was investigated. Three groups of healthy males, ages 21 to 25, were confined in rooms (3.4 by 5.2 meters (11 by 17 feet)) for a total period of 105 days. Two of the groups were in rooms in which the environment could be regulated. The third group served as the control group and was exposed to ambient experimental conditions. The confined subjects were exposed for periods to several days either to 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark, or to continuous light at a light intensity of 161 lm/sq m (15 foot-candles). The confined subjects were deprived of all time cues, and meals were ad libitum. The subjects were observed throughout the study by a video camera and were scored for activity. Communications were limited to meal and sample-collection information, and meals and samples were passed through a two-way hatch. Rectal temperature and heart rate (HR) were sampled every 30 minutes by telemetry throughout the study. Results are presented.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    . Liquid propulsion systems including integrated booster and upper-stage systems, spacecraft propulsion, Ulysses, and Chandra, as well as several Department of Defense (DOD) missions ­ Space Transportation

  15. Electromechanical flight control actuator, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator was developed that will follow a proportional control command with minimum wasted energy to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting space vehicle actuator requirements using advanced electromechanical concepts. The approach was restricted to a four-channel redundant configuration. Each channel has independent drive and control electronics, a brushless electric motor with brake, and velocity and position feedback transducers. A differential gearbox sums the output velocities of the motors. Normally, two motors are active and the other two are braked.

  16. F-8C adaptive flight control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Harvey, C. A.; Stein, G.; Carlson, D. N.; Hendrick, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Three candidate digital adaptive control laws were designed for NASA's F-8C digital flyby wire aircraft. Each design used the same control laws but adjusted the gains with a different adaptative algorithm. The three adaptive concepts were: high-gain limit cycle, Liapunov-stable model tracking, and maximum likelihood estimation. Sensors were restricted to conventional inertial instruments (rate gyros and accelerometers) without use of air-data measurements. Performance, growth potential, and computer requirements were used as criteria for selecting the most promising of these candidates for further refinement. The maximum likelihood concept was selected primarily because it offers the greatest potential for identifying several aircraft parameters and hence for improved control performance in future aircraft application. In terms of identification and gain adjustment accuracy, the MLE design is slightly superior to the other two, but this has no significant effects on the control performance achievable with the F-8C aircraft. The maximum likelihood design is recommended for flight test, and several refinements to that design are proposed.

  17. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.; Kerr, Laura J.; Kielb, Robert P.; Welsh, Mark G.; DeLaat, John C.; Orme, John S.

    1998-01-01

    The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Program, managed and funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center, is a cooperative effort between NASA and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). The program objective is to develop and flight demonstrate an advanced high stability integrated engine control system that uses real-time, measurement-based estimation of inlet pressure distortion to enhance engine stability. Flight testing was performed using the NASA Advanced Controls Technologies for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The flight test configuration, details of the research objectives, and the flight test matrix to achieve those objectives are presented. Flight test results are discussed that show the design approach can accurately estimate distortion and perform real-time control actions for engine accommodation.

  18. The Intelligent Flight Control Program (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) is pleased to submit this closeout report for the Research Cooperative Agreement NCC4-00128 of accomplishments for the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project. It has been a pleasure working with NASA and NASA partners as we strive to meet the goals of this research initiative. ISR was engaged in this Research Cooperative Agreement beginning March 3, 2001 and ending March 31, 2003. During this time, a great deal has been accomplished and plans have been solidified for the continued success of this program. Our primary areas of involvement include the following: 1) ARTS II Master Test Plan; 2) ARTS II Hardware Design and Development; 3) ARTS II Software Design and Development; 4) IFCS PID/BLNN/OLNN Development; 5) Performed Preliminary and Formal Testing; 6) Documentation and Reporting.

  19. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  20. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  1. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  2. Endocrine responses in long-duration manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Endocrine measurements to assess the physiological cost of the combined stresses of space flight are considered from two aspects. First, fluid and electrolyte balance are correlated with weight loss, changes in the excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin and fluid compartments. The second area involves estimation of the physiological cost of maintaining a given level of performance during space flight by analysis of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. Inter-individual variability is demonstrated for most experimental indices measured. The measured changes are consistent with the hypothesis that a relative increase in thoracic blood volume upon transition to the zero-gravity environment can be interpreted as a true volume expansion resulting in an osmotic diuresis.

  3. Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Maddox, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Taktakishvil, A.; Rastaetter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of communitydeveloped space science models on space weather problems. Data from primarily from NASA missions but also from NOAA and other partner agencies are combined with model results into a fully configurable space weather information display by means of the iSWA system. This information and iSWA form the basis for and SWL-provided service to NASA's robotic mission fleet, which includes forecasts, regular updates, and warnings. This service benefits from a strong partnership with NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group, and with the US Air Force Weather Agency. In this presentation, we provide a summary of space weather capabilities and services and we present an outlook into the future.

  4. Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Maddox, M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Rastaetter, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of community-developed space science models on space weather problems. Data from primarily from NASA missions but also from NOAA and other partner agencies are combined with model results into a fully configurable space weather information display by means of the iSWA system. This information and iSWA form the basis for and SWL-provided service to NASA’s robotic mission fleet, which includes forecasts, regular updates, and warnings. This service benefits from a strong partnership with NASA’s Space Radiation Analysis Group, and with the US Air Force Weather Agency. In this presentation, we provide a summary of space weather capabilities and services and we present an outlook into the future.

  5. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements in astronauts abilities to maintain balance and achieve a postural stability upon landing from a jump early after flight. However, the jump landing adaptation process often begins after the first jump with full recovery of most performance parameters within days after space flight. As expected, performance of ISS astronauts on the first day after flight was similar to that of Shuttle crewmembers on landing day.

  6. Excitations for Rapidly Estimating Flight-Control Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Tim; Smith, Mark; Morelli, Gene

    2006-01-01

    A flight test on an F-15 airplane was performed to evaluate the utility of prescribed simultaneous independent surface excitations (PreSISE) for real-time estimation of flight-control parameters, including stability and control derivatives. The ability to extract these derivatives in nearly real time is needed to support flight demonstration of intelligent flight-control system (IFCS) concepts under development at NASA, in academia, and in industry. Traditionally, flight maneuvers have been designed and executed to obtain estimates of stability and control derivatives by use of a post-flight analysis technique. For an IFCS, it is required to be able to modify control laws in real time for an aircraft that has been damaged in flight (because of combat, weather, or a system failure). The flight test included PreSISE maneuvers, during which all desired control surfaces are excited simultaneously, but at different frequencies, resulting in aircraft motions about all coordinate axes. The objectives of the test were to obtain data for post-flight analysis and to perform the analysis to determine: 1) The accuracy of derivatives estimated by use of PreSISE, 2) The required durations of PreSISE inputs, and 3) The minimum required magnitudes of PreSISE inputs. The PreSISE inputs in the flight test consisted of stacked sine-wave excitations at various frequencies, including symmetric and differential excitations of canard and stabilator control surfaces and excitations of aileron and rudder control surfaces of a highly modified F-15 airplane. Small, medium, and large excitations were tested in 15-second maneuvers at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. Typical excitations are shown in Figure 1. Flight-test data were analyzed by use of pEst, which is an industry-standard output-error technique developed by Dryden Flight Research Center. Data were also analyzed by use of Fourier-transform regression (FTR), which was developed for onboard, real-time estimation of the derivatives.

  7. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  8. The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication inprovements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  9. Low extractable wipers for cleaning space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijerina, Veronica; Gross, Frederick C.

    1986-01-01

    There is a need for low extractable wipers for solvent cleaning of space flight hardware. Soxhlet extraction is the method utilized today by most NASA subcontractors, but there may be alternate methods to achieve the same results. The need for low non-volatile residue materials, the history of soxhlet extraction, and proposed alternate methods are discussed, as well as different types of wipers, test methods, and current standards.

  10. A new rat model simulating some aspects of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Sabelman, E. E.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    A rat suspension model to simulate the effects of weightlessness was developed by U.S. researchers coincident with U.S. involvement in Cosmos-satellite studies. This paper presents some preliminary data dealing with weight gain, food consumption, and bone formation in the rat model as compared with data from the Cosmos 782 and 936 experiments. It is shown that significant changes in bone formation rates may occur during a space flight lasting only five days.

  11. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  12. Hybrid Propulsion Testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andrew S.; Cash, Stephon F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid propulsion testing involving eleven and twenty-four inch motors performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from the early 1990's to the present are discussed. Topics covered include: Solid Propulsion Investigation Program, Joint NASA Industry Research and Development (JIRAD) program, Large Subscale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (LSSRCS), Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP), Hybrid Propulsion for Launch Vehicle Booster (HPTLV), Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage (PHUS) and Solid Fuel Torch (SFT).

  13. Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Moore; Gilles Clément; Theodore Raphan; Bernard Cohen

    2001-01-01

    .   During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural centripetal accelerations (Gy centrifugation)\\u000a of 0.5g and 1g during rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear out\\u000a or right-ear out, facing or back to motion. Binocular eye movements were measured in three dimensions using a video technique.

  14. Reliability Practice at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruessner, Paula S.; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes in brief the Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) Programs performed directly by the reliability branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The mission assurance requirements flow down is explained. GSFC practices for PRA, reliability prediction/fault tree analysis/reliability block diagram, FMEA, part stress and derating analysis, worst case analysis, trend analysis, limit life items are presented. Lessons learned are summarized and recommendations on improvement are identified.

  15. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems. [for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Chacon, Claude V.; Lock, Wilton P.

    1986-01-01

    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  16. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground-testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  17. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  18. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  19. Matlab-based flight control design scheme for UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iftikhar H. Makhdoom; Shi-Yin Qin

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a systematic procedure for flight control design of fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles using Matlab platform. The complex, non-linear, six degree-of-freedom dynamics of the vehicle is broken down into longitudinal and lateral dynamics after linearization about a flight condition. Primary control design task includes height, speed and heading control. A control assignment and control design structure is

  20. Foot Reaction Forces during Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Kuklis, M. M.; Humphreys, B.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Musculoskeletal changes, particularly in the lower extremities, are an established consequence of long-duration space flight despite exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that disuse and reduction in load bearing are key to these physiological changes, but no quantitative data characterizing the on-orbit movement environments currently exist. Here we present data from the Foot Experiment (E318) regarding astronaut activity on the ground and on-orbit during typical days from 4 International Space Station (ISS) crew members who flew during increments 6, 8, 11, and 12.

  1. Great Zoom into Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Shirah

    2001-12-01

    Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground

  2. 34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE SHOWING FLIGHT DECK LIGHTING BOARD, ARRESTING GEAR CONTROL CONSOLE AND FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Independent verification and validation for Space Shuttle flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Software was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Flight to determine the need to continue independent verification and validation (IV&V) for Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee found that the current IV&V process is necessary to maintain NASA's stringent safety and quality requirements for man-rated vehicles. Therefore, the Committee does not support NASA's plan to eliminate funding for the IV&V effort in fiscal year 1993. The Committee believes that the Space Shuttle software development process is not adequate without IV&V and that elimination of IV&V as currently practiced will adversely affect the overall quality and safety of the software, both now and in the future. Furthermore, the Committee was told that no organization within NASA has the expertise or the manpower to replace the current IV&V function in a timely fashion, nor will building this expertise elsewhere necessarily reduce cost. Thus, the Committee does not recommend moving IV&V functions to other organizations within NASA unless the current IV&V is maintained for as long as it takes to build comparable expertise in the replacing organization.

  4. Destruction of newly released red blood cells in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Udden, M. M.; Huntoon, C. L.; Driscoll, T.

    1996-01-01

    Space flight results in a rapid change in total blood volume, plasma volume, and red blood cell mass because the space to contain blood is decreased. The plasma volume and total blood volume decreases during the first hours in space and remain at a decreased level for the remainder of the flight. During the first several hours following return to earth, plasma volume and total blood volume increase to preflight levels. During the first few days in space recently produced red blood cells disappear from the blood resulting in a decrease in red blood cell mass of 10-15%. Red cells 12 d old or older survive normally and production of new cells continues at near preflight levels. After the first few days in space, the red cell mass is stable at the decreased level. Following return to earth the hemoglobin and red blood cell mass concentrations decrease reflecting the increase in plasma volume. The erythropoietin levels increase responding to "postflight anemia"; red cell production increases, and the red cell mass is restored to preflight levels after several weeks.

  5. Space flight and the skeleton: lessons for the earthbound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of bone during extended space flight has long been a concern that could limit the ability of humans to explore the universe. Surprisingly, the available data do not support the concept that weightlessness leads inexorably to a depleted skeleton unable to withstand the stress of a return to a 1-g environment. Nevertheless, some bone loss does occur, especially in those bones most stressed by gravity prior to flight, which provides confirmation of the proposal formulated over a century ago by Julius Wolff that mechanical stress determines the form and function of bone. Although the phenomenon of bone loss with skeletal unloading, whether by space flight or immobilization or just taking a load off your feet (literally) is well established, the mechanisms by which bone senses load and adjusts to it are not so clear. What actually is the stimulus, and what are the sensors? What are the target cells? How do the sensors communicate the message into the cells, and by what pathways do the cells respond? What is the role of endocrine, factors vs. paracrine or autocrine factors in mediating or modulating the response? None of these questions has been answered with certainty, but, as will become apparent in this review, we have some clues directing us to the answers. Although the focus of this review concerns space flight, it seems highly likely that the mechanisms mediating the transmission of mechanical load to changes in bone formation and resorption apply equally well to all forms of disuse osteoporosis and are likely to be the same mechanisms affected by other etiologies of osteoporosis.

  6. The Space Shuttle Orbiter approach and landing tests - A correlation of flight and predicted performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.; Eichblatt, D. L.; Underwood, J. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    This paper represents the results of a program in which a flight test vehicle was flown for a limited number of flights. The vehicle was the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The total free flight time for the entire flight test program was less than half an hour. The flight regime tested represented only the approach and landing phase of the vehicle's planned flight capability. The program relied heavily on an extensive wind tunnel test program to predict the aerodynamic performance data over the complete flight range, as well as to predict data tolerances. During the flight test program, short maneuvers performed were to provide flight motion data. A data extraction program was developed to produce flight derived aerodynamic performance data in coefficient form from the motion data. The resultant flight test data was correlated with the predicted data and fell within the predicted data tolerances for all phases of the subsonic flight test regime, including ground effects.

  7. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface...features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable...without incurring expense or delay. We may change these special...Features The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no...

  8. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  9. The Art of Space Flight Exercise Hardware: Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahom M.

    2004-01-01

    The design of space flight exercise hardware depends on experience with crew health maintenance in a microgravity environment, history in development of flight-quality exercise hardware, and a foundation for certifying proper project management and design methodology. Developed over the past 40 years, the expertise in designing exercise countermeasures hardware at the Johnson Space Center stems from these three aspects of design. The medical community has steadily pursued an understanding of physiological changes in humans in a weightless environment and methods of counteracting negative effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. The effects of weightlessness extend to the pulmonary and neurovestibular system as well with conditions ranging from motion sickness to loss of bone density. Results have shown losses in water weight and muscle mass in antigravity muscle groups. With the support of university-based research groups and partner space agencies, NASA has identified exercise to be the primary countermeasure for long-duration space flight. The history of exercise hardware began during the Apollo Era and leads directly to the present hardware on the International Space Station. Under the classifications of aerobic and resistive exercise, there is a clear line of development from the early devices to the countermeasures hardware used today. In support of all engineering projects, the engineering directorate has created a structured framework for project management. Engineers have identified standards and "best practices" to promote efficient and elegant design of space exercise hardware. The quality of space exercise hardware depends on how well hardware requirements are justified by exercise performance guidelines and crew health indicators. When considering the microgravity environment of the device, designers must consider performance of hardware separately from the combined human-in-hardware system. Astronauts are the caretakers of the hardware while it is deployed and conduct all sanitization, calibration, and maintenance for the devices. Thus, hardware designs must account for these issues with a goal of minimizing crew time on orbit required to complete these tasks. In the future, humans will venture to Mars and exercise countermeasures will play a critical role in allowing us to continue in our spirit of exploration. NASA will benefit from further experimentation on Earth, through the International Space Station, and with advanced biomechanical models to quantify how each device counteracts specific symptoms of weightlessness. With the continued support of international space agencies and the academic research community, we will usher the next frontier in human space exploration.

  10. Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses show that urinary excretion of sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is a significant predictor of urinary n-telopeptide (NTX). Dietary sulfate (normalized to lean body mass) is also a significant predictor of urinary NTX. The results from this study, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  11. Posture, locomotion, spatial orientation, and motion sickness as a function of space flight.

    PubMed

    Reschke, M F; Bloomberg, J J; Harm, D L; Paloski, W H; Layne, C; McDonald, V

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes a variety of newly published findings obtained by the Neuroscience Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and attempts to place this work within a historical framework of previous results on posture, locomotion, motion sickness, and perceptual responses that have been observed in conjunction with space flight. In this context, we have taken the view that correct transduction and integration of signals from all sensory systems is essential to maintaining stable vision, postural and locomotor control, and eye-hand coordination as components of spatial orientation. The plasticity of the human central nervous system allows individuals to adapt to altered stimulus conditions encountered in a microgravity environment. However, until some level of adaptation is achieved, astronauts and cosmonauts often experience space motion sickness, disturbances in motion control and eye-hand coordination, unstable vision, and illusory motion of the self, the visual scene, or both. Many of the same types of disturbances encountered in space flight reappear immediately after crew members return to earth. The magnitude of these neurosensory, sensory-motor and perceptual disturbances, and the time needed to recover from them, tend to vary as a function of mission duration and the space travelers prior experience with the stimulus rearrangement of space flight. To adequately chart the development of neurosensory changes associated with space flight, we recommend development of enhanced eye movement systems and body position measurement. We also advocate the use of a human small radius centrifuge as both a research tool and as a means of providing on-orbit countermeasures that will lessen the impact of living for long periods of time with out exposure to altering gravito-inertial forces. PMID:9795167

  12. Mission Control Center (MCC) System Specification for the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    System specifications to be used by the mission control center (MCC) for the shuttle orbital flight test (OFT) time frame were described. The three support systems discussed are the communication interface system (CIS), the data computation complex (DCC), and the display and control system (DCS), all of which may interfere with, and share processing facilities with other applications processing supporting current MCC programs. The MCC shall provide centralized control of the space shuttle OFT from launch through orbital flight, entry, and landing until the Orbiter comes to a stop on the runway. This control shall include the functions of vehicle management in the area of hardware configuration (verification), flight planning, communication and instrumentation configuration management, trajectory, software and consumables, payloads management, flight safety, and verification of test conditions/environment.

  13. A STUDY OF VARIOUS RADIATIONS DURING SPACE FLIGHTS OF SPUTNIKS, SPACE SHIPS AND ROCKETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Vakulov; S. N. Vernov; E. V. Gorchakov; Yu. I. Logachev; V. E. Nesterov; A. G. Nikolaev; N. F. Pisarenko; I. A. Savenko; A. E. Chudakov; P. I. Shavrin

    1962-01-01

    Data are presented on various radiation zones observed during the ; flights of the 3rd sputnik (launched May 15th, ship (Aug. 19 to 20, 1960, 339 km ; apogee and a 306 km perigee), the 3rd space ship (Dec. 1 to 2, 1960, 265 km ; apogee and a 187.3 km perigee), and the space rocket launched toward Venus on

  14. Space Radiation Environment Models and Data Used in Support of Manned Space Flight Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Golightly

    2002-01-01

    Since the advent of manned space flight, space radiation environment and geomagnetospheric models have been routinely employed as key tools in the overall astronaut radiation safety effort. These models are employed to: quantify astronaut exposures prior to missions; provide information to mission planners to use to minimize crew exposures while planning missions; assess the impact of changes to mission timelines

  15. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; Vanzwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of twenty five constant pitch-rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control.

  16. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  17. Free-Flight Investigation of Radio Controlled Models with Parawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, Donald E.

    1961-01-01

    A free-flight investigation of two radio-controlled models with parawings, a glider configuration and an airplane (powered) configuration, was made to evaluate the performance, stability, and methods of controlling parawing vehicles. The flight tests showed that the models were stable and could be controlled either by shifting the center of gravity or by using conventional elevator and rudder control surfaces. Static wind-tunnel force-test data were also obtained.

  18. Propulsion system-flight control integration and optimization: Flight evaluation and technology transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Myers, Lawrence P.

    1990-01-01

    Integration of propulsion and flight control systems and their optimization offers significant performance improvements. Research programs were conducted which have developed new propulsion and flight control integration concepts, implemented designs on high-performance airplanes, demonstrated these designs in flight, and measured the performance improvements. These programs, first on the YF-12 airplane, and later on the F-15, demonstrated increased thrust, reduced fuel consumption, increased engine life, and improved airplane performance; with improvements in the 5 to 10 percent range achieved with integration and with no changes to hardware. The design, software and hardware developments, and testing requirements were shown to be practical.

  19. Flight Test of L1 Adaptive Control Law: Offset Landings and Large Flight Envelope Modeling Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.

  20. Flapping flight for biomimetic robotic insects: part II-flight control design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyan Deng; Luca Schenato; S. Shankar Sastry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of the flight control algorithms for flapping wing micromechanical flying insects (MFIs). Inspired by the sensory feedback and neuromotor structure of insects, we propose a similar top-down hierarchical architecture to achieve high performance despite the MFIs' limited on-board computational resources. The flight stabilization problem is formulated as high-frequency periodic control of an underactuated

  1. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based autonomous flight control of unmanned air vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sefer Kurnaz; Omer Cetin; Okyay Kaynak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) based autonomous flight controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) is described. To control the position of the UAV in three dimensional space as altitude and longitude–latitude location, three fuzzy logic modules are developed. These adjust the pitch angle, the roll angle and the throttle position of the UAV so that its

  2. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  3. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  4. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  5. Research and technology, fiscal year 1986, Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing its vigorous efforts in space-related research and technology. Extensive activities in advanced studies have led to the approval of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle as a new start. Significant progress was made in definition studies of liquid rocket engine systems for future space transportation needs and the conceptualization of advanced laucnch vehicles. The space systems definition studies have brought the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Gravity Probe-B to a high degree of maturity. Both are ready for project implementation. Also discussed include significant advances in low gravity sciences, solar terrestrial physics, high energy astrophysics, atmospheric sciences, propulsion systems, and on the critical element of the Space Shuttle Main Engine in particular. The goals of improving the productivity of high-cost repetitive operations on reusable transportation systems, and extending the useful life of such systems are examined. The research and technology highlighted provides a foundation for progress on the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, all elements of the Space Transportation System, and the many other projects assigned to this Center.

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center's Impact Testing Facility Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.

  7. The NASA Lewis integrated propulsion and flight control simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    A new flight simulation facility has been developed at NASA Lewis to allow integrated propulsion-control and flight-control algorithm development and evaluation in real time. As a preliminary check of the simulator facility and the correct integration of its components, the control design and physics models for an STOVL fighter aircraft model have been demonstrated, with their associated system integration and architecture, pilot vehicle interfaces, and display symbology. The results show that this fixed-based flight simulator can provide real-time feedback and display of both airframe and propulsion variables for validation of integrated systems and testing of control design methodologies and cockpit mechanizations.

  8. Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. T.; Clement, G.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural centripetal accelerations (Gy centrifugation) of 0.5 g and 1 g during rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear out or right-ear out, facing or back to motion. Binocular eye movements were measured in three dimensions using a video technique. On Earth, tangential centrifugation that produces 1 g of interaural linear acceleration combines with gravity to tilt the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA) vector 45 degrees in the roll plane relative to the head vertical, generating a summed vector of 1.4 g. Before flight, this elicited mean ocular counterrolling (OCR) of 5.7 degrees. Due to the relative absence of gravity during flight, there was no linear acceleration along the dorsoventral axis of the head. As a result, during in-flight centrifugation, gravitoinertial acceleration was strictly aligned with the centripetal acceleration along the interaural axis. There was a small but significant decrease (mean 10%) in the magnitude of OCR in space (5.1 degrees). The magnitude of OCR during postflight 1 g centrifugation was not significantly different from preflight OCR (5.9 degrees). Findings were similar for 0.5 g centrifugation, but the OCR magnitude was approximately 60% of that induced by centrifugation at 1 g. OCR during pre- and postflight static tilt was not significantly different and was always less than OCR elicited by centrifugation of Earth for an equivalent interaural linear acceleration. In contrast, there was no difference between the OCR generated by in-flight centrifugation and by static tilt on Earth at equivalent interaural linear accelerations. These data support the following conclusions: (1) OCR is generated predominantly in response to interaural linear acceleration; (2) the increased OCR during centrifugation on Earth is a response to the head dorsoventral 1 g linear acceleration component, which was absent in microgravity. The dorsoventral linear acceleration could have activated either the otoliths or body-tilt receptors that responded to the larger GIA magnitude (1.4 g), to generate the increased OCR during centrifugation on Earth. A striking finding was that magnitude of OCR was maintained throughout and after flight. This is in contrast to most previous postflight OCR studies, which have generally registered decreases in OCR. We postulate that intermittent exposure to artificial gravity, in the form of the centripetal acceleration experienced during centrifugation, acted as a countermeasure to deconditioning of this otolith-ocular orienting reflex during the 16-day mission.

  9. Space Science Payloads Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Mission Flight Anomalies Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.

    2001-01-01

    The OPM was the first space payload that measured in-situ the optical properties of materials and had data telemetered to ground. The OPM was EVA mounted to the Mir Docking Module for an eight-month stay where flight samples were exposed to the Mir induced and natural environments. The OPM was comprised of three optical instruments; a total hemispherical spectral reflectometer, a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatterometer. There were also three environmental monitors; an atomic oxygen monitor, solar and infrared radiometers, and two temperature-controlled quartz crystal microbalances (to monitor contamination). Measurements were performed weekly and data telemetered to ground through the Mir data system. This paper will describe the OPM thermal control design and how the thermal math models were used to analyze anomalies which occurred during the space flight mission.

  10. Space Shuttle hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic flight research and the comparison to ground test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for the Space Shuttle at hypersonic speeds are discussed. All of the comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the Space Shuttle program. The aerodynamic comparisons include stability and control derivatives, center-of-pressure location, and reaction control jet interaction. Comparisons are also discussed for various forms of heating, including catalytic, boundary layer, top centerline, side fuselage, OMS pod, wing leading edge, and shock interaction. The jet interaction and center-of-pressure location flight values exceeded not only the predictions but also the uncertainties of the predictions. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by the vortex impingement on the OMS pods and for heating caused by the wing leading-edge shock interaction.

  11. Space Shuttle hypersonic flight research and the comparison to ground test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for the Space Shuttle at hypersonic speeds are discussed. All of the comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the Space Shuttle program. The aerodynamic comparisons include stability and control derivatives, center-of-pressure location, and reaction control jet interaction. Comparisons are also discussed for various forms of heating including catalytic, boundary layer, top centerline, side fuselage, OMS pod, wing leading edge, and shock interaction. The jet interaction and center-of-pressure location flight values exceeded not only the predictions but the uncertainties of the predictions. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by the vortex impingement on the OMS pods and for heating caused by the wing leading-edge shock interaction.

  12. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  13. X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

    1998-01-01

    The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

  14. Flight controller alertness and performance during spaceflight shiftwork operations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S M; Rosekind, M R; Dinges, D F; Miller, D L; Gillen, K A; Gregory, K B; Aguilar, R D; Smith, R M

    1998-09-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations personnel. During Space Transportation System (STS) operations, Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel provide 24-hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Ames Research Center project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during the STS-53 mission in December 1992. The study measures included a Background Questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24-hour basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support the need for further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. Countermeasure strategies specific to the MOD environment are being developed to minimize the adverse effects of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption engendered by shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further EDO (extended duration orbiters), and timelines and planning for 24-hour Space Station operations continue, alertness and performance issues related to sleep and circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment. PMID:12190073

  15. Response of the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, N.; Wattiez, R.; Rosier, C.; de Boever, P.; Baatout, S.; Mergeay, M.

    Background When man goes to space inevitably microbes hitchhike along some needed others unwanted Knowledge is required to understand the behaviour of bacteria in spaceflight conditions Aim The aim of this work was to investigate the physiological and metabolic response and adaptation of the environmental model bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to space flight conditions The strain was grown in the International Space Station ISS during 2 separated Soyuz missions MESSAGE 1 2 experiments and in the Rotating Wall Vessel RWV mimicking microgravity on ground Results It was clear that pre- in- and post-flight incubation conditions are critical in spaceflight experiments and should be controlled monitored and taken into account as much as possible when comparing space flight with ground grown cells Distinct changes in physiology and metabolism were observed in the cell cultures grown in space flight when compared to correct ground control cultures A total of 12 proteins over-produced in space conditions were identified and divided in functional groups One group are proteins that protect the cell against physical damage such as heat-shock GrpE UspA and oxidative agents AhpC TrxB DpsA Another group of proteins is probably involved in a metabolic pathway to produce the energy-rich Acetyl-CoA Ald ExaC LpsJ CaiA with the help of a de carboxylase AcxABC Higher concentrations of this group of proteins were also detected in cells grown with acetone or 2-propanol as

  16. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  17. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  18. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  19. General discussion on assessment of radiation risks for space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This discussion focuses on several problem areas in relation to the radiation hazards of space flight. A number of biological effects were cited, such as lethality, cell transformation, tumor induction, small colony formation, modification of cell growth rate, etc., in which HZE particles seem to behave in the same way qualitatively as other radiations and in some cases quantitatively. Limitations in the physical description of the radiations in space were discussed with respect to radiation at different locations, with and without shielding, for the purposes of tissue dosimetry, exposure per mission, etc. It was concluded that some dosimetry situations are fairly well documented, including various Apollo and shuttle missions. Approaches to space guidelines involving dose limitations are presented.

  20. FAST20XX: Achievements on European Suborbital Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, A.; Steelant, J.; Adirim, H.; Lentsch, A.; Marini, M.; Pilz, N.

    2011-08-01

    In Europe, the EC co-funded project FAST20XX aims at exploring the borderline between aviation and space by investigating suborbital vehicles. The main focus is the identification and mastering of critical technologies for such vehicles rather than the vehicle development itself. Besides the objectives and overall layout of the project, the paper addresses also the progress made during the first period of the project. Two vehicle concepts are considered. A first one is a space vehicle launched from an airplane providing a low-energy ballistic flight experience using hybrid propulsion. The second is a vertically starting two-stage rocket space vehicle system concept taken as a basis to identify the conditions and constraints experienced during high- energy suborbital ultra-fast transport. The paper mainly discusses the two actual reference vehicles and the technical aspects of prerequisites for commercial operation including safety, human spaceflight, business cases, environmental and legal issues.